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Atheism – creation.com

 Atheism  Comments Off on Atheism – creation.com
Feb 082016
 

by Ken Ammi

For many other articles on this topic, see Atheism, agnosticism and humanism: godless religionsQuestions and Answers

Some atheists apparently dont like this video, A Fool’s Heart, but you can view it here. It recaps some of the effects of anti-Christian atheistic/evolutionary thinking in recent times, beginning with Robespierre, a leader of the French Revolution.

There is confusion and debate about the term atheism and its definition.

The term atheism finds its etymology in the Greek combination of a and theos. What atheos means is, as with any term, subject to context (and perhaps personal interpretation). Note that if an atheist states, I do not believe in God, this is technically not a statement about Gods existence or lack thereof. Does atheos mean no God, without God, lack God belief or God does not exist?

Early Christians were referred to as atheists because they did not believe in the Greek or Roman gods. Yet, while they positively affirmed the non-existence of those gods they likely believed that those gods were deceptive demons whom they did believe existed (1 Corinthians 8:46).

Let us consider other Greek-derived a words:

Generally, as popularized by the New Atheist movement, atheists prefer the definition of atheism as lacking belief in god(s). Thus, by applying the term atheist to themselves, such atheists are not technically making a statement about Gods existence or lack thereof.

This definition has been popularized, at least, since Charles Bradlaugh (circa 1876). It appears to be preferred so as to escape the philosophic difficulty of proving a negativeGod does not existand in order to shift the burden of proof to the theist, since the theist is making the positive affirmation that God exists.

On a polemical note there are two things to consider:

In reference to the above mentioned term agnostic, note that Thomas Henry Huxley coined this term in 1869.1 He explained that he noted two extremes: one was the atheist who positively affirmed Gods non-existence (claiming to know that God did not exist) and the other was the theists who positively affirmed Gods existence (claiming to know that God exists). Huxley said that he did not possess enough evidence to affirm positively either position. Thus, he coined a term which he saw as a middle position, which was that of lacking knowledge to decide either way (whether such knowledge actually exists outside of his personal knowledge or may someday be discovered is another issue).

As we will see next, there are various sects of atheism. There is a vast difference between the friendly atheist next door and the activists. Generally, even the activist types who are typified by the New Atheist movement will define atheism as a mere lack of belief in God. However, it is important to note that their activism demonstrates that their atheism is anything but mere lack: it is an anti-religion, anti-faith and anti-God movement.

1.1 Variations of Atheism

Atheists may be categorized under various technical terms as well as sociopolitical and cultural ones, which may overlap depending on the individual atheists preferences:

Some atheists claim that atheism is a religion3 and others have attempted to establish secular/civic/atheistic religions which we will elucidate below.

Michael Shermer, editor of The Skeptic magazine, draws a distinction between the atheist who claims, there is no God and the non-theist who claims to have no belief in God.4

As to the sociopolitical and/or cultural terms, these abound and some are: Brights, Freethinkers, Humanists, Naturalists, Rationalists, Skeptics, Secular Humanists and Materialists.

Some atheists squabble about terminology. For example, American Atheists webmaster wrote, Atheists are NOT secular humanists, freethinkers, rationalists or ethical culturalists Often, people who are Atheists find it useful to masquerade behind such labels5 while the Freedom from Religion Foundation, claims that, Freethinkers include atheists, agnostics and rationalists.6

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By nature worship and neo-paganism I refer to the atheists tendency to replace a sense of awe of God and seeking transcendence by relating to God with seeking awe and transcendence in nature. This natural high, as it were, is not merely enjoyed but it is enjoined and said to be holier than theism.

Referring to our ability to step off the Earth and look back at ourselves, as was done in Voyager 2, Carl Sagan stated,

The very first episode of his televised series entitled Cosmos, began with Carl Sagan stating,

Presupposing a God-free reality, why atheists seek transcendent experiences remains unanswered.

Michael Shermer stated that his study of evolution was, far more enlightening and transcendent, spiritual, than anything I had experienced in seven years of being a born again Christian.8

Michael Shermer made reference to the spiritual side of science, which he referred to as sciensuality:

Michael Ruse; philosophy professor (University of Guelph), ardent evolutionist and professedly an ex-Christian who has argued for the ACLU against the balanced treatment (of creation and evolution in schools) bill in the USA, wrote:

Addressing fellow atheist Jonathan Miller, Richard Dawkins stated:

you and I probably do have feelings that may very well be akin to a kind of mystical wonder when we contemplate the stars, when we contemplate the galaxies, when we contemplate life, the sheer expanse of geological time. I experience, and I expect you experience, internal feelings which sound pretty much like um, what mystics feel, and they call it God. Ifand Ive been called a very religious person for that reasonif I am called a religious person, then my retort to that is, Well, youre playing with words, because what the vast majority of people mean by religious is something utterly different from this sort of transcendent, mystical experience [ ]

The transcendent sense the transcendent, mystic sense, that people who are both religious and non-religious in my usage of the term, is something very very different. In that sense, I probably am a religious person. You probably are a religious person. But that doesnt mean we think that there is a supernatural being that interferes with the world, that does anything, that manipulates anything, or by the way, that its worth praying to or asking forgiveness of sins from, etc. [ ]

I prefer to use words like religion, like God, in the way that the vast majority of people in the world would understand them, and to reserve a different kind of language for the feeling that we share with possibly your clergyman [ ] the sense of wonder that one gets as a scientist contemplating the cosmos, or contemplating mitochondria is actually much grander than anything that you will get by contemplating the traditional objects of religious mysticism.11 [the un-bracketed ellipses appear in the original transcript denoting Richard Dawkins halting way of speaking, the bracketed ones were added]

Richard Dawkins, in Is Science a Religion? said,

Stephen S. Hall, in Darwins Rottweiler Sir Richard Dawkins: Evolutions Fiercest Champion, Far Too Fierce, said:

Such sentiments appear to be fulfillments of the Apostle Pauls reference to:

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2.1 Atheist religion

Let us consider the atheists from the 18th to the 21st centuries who express desires to establish an atheistic religion. Perhaps we should begin with Jean-Jacques Rousseau (17121778), who conceived of a civil religion:

Two other notable 18th century attempts are Claude Henri de Rouvroy, Comte de Saint-Simon (17601825) who conceived of a new Christianity which would be founded upon Humanism and scientific socialism. The secular priesthood would consist of scientists, philosophers and engineers. Lastly, Auguste Comte (17981857) conceived of a religion of humanity.

In atheism, when we die we end up as mere fertilizer; plant food. Human life has no particular meaning or purpose and there is no real basis for ethics, love or even logical thought. Atheism provides no footing for a just, caring and secure society.

Forwarding to the 21st century we will consider Gary Wolfs interview with Sam Harris:

Gary Wolfs interview with Daniel Dennett:

Sam Harris, Selfless Consciousness without Faith:

Sam Harris, A Contemplative Science:

ABC Radio National, Stephen Crittenden interviews Sam Harris:

Sam Harris, Science Must Destroy Religion:

Sam Harris, Rational Mysticism:

Humanist Manifesto I (1933) states,

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There may be as many reasons that people choose atheism as there are individuals who make that choice. These range from philosophy or science to emotion or rebellion and various combinations of such factors.

Prominent Argentinean hyperrealism artist, Helmut Ditsch, retells part of his upbringing:

Joe Orso, writing on the origin of beliefs, interviewed atheist Ira Glass, who said:

Note carefully the words of Thomas Nagel (B.Phil., Oxford; Ph.D., Harvard), Professor of Philosophy and Law, University Professor, and Fiorello La Guardia Professor of Law. He specializes in Political Philosophy, Ethics, Epistemology, and Philosophy of Mind. He is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and a Fellow of the British Academy, and has held fellowships from the Guggenheim Foundation, the National Science Foundation, and the National Endowment for the Humanities:

I want atheism to be true and am made uneasy by the fact that some of the most intelligent and well-informed people I know are religious believersThomas Nagel

Consider the following words of Isaac Asimov, one of the most prolific scientific writers of the last century:

Gary Wolf , contributing editor to Wired magazine, includes himself in the following description: we lax agnostics, we noncommittal nonbelievers, we vague deists who would be embarrassed to defend antique absurdities like the Virgin Birth or the notion that Mary rose into heaven without dying, or any other blatant myth. He wrote:

At dinner parties or over drinks, I ask people to declare themselves. Who here is an atheist? I ask. Usually, the first response is silence, accompanied by glances all around in the hope that somebody else will speak first. Then, after a moment, somebody does, almost always a man, almost always with a defiant smile and a tone of enthusiasm. He says happily, I am!

But it is the next comment that is telling. Somebody turns to him and says: You would be.

Why? Because you enjoy [irritating] people …. Well, thats true.

This type of conversation takes place not in central Ohio, where I was born, or in Utah, where I was a teenager, but on the West Coast, among technical and scientific people, possibly the social group that is least likely among all Americans to be religious.13

Thus, we find various motivating factors which lead to atheism and have absolutely nothing to do with science or intellect.

Thus, we find various motivating factors which lead to atheism and have absolutely nothing to do with science or intellect.

Paul Vitz, Professor of Psychology at New York University, made a fascinating study of the lives of some of the most influential atheists. In his book Faith of the Fatherless: the Psychology of Atheism he concluded that these persons rejected God because they rejected their own fathers. This was due to their poor relationships with their fathers, or due to their fathers absence, or due to their rebellion against their fathers.20 Along this line of research, it would be interesting to consider the effect that the death of friends and family has had on the rejection of God. From Charles Darwin to Ted Turner the death of friends and family has played a part.

Gary Wolf noted,

The Associated Press reported on an interview with Ted Turner published in The New Yorker: 22

Tony Snow, who was the White House Press Secretary in 2006/2007, and was a Christian, died of cancer in July 2008. He wrote an essay entitled, Cancers Unexpected Blessings.23 Consider, in contrast, how a God-centered person dealt with his own impending death:

In contrast, consider the words of atheist William Provine, professor of the history of science at Cornell University:

With regards to his own cancer, a brain tumor, Provine has stated that he would shoot himself in the head if his brain tumor returned.25 Apparently, one less bio-organism is irrelevant in an absolutely materialistic world.

3.1 Natural born Atheist

Another reason for rejecting God (choosing atheism), is a willing acceptance of satanic deception.

The angel Lucifer (luminous one) fell and became Satan (adversary) due to his desire to supplant God. This was Lucifers single-minded obsession.

He not only rejected God by attempting to supplant Him, but he urged humans to do likewise. Satan urged Eve to choose against God for her own self-fulfilment:

He said to the woman, Did God actually say, You shall not eat of any tree in the garden? And the woman said to the serpent, We may eat of the fruit of the trees in the garden, but God said, You shall not eat of the fruit of the tree that is in the midst of the garden, neither shall you touch it, lest you die. But the serpent said to the woman, You will not surely die. For God knows that when you eat of it your eyes will be opened, and you will be like God, knowing good and evil. (Genesis 3:1-5 ESV).

The tactic is clear: firstly, question Gods statements, then, contradict Gods statements and, finally, urge rebellion in seeking equality with God.

This manifests in atheists as

This satanic deception appeals strongly to atheists as it bolsters two of their desired delusions: 1) absolute autonomybeing free to do as they please, and 2) the lack of ultimate accountabilitythere are no eternal consequences for doing as they please.

A subset of the question of why some people choose atheism is the atheist claim that we are all natural born atheists. In part this is incumbent upon which definition of atheism we are employing. Obviously, we are not born positively asserting Gods non-existence. Thus, the claim is that we are all born lacking a belief in God. Logically, this claim is accurate only at this point and is actually not successfully applicable beyond this point.

Atheists who make this argument claim that this argument demonstrates that man is not God-made but that God is man-made. In other words, they claim that we only believe in God because someone taught us to believe in God, often during childhood before we were able to consider the claim rationally. Yet, this claim is faulty on many levels, for example:

We are born knowing nothing at all and must be taught, and later take it upon ourselves to learn, anything and everything that we will ever know or believe, including atheism.

We are natural-born bed wetters but that does not mean that we should remain that way.

This is ultimately a form of the logically fallacious ad hominem (to the man). This fallacy occurs when what is supposed to be a counterargument attacks the person, the source of the original argument, while leaving the argument unanswered. Thus, just because belief in God is something that is taught does not discredit belief in God. It would be fallacious to claim that God does not exist because human beings invented the idea of Gods existenceGod wants us to discover His existence: you will seek Me and find Me, when you search for Me with all your heart (Jeremiah 29:13).

Furthermore, this claim does not consider that many people came to believe in God in adulthood and having come from a completely secular (atheistic) upbringing.

Although, perhaps we could grant the claim: if atheists want to argue that atheism requires no more intellect than that which an infant can muster, why should we argue?

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Here is a video debate between an atheist and the author of this article: Morality: natural or supernatural?

Technically, ethics refers to what should be and morals to what is or; prescription and description. Atheists differ on the issue of ethics and morality; some claim that there are absolutes and some do not. As to the question of whether atheists can make absolute moral statements, this is tantamount to the first year theology student who, when asked, Do you believe in infant baptism? responded, Sure I do; Ive seen it done. Yes, atheists can make any statements about anything at allthe question is: are the statements viable?

Atheists make epistemic statements about morality but do not provide an ontological premise for ethics.26 That is to say that they can muse upon issues of morality and come to any conclusion that they please. However, these turn out to be arbitrary personal preferences that are expressed as dogmatic assertions.

Some atheists do make attempts at providing an ontological basis for ethics. These range quite widelyfrom considering the behavior of apes to Game Theory.

In the first case, it is, of course, being presupposed that we share a common evolutionary lineage with apes and that their behavior tells us something about ours. Even when such observations successfully correlate their behaviors to ours, it is merely a description. Moreover, from such correlations it is inferred that morality is part of our overall evolution. This amounts to intuition or urges which we are free to act upon or disregard.

