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Seasteading – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 Seasteading  Comments Off on Seasteading – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jun 172016
 

Seasteading is the concept of creating permanent dwellings at sea, called seasteads, outside the territory claimed by any government. Most proposed seasteads have been modified cruising vessels. Other proposed structures have included a refitted oil platform, a decommissioned anti-aircraft platform, and custom-built floating islands.[1]

No one has created a state on the high seas that has been recognized as a sovereign state. The Principality of Sealand is a disputed micronation formed on a discarded sea fort near Suffolk, England.[2] The closest things to a seastead that have been built so far are large ocean-going ships sometimes called “floating cities”, and smaller floating islands.

The term combines the words sea and homesteading. At least two people independently began using it: Ken Neumeyer in his book Sailing the Farm (1981) and Wayne Gramlich in his article “Seasteading Homesteading on the High Seas” (1998).[3]

Outside the Exclusive Economic Zone of 200 nautical miles (370km), which countries can claim according to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, the high seas are not subject to the laws of any sovereign state other than the flag under which a ship sails. Examples of organizations using this possibility are Women on Waves, enabling abortions for women in countries where abortions are subject to strict laws, and offshore radio stations which were anchored in international waters. Like these organizations, a seastead would take advantage of the absence of laws and regulations outside the sovereignty of nations, and choose from among a variety of alternate legal systems such as those underwritten by “Las Portadas”.[4]

“When Seasteading becomes a viable alternative, switching from one government to another would be a matter of sailing to the other without even leaving your house,” said Patri Friedman at the first annual Seasteading conference.[5][6][7]

The Seasteading Institute (TSI), founded by Wayne Gramlich and Patri Friedman on April 15, 2008, is an organization formed to facilitate the establishment of autonomous, mobile communities on seaborne platforms operating in international waters.[5][8][9] Gramlichs 1998 article “SeaSteading Homesteading on the High Seas” outlined the notion of affordable steading, and attracted the attention of Friedman with his proposal for a small-scale project.[3] The two began working together and posted their first collaborative book online in 2001, which explored aspects of seasteading from waste disposal to flags of convenience.

The project picked up mainstream exposure in 2008 after having been brought to the attention of PayPal cofounder Peter Thiel, who contributed $500,000 to fund the creation of The Seasteading Institute and has since spoken out on behalf of its viability, as seen in his essay “The Education of a Libertarian”,[10] published online by Cato Unbound. The Seasteading Institute has received widespread media attention from sources such as CNN, Wired,[5]Prospect,[11]The Economist[9] Business Insider,[12] and BBC[13] American journalist John Stossel wrote an article about seasteading in February 2011 and hosted Friedman on his show on the Fox Business Network.[14]

On July 31, 2011, Friedman stepped down from the role of executive director, and became chairman of the board. Friedman was replaced by Randolph Hencken. Concomitantly, the institute’s directors of business strategy and legal strategy went on to start Blueseed, the first commercial seasteading venture.[15]

Between May 31 and June 2, 2012, The Seasteading Institute held its third annual conference.[16]

In the spring of 2013,[17] the Institute launched The Floating City Project,[18] which combines principles of both seasteading and startup cities,[19] by seeking to locate a floating city within the territorial waters of an existing nation, rather than the open ocean. The institute argued that it would be easier to engineer a seastead in relatively calm, shallow waters; that the location would make it easier for residents to reach as well as to acquire goods and services from existing supply chains; and that a host nation would place a floating city within the international legal framework.

The Institute raised $27,082 from 291 funders in a crowdfunding campaign[20] and commissioned DeltaSync[21] to design a floating city concept for The Floating City Project. In December 2013, the concept report was published. The Seasteading Institute has also been collecting data from potential residents through a survey.[22]

The first seasteads are projected to be cruise ships adapted for semi-permanent habitation. Cruise ships are a proven technology, and they address most of the challenges of living at sea for extended periods of time. The cost of the first shipstead was estimated at $10M.[23]

The Seasteading Institute has been working on communities floating above the sea in spar buoys, similar to oil platforms.[24] The project would start small, using proven technology as much as possible, and try to find viable, sustainable ways of running a seastead.[25] Innovations that enable full-time living at sea will have to be developed. The cruise ship industry’s development suggests this may be possible.

A proposed design for a custom-built seastead is a floating dumbbell in which the living area is high above sea level, which minimizes the influence of waves. In 2004, research was documented in an online book that covers living on the oceans.[26]

The Seasteading Institute focuses on three areas: building a community, doing research and building the first seastead in the San Francisco Bay. In January 2009, the Seasteading Institute patented a design for a 200-person resort seastead, ClubStead, about a city block in size, produced by consultancy firm Marine Innovation & Technology. ClubStead marked the first major development in hard engineering, from extensive analysis to simulations, of the seasteading movement.[9][26][27]

At the Seasteading Institute Forum, an idea arose to create an island from modules.[28] There are several different designs for the modules, with a general consensus that reinforced concrete is the most proven, sustainable and cost-effective material for seastead structures,[29] as indicated by use in oil platforms and concrete submarines. The company AT Design Office recently made another design using the modular island method.[30]

Many architects and firms have created designs for floating cities, including Vincent Callebaut,[31][32]Paolo Soleri[33] and companies such as Shimizu and Tangram 3DS.[34]Marshall Savage also discussed building tethered artificial islands in his book The Millennial Project: Colonizing the Galaxy in Eight Easy Steps, with several color plates illustrating his ideas. Some design competitions have also yielded designs, such as those produced by Evolo and other companies.[35][36][37]

In 2008, Friedman and Gramlich had hoped to float the first prototype seastead in the San Francisco Bay by 2010[38][39] but 2010 plans were to launch a seastead by 2014.[40] The Seasteading Institute projected in 2010 that the seasteading population would exceed 150 individuals in 2015.[41]

The Seasteading Institute held its first conference in Burlingame, California, October 10, 2008. 45 people from 9 countries attended.[42] The second Seasteading conference was significantly larger, and held in San Francisco, California, September 2830, 2009.[43][44] The third Seasteading conference took place on May 31 – June 2, 2012.[45]

As of 2011[update], Blueseed was a company working on launching a ship near Silicon Valley which was to serve as a visa-free startup community and entrepreneurial incubator. The shipstead planned to offer living and office space, high-speed Internet connectivity, and regular ferry service to the mainland.[46][47] The project aims included overcoming the difficulty organizations face obtaining US work visas, intending to use the easier B-1/B-2 visas to travel to the mainland, while work will be done on the ship.[46][47][dated info] Blueseed founders Max Marty and Dario Mutabdzija met when both were employees of The Seasteading Institute.[46][47]

Seasteading has been imagined numerous times in pop culture in recent years.

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Seasteading – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Happily Childfree

 Childfree  Comments Off on Happily Childfree
Jun 122016
 

I divided the books into three sections: Childfree Book Shelf (non-fiction books written specifically about the childfree movement), Fencesitter Book Shelf (non-ficiton books on parenting to help people decide if parenting is for them), and Additional Books of Interest (novels and books that might not exactly be “childfree” but are childfree enough to be interesting to us). If you see a book you find interesting, click on the name, it will take you to a review of the book farther down on this page. Another site has a list of French-Language books.

Note: I didn’t write the reviews below — I borrowed them from Amazon.com. My notes (if any) on the book are in italics under the review.

Will You Be Mother? by Jane Bartlett

Setting out to dispel the myths that women without children are either infertile or “hard-driven career women,” freelance journalist Bartlett draws on interviews with 50 British women who have chosen, for a variety of reasons, to remain childfree. She uses the women’s own words to describe their reasons for choosing to be different in a world where childbearing is seen as a part of the “normal” lifecycle.

The Baby Boon : How Family-Friendly America Cheats the Childless by Elinor Burkett

Tax credits, childcare benefits, school vouchers, flextime for parents, parental leaves–all have spawned what journalist Elinor Burkett calls a “culture of parental privilege.” The Baby Boon charts the backlash against this movement and asks for a reevaluation of social policy.

The Childless Revolution by Madelyn Cain

Due in part to birth control, later marriages, and the emergence of two-career couples, 42 percent of the American female population is childless, representing the fastest-growing demographic group to emerge in decades. These women are reshaping the definition of womanhood in a fundamental way, yet they are largely misunderstood. Whether childless by choice or by chance, they are alternately pitied and scorned, and are rarely asked directly about their childlessness; like the elephant in the living room, childlessness is a taboo subject.

Childfree and Sterilized: Women’s Decisions and Medical Responses by Annily Campbell

Campbell, a feminist researcher and counselor, examines the relatively new social and medical phenomenon of women in the developed countries of the world choosing to remain childfree and electing for sterilization. She allows 23 voluntarily childfree, sterilized women to tell their stories and to reveal the struggles they faced in being women without children in a society which expects women to be mothers. She employs feminist and sociological perspectives to highlight the fact that voluntarily childfree women are perceived as abnormal and are often the target of negative and critical comment.

Families of Two by Laura Carroll

Families of Two: Interviews with Happily Married Couples Without Children by Choice, takes us into the lives of the growing number of couples who are choosing not to have children, and dispels the myths commonly associated with this choice. Families of Two provides insight for couples who are deciding whether to have children, and to friends and family of couples who have chosen or may choose not to have children. It celebrates the many people who are living lives that do not include parenthood, and the many ways to live happily ever after.

Pride and Joy : The Lives and Passions of Women Without Children by Terri Casey

This is an enlightening collection of first-person interviews with twenty-five women who have decided not to have children. This book shatters the stereotypes that surround voluntarily childless women–that they are self-centered, immature, workaholic, unfeminine, materialistic, child-hating, cold, or neurotic.

Childfree and Loving It! by Nicki Defago

Recording the opinions of childless women from all over the world and letting this growing band answer their detractors, this investigation looks into the world of those who choose not to have children. Interviewees speak freely and honestly about their experiences, providing readers with both the many reasons people choose to live child-free and insight into what seems to them an unhealthy amount of societal pressure to become mothers and fathers. This book also presents interviews with parents who wish they had not had children while offering their reasons for feeling regret. Concluding with a look into the workplace, this title evaluates the fairness of allowing parents shorter days and time off to accommodate children, compared to the working environment of those who have chosen to live without children.

I read this book and LOVED it! I highly recommend it! It’s my favorite childfree book!

I Hate Other People’s Kids by Adrianne Frost

From the dawn of time, other people’s kids have found ways to spoil things for the rest of us. Movie theaters, parks, restaurants — every venue that should be a place of refuge and relaxation has instead become a freewheeling playground complete with shrieks, wails, and ill-timed excretions.

Now, I Hate Other People’s Kids delivers a complete handbook for navigating a world filled with tiny terrors — and their parents. It boldly explores how children’s less- endearing traits have disrupted life throughout history (“And they say Jesus loved the little children, all the children of the world, but he never had to dine with one. He chose the lepers”) and classifies important subspecies of tyke, from “Little Monsters” (Dennis the Menace, Bamm-Bamm Rubble) to the “So Good It Hurts” variety (Dakota Fanning, Ricky Schroeder in The Champ). Dotted with illuminating sidebars such as “Parents Think It’s Cute, but It Isn’t” and featuring tips on ingeniously turning the tables without seeming childish yourself, I Hate Other People’s Kids is clever, unforgiving, and sidesplittingly funny.

I have this book and it was okay. I didn’t think it was all that funny but there were some chapters of the book I found interesting.

Reconceiving Women: Separating Motherhood from Female Identity by Mardy S. Ireland

Although surveys suggest that some 40 percent of American women between the ages of 18 and 44 do not have children, most scholarly and popular literature continues to assume that motherhood is the defining role in women’s lives. Here a Berkeley psychologist shares data from her survey of 100 such women, revealing significant differences, depending on whether they are childless by choice, by chance, or because of infertility. Rejecting conventional interpretations, which emphasize the childless woman’s infertility, Ireland offers new, more positive interpretations, drawn from Lacanian and object-relations theory, for all three categories and ends by summoning the legendary first woman Lilith to represent the nonmaternal creative energies that exist in every woman and by which childless women can define themselves and their experience. Recommended for specialized collections.

Why Don’t You Have Kids?: Living a Full Life Without Parenthood by Leslie Lafayette

From the founder of the Childfree Network, a national support group for childless adults, comes this insightful exploration of the pros and cons of parenting and not-parenting, filled with anecdotes, interviews, and statistics. To have or not to have children-it is one of the most important decisions any of us will ever make. The fact that many American households today do not include children has dramatically changed the way we all live.but not necessarily the way we all think. Drawing on the experiences of both parenting and non-parenting adults, she explores this subject from a social, spiritual, and psychological perspective. Defining the term she calls “pronatalism,” Ms. Lafayette shows how people can be pressured into having kids—and even end up having them for the wrong reasons. In Why Don’t You Have Kids? author Leslie Lafayette strips away the many myths surrounding childfree living and discusses what is truly involved in choosing to parent or not to parent. With rare insight and unflinching honesty, she helps you face this crucial turning point so that you can reach your ultimate decision with confidence and joy.

I have read this and it’s very good. I recommend this book.

Women Without Children: The Reasons, the Rewards, the Regrets by Susan Schneider Lang

According to various studies Lang cites, over 15% of women now in their childbearing years will remain childless for various reasons: infertility; belated, unstable, or failed marriages; lack of maternal or paternal interest (50% of 1100 women interviewed in one study considered their husbands “lousy” fathers); financial strain (30% of an annual income can be required to support a child); demanding careers (60% of top female executives are childless but only 10% of the comparable males); demanding stepchildren; or lesbian orientation (only 15-30% of lesbians have children). The disadvantages, Lang says, include occasional “feelings of sadness and loneliness,” “regret” over missing a major life experience, social and parental pressure, and an assortment of health problems. Women with children also have health problems, many associated with obesity, and suffer “pain and disappointment” over children who fail and stress from their “incessant demands,” reduced financial resources, and loss of time–three months a year are spent on child-rearing. The child- free, on the other hand, use their time and money for “nurturing and networking,” traveling, raising pets; they enjoy “an exceptionally intimate relationship” with their mates, and continue their “self-growth.”

Without Child: Challenging the Stigma of Childlessness by Laurie Lisle

Heavily weighted to history, a defense of women who, by choice or by chance, are not mothers. Author Lisle, now in her 50s, chose not to have children–she is, to use one of her favorite terms, a nullipara (the medical term for a woman without a child)–and found the decision subject to attack from within and without. “To this day, women without children . . . share a common stigma,” she quotes one expert as saying, and Lisle goes on to note that such women are often portrayed as “damaged or deviant” or “just not nice enough.” Lisle rallies the nulliparous troops by foraging through history for childless, though not always virgin, role models. Among them are the Hellenic goddesses Artemis and Athena, Queen Elizabeth I, Florence Nightingale, and Louisa May Alcott. Closer to home are what used to be called maiden aunts, energetic examples of “social mothers” who worked in orphanages and poorhouses or served as caretakers (and inspirations) for their nieces and nephews.

No Children, No Guilt by Sylvia D. Lucas

“Oh, don’t worry,” they say when you tell them you don’t want children. “You’ll change your mind.” (Pat on knee.) What does it mean to be sure you dont want children? Arent you supposed to want them? What if the person you’re in love with wants them? And why do you feel so guilty for not wanting them? From the shocking abuse of her childhood doll to the demise of two marriages, Sylvia shares her vibrant humor and offers insight into what it really means to be child-free – without the guilt. All it takes is – Accepting your disinclination toward motherhood – Recognizing you WILL be looked at funny – Understanding that you will, in some ways, be a perpetual child (but whos complaining?) – Being prepared for people to think they know you better than you know yourself – Knowing it could mean losing the person you love – Finding a partner who doesnt want children – and never will (and a little bit more)

The Chosen Lives of Childfree Men by Patricia W. Lunneborg, Marilyn Mei-Ying Chi, Clara C. Park

More and more couples are choosing not to have children. While much attention has been paid to this trend from a woman’s point of view, men are often seen as having a secondary role in this choice, as ready to accept whatever their partners decide. In an age when men are expected to be caregivers as well as breadwinners and encouraged to take on more parental responsibilities, this volume argues that they need to be active participants in this crucial, life-altering decision. Based on in-depth interviews with 30 American and British childless men, this is the first book to explore the motives and consequences of voluntary childlessness from a man’s perspective.

No Kids: 40 Good Reasons Not To Have Children by Corinne Maier

When the original edition of No Kids was published in France in 2007, it was an instant media sensation and bestseller across Europe. Now, for the first time in English, Maier unleashes her no-holds-barred treatise on North America with all the unabridged force of her famously wicked intellect. Drawing on the realms of history, child psychology and politics, she effortlessly skewers the idealized notion of parenthood, and asks everyone to reject the epidemic of “baby-mania.” Are you prepared to give up your late nights out, quiet dinners with friends, spontaneous romantic get-aways, and even the luxury of uninterrupted thought for the “vicious little dwarves” that will treat you like their servant, cost you hundreds of thousands of dollars and end up resenting you? Within these pages lie truths a mother is never supposed to utter and whether you’re a parent or childfree, Maier’s message won’t fail to impress.