In the second case investigators concoct games that they claim dissect human behavior. With regards to Game Theory, Benjamin Wiker notes,

Another supposed basis for ethics is that an action is unethical/immoral if it causes harm to others. Thus, it is the nature of the consequence caused by the action that determines whether an action is ethical or unethical. The fundamental problem with this definition of ethical behavior is that an action ceases to be unethical if no adverse consequences are experienced. As such, nothing is inherently wrong; an action is only wrong if it causes harm to another.

Consider the example of adulterous behavior: under the do no harm definition of ethical behavior, adultery is wrong because it harms the other party in the marriage (i.e., the faithful spouse). This harm can include mental anguish, the spread of disease to the faithful party and the loss of affection from the adulterous party. An additional adverse consequence includes unwanted pregnancies outside of the marriage. However, what if an adulterous act did not lead to those outcomes (e.g., a husband, who has had a vasectomy, occasionally has sexual relations with women free from sexually transmitted diseases while on trips to foreign cities)? In such an instance would adultery cease being unethical? Would the husbands behavior turn from ethically neutral to unethical only if he were to confess his adultery to his wife, or if he was otherwise caught, thus causing her mental anguish?

It seems that there is something else behind, or beyond, the consideration of causing harm. In fact, there must be something else. Why must there be something else? Because it is precisely by knowing that which causes others harm that I may come to know how to push their buttons, how to manipulate them, how to take advantage of them, how to suppress them, etc. I may find that I can assist my survival by causing such harm to others and so, on this view, their harm is for my benefit. There must be something beyond that which makes causing harm itself unethical.

An ethical code based on God is determined by Gods communication to man of what is ethical and unethical. This is because Gods ethical code to us is derived from Gods very triune, relational, ethical nature. This nature is ethical and relational as it is unified by virtue of God consisting of one in being and yet, diverse as it is experienced and enjoyed amongst the three persons of the Trinity. Under such an ethical code, and in contrast to any Godless moral code, a given action such as adultery is still wrong even in absence of adverse consequences to another party. Thus, under a God-authored ethical code some actions are inherently wrong.

Furthermore, the atheist has no basis for saying that it is wrong to harm others anyway. Why should it be wrong to harm others? This supposed basis for ethics fails at this very point.

Let us consider some atheists statements about morality:

Dan Barker, co-founder of the Freedom from Religion Foundation, claims that, Darwin has bequeathed what is good and refers to Jesus as a moral monster.28 He includes the following within his understanding of Darwinian goodness,

This appears to be in keeping with his general view on human worth, value and dignity, a fetus thats the size of a thumb that haswhat? What? Would you put it in a little locket and hang it around your neck?30

Dan Barker has also stated, There is no moral interpreter in the cosmos, nothing cares and nobody cares and he bases his humanistic morality upon his reasoning whether, it will ultimately matter what happens to us or a vegetable: what happens to me or a piece of broccoli, it wont. The Sun is going to explode, were all gonna be gone. No ones gonna care.31

He does not seem to consider that the fact that the concept which holds that There is no moral interpreter in the cosmos, nothing cares and nobody cares were all gonna be gone. No ones gonna care, quite logically and easily, leads to inhumane immorality.

Dan Barker has further stated:

Dan Barker has also offered motivating factors for moral actions that are quite common within atheist thoughtthese are self-serving motivations, whereby one should be good not for goodness sake but in order to benefit oneself, for example,

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Atheism – creation.com

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Atheism: Pictures, Videos, Breaking News

 Atheism  Comments Off on Atheism: Pictures, Videos, Breaking News
Feb 072016
 

Future Transhumanist City — Image by Sam Howzit Transhumanism–the international movement that aims to use science and technology to improve the h…

Zoltan Istvan

US Presidential candidate of Transhumanist Party; Creator of Immortality Bus; Author of novel ‘The Transhumanist Wager’

I can’t believe I’m saying this, but I’m done with Richard Dawkins. As a teenager, the brilliant scientist was among the first to break through my bubble of petty fundamentalism and push me to think critically about the superstitions that envelope our cultures. I miss that guy and have no idea where he went.

Chris Sosa

Campaign Manager, Political Commentator

Without absorbing that the Constitution is the foundation of the United States, it is pointless to claim to be an American, except perhaps by coincidence of birth.

It seems it is not only the far right that seizes the opportunity of every calamity that befalls us and every terrorist attack to unleash their exclusionary and hateful rhetoric towards Islam and Muslims. Self-proclaimed enlightened liberals do too.

This article first appeared on the blog of Intentional Insights, a nonprofit organization that empowers people to refine and reach their goals by …

Gleb Tsipursky

Dr. Gleb Tsipursky runs a nonprofit that helps people reach their goals using science, Intentional Insights, authored Find Your Purpose Using Science, and is a tenure-track professor at Ohio State. Get in touch with him at gleb@intentionalinsights.org.

When did this happen? When did I lose faith in the fundamental beliefs of Christianity that I’d been raised to respect? What caused me to lean toward atheism? Did I miss something in confirmation class?

The idea and character of religious freedom has changed over the years, and unfortunately the change has not always been for the better. But celebrations like Religious Freedom Day can remind us of the full nature of religious freedom.

You pass through the long security line at the United States Capitol building in Washington, DC. While the line of tourists streams forward into the Exhibition Hall, you turn right, and head to the Senate appointment desk.

Gleb Tsipursky

Dr. Gleb Tsipursky runs a nonprofit that helps people reach their goals using science, Intentional Insights, authored Find Your Purpose Using Science, and is a tenure-track professor at Ohio State. Get in touch with him at gleb@intentionalinsights.org.

Whether you are a believer or secular, to gain a greater sense of purpose and meaning in life it helps to participate in civic engagement with others from your community.

Gleb Tsipursky

Dr. Gleb Tsipursky runs a nonprofit that helps people reach their goals using science, Intentional Insights, authored Find Your Purpose Using Science, and is a tenure-track professor at Ohio State. Get in touch with him at gleb@intentionalinsights.org.

Atheists are generally good people. They are certainly not the demons that some religious people have made them out to be. So why, then, do atheists tend to receive the cold shoulder from their religious fellow Americans?

My sacred ground is all around us. My only holy site is the one we are all standing on and, if we are not careful, it will be in ruins. It will be the graveyard of all humanity.

Recently, Massachusetts resident Lindsay Miller won the right to wear a colander in her State ID photo on account of her belief in Pastafarianism. There are two ways of interpreting this.

Isaac Fornarola

Journalist, satirist and teacher covering identity politics and LGBTQ issues. Based in New York City. Founder and editor of @FluxWeekly. Twitter: @isaacforn

It’s not enough for individual believers to worship God as they see fit — a right which I and most Americans are happy to acknowledge and protect. According to Scalia, the government must place its thumb on the scale and promote and advance religion over non-religion.

Ronald A. Lindsay

President & CEO, Center for Inquiry; Author of The Necessity of Secularism

I recently read excerpts from a website authored by a person who mocks those who are religious or spiritual. The writer repeated the familiar conde…

Elaine Ambrose

Author, syndicated blogger, featured humor speaker, publisher, and retreat organizer knows that laughter – with wine – is the best medicine.

The world? It’s something to deal with and find a place in and live your life in, possibly to make a better place. Nature? It’s something to study…

Brook Ziporyn

Professor of Chinese Philosophy, Religion and Comparative Thought, University of Chicago

Last year, I wrote that 2014 was a great year for the transhumanism movement. But 2015 was simply incredible — it might end up being called a breakout year.

Zoltan Istvan

US Presidential candidate of Transhumanist Party; Creator of Immortality Bus; Author of novel ‘The Transhumanist Wager’

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Atheism: Pictures, Videos, Breaking News

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Double Jeopardy Clause of the Fifth Amendment

 Fifth Amendment  Comments Off on Double Jeopardy Clause of the Fifth Amendment
Feb 052016
 

Fifth Amendment

The Fifth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution reads:

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

The Bill of Rights, which consists of the first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution, enumerates certain basic personal liberties. Laws passed by elected officials that infringe on these liberties are invalidated by the judiciary as unconstitutional. The Fifth Amendment to the Constitution, ratified in 1791, represents five distinct liberties the that Framers attempted to safeguard from majoritarian impulses: (1) the right to be indicted by an impartial Grand Jury before being tried for a federal criminal offense,(2) the right to be free from multiple prosecutions or punishments for a single criminal offense, (3) the right to remain silent when prosecuted for a criminal offense, (4) the right to have personal liberties protected by Due Process of Law, and (5) the right to receive just compensation when the government takes private property for public use.

The Framers of the Fifth Amendment intended that its provisions would apply only to the actions of the federal government. However, after the Fourteenth Amendment was ratified, most of the Fifth Amendment’s protections were made applicable to the states. Under the Incorporation Doctrine, most of the liberties set forth in the Bill of Rights were made applicable to state governments through the U.S. Supreme Court’s interpretation of the Due Process and Equal Protection Clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment. As a result, all states must provide protection against Double Jeopardy, Self-Incrimination, deprivation of due process, and government taking of private property without just compensation. The Grand Jury Clause of the Fifth Amendment has not been made applicable to state governments.

The Double Jeopardy Clause of the Fifth Amendment prohibits state and federal governments from reprosecuting for the same offense a defendant who has already been acquitted or convicted. It also prevents state and federal governments from imposing more than one punishment for the same offense.

For more than a century, courts have wrestled with the question of what constitutes an acquittal such that a person has already been placed in jeopardy for a particular offense. However, all courts agree that the Double Jeopardy Clause applies only to legal proceedings brought by state and federal governments in criminal court. It does not apply to legal proceedings instituted by purely private individuals in civil court.

The U.S. legal system has two primary divisions, criminal and civil. Criminal actions are designed to punish individuals for wrongdoing against the public order. Civil actions are designed to compensate victims with money damages for injuries suffered at the hands of another. An individual who has been acquitted in criminal court of murder can, without violating the Double Jeopardy Clause, be required in civil court to pay money damages to the family of a victim. Thus, the successive criminal and civil trials of O. J. Simpson, regarding the deaths of Nicole Brown Simpson and Ronald Goldman, did not constitute double jeopardy.

The Fifth Amendment’s prohibition against double jeopardy is rooted in Anglo-Saxon Jurisprudence. Yet, in England, the Crown sometimes ignored the right against double jeopardy. In certain important cases where an acquittal undermined royal interests, the defendant was tried again in a different manner or by a different court. The protection against double jeopardy was also extremely narrow under English Law. It applied only to capital crimes, in which the defendant would be subject to the death penalty if convicted. It did not apply to lesser offenses such as noncapital felonies and misdemeanors.

Massachusetts was the first colony that recognized a right against double jeopardy. Its colonial charter provided, “No man shall be twise [sic] sentenced by Civil Justice for one and the same Crime, offence, or Trespasse” (as quoted in United States v. Halper, 490 U.S. 435, 109 S. Ct. 1892, 104 L. Ed. 2d 487 [1989]). This charter, which served as a model for several other colonies, expanded the protection against double jeopardy to all crimes and offenses, not just capital felonies. Nonetheless, when the Bill of Rights was ratified in 1791, the constitutions of only two states expressly afforded double jeopardy protection. Thus, when James Madison submitted his proposal for the Fifth Amendment to Congress, he wanted to be sure that the right against double jeopardy would not be abused by the government, as it had been in England, or altogether forgotten, as it had been in the constitutions of eleven states.

Although Congress and the state ratifying conventions said very little about the Fifth Amendment’s Double Jeopardy Clause, the U.S. Supreme Court has identified several concerns that the Framers were trying to address when they drafted it: (1) preventing the government from employing its superior resources to wear down and erroneously convict innocent persons; (2) protecting individuals from the financial, emotional, and social consequences of successive prosecutions; (3) preserving the finality and integrity of criminal proceedings, which would be compromised were the state allowed to arbitrarily ignore unsatisfactory outcomes; (4) restricting prosecutorial discretion over the charging process; and (5) eliminating judicial discretion to impose cumulative punishments not authorized by the legislature.

The Fifth Amendment’s right against self-incrimination permits an individual to refuse to disclose information that could be used against him or her in a criminal prosecution. The purpose of this right is to inhibit the government from compelling a confession through force, coercion, or deception. The Self-Incrimination Clause applies to any state or federal legal proceeding, whether it is civil, criminal, administrative, or judicial in nature. This privilege is frequently invoked during the trial phase of legal proceedings, where individuals are placed under oath and asked questions on the witness stand.

The privilege is also asserted with some frequency during the pretrial phase of legal proceedings. In the pretrial phase of criminal cases, it is usually asserted in response to pointed questions asked by law enforcement agents, prosecutors, and other government officials who are seeking to determine the persons responsible for a particular crime. During the pretrial phase of civil cases, parties may assert the right against self-incrimination when potentially damaging questions are posed in depositions and interrogatories.

The right against self-incrimination largely took hold in English law with the seventeenth-century trial of John Lilburne. Lilburne was a Puritan agitator who opposed British attempts to impose Anglican religious uniformity across England. In 1637, Lilburne was prosecuted for attempting to smuggle several thousand Puritan pamphlets into England. Before the Star Chamber (an English court with jurisdiction to extinguish nonconformity in the realm), Lilburne refused to take an oath requiring him to answer truthfully any question asked of him. He said that he could see that the court was trying to ensnare him, and he claimed that the law of God and the law of the land supported his right against self-accusation. Lilburne was whipped and pilloried for refusing to take the oath. Parliament later declared his punishment illegal, abolished the Star Chamber, and ultimately recognized the right against self-incrimination.