I read this and found it somewhat interesting, but it’s obviously about European culture and thus would be appreciated more by a European audience.

Cheerfully Childless: The Humor Book for Those Who Hesitate to Procreate by Ellen Metter, Loretta Gomez

This cartoon-filled humor book brings cheer to those who are leaning against parenthood but don’t get much support from a society that teaches the four R’s: Reading, ‘Riting, ‘Rithmetic, and Reproduction! Serious books on the subject of choosing to be childless abound, but nothing light-hearted — until now. Emotions run high on this topic, and that’s precisely the sort of issue where humor thrives. Erma Bombeck looked at family life, Scott Adams took on work life, and Ellen Metter and illustrator Loretta Gomez tackle the question with a life-altering answer: Is it my fate to procreate?

Unwomanly Conduct: The Challenges of Intentional Childlessness by Carolyn M. Morell

Provocative study of women who chose to be childless based on extensive interviews with women aged between 40 and 78. A significant contribution to debates about choice, the private and the public, gender and diversity.

The Baby Trap: The Controversial Bestseller That Dares to Prove That Parenthood is Dangerous by Ellen Peck

The best book for the childfree woman. A must read for all. It should be a requirement for all teenage girls. Rather than lots of statistics from poorly funded studies, this is a true life example and entertaining look at the reproductive choice.

I LOVE this book! It’s from the early 1970s and now out of print, but if you can find a copy of it, snatch it up! Ellen Peck is childfree herself and outlines all the ways society and our peers try to pressure us into having children and highlights the downsides of parenthood (especially motherhood). Some of the information is a bit dated (the whole chapter on birth control and abortion, for instance) but it was an easy, interesting and enjoyable read. I highly recommend it.

Beyond Motherhood: Choosing a Life Without Children by Jeanne Safer

This book is about making a conscious decision not to have a baby — how to do it, how it feels, what it means, and the impact it has on your life.

Two Is Enough: A Couple’s Guide to Living Childless by Choice by Laura S. Scott

In Two Is Enough, Laura S. Scott examines the most compelling motives to remain childfree and the decisionmaking process, exploring the growing trend of childlessness through her own story and those of others who have made this choice.

Baby Not on Board: A Celebration of Life Without Kids by Jennifer L. Shawne

For anyone who’s wondered, “Why have kids when I could have fun instead?” here’s a warm and hilarious welcome to the wonderful world of unparenting! The childfree life is growing in popularity, and finally here is a book that celebrates the wisdom and wonder of that choice. For those who cherish their white shag carpet and glass coffee table, this highly interactive bookwith quizzes, sidebars, and handy checklistsoffers a range of helpful, unparenting information including ways to throw oneself an unbaby shower and strategies for coping with dreaded OPCs (other people’s children). Baby Not on Board reminds us all that having a baby is great, but NOT having a baby is really, really great.

I’ve read this and found it to be amusing, but it’s not to be taken too seriously. You might enjoy it!

The Case Against Having Children by Anna and Arnold Silverman

There is nothing spiritual, biological, or genetically inherited about the desire to be a mother. For many women, this book sets out to show, motherhood is a substitute, a second choice for the things they wanted to do but weren’t able to. For others, it is a way to gain social acceptance and approval, keep their husbands, prove their femininity. And fathers, too, may exploit their children as a way of proving their manhood or their wives’ faithfulness. This book explodes the myth of the maternal instinct, disproves the idea that marriages with children are happier, explains why large families can limit the personal freedom of all Americans, and show that children from small families are brighter, more creative, and better adjusted. Most important, The Case Against Having Children shows women that motherhood isn’t their only option.

This book was published in the 1970s, so some of the information is dated, but otherwise it’s a very good book!

I Don’t Have Kids. The Guide to Great Childfree Living. by Ellen L. Walker

Written by a psychologist who is herself childfree, I Don’t Have Kids. The Guide to Great Childfree Living, was written for adults without children and also for those considering becoming parents. This book features the personal stories of childfree adults, exploring the psychological processes influencing individual decisions. It provides an inside perspective about what life without children can be like. You will gain useful, unbiased information on how to deal with the problems and opportunities that come with not having kids. I Don’t Have Kids will empower you to embrace your own situation and find ways to have the richest, most fulfilling life possible. Ellen L. Walker, Ph.D. 2010

Complete Without Kids: An Insider’s Guide to Childfree Living by Choice or by Chance by Ellen L. Walker

A comprehensive resource on the rewards and challenges of childree living from a unique, unbiased perspective. Childfree singles and couples often wrestle with being a minority in a child-oriented world. Whether childless by choice or circumstance, not being a parent can create challenges not always recognized in a family-focused society. Women feel the pressure of a real or imaginary biological clock ticking. Careers, biology, couples priorities and timing influence the end result, and not everyone is destined for parenthood, though there is a subtle assumption that everyone should be. In Complete Without Kids, licensed clinical psychologist, Ellen L. Walker, examines the often-ignored question of what it means to be childfree and offers ways to cope with the pressure, find a balance in your life and enjoy the financial, health and personal benefits associated with childfree living.

The Parenthood Decision by Beverly Engel

In The Parenthood Decision: Discovering Whether You Are Ready and Willing to Become a Parent, Beverly Engel, a licensed marriage, family, and child counselor and bestselling author, takes a look at all the issues potential parents face, posits important questions, and leads readers who are struggling with a variety of dilemmas through compassionate and thoughtful decision-making exercises.

I’m Okay, You’re a Brat!: Setting the Priorities Straight and Freeing You From the Guilt and Mad Myths of Parenthood by Susan Jeffers

Whether you are already a parent or just suspect you will be one someday, I’m Okay, You’re a Brat is sure to change your perceptions about the responsibility. With individual chapters devoted to topics such as full-time parenting, breastfeeding, custody in case of divorce, and remaining childfree, the realism presented will shatter any remaining illusions you may be harboring. Determined to explode the myth of continually joyous parenting, author Susan Jeffers replaces it with a more realistic view of the life changes and emotional difficulties associated with such a long term and essentially thankless task. Jeffers accomplishes this by emphasizing the difference between loving your children and actually enjoying parenting them, a difference that is rarely examined in this age of guilty, overworked parents.

Mask of Motherhood: How Becoming a Mother Changes Everything and Why We Pretend It Doesn’t by Susan Maushart

Everything changes when a woman becomes a mother, but society–particularly women themselves–often colludes to deny this simple truism. In The Mask of Motherhood, author Susan Maushart (a nationally syndicated columnist in Australia and the mother of three children) explores the effect childbearing has upon women. In the process, she removes the veils of serenity and satisfaction to reveal what she holds to be the truth: the early years of motherhood are physically difficult and can be emotionally devastating.

What to Expect Before You’re Expecting by Heidi Murkoff

More and more couples are planning for conception, not only for financial and lifestyle reasons, but in response to recent recommendations from the medical community. In the same fresh, contemporary voice that has made the 4th edition of What to Expect When You’re Expecting so successful, Heidi Murkoff explains the whys and wherefores of getting your body ready for pregnancy, including pregnancy prep for both moms and dads to be. Before You’re Expecting is filled with information on exercise, diet, pinpointing ovulation, lifestyle, workplace, and insurance changes you’ll want to consider, and how to keep your relationship strong when you’re focused on baby making all the time. There are tips for older couples; when to look for help from a fertility specialist–including the latest on fertility drugs and procedures–plus a complete fertility planner.

What to Expect When You’re Expecting by Heidi Murkoff

Now comes the Fourth Edition, a new book for a new generation of expectant moms–featuring a new look, a fresh perspective, and a friendlier-than-ever voice. It’s filled with the most up-to-date information reflecting not only what’s new in pregnancy, but what’s relevant to pregnant women. Heidi Murkoff has rewritten every section of the book, answering dozens of new questions and including loads of new asked-for material, such as a detailed week-by-week fetal development section in each of the monthly chapters, an expanded chapter on pre-conception, and a brand new one on carrying multiples. More comprehensive, reassuring, and empathetic than ever, the Fourth Edition incorporates the most recent developments in obstetrics and addresses the most current lifestyle trends (from tattooing and belly piercing to Botox and aromatherapy). There’s more than ever on pregnancy matters practical (including an expanded section on workplace concerns), physical (with more symptoms, more solutions), emotional (more advice on riding the mood roller coaster), nutritional (from low-carb to vegan, from junk fooddependent to caffeine-addicted), and sexual (what’s hot and what’s not in pregnant lovemaking), as well as much more support for that very important partner in parenting, the dad-to-be.

What to Expect the First Year by Heidi Murkoff

Parents-to-be are likely to find themselves quickly immersed in this highly authoritative manual by the collaborators of What to Expect When You’re Expecting. Nearly 700 pages of snappily written, friendly advice, constructed in the form of chatty answers to hypothetical questions, are arranged on a month-by-month basis. For each of 12 months, there are a guide to the progress the baby may be expected to be making at this stage, a list of potential health or other problems and paragraphs on the myriad questions all new parents ask–on subjects as various as in-home care, birthmarks, circumcision and breath-holding. Other sections cover what to buy for a new-born, first aid, recipes, adoption and even how to enjoy the first year, in terms of the parents’ own activities, such as social life and sex. An extensive index leads the reader to information that wouldn’t normally be accessed using the month-to-month arrangement–and also serves as an indication of the book’s all-inclusiveness.

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Happily Childfree

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Seasteading – Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre

 Seasteading  Comments Off on Seasteading – Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre
Mar 262016
 

El seasteading (contraccin de sea mar y homesteading colonizacin) es un concepto de creacin de viviendas permanentes en el mar, llamadas seasteads, fuera de los territorios reclamados por los gobiernos de cualquier nacin en pie.[1] Al menos dos personas de forma independiente comenzaron a usar el trmino: Neumeyer Ken en su libro Sailing the Farm (1981) y Wayne Gramlich en su artculo “Seasteading – Homesteading on the High Seas” (1998).

La mayora de seasteads propuestos son buques crucero modificados, plataformas marinas readaptadas e islas flotantes hechas a medida, mientras algunos de los sistemas de gestin propuestos guardan parentesco con el de ciudad-estado.[2] Hasta el momento no se ha creado un estado en alta mar que haya sido reconocido como una nacin soberana, aunque el Principado de Sealand es una micronacin en disputa constituida en una plataforma marina abandonada cerca de Suffolk, Inglaterra.[3] Lo ms parecido a un seastead que se ha construido hasta ahora son grandes naves de alta mar que a veces se llaman “ciudades flotantes” y pequeas islas flotantes.

Fuera de la Zona Econmica Exclusiva de 200 millas nuticas (370 km), que los pases pueden reclamar de acuerdo con la Convencin de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Derecho del Mar, en alta mar no se est sujeto a las leyes de nacin soberana alguna que no sea la bandera bajo la cual un barco navega (ver aguas internacionales). Algunos ejemplos de organizaciones que utilizan esta posibilidad son Women on Waves, que permite abortos a las mujeres en los pases donde los abortos estn sujetos a estrictas leyes, y las estaciones de radio piratas navegando por el mar del Norte durante los aos sesenta (como Radio Caroline). Al igual que estas organizaciones, un seastead podra ser capaz de aprovecharse de las leyes y reglamentos ms flexibles que existen fuera de la soberana de las naciones, y tener en gran medida un autogobierno.

El Seasteading Institute, fundado por Wayne Gramlich y Patri Friedman el 15 de abril de 2008, es una organizacin formada para facilitar el establecimiento de comunidades autnomas flotantes sobre plataformas martimas operando en aguas internacionales.[4][5] El artculo de Gramlich de 1998 “SeaSteading. – Homesteading en alta mar”, describe el concepto de steading asequible, y atrajo la atencin de Friedman con su propuesta de proyecto de pequea escala.[6] Los dos comenzaron a trabajar juntos y registraron su primer “libro” colaborativo en lnea en 2001, que explora aspectos del seasteading, desde la eliminacin de residuos hasta los pabellones de conveniencia.

El proyecto tuvo la exposicin meditica en 2008 despus de haber llamado la atencin del fundador de PayPal Peter Thiel, que invirti 500000 $ en el instituto y desde entonces ha hablado en nombre de su viabilidad, y ms recientemente en su ensayo “La educacin de un libertario” publicado en lnea por Cato Unbound. El Seasteading Institute ha recibido la atencin de los medios, como CNN, la revista Wired, y la revista Prospect.[7][4][8][9] “Cuando Seasteading se convierta en una alternativa viable, el cambio de un gobierno a otro sera un asunto navegar hacia otro inclusive sin siquiera salir de su casa”, dijo Friedman en la primera conferencia anual Seasteading.[4][10][11]

Continued here:

Seasteading – Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre

Psychological Egoism – Philosophy Home Page

 Ethical Egoism  Comments Off on Psychological Egoism – Philosophy Home Page
Mar 232016
 

Abstract: Psychological egoism, the view that people act solely in their own interest, is defined and shown not to be a meaningful ethical philosophy.

I. The distinction between psychological egoism and ethical egoism reflects the contrast of “is” verses “ought,” “fact” verses “value,” or “descriptive” verses “prescriptive.”

II. By way of clarification of relevant terms, James Rachels, among others, points out common confusion concerning selfishness and self-interest.

III. The Refutation of Psychological Egoism: arguments to the conclusion that the generalization everyone acts from the motive of self-interest is false.

IV.Interestingly enough, the same objections can be raised against the view termed, “psychological altruism”: all persons act from the motive of helping others, and all actions are done from other-regarding motives. (Psychological altruism is a view advanced only from the position of a “devil’s advocate.”)

V. As a final note, it should be mentioned that psychological egoism can’t be saved by psychoanalytic theory. I.e., Freud’s notion of the unconscious raises the possibility that we have unconscious desires and can act against our conscious inclinations. If it is argued that we always unconsciously seek our self-interest, then this view is untestable and circular as well.

Consider the following passage from Freud’s Interpretations of Dreams*:

“A contradiction to my theory of dream produced by another of my women patients (the cleverest of all my dreamers) was resolved more simply, but upon the same pattern: namely that the nonfulfillment of one wish meant the fulfillment of another. One day I had been explaining to her that dreams are fulfillments of wishes. Next day she brought me a dream in which she was traveling down with her mother-in-law to the place in the country where they were to spend their holidays together. Now I knew that she had violently rebelled against the idea of spending the summer near her mother-in-law and that a few days earlier she had successfully avoided the propinquity she dreaded by engaging rooms in a far distant resort. And now her dream had undone the solution she had wished for; was not this the sharpest contradiction of my theory that in dreams wishes are fulfilled? No doubt; and it was only necessary to follow the dreams logical consequence in order to arrive at its interpretation. The dream showed that I was wrong. Thus it was her wish that I might be wrong, and her dream showed that wish fulfilled (italics original)”

*Sigmund Freud, The Interpretations of Dreams (New York: Avon, 1966), 185.

Recommended Sources

“We Are Not Always Selfish”: (this site) A classic discussion of the many facets of ethical egoism in notes on James Rachel’s work.

Altruism “in-built” in humans: BBC report of discovery of altruistic behavior in infants summarized from the journal Science.

“Studies Show Chimps to Be Collaborative.”: A summary of an article from Science News describing research indicating that chimpanzees cooperate without the expectation of reward.

“Egoism”: Explanation of egoism and altruism with a brief summary of refutations and defenses excerpted from Richard Kraut’s “Egoism” in the Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Ethical Egoism: (this site) The various forms of ethical egoism are defined. Standard objections to ethical egoism are evaluated, and the conclusion is drawn that ethical egoism is incomplete.

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Psychological Egoism – Philosophy Home Page

Hedonism | Define Hedonism at Dictionary.com

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Mar 202016
 

Contemporary Examples

But not everyone enjoyed a post-traumatic moment of hedonism.

His life of hedonism suddenly seems empty when he begins to fall in love with Grace.

Women who have struggled with their own hedonism, not to mention ambition and vanity, will appreciate the distinction.

Those avatars of hedonism, The Europeans, are aghast at discovering that the average American vacation lasts for just 4.1 days.

After a night of hedonism, head out into Louisiana’sCajun Country.

Historical Examples

This being so, Egoistic hedonism becomes a possible ethical ideal to which psychological hedonism seems to point.

His own view is that the Austrians are not essentially bound up with hedonism.

Veblen has made it perfectly clear that particular matters of theory are affected by the presupposition of hedonism.

The sonnets on the Days breathe the same quaint medieval hedonism.

This seems to be in itself a sufficient objection to founding a deductive method of hedonism on Mr. Spencers general conclusion.

British Dictionary definitions for hedonism Expand

/hidnzm; hd-/

the pursuit of pleasure as a matter of principle

indulgence in sensual pleasures

Derived Forms

hedonic, hedonistic, adjectivehedonist, noun

Word Origin

C19: from Greek hdon pleasure

Word Origin and History for hedonism Expand

hedonism in Culture Expand

In ethics, the doctrine that pleasure or happiness is the highest good in life. Some hedonists, such as the Epicureans, have insisted that pleasure of the entire mind, not just pleasure of the senses, is this highest good.