The American colonists, particularly the Puritans in Massachusetts, were familiar with the plight of Lilburne. Nonetheless, the Massachusetts Body of Liberties, a collection of rules of conduct for the Puritan colonists taken nearly verbatim from the Bible, permitted the use of torture to extract confessions from defendants who were accused of capital crimes. Many other colonies subjected political and religious dissenters to inquisitorial judicial proceedings not unlike those employed in England. In many of these proceedings, the accused persons were not entitled to remain silent but were often asked to provide evidence of their innocence. Even after the Revolution, the constitutions of four states offered no protections against self-incrimination. As Madison drafted the original version of the Fifth Amendment, the lessons of English and colonial history were firmly in his mind.

The U.S. Supreme Court has interpreted the Self-Incrimination Clause more broadly than many of the Framers probably would have. miranda v. arizona, 384 U.S. 436, 86 S. Ct. 1602, 16 L. Ed. 2d 694 (1966), illustrates this point. In Miranda the Court held that any statements made by defendants while in police custody before trial will be inadmissible during prosecution unless the police first warn the defendants that they have (1) the right to remain silent, (2) the right to consult an attorney before being questioned by the police, (3) the right to have an attorney present during police questioning, (4) the right to a court-appointed attorney if they cannot afford one, and (5) the right to be informed that any statements they do make can and will be used in their prosecution. Although the Miranda warnings are not provided in the Fifth Amendment’s Self-Incrimination Clause, the Court has ruled that they constitute an essential part of a judicially created buffer zone that is necessary to protect rights that are specifically set forth in the Constitution.

In Dickerson v. United States 530 U.S. 428, 120 S. Ct. 2326, 147 L. Ed.2d 405 (2000), the U.S. Supreme Court concluded that the Miranda decision was based on Fifth Amendment principles and therefore that it could not be over-turned legislatively. Congressional anger at the Miranda decision had led to the passage in 1968 of a law, 18 U.S.C.A. 3501, that had restored voluntariness as the test for admitting confessions in federal court. However, the United States department of justice, under attorneys general of both major political parties, has refused to enforce the provision, believing the law to be unconstitutional. The law lay dormant until the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals ruled in 1999 that Congress had the constitutional authority to pass the law. Chief Justice william rehnquist, a frequent critic of the Miranda decision, joined the majority in rejecting the Fourth Circuit interpretation. Although members of the Court might not agree with the reasoning and the rule of Miranda, Rehnquist acknowledged the essential place that Miranda has in U.S. law and society. He pointed out the importance that the judicial system places on Stare Decisis, a concept that counsels courts to honor judicial precedents to ensure stability and predictability in decision-making. A court should only overrule its case precedents if there is, in Rehnquist’s words, “special justification.” The Court in Dickerson concluded there were no special justifications.

Despite this decision the controversy over Miranda has not abated. In 2002 the Supreme Court took up the matter again when it reviewed Martinez v. Chavez, 270 F.3d 852 (9th Cir. 2001). The Court must decide whether the Fifth Amendment conveys a constitutional right to be free of coercive interrogation, or merely a right not to have forced confessions used against them at trial.

The Fifth Amendment’s Due Process Clause has two aspects: procedural and substantive. Procedural due process is concerned with the process by which legal proceedings are conducted. It requires that all persons who will be materially affected by a legal proceeding receive notice of its time, place, and subject matter so that they will have an adequate opportunity to prepare. It also requires that legal proceedings be conducted in a fair manner by an impartial judge who will allow the interested parties to present fully their complaints, grievances, and defenses. The Due Process Clause governs civil, criminal, and administrative proceedings from the pretrial stage through final appeal, and proceedings that produce Arbitrary or capricious results will be overturned as unconstitutional.

Substantive Due Process is concerned with the content of particular laws that are applied during legal proceedings. Before World War II, the U.S. Supreme Court relied on substantive due process to overturn legislation that infringed on a variety of property interests, including the right of employers to determine the wages their employees would be paid and the number of hours they could work. Since World War II, the Court has relied on substantive due process to protect privacy and autonomy interests of adults, including the right to use contraception and the right to have an Abortion.

The line separating procedure from substance is not always clear. For example, procedural due process guarantees criminal defendants the right to a fair trial, and substantive due process specifies that 12 jurors must return a unanimous guilty verdict before the death penalty can be imposed. The concepts of substantive and procedural due process trace back to English law. The Magna Charta provided, “No free man shall be seized, or imprisoned, or disseised, or outlawed, or exiled, or injured in any way except by the lawful judgment of his peers, or by the law of the land” (art. 39). According to eminent English jurist Sir Edward Coke, law of the land and due process of law were interchangeable terms that possessed both procedural and substantive meaning.

The American colonists followed the English tradition of attributing substantive and procedural qualities to the concepts of due process and the law of the land. Maryland and Massachusetts, for example, equated the two concepts with colonial Common Law and legislation regardless of their procedural content. On the other hand, Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Vermont all passed constitutional provisions identifying the law of the land with specific procedural safeguards, including the right against self-incrimination. Thus, when the Due Process Clause was submitted to the state conventions for ratification, it was popularly understood to place procedural requirements on legal proceedings as well as substantive limitations on the law applied in those proceedings.

When the government takes Personal Property for public use, the law calls it a taking and protects it under the eminent domain clause of the Fifth Amendment. The Eminent Domain Clause permits the government to appropriate private property, both real estate and personal belongings, for a public purpose so long as the owner receives just compensation, which is normally equated with the fair market value of the property. The Fifth Amendment attempts to strike a balance between the needs of the public and the property rights of the owner.

The power of eminent domain was first recognized in England in 1215. Article 39 of the Magna Charta read,”no free man shall be disseised [deprived] of his freehold except by the lawful judgment of his peers, or by the law of the land.” No compensation was awarded to owners whose property was taken by the government for public use. Instead, English law merely required that the government obtain ownership of private property through existing legal channels, such as parliamentary legislation. This principle was followed in England for several centuries, and was later adopted by the American colonies.

Uncompensated takings of private property by colonial governments generally involved unimproved land (i.e., land that had not been built on). Colonial governments often appropriated private land to build roads and bridges in order to develop America’s frontiers. During the American Revolution, the power of eminent domain was used to seize the land of colonists who were loyal to Great Britain, and to obtain various goods for military consumption. Compensation was rarely given to individual owners who were deprived of their property by colonial governments because making personal sacrifices for the common good, including forfeiting personal property, was considered an essential duty of every colonist.

Not everyone in the colonies believed that personal property interests should always be sacrificed for the greater good of society. Many colonists expressed distress over legislatures that were abusing their power of eminent domain. New York, for example, regularly failed to recognize title to real estate in its colony that was held by residents of Vermont. Other colonies also discriminated in favor of their own residents, and against persons whose patriotism was questionable during the Revolution. It was in this context that the Eminent Domain Clause of the Fifth Amendment was drafted.

During the twentieth century, the U.S. Supreme Court has enlarged the protection against uncompensated takings of private property by state and federal governments. The Eminent Domain Clause has been interpreted to protect not only owners whose property is physically taken by the government, but also owners whose property value is diminished as a result of government activity. Thus, compensable takings under the Fifth Amendment result from Zoning ordinances that deny property owners an economically viable use of their land (Agins v. City of Tiburon, 447 U.S. 255, 100 S. Ct. 2138, 65 L. Ed. 2d 106 [1980]), environmental regulations that require the government to occupy an owner’s land in order to monitor groundwater wells (Hendler v. United States, 952 F.2d 1364 [Fed. Cir. 1991], land-use regulations that curtail mining operations (Pennsylvania Coal Co. v. Mahon, 260 U.S. 393, 43 S. Ct. 158, 67 L. Ed. 322[1992]), and government-owned airports that lower property values in adjacent neighborhoods (United States v. Causby, 328 U.S. 256, 66S. Ct. 1062, 90 L. Ed. 1206 [1946]).

The U.S. Supreme Court, in Palazzolo v. Rhode Island, 533 U.S. 606, 121 S. Ct. 2448, 150L. Ed.2d 592 (2001), declared that property owners may file lawsuits without filing additional permit applications. Most importantly, the Court overturned a ruling that barred property owners from filing suit if they took possession of the property after the environmental regulations had been enacted. It made no sense to allow a state to avoid suit simply because of a transfer of legal title to the property. Thus, the state “would be allowed, in effect, to put an expiration date on the Takings Clause. This ought not to be the rule. Future generations, too, have a right to challenge unreasonable limitations on the use and value of land.”

A grand jury is a group of citizens who are summoned to criminal court by the sheriff to consider accusations and complaints leveled against persons who are suspected of engaging in criminal conduct. Grand juries do not determine guilt or innocence. Instead, they determine whether Probable Cause exists to believe that the accused has committed a crime, and they return an indictment (i.e., a formal charge against the accused) if they do find probable cause. In common law, a grand jury consisted of not fewer than 12, and not more than 23, men. Today, grand juries impaneled before a federal district court must consist of not fewer than 16, and not more than 23, men and women.

Potential jurors are usually drawn from lists of qualified residents. Persons who are below the age of majority, who have been convicted of certain crimes, who or are biased toward the accused are ineligible to serve as grand jurors.

The grand jury originated in England during the reign of henry ii (115489). In 1166, a statute called the Assize of Clarendon was enacted. The assize provided that no person could be prosecuted unless four men from each township and 12 men from each hundred appeared before the county court to accuse the individual of a specific crime. This compulsory process, called a presenting jury, foreshadowed the grand jury as an accusatory body that identified individuals for prosecution but made no finding as to guilt or innocence.

As the grand jury system developed in England and colonial America, it protected innocent persons who faced unfounded charges initiated by political, religious, and personal adversaries. The impartiality of grand juries is essential. This is a significant reason why the proceedings are convened in secrecy; otherwise, public scrutiny and similar prejudicial influences could affect their decision-making process. Although grand juries must be impartial, accused persons have no constitutional right to present evidence on their behalf or to cross-examine witnesses, and Hearsay evidence may be introduced against them.

Helmholz, R.H. 1983. “The Early History of the Grand Jury and the Canon Law.” University of Chicago Law Review 50 (spring).

Hickok, Eugene W., Jr., ed. 1991. The Bill of Rights: Original Meaning and Current Understanding. Charlottesville: Univ. Press of Virginia.

Mermelstein, Mark, and Joel M. Athey. 2002. “In the Fifth Dimension: Problems Faced by Trial Lawyers When a Witness Invokes the Fifth Amendment.” Los Angeles Lawyer 25 (October).

Roxas, Angela. 2002. “Questions Unanswered: the Fifth Amendment and Innocent Witnesses.” Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 93 (fall).

Treanor, William M. 1995. “The Original Understanding of the Takings Clause and the Political Process.” Columbia Law Review 95 (May).

Criminal Law; Criminal Procedure; Custodial Interrogation.

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Double Jeopardy Clause of the Fifth Amendment

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Florida Beach Guide | Orlando, Daytona, More – Orlando Sentinel

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Feb 052016
 

Some well-kept secrets are upstaged by the old world charm of this Mediterranean-influenced city on the Gulf Coast, conceived as one of Florida’s first planned communities in the early 20th Century. The shady lanes and manicured boulevards showcase the Northern Italian design envisioned by its…

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Kaylee Sturm sat in the low surf, the warm waters of the Gulf of Mexico lapping around her. The University of Tampa senior had never been to this barrier island north of Clearwater, but she and her mom were immediately impressed. “I like that it’s natural,” said Sturm, adding that she preferred…

Clearwater Beach is a barrier island off a peninsula, so it takes some bridge-hopping to reach it. But three miles of powdery white beach and abundant family attractions await in this reawakening old shore town. Mom ‘n’ pop hotels, shops, restaurants and attractions have kept that cluttered, Old…

For an escape from the hustle of normal Tampa Bay civilization, set your sights on Fort De Soto Park, an absolutely stunning retreat. It’s part of St. Petersburg, but seems to be from a faraway world. Located on the Gulf of Mexico, it bears a military name but has a spiritual heart. Fort De Soto…

Treasure Island, Florida is located on Florida’s beautiful Gulf Coast and is blessed with miles of gorgeous white sand beaches that boast that “Old Florida” feel yet Treasure Island is part of the Tampa Bay region, one of the nation’s fastest growing metro areas. With its rich history, today Treasure…

St. Pete Beach is a barrier island in Pinellas county with award-winning, beautiful beaches on the Gulf of Mexico. With miles of pristine white sand, St. Pete Beach offers visitors a variety of views, activities and Florida sun. St. Pete Beach is nestled on Long Key. Upham Beach, located on the…

It’s a warm afternoon at Gulfport’s beachfront park. Several parents are perched on palm-shaded benches, chatting, while their offspring curl themselves around the playground equipment or wade out into the gentle waves. Couples recline nearby on sand-edged beach towels; eyes closed, they soak up…

Siesta Key is a narrow, 8-mile long, crescent-shaped Gulf Coast barrier island that manages to be busy and restful at the same time. It boasts sugary white beaches that sand snobs love for being 99 percent pure quartz. Accommodations run the gamut, but rooms can be tough to find in high season….