See the article here:

Hedonism | Define Hedonism at Dictionary.com

Eugenics in California – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 Eugenics  Comments Off on Eugenics in California – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jan 312016
 

Eugenics in California is a notable part of eugenics in America.

As an early leading force in the field of eugenics, California became the third state in the United States to enact a sterilization law. By 1921, California had accounted for 80% of the sterilizations nationwide. This continued until World War II, after which the number of sterilizations began to decrease, largely due to the fallout of Hitler’s eugenics movement.[1] There were about 20,000 forced sterilizations in California between 1909 and 1963.[2]

Records of eugenics practices in California are held at the following agencies and institutions. The records are still protected for confidentiality reasons.

In California, [eugenics] was always linked to the use of land: to agriculture and plant hybridization.[3] Many of the powerful social workers, doctors, psychiatrists, and biologists, sought to hurt many of Californias Mexican, Indian, and Asian populations through the exclusionary laws that those scientists propose. In addition to the conquest to hurt the undesirables in the state, the California Eugenics plan also was a way to save the state money so they could eliminate the money the state spends on welfare and other programs that help the less fortunate.[3] Eugenics takes take three forms in California:

Dolores Madrigal entered the University of Southern Californias medical center on October 12, 1973, in order to give birth to her second child. During her time in labor, she was given a consent form and coerced by doctors into having a tubal ligation, effectively sterilizing her. Madrigal insisted that No one at the medical center informed me that a tubal ligation operation was going to performed on me. No one at the medical center informed me of what a tubal ligation operation consists nor of its permanent effects (Enoch, 5). Rebecca M. Kluchin found while researching the case that Physicians preferred to perform cesarean sections and tubal ligations in tandem to minimize risks associated with infection and anesthesia, as well as to reduce medical costs. It appears that at this hospital physicians who performed emergency cesarean sections sometimes used the opportunity to persuade a woman to accept permanent contraception.[10]

In July 1976 Madrigal sued the University of Southern California medical center, accompanied by Guadalupe Acosta, Estela Benavides, Consuelo Hermosillo, Georgina Hernandez, Maria Hurtado, Maria Figueroa, Rebecca Figueroa, Jovita Rivera, and Helena Orozco. Each of the nine other women who joined the class action lawsuit complained of similar proceedings. Together, these 10 chicanas decided to sue the USC medical center, contending that they had never given their informed consent to have the tubal ligation procedure performed. Karen Benker testified that poor minority women in L.A. County were having too many babies; that it was a strain on society; and that it was good that they be sterilized”.[11]

Despite Benkers testimony and other corroborating evidence, Judge Jesse Curtis ruled in favor of the defendants, stating that there had been nothing more than a breakdown in communication between the patients and the doctors (Stern 1135). He went on to say that it was appropriate for an obstetrician to believe that a tubal ligation could help diminish overpopulation as long as they did not attempt to overpower the will of his patients.[11]

In 1909 a eugenics law was passed in California allowing for state institutions to sterilize those deemed unfit or feeble-minded.[12] As one of the leading states in forced sterilization victims, Californias sterilization procedures primarily took place in state mental hospitals. Dr. Leo Stanley was one of the first people to bring the eugenics movement to Californias prisons.

Stanley was San Quentin penitentiarys chief surgeon and was particularly interested in eliminating those deemed unfit for society. His avid eugenic-based surgeries were the first of its kind to been seen in a prison. Taking place between 1930 and 1959, the peak of the eugenics movement, Stanley’s surgeries were driven by the idea of purifying criminals. Through testicular surgeries, he believed he could cultivate socially fit individuals by replacing a prisoners testicles with those of a deceased male previously deemed socially fit. His practices spawned early ideologies of white manhood,” which stemmed from his belief that he could “help a new, ideal man emerge”.[13]

Use of human and even animal testicles made Stanleys procedures highly unsuccessful and all around bizarre. His desire to restore social morality, along with his fascination with the endocrine system, fueled his research. Throughout the time of his procedures, criminals were believed to have something anatomically off that drove them to commit crimes. This belief inspired Stanley to explore the endocrine systems role in the criminology of a person. By persuading inmates that his testicular surgeries would produce favorable results in their sex lives he sterilized more than 600 prisoners by the end of his career.[13] Stanleys prison work concluded upon the start of World War II where he served overseas, only to retire as a eugenic pioneer.

The Human Betterment Foundation (HBF) was established in Pasadena, California in 1928. Led by E.S. Gosney it researched with an aim to foster and aid constructive and educational forces for the protection and betterment of the human family in body, mind, character, and citizenship. In 1929 E.S. Gosney set up the Human Betterment Foundation and gathered twenty-five of the leading scientists, philanthropists, and community leaders to carry out research on the effects of sterilization for thirteen years (Valone). Gosney also used the HBF to distribute the product of his research, Sterilization for Human Betterment which attracted attention from the nearby university, the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). Robert A. Millikan, a leading faculty member and proponent of Caltech, was looking for potential donors to the university and shared many of Gosneys views in his work decided to join the HBF board.

Lois Gosney Castle and the board of trustees eventually liquidated the foundation and turned the proceeds over to Caltech. Thirteen years after publishing the 1929 report entitled “Sterilization for Human Betterment, the HBF continued to carry out research on the effects of sterilization and undertook widespread distribution of the report to individuals, public libraries, and schools. After the liquidation files were found in 1968, but since they contained personal medical information, they were legally closed to researchers.[14]

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Eugenics in California – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Margaret Sanger, Founder of Planned Parenthood, In Her Own …

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Sep 192015
 

On blacks, immigrants and indigents: “…human weeds,’ ‘reckless breeders,’ ‘spawning… human beings who never should have been born.” Margaret Sanger, Pivot of Civilization, referring to immigrants and poor people

On sterilization & racial purification: Sanger believed that, for the purpose of racial “purification,” couples should be rewarded who chose sterilization. Birth Control in America, The Career of Margaret Sanger, by David Kennedy, p. 117, quoting a 1923 Sanger speech.

On the right of married couples to bear children: Couples should be required to submit applications to have a child, she wrote in her “Plan for Peace.” Birth Control Review, April 1932

On the purpose of birth control: The purpose in promoting birth control was “to create a race of thoroughbreds,” she wrote in the Birth Control Review, Nov. 1921 (p. 2)

On the rights of the handicapped and mentally ill, and racial minorities: “More children from the fit, less from the unfit — that is the chief aim of birth control.” Birth Control Review, May 1919, p. 12

On religious convictions regarding sex outside of marriage: “This book aims to answer the needs expressed in thousands on thousands of letters to me in the solution of marriage problems… Knowledge of sex truths frankly and plainly presented cannot possibly injure healthy, normal, young minds. Concealment, suppression, futile attempts to veil the unveilable – these work injury, as they seldom succeed and only render those who indulge in them ridiculous. For myself, I have full confidence in the cleanliness, the open-mindedness, the promise of the younger generation.” Margaret Sanger, Happiness in Marriage (Bretano’s, New York, 1927)

On the extermination of blacks: “We do not want word to go out that we want to exterminate the Negro population,” she said, “if it ever occurs to any of their more rebellious members.” Woman’s Body, Woman’s Right: A Social History of Birth Control in America, by Linda Gordon

On respecting the rights of the mentally ill: In her “Plan for Peace,” Sanger outlined her strategy for eradication of those she deemed “feebleminded.” Among the steps included in her evil scheme were immigration restrictions; compulsory sterilization; segregation to a lifetime of farm work; etc. Birth Control Review, April 1932, p. 107

On adultery: A woman’s physical satisfaction was more important than any marriage vow, Sanger believed. Birth Control in America, p. 11

On marital sex: “The marriage bed is the most degenerating influence in the social order,” Sanger said. (p. 23) [Quite the opposite of God’s view on the matter: “Marriage is honorable in all, and the bed undefiled; but whoremongers and adulterers God will judge.” (Hebrews 13:4)

On abortion: “Criminal’ abortions arise from a perverted sex relationship under the stress of economic necessity, and their greatest frequency is among married women.” The Woman Rebel – No Gods, No Masters, May 1914, Vol. 1, No. 3.

On the YMCA and YWCA: “…brothels of the Spirit and morgues of Freedom!”), The Woman Rebel – No Gods, No Masters, May 1914, Vol. 1, No. 3.