Anna Maria Island — a slender 7-mile slip of Gulf sand balanced atop the crooked crab claw of north Longboat Key — is a slow-motion kind of place. Sit a spell and taste the brine of the sea air as it bites softly at the back of your throat. Kick off your shoes and feel the sand sucked from under…

Longboat Key, Lido Key, and St. Armands Key are ideal beach and bayfront settings for the ultimate Florida vacation. Stretching between the gorgeous Gulf of Mexico and serene Sarasota Bay, these keys attract many visitors who come to enjoy the average year-round temperature of 73 degrees. The area…

My wife and I are hardly big-time adventurers, our lives being better summarized by into the mild than Into the Wild. But one year, while pedaling bikes around a national wildlife refuge on this Gulf Coast barrier island, we looked up and saw a bald eagle harassing an osprey. The eagle wanted the…

Fort Myers, near Florida’s southwest coast, has a mix of beautiful beaches, historic attractions, museums and recreation such as golf and water sports. Its proximity to the Everglades makes it easy for visitors to find beautiful scenery, nature trails and wildlife areas. There are myriad resorts,…

The pelicans know. Even simple sea birds can sense tranquillity. That must be why these large-billed creatures like to float on gentle waters that lap softly along Vanderbilt Beach. Serenity also attracts two-legged creatures of the human variety to this special place on Florida’s Gulf Coast. Gentle…

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Florida Beach Guide | Orlando, Daytona, More – Orlando Sentinel

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Top New York Astronomy Schools – Online Education

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Jan 312016
 

Astronomy Schools in New York

New York contains four schools that offer astronomy programs. Columbia University in the City of New York, the highest-ranking astronomy school in NY, has a total student population of 24,230 and is the 4th highest ranked school in America.

Of the 4 astronomy schools in New York, only 1 has a student population over 10k. After taking into account tuition, living expenses, and financial aid, Union College comes out as the most expensive ($27,619/yr), with Columbia University in the City of New York as the lowest recorded at only $18,132/yr.

Astronomy students from New York schools who go on to become astronomers, astrophysicistss, lunar and planetary institute directors, national radio astronomy observatory directors, etc. have a good chance at finding employment. For example, there are 1,240 people working as astronomers alone in the US, and their average annual salary is $102,740. Also, Atmospheric and space scientists make on average $85,160 per year and there are about 8,320 of them employed in the US today.

Also, within the astronomy schools in New York, the average student population is 2,856 and average student-to-faculty ratio is 16 to 1. Aside from astronomy, there are 10195 total degree (or certificate) programs in the state, with 3,318 people on average applying for a school. Undergraduate tuition costs are normally around $4,933, but can vary widely depending on the type of school.

Program ID: 44067

Levels offered: Certificate, Bachelors, Masters, PhD

Program ID: 195098

Levels offered: Bachelors

Program ID: 18726

Levels offered: Bachelors

Program ID: 171665

Levels offered: Bachelors

New York Interesting Facts

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Cupertino, California – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Jan 262016
 

“Cupertino” redirects here. For the word-processing phenomenon, see Cupertino effect.

Cupertino is a city in Santa Clara County, California in the United States, directly west of San Jose on the western edge of the Santa Clara Valley with portions extending into the foothills of the Santa Cruz Mountains. An affluent city, Cupertino is the 11th wealthiest city with a population over 50,000 in the United States. The population was 58,302 at the 2010 census.[6]Forbes ranked it as one of the most educated small towns. It is known as the home of Apple Inc.’s corporate headquarters.

63 percent of the Cupertino’s population was of Asian ancestry in 2010,[7] compared to 32 percent in Santa Clara Country overall.[8]Money’s Best Places to Live, America’s best small towns, ranked Cupertino as #27 in 2012,[9] the second highest in California. It was also named as the seventh “happiest” suburb in the United States, ranking highly in the categories of income, safety, marriage, and education.[10]

Cupertino was named after Arroyo San Jos de Cupertino (now Stevens Creek). The creek had been named by Spanish explorer Juan Bautista de Anza’s cartographer, who named it after Saint Joseph of Cupertino. (Saint Joseph was born Giuseppe Maria Desa, and later known as Giuseppe da Copertino.) Cupertino was named after the town of Copertino in the Apulia region of Italy. The name Cupertino first became widely used when John T. Doyle, a San Francisco lawyer and historian, named his winery on McClellan Road “Cupertino”. After the turn of the 20th century, Cupertino displaced the former name for the region, which was “West Side”.

Although the meaning of “Copertino” is uncertain, it is likely a compound word meaning “little (covered) shelter.” The -ino suffix in Italian words indicates “small” or “little,” while “coprire” in Italian means “to cover,” and “coperto” is derived from the Latin “coopertus,” which means “covered shelter.”

Cupertino in the 19th century was a small rural village at the crossroads of Stevens Creek Road and Saratoga-Mountain View Road (also known locally as Highway 9; later Saratoga-Sunnyvale Road, and then renamed to De Anza Boulevard within Cupertino city limits). Back then, it was known as the West Side and was part of Fremont Township. The primary economic activity was fruit agriculture. Almost all of the land within Cupertino’s present-day boundaries was covered by prune, plum, apricot, and cherry orchards. A winery on Montebello Ridge overlooking the Cupertino valley region was also operating by the late 19th century.

Soon railroads, electric railways, and dirt roads traversed the West Side farmlands. Monta Vista, Cupertino’s first housing tract, was developed in the mid-20th century as a result of the electric railway’s construction.

After World War II, a population and suburban housing boom dramatically shifted the demographics and economy of the Santa Clara Valley, as the “Valley of Heart’s Delight” was beginning to transform into “Silicon Valley”. In 1954, a rancher, Norman Nathanson, the Cupertino-Monta Vista Improvement Association, and the Fact Finding Committee, began a drive for incorporation. On September 27, 1955, voters approved the incorporation of the city of Cupertino (225 voted “yes” and 183 voted “no”). Cupertino officially became Santa Clara County’s 13th city on October 10, 1955. The first city council consisted of Ralph Lindenmayer, Werner Wilson, John Saich, R. Ivan Meyerholz and Norman Nathanson. Lindenmayer was selected as the first mayor of Cupertino a week after the September 27 election.[11][12]

A major milestone in Cupertino’s development was the creation by some of the city’s largest landowners of VALLCO Business and Industrial Park in the early 1960s. Of the 25 property owners, 17 decided to pool their land to form VALLCO Park, 6 sold to Varian Associates (property later sold to Hewlett-Packard), and two opted for transplanting to farms elsewhere. The name VALLCO was derived from the names of the principal developers: Varian Associates and the Leonard, Lester, Craft, and Orlando families. A neighborhood outdoor shopping center and, much later, the enclosed Vallco Fashion Park, briefly renamed Cupertino Square, were also developed.

De Anza College opened in 1967. The college, named for Juan Bautista De Anza, occupies a 112-acre (0.45km2) site that was the location of a winery built at the turn of the 20th century, called Beaulieu by its owners, Charles and Ella Baldwin. Their mansion has now become the California History Center. De Anza College now has about 22,000 students and is a hub of activity in the city. Its flea market, held the first Saturday of the month, attracts thousands from around the area.

Housing developments were rapidly constructed in the following years as developers created neighborhoods, including Fairgrove, Garden Gate, Monta Vista, Seven Springs, and other developments. The city is known for its high real estate prices.

On December 1, 2009, Cupertino became the first city in Northern California to have an Asian-American-majority city council.

The 2010 United States Census[15] reported that Cupertino had a population of 58,301. The population density was 5,179.1 people per square mile (1,999.7/km). The racial makeup of Cupertino was 18,270 (31.3%) White, 344 (0.6%) Black American, 117 (0.2%) American Indian, 36,895 (63.3%) Asian (28.1% Chinese, 22.6% Indian, 4.6% Korean, 3.3% Japanese, 1.3% Vietnamese), 54 (0.1%) Pacific Islander, 670 (1.1%) from other races, and 1,952 (3.3%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2,113 persons (3.6%); 2.4% of Cupertino’s population is of Mexican ancestry.

The census reported that 57,965 people (99.4% of the population) lived in households, 61 (0.1%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 276 (0.5%) were institutionalized.

There were 20,181 households, out of which 9,539 (47.3%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 13,802 (68.4%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 1,393 (6.9%) had a female householder with no husband present, 581 (2.9%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 378 (1.9%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 89 (0.4%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 3,544 households (17.6%) were made up of individuals and 1,612 (8.0%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.87. There were 15,776 families (78.2% of all households); the average family size was 3.28.

The population was spread out with 16,075 people (27.6%) under the age of 18, 3,281 people (5.6%) aged 18 to 24, 15,621 people (26.8%) aged 25 to 44, 16,044 people (27.5%) aged 45 to 64, and 7,281 people (12.5%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39.9 years. For every 100 females there were 97.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.6 males.

There were 21,027 housing units at an average density of 1,867.9 per square mile (721.2/km), of which 12,627 (62.6%) were owner-occupied, and 7,554 (37.4%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 0.8%; the rental vacancy rate was 4.7%. 36,464 people (62.5% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 21,501 people (36.9%) lived in rental housing units.

According to the 20052007 American Community Survey of the US Census Bureau, the median income for a household in the city was $118,635, and the median income for a family was $140,199. The per capita income for the city was $44,774. About 3.6% of families and 5.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.9% of those under age 18 and 8.1% of those age 65 or over.[17]

According to the 20052007 American Community Survey, White Americans made up 37.4% of Cupertino’s population. Black Americans now made up 1.5% of Cupertino’s population and American Indians made up 0.4% of the city’s population. In addition, Cupertino now has an Asian American majority as this group now represents 55.7% of the city’s population. Pacific Islander Americans remained at 0.1% of the population. Also, 2.5% of the population are from some other race and 2.4% of the population are from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos remained at 4.0% of Cupertino’s population.[18] In the 2000 Census, non-Hispanic whites made up 47.8% of Cupertino’s population.[19] According to the 20052007 American Community Survey, non-Hispanic whites now represented 35.3% of the city’s population.[20]

Cupertino is located at 37193N 122231W / 37.31750N 122.04194W / 37.31750; -122.04194 (37.317492, 122.041949),[21] at the southern end of the San Francisco Bay. The eastern part of the city, located in the Santa Clara Valley, is flat while the western part of the city slopes into the Santa Cruz Mountains. Cupertino borders San Jose and Santa Clara to the east, Saratoga to the south, Sunnyvale and Los Altos to the north, and Loyola to the northwest.

Several streams run through Cupertino on their way to south San Francisco Bay, including (from north to south): Permanente Creek, Stevens Creek, San Tomas Aquino Creek and its Smith Creek, the Regnart Creek and Prospect Creek tributaries of Calabazas Creek, and Saratoga Creek.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 11.3 square miles (29km2),[21] 99.99% of it land and 0.01% of it water.

Cupertino has mild weather, wet winters and mild, dry summers.

Averages in July (at Santa Clara University)[citation needed]

Averages in January (at Santa Clara University)

Extremes

Cupertino is made up of numerous subdivisions, most of them developed since the 1960s. Most of Cupertino’s contemporary properties were developed between 1960 and 1961. The area between Stevens Creek boulevard, Miller avenue, Bollinger road, and Lawrence Expressway contains 223 Eichler homes.[22] Two of the newest parts of Cupertino are among its oldest housing tracts. Monta Vista and Rancho Rinconada were developed outside of the city’s boundaries in the 1950s and before. Rancho Rinconada was annexed in 1999[23] and the last part of Monta Vista was annexed in 2004.[24] The neighborhood of Seven Springs is at the Southern tip of Cupertino and was developed in the 1980s. The newest and most northern neighborhood, Oak Valley, borders Rancho San Antonio Park and was developed around the year 2000.

Cupertino is known for its expensive housing prices as the majority of residential properties are multimillion-dollar homes, with the entry-point into a single family home at about 1.5 million dollars. Many homes are in the upper $1 million to $3.5 million range. The high cost of living in Cupertino is attributed to the high-quality schooling, safety of the town, and its central location within the Silicon Valley. The city has attracted many high-income professionals and executives many of which are all cash buyers. The price of housing in Cupertino seems to have weathered even the 20078 slump in economy.

Cali Mill Plaza marks the traditional center of the city and the historical location of Crossroads. However, Cupertino does not have a traditional downtown shopping and commercial district.

Cupertino is one of many cities that claim to be the “heart” of Silicon Valley, as many semi-conductor and computer companies were founded here and in the surrounding areas. The worldwide headquarters for Apple Inc. is located here in a modern complex circled by the Infinite Loop. Apple has announced that it plans to build a new 150-acre (610,000m2) second campus between Interstate 280, N Wolfe Rd, E Homestead Rd and along Tantau Ave one mile east of the old campus. The nine properties (50-acre (0.2km2)) south of Pruneridge Avenue were bought in 2006, the property (100-acre (0.4km2) north of it in 2010 (from Hewlett-Packard).

On June 7, 2011, Steve Jobs gave a presentation to Cupertino City Council, detailing the architectural design of the new building and its environs.[25] The campus is planned to house up to 13,000 employees in one central four-storied circular building surrounded by extensive landscaping, with parking mainly underground and the rest centralized in a parking structure.

Other companies headquartered in Cupertino include Trend Micro, Cloud.com, Lab126, Packeteer, Chordiant, and Seagate Technology. Over 60 high-tech companies have offices there, including IBM, Olivetti and Oracle. Most of these high-tech companies are located on De Anza Boulevard, Cali Mill Plaza, and Bubb Road.

Though Cupertino is home to the headquarters of many high-tech companies, very little manufacturing actually takes place in the city. The city’s large office parks are primarily dedicated to management and design functions.

Earlier in its history Cupertino attributed some of its city income from Vallco Fashion Park, at the time one of the only major indoor shopping malls in the South Bay area. People from the greater South Bay area would come to spend money and contribute to the sales tax. Since then, several other shopping malls have sprung up; Valley Fair (now known as Westfield Valley Fair) in Santa Clara caters to the high end boutique stores, while the Great Mall in Milpitas in the 1990s opened to the low-priced and bargain retailers. Vallco Fashion Park was hit hard by these developments, as well as by the loss of one of its anchor stores, Emporium.

In 2002, Cupertino had a labor force of 25,780 with an unemployment rate of 4.5%. The unemployment rate for the Santa Clara County as a whole was 8.4%.

One of the major employers in the area is the aggregate rock quarry and cement plant in the foothills to the west of Cupertino, the Permanente Quarry. Owned and operated by Lehigh Southwest Cement, it was founded by Henry J. Kaiser as the Kaiser Permanente Cement Plant in 1939. It provided the majority of the cement used in the construction of the Shasta Dam. It supplied the 6 million barrels (950,000m3) of cement over a nine-mile (14km)-long conveyor system.[26] The cement plant is the sole reason for the railroad line that runs through the city.

Lehigh Permanente Cement was honored as the Large Business of the Year by the Cupertino Chamber of Commerce in 20012002. On October 5, 2011, the Lehigh Permanente Cement Plant was the site of a shooting in which a disgruntled employee named Shareef Allman shot and killed three people and wounded seven, including one person who was injured during the course of a carjacking by Allman after the shooting. Allman was shot dead after he would not surrender, and displayed a firearm in a threatening manner toward the deputies.[27][28] On December 19, 2011, the Sierra Club sued Lehigh Southwest Cement Company for discharging selenium and other toxic waste materials into Permanente Creek.[29]

According to the City’s 2013 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[30] the top employers in the city are:

Cupertino was incorporated in 1955. The highest body in the city government the City Council is made up of five members who serve overlapping, four-year terms. The council elects the mayor and vice-mayor for a term of one year. The city does not have its own charter. Instead, it is a General Law city, which follows provisions and requirements for cities established by the state of California.

Cupertino contracts with the Santa Clara County Sheriff’s Office and the Santa Clara County Fire Department for public safety services. The Cupertino Library is part of the Santa Clara County Library System.

The city’s symbol is a conquistador’s morion. A sculpture of this helmet stands next to Cupertino City Hall, and several versions of the helmet have also been used as the city logo. The original sculpture was made in 1971 by John Augsburger of San Luis Obispo. A full-sized replica of the sculpture, made by Fred Subega was given to the city of Toyokawa, Japan as a gift to commemorate their tenth anniversary as sister cities. A smaller sculpture in the shape of the helmet in the 19992007 Cupertino city seal was also given to the city of Toyokawa as a twenty-fifth anniversary present.

In the California State Legislature, Cupertino is in the 15th Senate District, represented by Democrat Jim Beall, and in the 28th Assembly District, represented by Democrat Evan Low.[31]

In the United States House of Representatives, Cupertino is in California’s 17th congressional district, represented by Democrat Mike Honda.[32]

The city is served by an interconnected road system. Two freeways, State Route 85 and Interstate 280, intersect in Cupertino, with multi-lane boulevards with landscaped medians and traffic lights at all major intersections. Streets nearly all have sidewalks, the few exceptions are in unincorporated pockets at the city’s edges, which are maintained directly by Santa Clara County.

Cupertino has bike lanes on many of its boulevards. Bicycle traffic is heavy usually around morning and noon times around DeAnza College. The VTA has buses running through Cupertino at major arteries. Cupertino’s main streets are well lit, while a few older roads towards the Monta Vista High School area are a little dim.

Dedicated on April 30, 2009, Cupertino opened the Mary Avenue Bicycle Footbridge, the first cable-stay bicycle pedestrian bridge over a California freeway. This bridge connects the north and the south sections of the Stevens Creek Trail. The cost of the bridge project was $14,800,000.[33]

The Union Pacific Railroad operates a branch line track up to the Lehigh Permanente Cement Plant from the mainline at San Jose Diridon Station. It is however strictly for the quarry and very little to no non-quarry traffic runs there.

There is no commuter rail or light rail service in the city. Caltrain commuter rail runs through the cities to the north and east, and the Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA)’s Mountain View Winchester light rail line runs to Campbell, California to the south. Bus service is also provided by VTA, and the prospect of twenty-four hour bus service on Stevens Creek Boulevard is being studied. Though this corridor (line 23) is one of VTA’s most heavily used routes, there is no express service that takes commuters into San Jose, and the quality of service is therefore considered to be relatively poor. VTA recently added a limited bus service to De Anza College from Downtown San Jose via Steven Creeks Blvd.

Cupertino is landlocked and, like most Bay Area cities, relies on the Port of Oakland for most oceangoing freight.

Passenger and cargo air transportation is available at San Jose International Airport in San Jose. The closest general aviation airport is in Palo Alto; it is known as Palo Alto Airport of Santa Clara County.

Cupertino is known for its high achieving primary and secondary schools. For example, Murdock-Portal Elementary and Faria Elementary School are tied for highest score for elementary public school in the state of California, per California 2011 API test scores. As of 2013, John F. Kennedy Middle School is the best school in the state. Lawson Middle School is the third best in the state. Furthermore, Monta Vista High School is ranked number 23 out of all the public schools in the nation.

Primary (K-8) public schools are organized into the Cupertino Union School District, while the Fremont Union High School District is responsible for high school students. Cupertino High School and its feeder school, Hyde Middle School, are located in the Rancho Rinconada section of Cupertino, while Monta Vista High School and its feeder, Kennedy Middle School, are in the Monta Vista neighborhood in the western half of Cupertino. There is also a new school called Lawson Middle School that feeds mostly Cupertino and Monta Vista High. In addition, Homestead High School is located in the northwestern portion of Cupertino, along the city border with neighboring Sunnyvale. The school system covers Cupertino plus some southern areas of Sunnyvale and Los Altos and some western areas of San Jose. Monta Vista, Lynbrook, and Cupertino High School are all noted for being some of the highest achieving public schools in the nation with many students attending Ivy League and other top institutions.

Cupertino is home to De Anza College, one of the two community colleges in the FoothillDe Anza Community College District. The University of San Francisco has satellite campuses in Cupertino.

Santa Clara County Library operates the Cupertino Library, which is located adjacent to city hall.[34] The library, which was redesigned and rebuilt in 2004,[35] is the busiest branch in the Santa Clara County Library system, with about 3 million items circulated annually.[36]

The San Francisco Japanese School, a weekend educational program for Japanese citizen children living abroad, holds classes at J.F. Kennedy Middle School in Cupertino.[37]

Vallco Shopping Mall (formerly Cupertino Square and Vallco Fashion Park), at the center of Cupertino, includes department stores (including JCPenney, and Sears), an ice center, bowling, and an AMC theater complex. It hosts a farmer’s market on Fridays.

Hollyhill Hummingbird Farm educates the community on growing fruit and vegetables, and raising chickens, in an organic and sustainable manner.

The scenic Deep Cliff and Blackberry Farm golf courses are located near Monta Vista High School.

The De Anza College has a large enclosed theater called the Flint Center which is the primary venue for performing arts in the West Valley that is widely used as a music hall by orchestras, such as the California Youth Symphony and the San Francisco Symphony, as well as numerous professional performers and groups. The center was also home to the unveiling of several landmark Apple Computer products, such as the Macintosh computer and the iMac.[38]

The Fujitsu Planetarium at De Anza College is the largest school Planetarium west of the Rocky Mountains and since its renovation, is one of the most modern in the world.[39]

Rancho San Antonio is a popular recreational area for hikers and biking activity. Rancho San Antonio is located between the Monta Vista area of Cupertino and the border of Los Altos.

The Cupertino Historical Society has a museum at the Cupertino Community Center, located next to Memorial Park, which houses the Cupertino Veterans Memorial as well as an amphitheater that hosts events such as summer movies and Free Shakespeare in the Park.

Cupertino is twinned with:[40]

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Swimming Beaches in Illinois | USA Today

 Beaches  Comments Off on Swimming Beaches in Illinois | USA Today
Jan 242016
 

See city views while swimming at a Chicago beach. (Photo: Thinkstock Images/Comstock/Getty Images )

Whether your travels take you to the city of Chicago or beyond, spend a warm summer day swimming at one of several destinations across Illinois. From the city beaches on the shores of Lake Michigan located within walking distance of many urban amenities to the 600-foot beach on Lake Le-Aqua-Na in rural northwest Illinois, swimming enthusiasts have many choices of places to make a splash.

In the city of Chicago (chicagoparkdistrict.com), swim for free at one of several beaches located along 26 miles of lakefront shoreline. With lifeguards on duty during the summer season, swimming is permitted in 15 designated areas. Parking is limited or requires a fee at most beaches, so city officials advise using public transportation whenever possible. North of the city, visit Leone Beach near Evanston or Montrose Beach near Chicago Lakeshore Hospital. Swim near the heart of downtown Chicago at North Beach at Lincoln Park or 12th Street Beach near Soldier Field. Other city swimming beaches include Fargo; Foster; Calumet; Howard Street; Jarvis Avenue; Oak Street; Rainbow; and South Shore Beach. Dogs are permitted at four beaches within the Chicago Park District.

With 39,600 feet of beach access, Illinois Beach State Park (dnr.state.il.us) has the longest public swimming area of any state park. The 4,160-acre park located on the shores of Lake Michigan has picnic areas for spreading out a meal after a day in the water and nearby hiking trails extending up to five miles. Lifeguards are not present at the park’s beaches, but parking is plentiful for visitors planning to spend the day swimming. Overnight camping at 241 sites is open to visitors of Illinois Beach State Park, and a resort also offers overnight accommodations for swimmers planning a multiday stay.

Travel to Lake Le-Aqua-Na State Park (dnr.state.il.us) to swim on a 600-foot beach on the shores of the 40-acre lake in northwest Illinois. Olson Lake Beach is open to visitors to 3,092-acre Rock Cut State Park, with the 50-acre Olson Lake ideally suited for swimming. In central Illinois, head to 9,300-acre Clinton Lake State Recreation Area to spend the day swimming on a 1,000-foot white sandy beach bordering the lake. A designated swimming area is also open to visitors at 1,687-acre Moraine View State Recreation Area at the Black Locust picnic area on Dawson Lake. In southern Illinois, visit 1,302-acre Sam Dale Lake State Fish and Wildlife Area to swim on a large beach on the west side of the lake.

Swim at one of four public beaches on 11,100-acre Lake Shelbyville (lakeshelbyville.com) in central Illinois for a nominal daily fee. The Dam West Recreation Area, Sullivan Beach and Wilborn Creek Recreation Area all provide public swimming access to the lake, which is managed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (mvs.usace.army.mil/shelbyville). Wolf Creek State Park (dnr.state.il.us) also provides swimming access on the northeastern shores of the lake and has picnic tables and barbecues located nearby. An outdoor aquatic center is also open during the summer months in Forest Park near the lake’s southwestern shores.

Michelle Hornaday lives in Edmonds, Washington and holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in English from Washington State University and a Master of Education from Northern Arizona University. She is currently a freelance writer for various websites.

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Transhuman Singularity – webmac.com

 Transhuman  Comments Off on Transhuman Singularity – webmac.com
Jan 242016
 

A list of links to my science fiction short stories:

I am a Hummingbird After my body died the surgeons put me in a hummingbird. It took a while to get use to having my perspective darting around so quickly, but my mind had finally adapted to it.

Sneeze! A few days Mr. Anderson. Don’t worry, it’s a positive virus, I’m origin zero. Then you’ll be one of us, welcome to the new global hivemind, we-I always choose well. It will be unlike anything you have ever experienced or imagined. Expect a mental call, anything will be possible, said Kay, a future echo … Kay Noble replied, then collected the documents, velvet and all, and left the room without a further word.

Muffy the Time Traveling Chihuahua Muffy was a loyal pack dog on the locally collapsed time-day of his death, which varied in fractal quantum probability across a multitude of bifurcated futures or space-time universes.

Lunch 2032 Her IQ was probably skyrocket norm. It seems the gene engineers had given her both great brains and beauty. She wanted to be a Terraforming Research Scientist, but on Earth she would have to settle for other work. Her parents had lost most of their money in a wild Marsearth start-up investment, so she had to work her way through the university, no one would give a genmod scholarship. It was just plain and simple prejudice.

Virtuality Zane Pax hid behind a large bolder as the black alien warship flew overhead. NaHan had swarmed the cities of the world laying waste to human civilization. Humanity was on the endangered species list, on our way out for good.

The Alien Time-Traveler Historian Mathew answers, Variations of me exist in most all future branches. Thats really rare, and thats why Im allowed to speak to you. To help you understand. You see, those that are still basically human in the future have great compassion. They want to help reduce the suffering. Im here on their behalf to try and influence things.

The Galactic Culture Finally, in order to survive the approaching technological singularity and remove their aggressive and self-destructive evolved behaviors, pre-type 1 species sometimes begin an extensive program of self-initiated genetic re-engineering and intelligence amplification (usually proceeded by development of a global computing system -Internet). Sometimes this is successful, other times not.

Lunar CityOutward space exploration and expansion grew at a rapid pace, due to the privatization of all space exploration and its subsequent exploitation. Corporations headed by forward thinking executives now controlled access to space. Spaceports have sprouted up all over the world, giving average citizens access to affordable space travel. Now space stations, moon bases and asteroid factories, which provided most of the raw materials, have become independent space communities. Distant science outposts have been constructed on the outer planets and moons. The solar system has become the playground of humanity.

VR Prototype Jason Chen bent over in his subway seat to pick up a rarely seen plastic penny he spotted face-up on the train floor. A penny existed today only to make exact change for those who still stubbornly used physical money. He didnt understand why, but somehow its continued existence was comforting for some. Angling the lucky coin in his fingers to see the three-dimensional head of Abraham Lincoln, he noted the year on the coin was 2053, the year of his birth.

Dr. Xanoplatu Dr. Xanoplatu, an alien anthropologist, historian, and time traveler, materialized on stage wearing the body of his ancestors, a giant green Praying Mantis with large yellow eyes and small black pupils. He was speaking at a galactic cultural lecture, inside a de-localized spherical space station, somewhere and some when in a multi-versed space-time reality.

Virtuality Mind Marcus replies, Yes, you can assume Im crazy. But, Im just communicating to you through this mans body. For a short period of time, I can do this, without his knowing it. When I leave and his consciousness re-awakens, this memory will seem like a daydream to him.