On the Catholic Church’s view of contraception: “…enforce SUBJUGATION by TURNING WOMAN INTO A MERE INCUBATOR.” The Woman Rebel – No Gods, No Masters, May 1914, Vol. 1, No. 3.

On motherhood: “I cannot refrain from saying that women must come to recognize there is some function of womanhood other than being a child-bearing machine.” What Every Girl Should Know, by Margaret Sanger (Max Maisel, Publisher, 1915) [Jesus said: “Daughters of Jerusalem, weep… for your children. For, behold, the days are coming, in which they shall say, Blessed (happy) are the barren, and the wombs that never bare, and the breasts which never gave suck.” (Luke 23:24)]

“The most merciful thing that a large family does to one of its infant members is to kill it.”Margaret Sanger, Women and the New Race(Eugenics Publ. Co., 1920, 1923)

Founder of Planned Parenthood, the largest abortion provider in the world.

Her goal in life: Sanger admitted her entire life’s purpose was to promote birth control. An Autobiography, p. 194

Helped to establish the research bureau that financed “the pill,” she contributed toward the work of the German doctor who developed the IUD. “Ernst Graefenberg and His Ring,” Mt. Sinai Journal of Medicine, July-Aug. 1975, p. 345, in Margaret Sanger: Father of Modern Society, by Elasah Drogin

Sanger espoused the thinking of eugenicists — similar to Darwin’s “survival of the fittest” — but related the concept to human society, saying the genetic makeup of the poor, and minorities, for example, was inferior. Pivot of Civilization, by Margaret Sanger, 1922, p. 80

On mandatory sterilization of the poor: One of Sanger’s greatest influences, sexologist/eugenicist Dr. Havelock Ellis (with whom she had an affair, leading to her divorce from her first husband), urged mandatory sterilization of the poor as a prerequisite to receiving any public aid. The Problem of Race Regeneration, by Havelock Ellis, p. 65, in Margaret Sanger: Father of Modern Society, p. 18. Ellis believed that any sex was acceptable, as long as it hurt no one. The Sage of Sex, A Life of Havelock Ellis, by Arthur Calder-Marshall, p. 88

On eradicating ‘bad stocks’: The goal of eugenicists is “to prevent the multiplication of bad stocks,” wrote Dr. Ernst Rudin in the April 1933 Birth Control Review (of which Sanger was editor). Another article exhorted Americans to “restrict the propagation of those physically, mentally and socially inadequate.”

Sanger featured in Life magazine, 1937, “Margaret Sanger celebrates Birth Control Victory.”

This page is under construction.

PLANNED PARENTHOOD TODAY

“We are not going to be an organization promoting celibacy or chastity.” Faye Wattleton, President, Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Los Angeles Times, Oct. 17, 1986 _______

“If your parents are stupid enough to deny you access to birth control, and you are under 18, you can get it on your own. Call Planned Parenthood.” Planned Parenthood advertisement, Dallas Observer, Jan. 30, 1986 _______

“There are only 2 basic kinds of sex: sex with victims and sex without. Sex with victims is always wrong. Sex without is ALWAYS right.” You’ve Changed The Combination,Rocky Mountain Planned Parenthood, Denver, Colo. _______

“The question of whether or not to sell ourselves to men is a false one: The real question is how to sell ourselves in the way that is least destructive to ourselves and our sisters. Prostitutes don’t need our condescension. What they need is our alliance. And we need theirs.” The New Our Bodies, Ourselves,Boston Women’s Health Collective, p 113 _______

“Sex is too important to glop up with sentiment. If you feel sexy, for heaven’s sake admit it to yourself. If the feeling and the tension bother you, you can masturbate. Masturbation cannot hurt you and it will make you feel more relaxed.” The Perils of Puberty,Rocky Mountain Planned Parenthood, Denver, Colo. ______

“At Planned Parenthood you can also get birth control without the consent or knowledge of your parents. So, if you are 14, 15 or 16 and you come to Planned Parenthood, we won’t tell your parents you’ve been there. We swear we won’t tell your parents.” Planned Parenthood employee lecturing students of Ramona High School, Riverside, Calif., April 21-22, 1986

_________

FACTS on Planned Parenthood Planned Parenthood on Adoption: Of 6,000 clinic visit records examined from a Texas PP clinic, only 3 referred for adoption. (Aborting Planned Parenthood, by Robert H. Ruff, New Vision Press, 1988)

Planned Parenthood’s on Homosexuality & Marital Rights: PP has encouraged homosexuality and advocated compulsory sterilization of all who have two children. (Family Planning Perspectives (a PP publication), June, Oct. 1970) ______________

Planned Parenthood’s Goal: Dr. Lena Levine in 1953, concerning Planned Parenthood’s purpose and planned course of action: “… to be ready as educators and parents to help young people obtain sex satisfaction before marriage. By sanctioning sex before marriage we will prevent fear and guilt. We must also relieve those who have these … feelings, and we must be ready to provide young boys and girls with the best contraceptive measures available so they will have the necessary means to achieve sexual satisfaction without having to risk possible pregnancy.” (Planned Parenthood News, Summer 1953) .” (“Psycho-Sexual Development,” quoted in Planned Parenthood News, Summer 1953, pg. 10) ________

Planned Parenthood on Pregnancy: PP has an unhealthy concept of pregnancy, as it views the state of gestation as an abnormal condition or disease. Speaking for the organization, Dr. Warren Hern refers to human pregnancy as “an episodic, moderately extended chronic condition … May be defined as an illness … Treated by evacuation of the uterine contents…”(“Is Pregnancy Really Normal?” Family Planning Perspective, Planned Parenthood, vol. 3, No. 1, Jan. 1971, pg. 9)

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Margaret Sanger, Founder of Planned Parenthood, In Her Own …

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Eugenics in the United States – Wikipedia, the free …

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Jul 212015
 

Eugenics, the social movement claiming to improve the genetic features of human populations through selective breeding and sterilization,[1] based on the idea that it is possible to distinguish between superior and inferior elements of society,[2] played a significant role in the history and culture of the United States prior to its involvement in World War II.[3]

Eugenics was practised in the United States many years before eugenics programs in Nazi Germany[4] and U.S. programs provided much of the inspiration for the latter.[5][6][7] Stefan Khl has documented the consensus between Nazi race policies and those of eugenicists in other countries, including the United States, and points out that eugenicists understood Nazi policies and measures as the realization of their goals and demands.[5]

During the Progressive Era of the late 19th and early 20th century, eugenics was considered[by whom?] a method of preserving and improving the dominant groups in the population; it is now generally associated with racist and nativist elements[citation needed] (as the movement was to some extent a reaction to a change in emigration from Europe) rather than scientific genetics.

The American eugenics movement was rooted in the biological determinist ideas of Sir Francis Galton, which originated in the 1880s. Galton studied the upper classes of Britain, and arrived at the conclusion that their social positions were due to a superior genetic makeup.[8] Early proponents of eugenics believed that, through selective breeding, the human species should direct its own evolution. They tended to believe in the genetic superiority of Nordic, Germanic and Anglo-Saxon peoples; supported strict immigration and anti-miscegenation laws; and supported the forcible sterilization of the poor, disabled and “immoral”.[9] Eugenics was also supported by African Americans intellectuals such as W. E. B. Du Bois, Thomas Wyatt Turner, and many academics at Tuskegee University, Howard University, and Hampton University; however they believed the best blacks were as good as the best whites and The Talented Tenth” of all races should mix.[10] W. E. B. Du Bois believed only fit blacks should procreate to eradicate the races heritage of moral iniquity.”[10][11]

The American eugenics movement received extensive funding from various corporate foundations including the Carnegie Institution, Rockefeller Foundation, and the Harriman railroad fortune.[6] In 1906 J.H. Kellogg provided funding to help found the Race Betterment Foundation in Battle Creek, Michigan.[8] The Eugenics Record Office (ERO) was founded in Cold Spring Harbor, New York in 1911 by the renowned biologist Charles B. Davenport, using money from both the Harriman railroad fortune and the Carnegie Institution. As late as the 1920s, the ERO was one of the leading organizations in the American eugenics movement.[8][12] In years to come, the ERO collected a mass of family pedigrees and concluded that those who were unfit came from economically and socially poor backgrounds. Eugenicists such as Davenport, the psychologist Henry H. Goddard, Harry H. Laughlin, and the conservationist Madison Grant (all well respected in their time) began to lobby for various solutions to the problem of the “unfit”. Davenport favored immigration restriction and sterilization as primary methods; Goddard favored segregation in his The Kallikak Family; Grant favored all of the above and more, even entertaining the idea of extermination.[13] The Eugenics Record Office later became the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.

Eugenics was widely accepted in the U.S. academic community.[6] By 1928 there were 376 separate university courses in some of the United States’ leading schools, enrolling more than 20,000 students, which included eugenics in the curriculum.[14] It did, however, have scientific detractors (notably, Thomas Hunt Morgan, one of the few Mendelians to explicitly criticize eugenics), though most of these focused more on what they considered the crude methodology of eugenicists, and the characterization of almost every human characteristic as being hereditary, rather than the idea of eugenics itself.[15]

By 1910, there was a large and dynamic network of scientists, reformers and professionals engaged in national eugenics projects and actively promoting eugenic legislation. The American Breeders Association was the first eugenic body in the U.S., established in 1906 under the direction of biologist Charles B. Davenport. The ABA was formed specifically to investigate and report on heredity in the human race, and emphasize the value of superior blood and the menace to society of inferior blood.” Membership included Alexander Graham Bell, Stanford president David Starr Jordan and Luther Burbank.[16][17] The American Association for the Study and Prevention of Infant Mortality was one of the first organizations to begin investigating infant mortality rates in terms of eugenics.[18] They promoted government intervention in attempts to promote the health of future citizens.[19][verification needed]

Several feminist reformers advocated an agenda of eugenic legal reform. The National Federation of Womens Clubs, the Womans Christian Temperance Union, and the National League of Women Voters were among the variety of state and local feminist organization that at some point lobbied for eugenic reforms.[20]

One of the most prominent feminists to champion the eugenic agenda was Margaret Sanger, the leader of the American birth control movement. Margaret Sanger saw birth control as a means to prevent unwanted children from being born into a disadvantaged life, and incorporated the language of eugenics to advance the movement.[21][22] Sanger also sought to discourage the reproduction of persons who, it was believed, would pass on mental disease or serious physical defect. She advocated sterilization in cases where the subject was unable to use birth control.[21] Unlike other eugenicists, she rejected euthanasia.[23] For Sanger, it was individual women and not the state who should determine whether or not to have a child.[24][25]

In the Deep South, womens associations played an important role in rallying support for eugenic legal reform. Eugenicists recognized the political and social influence of southern clubwomen in their communities, and used them to help implement eugenics across the region.[26] Between 1915 and 1920, federated womens clubs in every state of the Deep South had a critical role in establishing public eugenic institutions that were segregated by sex.[27] For example, the Legislative Committee of the Florida State Federation of Womens Clubs successfully lobbied to institute a eugenic institution for the mentally retarded that was segregated by sex.[28] Their aim was to separate mentally retarded men and women to prevent them from breeding more feebleminded” individuals.

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Crazy! Two Men Dressed as Women Shot By NSA – Video

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Apr 112015
 



Crazy! Two Men Dressed as Women Shot By NSA
A man is dead after two men dressed as women tried to gain unauthorized entry with a stolen SUV at a National Security Agency gate at Fort Meade, Maryland, Monday morning. If you like this…

By: UNRAVELING THE MATRIX

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Why Do Women Just Stop Talking to Me? Libertarianism and Divorce – Video

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Apr 112015
 



Why Do Women Just Stop Talking to Me? Libertarianism and Divorce
Britain's crazy prostitution laws: … 0:17 – Do you expect a gradual change into anarchism going through libertarianism or do you think a revolution would take us from statism to anarchism?…

By: Erma Nort

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Why Do Women Just Stop Talking to Me? Libertarianism and Divorce – Video

2 Men dressed as Women crash NSA gate. Illuminati Freemason Symbolism. – Video

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Apr 022015
 



2 Men dressed as Women crash NSA gate. Illuminati Freemason Symbolism.
http://news.yahoo.com/nsa-shooting-fort-meade-gate-men-dressed-as-women-154647122.html An investigative look into the Gate Crashing Shooting at the NSA headquarters. Revelation 13 King.

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2 Men dressed as Women crash NSA gate. Illuminati Freemason Symbolism. – Video

Men shot outside NSA were dressed as women – Video

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Apr 012015
 



Men shot outside NSA were dressed as women
Men shot outside NSA were dressed as women Men Dressed as Women Shot Outside NSA Gate – ABC News – Go … Men shot outside NSA were dressed as women – CNN Video Shooting outside NSA …

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Men shot outside NSA were dressed as women – Video

Why Parks and Recreations Ron Swanson and Leslie Knope could agree on Indianas religious freedom law

 Misc  Comments Off on Why Parks and Recreations Ron Swanson and Leslie Knope could agree on Indianas religious freedom law
Apr 012015
 

By Russell Moore March 31 at 7:29 PM

In all the furor over Indianas controversial Religious Freedom Restoration Act, perhaps the answer to the culture war impasse wont be found in Indianapolis but in Pawnee. Pawnee, of course, is the fictional town inhabited by long-running NBC sitcom Parks and Recreation, which orbited around the often clashing visions of Parks director Ron Swanson and his crusading deputy Leslie Knope. The two could agree on little, but I think they could agree on Indianas RFRA as it originally passed, and so should we.

Ron Swanson and Leslie Knope are relevant to this discussion not despite the fact that they are fictional Hoosiers but precisely because they are. They stand in for two powerful impulses in American cultural and political life: leave me alone libertarianism and common good progressivism. Both of these strains are part of the rich heritage of religious freedom, and neither strain should go wobbly on that heritage now.

Swanson, of course, was the grumpy, just-this-side-of-cynical libertarian who feels guilty for working for the government. What he wanted to see done, more than anything, within his tiny towns parks department is for it to do just this side of nothing. He kept his money in gold, buried somewhere in the yard. His hatred of government regulations and government expenditures, of almost any kind, were second only to his hatred for skim milk (which he famously called water, lying about being milk).

Swanson, like most libertarians, probably would support same-sex marriage, if he supported any sort of government-recognized marriage at all. But his libertarianism wouldnt want the government dictating either the prohibitionor the celebrationof such unions.

The libertarian vision is one that recognizes that pluralism in the public square is not an evil to be stamped out by government fiat. And that vision is especially true when it comes to the most personal arena of a persons life: his or her conscience. We may disagree on how much government is necessary, but libertarians have consistently warned us that a government that takes upon itself the burden of paving over consciences is a government that can do anything.

The libertarian vision is true in the area of religious liberty both on the Right (when some have wanted state-written school prayers or mosques zoned out of existence) or on the Left (where now many want to force celibate nuns to pay for birth control insurance or force evangelical adoption agencies out of existence).

The federal RFRA and its counterparts in the states were designed to protect individual consciences from a Leviathan government. The point of RFRA, from the beginning, was to assert that unpopular religious views (whether of peyote-smoking native Americans, hijab-wearing Muslims or something similar) ought to be protected by more than just the whim of the majority.

Leslie Knope, on the other hand, was the office progressive, fueled by idealism about what government can do, if only given the chance. With her office filled with pictures of her women heroes from Madeleine Albright to Hillary Clinton, Knope wanted to break glass ceilings, to fill in sand pits and build parks for the sake of the flourishing of her community.

Now, as a liberal Democrat, Knope, too, probably would support same-sex marriage. But its hard to imagine that Knope would feel comfortable with the hysteria weve seen over the Indiana RFRA. The primary pressure to abandon this act, along with the (flat-out misrepresented) line that it is a freedom to discriminate bill has come from big corporate interests threatening to boycott the state.

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Why Parks and Recreations Ron Swanson and Leslie Knope could agree on Indianas religious freedom law

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(#60) Freedom Rider (Pt. 3) WHISKEY. WEED. WOMEN. with Steve Jessup – Video

 Freedom  Comments Off on (#60) Freedom Rider (Pt. 3) WHISKEY. WEED. WOMEN. with Steve Jessup – Video
Mar 282015
 



(#60) Freedom Rider (Pt. 3) WHISKEY. WEED. WOMEN. with Steve Jessup
On show 60, Steve is back on the Freedom Rider Build for part 3. It's all about putting new wheels, tires and jacking up the stance.The Rider Build rages on the last Friday of every month….

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(#60) Freedom Rider (Pt. 3) WHISKEY. WEED. WOMEN. with Steve Jessup – Video

Within the Suffering, There is Freedom – Tyffany Howard – Video

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Mar 272015
 



Within the Suffering, There is Freedom – Tyffany Howard
Presentation at WECON 2015 Women's Conference in Austin, Texas on March 8, 2015. Through the suffering and pain, she learned to love herself. The message is for “you” to love yourself. Tyffany…

By: Tyffany Howard

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Within the Suffering, There is Freedom – Tyffany Howard – Video

Lawsuit Challenges NSA Internet Dragnets

 NSA  Comments Off on Lawsuit Challenges NSA Internet Dragnets
Mar 132015
 

By John P. Mello Jr. 03/13/15 11:02 AM PT

The American Civil Liberties Union earlier this week filed a lawsuit seeking to stop the National Security Agency from indiscriminately snooping on United States Internet traffic.