Resurrection Birth Jason awoke to a static humming sound.It was so annoying, grating on his nerves more than a badly tuned alarm clock.He lifted his heavy eyelids to blinding light, and out of focus images.His vision slowly cleared and he realized he was inside a plastic coffin thing.

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Natasha Vita-More | Transhuman Art

 Transhuman  Comments Off on Natasha Vita-More | Transhuman Art
Jan 182016
 

Natashas research concerns the aesthetics of human enhancement and radical life extension, with a focus on sciences and technologies of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive and neuro sciences (NBIC). Her conceptual future human design Primo Posthuman has been featured in Wired, Harpers Bazaar, Marie Claire, The New York Times, U.S. News & World Report, Net Business, Teleopolis, and Village Voice. She has appeared in over twenty-four televised documentaries on the future and culture, and has exhibited media artworks at National Centre for Contemporary Arts, Brooks Memorial Museum, Institute of Contemporary Art, Women In Video, Telluride Film Festival, and United States Film Festival and recently Evolution Haute Couture: Art and Science in the Post-Biological Age. Natasha has been the recipient of several awards: First Place Award at Brooks Memorial Museum, Special Recognition at Women in Video, and Best Graduate Student Project of 2005 for her Futures Podcast Series: at the University of Houston, Future Studies program.

Natasha is a proponent human rights and ethical means for human enhancement, and is published in Artifact, Technoetic Arts, Nanotechnology Perceptions, Annual Workshop on Geoethical Nanotechnology, Death And Anti- Death. She has a bi-monthly column in Nanotechnology Now, is a Guest Editor of The Global Spiral academic journal and on the Editorial Board of International Journal of Green Nanotechnology. Natasha authored Create / Recreate: the 3rd Millennial Culture on the emerging cybernetic culture and the future of humanism and the arts and sciences. She co-authored One on One Fitness, a guide to nutrition and aerobic and anaerobic exercise for women. Her new book The Transhumanist Reader: Classical and Contemporary Look at Philosophy and Technology is scheduled for publishing in 2012 through Wiley-Blackwell.

Natasha is Chair of Humanity+, international non-profit 501c3 organization and was the former president of Extropy Institute, networking organization Natasha continues to work with academic institutions, non-profit organizations and business about human futures. She is a track advisor at the Singularity University, on the Scientific Board of Lifeboat Foundation, a Fellow of the Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies, Visiting Scholar at 21st Century Medicine, and advises non-profit organizations including Adaptive A.I. and Alcor Life Extension Foundation. She has been a consultant to IBM on the future of human performance.

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Beaches in Baltimore, Maryland | USA Today

 Beaches  Comments Off on Beaches in Baltimore, Maryland | USA Today
Jan 142016
 

Baltimore features county-run beaches and parks. (Photo: Comstock/Comstock/Getty Images )

The beaches in Baltimore County, Maryland offer daily rates for seniors, children and adults. The rates vary on the weekends and by time of day. Season passes are available, as well as group discounts and deals. Groups with children must have one adult per seven children. The beaches offer rental spaces for large groups and feature lifeguards for swimmers. Baltimore County has three state beaches, while nearby Calvert County also attracts visitors with its beach.

The Rocky Point Beach and Park (baltimorecountymd.gov) features 375 acres of waterfront land. The Baltimore County Department of Recreation and Parks founded the park in 1969. The park offers picnic areas, which visitors may reserve for private parties. Additional amenities include a large pavilion, a fishing pier and boating ramps. Visitors may swim between Memorial Day and Labor Day.

According to the “Baltimore City Paper”, the Oregon Ridge Beach (baltimorecountymd.gov) is the best place to swim in the Baltimore area. Located in the city of Cockeysville, slightly less than 25 minutes from Baltimore city, Oregon Ridge Beach has two areas that visitors may rent: a pavilion that can hold 60 guests, complete with a picnic area and two grills, and another area that holds between 100 and 250 people. The park prohibits pets and alcohol, but permits swimming between Memorial Day and Labor Day. The beach opens from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. and until 7 p.m. on weekdays.

The Miami Beach Park (baltimorecountymd.gov) features 400 feet of beach in the 60-acre area. Located in the city of Middle River, the park provides a bathhouse, grills and a pavilion. Guests may rent the pavilion; rental fees also include admission of up to 100 guests. Non-profit organizations receive a nominal discount on the rental charge. The park also features a nature trail and a playground. The park also has fishing opportunities.

Nearby Calvert County features the Breezy Point Beach and Campground (co.cal.md.us), located in the western portion of Chesapeake Bay. Breezy Point Beach offers half a mile of beach. Activities include swimming, volleyball and boating, with two boat ramps available. Those who like to fish can use the fishing pier, and picnic areas are available. Guests enjoy the daily camping opportunities, and a bath house offers added convenience. The beach’s convenience store offers fishing supplies. Pets are not allowed on the beach.

A resident of Riverside, California, Timothy Peckinpaugh began writing in 2006 for U.S. History Publishers, based in Temecula, California. He graduated magna cum laude from the University of California, Riverside, with a bachelor’s degree in English.

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National Capital Astronomers, Washington, D.C. Metro Area

 Astronomy  Comments Off on National Capital Astronomers, Washington, D.C. Metro Area
Jan 142016
 

HOME | Telescope Making Workshops | Exploring the Sky | Contact Info | Star Dust Archive | Links

Serving science and society since 1937. The National Capital Astronomers (NCA) is a non-profit, membership supported, volunteer run, public service corporation dedicated to advancing space technology, astronomy, and related sciences through information, participation, and inspiration, via research, lectures and presentations, publications, expeditions, tours, public interpretation, and education. NCA is the astronomy affiliate of the Washington Academy of Sciences. We are also members of the Astronomical League, in fact NCA members helped form the Astronomical League a long time ago.

NCA has for many years published a monthly newsletter called Star Dust that is available for members. Besides announcement of coming NCA meetings and a calendar of monthly events Star Dust contains reviews of past meeting and articles on current astronomical events.

NCA is a very unusual astronomy organization. All are welcome to join. Everyone who looks up to the sky with wonder is an astronomer and welcomed by NCA. You do not have to own a telescope, but if you do own one that is fine, too. You do not have to be deeply knowledgeable in astronomy , but if you are knowledgeable in astronomy that is fine, too. You do not have to have a degree, but if you do that is fine, too. WE ARE THE MOST DIVERSE local ASTRONOMY CLUB anywhere. Come to our meetings and you will find this out. WE REALLY MEAN THIS!

NCA has regular monthly meetings September through June on the second Saturday of the month.

Public transportation: Directions/maps to the UMD Observatory Inclement weather: In case of severe weather (tornado/snow/impassable roads), a notice will be placed on the Observatory Website on the day of the meeting. (Be sure to refresh/reload the page to make sure you are seeing an updated page.)

Most meetings will be held at the University of Maryland Astronomical Observatory in College Park, Maryland.

7:30 pm at the University of Maryland Observatory on Metzerott Road.

Speaker: Dean Howarth and Jennifer Horowitz

Abstract: William Herschel moved from Hanover, Germany to Bath, England, to work as a musician and composer. He was quite successful there, and he pursuaded his sister Caroline to join him in Bath, both as a companion and to join in his musical endeavors. William became an avid amateur astronomer in his spare time. Caroline participated, too, and eventually became an enthusiastic and very skilled observer, participating in William’s important discoveries, and then making many of her own. Discovery of Uranus, ending the fruitless attempts by Kepler and others to associate the five previously known planets with the five regular polyhedra.

William was the first to map out the uneven distribution of stars on the celestial sphere. The individual stars that we can see by eye through a telescope are all in our local neighborhood of the Galaxy, so this was the first rough map of the Galaxy, long before we knew that the Milky Way is only one island galaxy, and not the whole Universe.

The talk this evening will share some of the Herschels’ stories regarding the discovery of Uranus and comets. But the talk will also point out … and to speak on the importance of cooperation between like-minded men and women of science. How the primacy of discovery is balanced with peer review and even critique…and scientific societies (like the Royal Society, or even the NCA!) promote a community of discovery. This cosmopolitan ethos was peaking in the 18th century as scientists from across the globe were “citizens of the cosmos”.

Bio: Dean Howarth is a veteran physics teacher from northern Virginia. He has created a unique living history program for his students, showing vividly how our understanding of the world has developed. He has extended this activity into a community service, with performances at museums and historic sites. As the Natural Philosopher, Dean recreates episodes in the history of science. His web site is http://www.livinghistoriesofscience.com .

Using a large repertoire of replica scientific devices, specimens, and demonstrations, his living history lessons have been performed at a number of regional museums, schools, historical sites, and festivals. Besides showing the roots of our present understanding, these performances also show how the public first heard about new discoveries.

Mr. Howarth will be joined by one of his former students, Jennifer Horowitz, who is currently pursuing her undergraduate degree from the College of William & Mary. As a student re-enactor, she has performed at Mount Vernon, the Smithsonian Castle, the USA Sci & Engineering Festival, and the Arlington Planetarium.

Weather-permitting, there will be observing through the telescopes after the meeting for members and guests.

Telescope-making and mirror-making classes with Guy Brandenburg at the Chevy Chase Community Center, at the intersection of McKinley Street and Connecticut Avenue, NW, a few blocks inside the DC boundary, on the northeast corner of the intersection, in the basement (wood shop), on Fridays, from 6:30 to 9:30 PM. For information visit Guy’s Website To contact Guy, use this phone #: 202-262-4274 orEmail Guy.

Exploring the Sky is an informal program that for over sixty years has offered monthly opportunities for anyone in the Washington area to see the stars and planets through telescopes from a location within the District of Columbia. Sessions are held in Rock Creek Park once each month on a Saturday night from April through November, starting shortly after sunset. We meet in the field just south of the intersection of Military and Glover Roads NW, near the Nature Center. A parking lot is located next to the field. Beginners (including children) and experienced stargazers are all welcome-and it’s free! Questions? Call the Nature center at (202) 895-6070 or check: Exploring the Sky @ Rock Creek. Download the flier!

NCA constitution and by-laws current as of August 28, 2005 they need some changes so we can continue to be a healthy organization. NCA constitution and by-laws revision as of October 25, 2005 proposal.

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National Capital Astronomers, Washington, D.C. Metro Area

About Us | Regenerative Medicine | The UGA Veterinary …

 Regenerative Medicine  Comments Off on About Us | Regenerative Medicine | The UGA Veterinary …
Jan 132016
 

The Regenerative Medicine Service laboratory at UGA provides regenerative cures for horses, companion animals (cats and dogs) and exotics that are aimed at restoring structure and function to tissues, organs and body systems that have been damaged by injury or disease.

Our trained laboratory personnel provide regenerative products tailored to suit the specific injury or disease of the animal. Our services are available to referring veterinarians and UGA hospital clients.

Our products are divided into two basic categories:

Blood-derived products offered by the UGA Regenerative Medicine Service include:

These products are made from a sample of the patients blood immediately following collection of the blood from the patient.

PRP is ready for use within a few hours, and CS is ready to be used in 24 hours. These treatments are advantageous because they can be made available for treatment relatively quickly. In addition, they are derived from the patients own blood (i.e., autologous) eliminating the risk of an inflammatory reaction response.

PRP and CS are commonly used to treat soft tissue injuries (cartilage, tendon, ligament), arthritis and joint pain.

Tissue-derived products offered by the UGA Regenerative Medicine Service include:

Adult Mesenchymal Stem cells (MSCs) are fascinating and very promising cells that are obtained from a variety of sources such as fat, bone marrow and neonatal tissues, such as cord blood and cord tissue. They are NOT embryonic cells. Cell-rich therapeutics are offered to our clients either as autologous (from the patient) or allogeneic (derived from a donor). Autologous cells require 2 to 4 weeks to grow in sufficient numbers to be used as therapy and to be stored for potential future use. Donor cells are advantageous because they are available in 3 to 5 days.

Bone Marrow concentrate (BMC) is prepared immediately following the collection via aspiration of bone marrow and involves concentrating the cells and then injecting them into the patient so the treatment can be provided the same day as collection.

Both MSCs and BMC are used to treat soft tissue injuries (cartilage, tendon, ligament), arthritis and joint pain. These therapeutics can be effectively combined with the blood-derived products.

If you are interested in using any of the RM treatments outlined above for your patients or your pets, please contact the University of Georgia Veterinary Teaching Hospital to schedule an appointment with our service. Please visit our related links for more information about how regenerative therapies can help animals and humans.

To make an appointment with the small animal side of this service, a referral from your veterinarian is required. For all large animal cases, a referral is preferred, but not required. Learn more about our appointment process

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History of Genetics – Eugenics

 Eugenics  Comments Off on History of Genetics – Eugenics
Jan 112016
 

History of Genetics

EUGENICS

Eugenics Archive http://www.eugenicsarchive.org This site is an Image Archive on the American Eugenics Movement sponsored by the Dolan DNA Learning Center at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. With contributions from eleven different archives, this site offers hundreds of sources on various aspects of the eugenics movement in the United States during the twentieth century. The site is organized by virtual exhibits ranging from Social Origins to Immigration Restriction. Within each exhibit, explanatory text is presented with thumbnail images of primary source documents. The entire collection is also searchable by keyword or object identification number. The 2,500 objects can also be browsed by topic, type, or time period. Without question this is the best site on the history of American eugenics available today.

State Eugenics Sites Recent scholarship on the eugenics movement in the United States have revealed the details of eugenic enactments in different states. Recent efforts to seek reparations for eugenic sterilization are documented at North Carolinas Eugenic Past (http://www.inclusiondaily.com/news/institutions/nc/eugenics.htm), a site sponsored by the International Disability Rights News Service. Eugenic in Indiana (http://kobescent.com/eugenics/) presents a history of eugenics in Indiana in a series of webpages that include biographies, a timeline, bibliography, and text of the 1907 Indiana Sterilization statute. The most extensive collection of documents on a state eugenics program is offered by Vermont. The Vermont Eugenics: A Documentary History Collection (http://cit.uvm.edu:6336/dynaweb/eugenics/@Generic__CollectionView;cs=default;ts=default;pt=eugenics) presents a set of primary sources from the 1890s to the 1990s. Many of these documents concern Vermonts sterilization program, but this site also includes letters to national eugenics leaders, such as Charles Davenport. Because the Vermont Country Life Commission played a significant role in the Vermont eugenics movement in the 1930s, this site contains a large number of documents concerning the efforts of the Country Life Commission.

History of Eugenics Bibliography http://www.healthsystem.virginia.edu/internet/bio-ethics/bibliographylombardo.cfm This site offers an extensive bibliography of both primary and secondary sources on the history of eugenics. Assembled by Paul A. Lombardo and Gregory M. Dorr, the bibliography is preceeded by a short bibliographic essay.

RaceSci http://www.racesci.org/ This site is dedicated to the history of race in science, medicine, and technology. History of the Concept of “Race” in Science. This very rich site has interpretive and historical essays, syllabi, bibliographies, and links. Of special interest are its bibliography of genetics (http://www.racesci.org/bibliographies/current_scholarship/genetics_new.htm) and its bibliography of eugenics (http://www.racesci.org/bibliographies/current_scholarship/eugenicsnew.htm), which can be searched by time period or nation.

Institute for the Study of Academic Racism (ISAR) http://www.ferris.edu/ISAR/homepage.htm Created by Dr. Barry Mehler at Ferris State University, the ISAR website contains articles and bibliographies that offer a critical perspective on academic racism, biological determinism, and eugenics. This site offers a number of valuable document collections and profiles of individuals and institutions.

H-Eugenics

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History of Genetics – Eugenics

History | About | Astronomy, University of Illinois

 Astronomy  Comments Off on History | About | Astronomy, University of Illinois
Jan 042016
 

The Early Years

Astronomy was first taught at the Illinois Industrial University (the original name of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) in 1868, during the school’s first year. The class, Descriptive Astronomy, was taught by Professor S. Shattuck of the Mathematics Department. By 1872, the University’s first observatory had been built, which the Catalogue and Circular boasted was in constant use during favorable weather conditions.

In 1895, the University of Illinois was awarded $15,000 by the Illinois State Legislature for the construction of a students’ astronomical observatory. The site chosen was a grass knoll between Matthews Avenue and Burrill Avenue (now the broadwalk down the west side of the Quad), just north of the 1876 Morrow Plots. Construction begins in April 1896 and is completed by August at a cost of $6,800. The 12-inch Brashear Telescope arrived in November (the telescope, dome, and other astronomical equipment for the Observatory cost $7,250 – more than the building itself!), and observations began immediately. Less than a year later, Director G.W. Myers announces the discovery of the cause of the star Beta Lyrae’s variability.

Dr. Joel Stebbins arrived from Lick Observatory in 1903 and took over as the Observatory Director. Arguably his most important work over the next two decades was the development of the photoelectric photometer. Before Stebbins’ breakthrough photometer, brightness measurements for stars were made by comparing the relative brightnesses of stars, either visually or via photographic plate images. By using electricity to empirically measure the brightnesses of stars, Dr. Stebbins revolutionized how astronomers gather data.

In 1914, a 30-inch reflecting telescope was built and placed in an annex observatory just southeast of the Observatory (since torn down).

In August 1921, the Board of Trustees authorized that the Division of Astronomy in the Department of Mathematics be organized as a separate Department of Astronomy. The following year, Charles Wylie earned the first University of Illinois PhD in Astronomy (the next Astronomy PhD would not be award until 1962, 40 years later!). 1922 also marked the departure of Joel Stebbins from Illinois, and Dr. Robert H. Baker took over as the new Director of the University of Illinois Observatory.

In 1925, the 30-inch telescope was rebuilt and moved to a new location on Florida Avenue (also since torn down). The “mirror blank” (i.e., slab of glass to which reflective metal would be applied) for the rebuilt telescope now resides in the lobby of the Astronomy Building.

In 1933, light from star Acturus falling on a photocell in the Observatory’s annex activated an electric signal that turned on the lights at the Chicago Worlds Fair.

In 1951, Dr. Baker retired as Director of the Observatory. On the advice of noted Harvard astronomer Harlow Shapley, the Dean of the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Henning Larsen, recruited English astronomer George C. McVittie as the new department head. Professor McVittie oversaw the establishment of a radio astronomy research program at Illinois.

On October 4th, 1957, the Soviet Union launched Sputnik I, the first man-made earth satellite. The U of I Astronomy Department, then consisting of four professors (McVittie, Wyatt, King and Swenson) was quick off the mark in exploiting that research opportunity. On that first night an improvised radio interferometer was built in the space between the Morrow Plots and the Observatory, with receiving and recording equipment in the basement. Within two days an ephemeris was communicated to the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the Naval Research Laboratory, and on November 9 a precise ephemeris was published in Nature. This paper was the first observational publication of the U of I Observatory in the “modern” era, and was the basis of NASA’s definitive orbit (by Robert Jastrow) for Sputnik I (Read more: At the Dawn of the Space Age).

This activity continued with subsequent Soviet and US satellites, generating a new program in ionosphere research which continues to today (in the ECE Department). It also attracted the first federally funded research program of the “new” Astronomy Department, possibly in the department’s entire history, and established the creditability which made possible the funding for the radio astronomy program and the Vermilion River Observatory.

In 1967, 12-inch Brashear telescope in the Campus Observatory is used for the last time for professional photometric observations to observe RZ Cassopeia.

In 1968, Prairie Observatory, near Oakland Illinois, was opened, with a 40-inch reflecting telescope. Prairie Observatory operated until 1981 when its telescope was moved to Mount Laguna Observatory in California.

By the time Prof. McVittie retired in 1971, the previously one-astronomer department had expanded to nine faculty. And, while the department had only produced five advanced degrees prior to 1951, the department awarded 29 Masters and 14 PhDs during the McVittie administration.

In 1972, the University named PhD alumnus Icko Iben, Jr. as head of the department. Prof. Iben oversaw the continued growth of the department. In 1979, having expanded to 15 astronomers and outgrown the Observatory (with two additions), the Astronomy Department moved out of the Observatory to a new larger building on Springfield Avenue.

In 1986, Illinois entered into a consortium with University of California-Berkeley and the University of Maryland called BIMA (Berkely Illinois Maryland Association) to operate an array of radio telescopes at Hat Creek Observatory in California. In November of that year, the Observatory was listed on the National Register of Historic Places, and over 5000 people visited the Observatory to see Comet Halley.

In 1989, the Observatory was declared a National Historic Landmark by the U.S. Department of the Interior. Robert Stebbins, the son of the Joel Stebbins attended the dedication ceremony which coincided with the opening of the Astronomy Building on Green Street, the current home of the Astronomy Department.

In 2004, BIMA merged its radio telescope array with Caltech’s the Owens Valley Radio Observatory Millimeter Array to form the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA). The merger moved both radio telescope arrays to the current Cedar Flat location. The construction and commissioning took roughly three years. The array began routine science operations in January 2007.

Today, research activity in the Department of Astronomy includes observational and theoretical investigations of a wide array of astronomical objects and phenomena.

Many thanks to Mike Svec for compiling the history of the Department of Astronomy and the Campus Observatory.

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History | About | Astronomy, University of Illinois

University of Illinois Repeals the First Amendment for Its …

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Dec 182015
 

Late Friday afternoon (August 22), the University of Illinois broke its three-week long silence on the controversy regarding the Chancellor’s revocation of a tenured offer to Steven Salaita, who had accepted a faculty position in the American Indian Studies Program at the flagship campus at Urbana-Champaign. Chancellor Phyllis Wise and Board of Trustees Chairman Christopher Kennedy both issued statements explaining the revocation, but in terms far more alarming than the original decision itself. It is not an exaggeration to say that the Chancellor and the Board of Trustees have now declared that the First Amendment does not apply to any tenured faculty at the University of Illinois.

A bit of background to Friday’s bombshell statements. Last October, Professor Salaita, then teaching at Virginia Tech, accepted a tenured offer from the Urbana-Champaign campus. He went through the regular appointments process at the University of Illinois, and received approval by the relevant departments and deans after a review of his scholarship and teaching. The offer, which he accepted, was conditional on approval by the Board of Trustees. Such approval clauses are typical in all teaching contracts and had, previously, been pro forma at Illinois, as they are at all serious universities: it is not the job of the Board of Trustees of a research institution to second-guess the judgment of academics and scholars. Well before the Board took the matter up, even University officials were describing Salaita as a faculty member, and he moved to Illinois and was scheduled to teach two classes this fall.

Salaita also has a Twitter account. “Tweets” are limited to 140 characters, so the medium is conducive primarily to spontaneous and superficial commentary. As a Palestinian-American and scholar of colonialism, Salaita tweeted extensively about the Israeli attack on Gaza. Contrary to the initial misrepresentations put into circulation by far right websites, none of the tweets were either anti-semitic or incitements to violence. Some were vulgar, some juvenile, some insulting, some banal. The First Amendment unequivocally protects Salaita’s right to express every one of those opinions on a matter of public concern, and to do so, if he wants, with vulgarity and insults. As a matter of American constitutional law, this is not a close case.

Part of the First Amendment’s protection of such speech is that government, including a state university, is prohibited from punishing the speaker for his expression or viewpoint. Revoking a job offer because of such speech would, again, be clearly unconstitutional. Salaita’s constitutional and contractual claims will no doubt be adjudicated in court, and the University should lose.

That now brings us to Friday’s shocking statements. Chancellor Wise declared that “we cannot… tolerate… personal and disrespectful words or actions that demean and abuse either viewpoints themselves or those who express them.” Yet as a matter of well-settled American constitutional law, the University of Illinois must tolerate “words… that demean and abuse either viewpoints themselves or those who express them.” The University has no choice, both as a matter of constitutional law and as a matter of its contractual commitment with its faculty to academic freedom. Scathing critiques of both viewpoints and authors abound in almost all scholarly fields; it would be the end of serious scholarly inquiry and debate were administrators to become the arbiters of “good manners.” More simply, it would be illegal for the University to start punishing its faculty for failure to live up to the Chancellor’s expectations for “civil” speech and disagreement.

The university, of course, need not and should not tolerate the mistreatment of students in the classroom, but there is no evidence of any such pedagogical misconduct in this case; indeed, the public evidence is that Salaita is a successful and popular teacher. No serious university evaluates pedagogical fitness based on speculative inferences from twitter accounts, yet the Chancellor’s statement implies that this is what Illinois has done in this instance. Faculty have pedagogical and professional obligations to their students, but that does not include the obligation to refrain from expressing views, whether about matters of public concern or matters within the purview of a faculty member’s scholarship, that some student somewhere might find upsetting, leading that student to conclude that that faculty member might not “value[] that student as a human being.” A student’s entitlement is to be treated seriously and professionally in the classroom; students have no entitlement to never find the views of their professors offensive or upsetting.

Chairman Kennedy’s statement is even worse than the Chancellor’s. While endorsing the Chancellor’s abrogation of the constitutional and contractual rights of the faculty, he goes even further, declaring that “there can be no place” for “disrespectful and demeaning speech” “in our democracy, and therefore, there will be no place for it in our university.” We may certainly hope for more civility in public life, but “disrespectful and demeaning speech” not only has an extensive presence in our democracy (as everyone knows), it has a constitutionally protected place as well, as the United States Supreme Court has repeatedly affirmed. Yet Chairman Kennedy says he believes only in “free speech tempered in respect for human rights.” But there is no doctrine of “free speech tempered in respect for human rights” in American constitutional law. It is a national embarrassment that a public official, the Chairman of the University of Illinois’s Board of Trustees, apparently does not know even the basic facts about the American constitutional system.

At moments like this, one wonders: Where are the lawyers? Chancellor Wise and Chairman Kennedy have made statements that commit the University of Illinois to illegal because unconstitutional courses of action. They should resign, or be removed from office, before doing further damage to one of the nation’s great research universities. Their public statements make clear they are unfit to lead academic institutions in which both freedom of speech and freedom of research and inquiry are upheld.

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University of Illinois Repeals the First Amendment for Its …

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Regenerative Medicine Conferences | Europe | Worldwide …

 Regenerative Medicine  Comments Off on Regenerative Medicine Conferences | Europe | Worldwide …
Dec 172015
 

The 5th International Conference on Tissue Science & Regenerative Medicine which is going to be held during September 12-14, 2016 at Berlin, Germany will bring together world-class personalities working on stem cells, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine to discuss materials-related strategies for disease remediation and tissue repair.

Tissue Regeneration

In the field of biology, regeneration is the progression of renewal, regeneration and growth that makes it possible for genomes, cells, organ regeneration to natural changes or events that cause damage or disturbance.This study is carried out as craniofacial tissue engineering, in-situ tissue regeneration, adipose-derived stem cells for regenerative medicine which is also a breakthrough in cell culture technology. The study is not stopped with the regeneration of tissue where it is further carried out in relation with cell signaling, morphogenetic proteins. Most of the neurological disorders occurred accidental having a scope of recovery by replacement or repair of intervertebral discs repair, spinal fusion and many more advancements. The global market for tissue engineering and regeneration products such as scaffolds, tissue implants, biomimetic materials reached $55.9 billion in 2010 and it is expected to reach $89.7 billion by 2016 at a compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 8.4%. It grows to $135 billion by 2024.