Using a technique called “upstream” surveillance, the NSA does a spinal tap of the Internet’s U.S. backbone, which carries the communications of millions of Americans, the ACLU explained in its complaint filed with a federal district court in Maryland.

“In the course of this surveillance, the NSA is seizing Americans’ communications en masse while they are in transit,” the complaint alleges, “and it is searching the contents of substantially all international text-based communications — and many domestic communications as well — for tens of thousands of search terms.”

That kind of surveillance violates federal law, the First and Fourth Amendments and Article III of the Constitution, maintained the ACLU, which is representing in the lawsuit the Wikimedia Foundation, the National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers, Human Rights Watch, Amnesty International USA, PEN American Center, the Global Fund for Women, The Nation magazine, The Rutherford Institute and the Washington Office on Latin America.

This lawsuit is similar to one filed in the past involving NSA Director James R. Clapper and Amnesty International. That case was rejected by the U.S. Supreme Court. Backers of the latest lawsuit, however, believe their case has stronger legs than the previous litigation.

“Thanks to the Snowden disclosures and government acknowledgments over the last 18 months, we now know more about government surveillance than we did in Clapper v. Amnesty,” explained Ashley Gorski, an attorney with the ACLU’s National Security Project.

“That, for us, makes all the difference,” she told the E-Commerce Times, “and we think that will make a difference in court as well.”

In the Amnesty case, the Supreme Court ruled that the parties bringing the lawsuit lacked standing — that is, they couldn’t prove they were harmed by the behavior alleged in their complaint. The reason they couldn’t prove harm was that they didn’t know enough about what the NSA was doing to make the connection between harm and behavior.

“Prior to the Snowden revelations and the government acknowledgments, the public did not know anything at all about upstream surveillance — least of all that the NSA was copying entire streams of Internet traffic and searching through them for information about its targets,” Gorski said.

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Lawsuit Challenges NSA Internet Dragnets

Wikipedia suing NSA over spy program

 NSA  Comments Off on Wikipedia suing NSA over spy program
Mar 122015
 

March 11, 2015

In America, the Internet browses you. (Credit: Flickr/Light Brigading)

Chuck Bednar for redOrbit.com @BednarChuck

The Wikimedia Foundation, owners and operators of the popular crowd-edited reference website Wikipedia, has filed a lawsuit against the US National Security Agency (NSA) in response to the organizations surveillance program.

According to BBC News, the lawsuit also names the US Department of Justice and accuses the two groups of violating the Constitutions right to free speech, as well as laws protecting citizens of the United States from unreasonable search and seizure.

[STORY: Storing data offshore won’t protect it from NSA]

In a blog entry posted Tuesday, Wikimedias Michelle Paulson and Geoff Brigham wrote that the lawsuit challenges the NSAs large-scale search and seizure of internet communications frequently referred to as upstream surveillance. Our aim in filing this suit is to end this mass surveillance program in order to protect the rights of our users around the world.

The Foundation has been joined by eight other organizations, including Human Rights Watch, Amnesty International USA, the National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers, The Global Fund for Women, and The Rutherford Institute and the Washington Office on Latin America. Their case will be handled by attorneys at the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU).

[STORY: Your smartphone may be an NSA surveillance tool]

Were filing suit today on behalf of our readers and editors everywhere, said Jimmy Wales, founder of Wikipedia. Surveillance erodes the original promise of the internet: an open space for collaboration and experimentation, and a place free from fear.

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Karhu Women’s Running Shoes Steady3 Fulcrum Liberty Purple/Sheer Lilac 11 – Video

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Mar 102015
 



Karhu Women's Running Shoes Steady3 Fulcrum Liberty Purple/Sheer Lilac 11
Karhu Women's Running Shoes Steady3 Fulcrum Liberty Purple/Sheer Lilac 11 http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B00HR7CCQY?tag=uzumaki-20 Karhu Women's Running Shoes Steady3 Fulcrum …

By: Lynton Dacre Micah

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Karhu Women’s Running Shoes Steady3 Fulcrum Liberty Purple/Sheer Lilac 11 – Video

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'The decision to remove Black Watch from the classroom curtails the right of pupils to study one of Scotland's most …

 Free Speech  Comments Off on 'The decision to remove Black Watch from the classroom curtails the right of pupils to study one of Scotland's most …
Mar 072015
 

They burn hot and bright. Right now, it is Angus that is feeling the heat. Last week, the Sunday Herald reported that one headteacher in Kirriemuir had pulled Black Watch off the Highers syllabus because it is “offensive”. Parents are angry at the decision, and have demanded an explanation.

Freedom of expression does not just mean the freedom to write or say what you please, but also the freedom to read and to hear what you choose. The decision to remove Black Watch from the classroom curtails the right of the pupils to read and study one of Scotland’s most culturally significant plays. Moreover, the essays that they have already written on the play will not be assessed.

It is entirely right that prominent figures in Scottish literature have written an open letter, urging the head to reverse her decision (in signing the letter they, too, are exercising their right to free speech). This decision may just affect one school, but that is enough to set a precedent. The free speech issues have been raised and must be debated before any more books are removed from shelves and school-bags.

It is particularly important that we challenge ‘offence’ as the justification for such decisions. If we do not, we run the risk that ‘offence’ becomes ingrained as a legitimate reason for censorship. We put a veto-power in the hands of whoever says they are upset. Offence, and its sibling, indecency, are the perennial free speech battleground in British society, and often it is literature over which we fight. Think of the fatwa issued against Salman Rushdie for The Satanic Verses; think of Mary Whitehouse’s crusading legal actions against plays and poems that depicted homosexuality; think of Lady Chatterley’s Lover, prosecuted for obscenity.

During the Chatterley trial, the prosecutor Mervyn Griffith-Jones was criticised for asking whether the book was something “you would wish your wife or servants to read”. This paternalism is often at the heart of classroom censorship – the idea that the kids are too young to comprehend the subtleties of art. Scotland had this debate in the 1990s when Edwin Morgan’s Stobhill sequence of poems, which depict rape and abortion, were the target of a campaign to have them banned from schools. Down in England, ‘Education for Leisure’, Carol Ann Duffy’s chilling poem about a frustrated young man with a knife, was pulled from the GCSE textbooks after critics said it ‘glorified’ knife-crime.

The United States, where even the most parochial levels of government are highly politicised, has endured many battles over what books should be read by children. Since its publication in 1900, various public libraries and parents groups have sought to suppress The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, and in recent years the Harry Potter series has been attacked because it promotes witchcraft. Another book that is frequently a source of contention is Mark Twain’s Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. It is often described as the first great novel of American literature, and yet it also carries 219 instances of the N word. The characters that use it are undoubtedly racist by modern standards, but the book itself-the story of an escaped slave -is far more humane than the people it describes.

In Black Watch, the contentious word is ‘c**t’ which the characters use routinely. C-bombs are dropped into conversation with far more regularity than the sound of actual bombs falling on the Basra military compound where the play is set. Sometimes, the word seems benign, as if the soldiers think it is synonymous with ‘man’ or ‘person’. But this is not always the case, and often it is deployed as an insult. The c-word has a sexist history and meaning and there is no escape from that legacy.

Worse, the characters talk constantly about various sex acts with the women they have met, and use derogatory language about gay men. There is no denying that the characters are offensive. Perhaps they will corrupt the morals of our young people? Will the swearing instil negative values in those who read and watch the play?

In all these attempts to shield young eyes from bad words-whether its Huckleberry Finn, or Black Watch-there sits an implication that children cannot grasp the full meaning of the text. For primary school children, there might be some merit to that argument, but it is patronising when applied to teenagers studying for Highers. Last year, 16 and 17 year-olds in Scotland were asked to vote on the complex question of Scottish Independence. To suggest that these same citizens cannot be trusted to read about characters doing offensive things, is just bizarre.

Moreover, drawing a distinction between what a character says in a play, and the playwright’s message, is surely the very essence of literature studies. In a classroom, the offensive words are not presented alone, but within a highly specific context that a teacher must explain. Indeed, I would suggest that a school is the best place to uncover that context. Those who say that the kids can always read it at home if they want are denying them the chance of a deeper understanding of the play and the issues it raises.

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'The decision to remove Black Watch from the classroom curtails the right of pupils to study one of Scotland's most …

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