Related Conferences

International Conference on Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy July 28-30, 2016 Melbourne, Australia; International Conference on Molecular Biology October 13-15, 2016 Dubai, UAE; 5th International Conference on Tissue Science and Regenerative Medicine September 12-14, 2016 Berlin, Germany; 6th World Congress on Cell & Stem Cell Research February 29-March 02, 2016 Philadelphia, USA; 5th International Conference and Exhibition on Cell and Gene Therapy May 19-21, 2016 San Antonio, USA; Tissue Niches & Resident Stem Cells in Adult Epithelia Gordon Research Conference, Regulation of Tissue Homeostasis by Signaling in the Stem Cell Niche August 7-12,Hong Kong, China; 10 Years of IPSCs, Cell Symposia, September 25-27, 2016Berkeley, CA, USA; The Company of Biologists Workshops: From Stem Cells to Human Development September 25-28, 2016Southbridge, MA, USA; World Stem Cells & Regenerative Medicine Congress May 18-20, 2016 London, UK; Notch Signaling in Development, Regeneration & Disease Gordon Research Conference, July 31-August 5, 2016Lewiston, ME, USA

Designs for Tissue Engineering

The developing field of tissue engineering aims to regenerate damaged tissues by combining cells from the body with bioresorbable materials, biodegradable hydrogel, biomimetic materials, nanostructures and nanomaterials, biomaterials and tissue implants which act as templates for tissue regeneration, to guide the growth of new tissue by using with the technologies. The global market for biomaterials, nanostructures and bioresorbable materials are estimated to reach $88.4 billion by 2017 from $44.0 billion in 2012 growing at a CAGR of 15%. Further the biomaterials market estimated to be worth more than 300 billion US Dollars and to be increasing 20% per year.

Related Conferences

6th World Congress on Cell & Stem Cell Research February 29-March 02, 2016 Philadelphia, USA; 5th International Conference and Exhibition on Cell and Gene Therapy May 19-21, 2016 San Antonio, USA; International Conference on Restorative Medicine October 24-26, 2016 Chicago, USA; International Conference on Molecular Biology October 13-15, 2016 Dubai, UAE; 2nd International Conference & Exhibition on Tissue preservation and Bio-banking August 18-19, 2016 Portland, USA; ISSCR 14th Annual Meeting 22-25 June, 2016San Francisco, California, USA; Keystone Cardiac Development, Regeneration and Repair (Z2) April 3 7, 2016Snowbird, Utah, USA; The Stem Cell NicheDevelopment & Disease May 22-26, 2016Hillerd, Denmark; EMBL Hematopoietic Stem Cells: From the Embryo to the Aging Organism, June 3-5, 2016Heidelberg, Germany; ISSCR Pluripotency: From basic science to therapeutic applications March 22-24, 2016 Kyoto, Japan

Organ Engineering

This interdisciplinary engineering has attracted much attention as a new therapeutic means that may overcome the drawbacks involved in the current artificial organs and organ transplantation that have been also aiming at replacing lost or severely damaged tissues or organs. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine is an exciting research area that aims at regenerative alternatives to harvested tissues for organ transplantation with soft tissues. Although significant progress has been made in the tissue engineering field, many challenges remain and further development in this area will require ongoing interactions and collaborations among the scientists from multiple disciplines, and in partnership with the regulatory and the funding agencies. As a result of the medical and market potential, there is significant academic and corporate interest in this technology.

Related Conferences

International Conference on Restorative Medicine October 24-26, 2016 Chicago, USA; 5th International Conference and Exhibition on Cell and Gene Therapy May 19-21, 2016 San Antonio, USA; 6th World Congress on Cell & Stem Cell Research February 29-March 02, 2016 Philadelphia, USA; 5th International Conference on Tissue Science and Regenerative Medicine September 12-14, 2016 Berlin, Germany;2ndInternational Conference & Exhibition on Tissue preservation and Bio-banking August 18-19, 2016 Portland, USA;Phacilitate Cell & Gene Therapy WorldJanuary 25-27, 2016Washington D.C., USA;ISSCR Stem Cell Models of Neural Degeneration and DiseaseFebruary 1-3, 2016Dresden, Germany;Craniofacial Morphogenesis & Tissue RegenerationMarch 12-18, 2016California, USA;Keystone Stem Cells and Cancer (C1)March 6-10,Colorado, USA;Keystone Stem Cells and Regeneration in the Digestive Organs (X6)March 13 17Colorado, USA

CancerStem Cells

The characterization of cancer stem cell is done by identifying the cell within a tumor that possesses the capacity to self-renew and to cause the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise the tumor. This stem cell which acts as precursor for the cancer acts as a tool against it indulging the reconstruction of cancer stem cells, implies as the therapeutic implications and challenging the gaps globally. The global stem cell market will grow from about $5.6 billion in 2013 to nearly $10.6 billion in 2018, registering a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 3.6% from 2013 through 2018. The Americas is the largest region of global stem cell market, with a market share of about $2.0 billion in 2013. The region is projected to increase to nearly $3.9 billion by 2018, with a CAGR of 13.9% for the period of 2013 to 2018. Europe is the second largest segment of the global stem cell market and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 13.4% reaching about $2.4 billion by 2018 from nearly $1.4 billion in 2013.

Related Conferences

6th World Congress on Cell & Stem Cell Research February 29-March 02, 2016 Philadelphia, USA; 5th International Conference and Exhibition on Cell and Gene Therapy May 19-21, 2016 San Antonio, USA; International Conference on Molecular Biology October 13-15, 2016 Dubai, UAE; 5th International Conference on Tissue Science and Regenerative Medicine September 12-14, 2016 Berlin, Germany;2ndInternational Conference & Exhibition on Tissue preservation and Bio-banking August 18-19, 2016 Portland, USA; Molecular and Cellular Basis of Growth and Regeneration (A3) January 10 14, 2016Colorado, USA; Phacilitate Cell & Gene Therapy World January 25-27, 2016Washington D.C., USA; ISSCR Stem Cell Models of Neural Degeneration and Disease March 13 17, 2016Dresden, Germany; Craniofacial Morphogenesis & Tissue Regeneration March 12-18, 2016California, USA; World Stem Cells & Regenerative Medicine Congress May 18-20, 2016 London, UK

Bone Tissue Engineering

Tissue engineering of musculoskeletal tissues, particularly bone and cartilage, is a rapidly advancing field. In bone, technology has centered on bone graft substitute materials and the development of biodegradable scaffolds. Recently, tissue engineering strategies have included cell and gene therapy. The availability of growth factors and the expanding knowledge base concerning the bone regeneration with modern techniques like recombinant signaling molecules, solid free form fabrication of scaffolds, synthetic cartilage, Electrochemical deposition, spinal fusion and ossification are new generated techniques for tissue-engineering applications. The worldwide market for bone and cartilage repairs strategies is estimated about $300 million. During the last 10/15 years, the scientific community witnessed and reported the appearance of several sources of stem cells with both osteo and chondrogenic potential.

Related Conferences

5th International Conference on Tissue Science and Regenerative Medicine September 12-14, 2016 Berlin, Germany; 6th World Congress on Cell & Stem Cell Research February 29-March 02, 2016 Philadelphia, USA; 3rd2nd International Conference & Exhibition on Tissue preservation and Bio-banking August 18-19, 2016 Portland, USA; 5th International Conference and Exhibition on Cell and Gene Therapy May 19-21, 2016 San Antonio, USA; International Conference on Restorative Medicine October 24-26, 2016 Chicago, USA;10th World Biomaterials Congress May 17-22, 2016 Quebec, Canada;2016 TERMIS-EU Conference June 28- July1, 2016 Uppsala, Sweden; 2016 TERMIS-AP Conference Tamsui Town of New Taipei CityMay 23-28, 2016;2016 TERMIS-AM Conference September 3-6, 2016, San Diego, USA; Pluripotency: From basic science to therapeutic applications 22-24 March 2016 Kyoto, Japan

Scaffolds

Scaffolds are one of the three most important elements constituting the basic concept of regenerative medicine, and are included in the core technology of regenerative medicine. Every day thousands of surgical procedures are performed to replace or repair tissue that has been damaged through disease or trauma. The developing field of tissue engineering (TE) aims to regenerate damaged tissues by combining cells from the body with highly porous scaffold biomaterials, which act as templates for tissue regeneration, to guide the growth of new tissue. Scaffolds has a prominent role in tissue regeneration the designs, fabrication, 3D models, surface ligands and molecular architecture, nanoparticle-cell interactions and porous of the scaffolds are been used in the field in attempts to regenerate different tissues and organs in the body. The world stem cell market was approximately 2.715 billion dollars in 2010, and with a growth rate of 16.8% annually, a market of 6.877 billion dollars will be formed in 2016. From 2017, the expected annual growth rate is 10.6%, which would expand the market to 11.38 billion dollars by 2021.

Related Conferences

4th International Congress on Bacteriology and Infectious Diseases May 16-18, 2016 San Antonio, USA; 2nd World Congress and Expo on Applied Microbiology October 31-November 02, 2016 Istanbul, Turkey; International Conference on Infectious Diseases & Diagnostic Microbiology Oct 3-5, 2016 Vancouver, Canada; International Conference on Water Microbiology & Novel Technologies July 18-20, 2016 Chicago, USA; 5th International Conference on Clinical Microbiology and Microbial Genomics October 24-26, 2016 Rome, Italy; Annual Meeting of the German Society for Gene Therapy 12 – 13 March 2015 Vienna, Austria; International Bone-Tissue-Engineering Congress 8 – 10 October 2015. Stuttgart, Germany; Till & McCulloch Meetings October 26-28, 2015 Toronto, Canada; 9th International Symposium on Neuroprotection and Neurorepair April 19 to April 22, 2016 Magdeburg, Germany; Craniofacial Morphogenesis & Tissue Regeneration March 12-18, 2016California, USA

Tissue Regeneration Technologies

Guided tissue regeneration is defined as procedures attempting to regenerate lost periodontal structures through differential tissue responses. Guided bone regeneration typically refers to ridge augmentation or bone regenerative procedures it typically refers to regeneration of periodontal therapy. The recent advancements and innovations in biomedical and regenerative tissue engineering techniques include the novel approach of guided tissue regeneration and combination of nanotechnology and regenerative medicine.

Related Conferences

3rd International Conference on Gynecology & Obstetrics October 17-19, 2016 Dubai, UAE; 5th International Conference on Tissue Science and Regenerative Medicine September 12-14, 2016 Berlin, Germany; 6th World Congress on Cell & Stem Cell Research February 29-March 02, 2016 Philadelphia, USA; 2nd International Conference & Exhibition on Tissue preservation and Bio-banking August 18-19, 2016 Portland, USA; International Conference on Restorative Medicine October 24-26, 2016 Chicago; 2016 Annual Convention & Exposition June 6-9, 2016 Philadelphia, USA;3rd International Conference on BioTribology – ICoBT 2016 September 11-14, 2016 London, UK; International Symposium on Endovascular Therapy – ISET February 6-10, 2016Florida, USA; International Bone Tissue Engineering Congress October 810 , 2015Stuttgart, Germany

Regeneration and Therapeutics

Regenerative medicinecan be defined as a therapeutic intervention which replaces or regenerates human cells, tissues or organs, to restore or establish normal function and deploys small molecule drugs, biologics, medical devices and cell-based therapies. It deals with the different therapeutic uses like stem cells for tissue repair, tissue injury and healing process, cardiac stem cell therapy for regeneration, functional regenerative recovery, effects of aging on tissue repair/regeneration, corneal regeneration & degeneration. The global market is expected to reach $25.5 billion by 2011 and will further grow to $36.1 billion by 2016 at a CAGR of 7.2%. It is expected to reach $65 billion mark by 2024.

Related Conferences

World Congress on Human Genetics October 31- November 02, 2016 Valencia, Spain; 5th International Conference on Tissue Science and Regenerative Medicine September 12-14, 2016 Berlin, Germany; 2nd International Conference & Exhibition on Tissue preservation and Bio-banking August 18-19, 2016 Portland, USA; European Conference on Genomics and Personalized Medicine April 25-27, 2016 Valencia, Spain; 4th International Conference on Plant Genomics July 14-15, 2016 Brisbane, Australia; World Stem Cells & Regenerative Medicine Congress May 18-20, 2016 London, UK; 18th International Conference on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Applications May 12 – 13, 2016 Amsterdam, Netherlands; 18th International Conference on Bone, Muscle and Joint Diseases February 25 – 26, 2016 London, UK; 2nd Conference on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine March 18 to 20, 2016 Los Angeles, USA;

Regenerative medicine

Regenerative medicine is a branch of translational research in tissue engineering and molecular biology which deals with the process of replacing, engineering or regenerating human cells, tissues or organs to restore or establish normal function. The latest developments involve advances in cell and gene therapy and stem cell research, molecular therapy, dental and craniofacial regeneration. Regenerative medicines have the unique ability to repair, replace and regenerate tissues and organs, affected due to some injury, disease or due to natural aging process. These medicines are capable of restoring the functionality of cells and tissues. The global regenerative medicine market will reach $ 67.6 billion by 2020 from $16.4 billion in 2013, registering a CAGR of 23.2% during forecast period (2014 – 2020). Small molecules and biologics segment holds prominent market share in the overall regenerative medicine technology market and is anticipated to grow at a CAGR of 18.9% during the forecast period.

Related Conferences

International Conference on Next Generation Sequencing July 21-22, 2016 Berlin, Germany; 5th International Conference on Computational Systems Biology August 22-23, 2016 Philadelphia, USA; 7th International Conference on Bioinformatics October 27-28, 2016 Chicago, USA; International Conference on Synthetic Biology September 28-30, 2015 Houston, USA; 4th International Conference on Integrative Biology July 18-20, 2016 Berlin, Germany; World Conference on Regenerative Medicine October 2123, 2015 Lepizig, Germany; World Congress on Osteoporosis, Osteoarthritis and Musculoskeletal Diseases April 14-17 2016 Malga, Spain; Bioinspired Materials Gordon Research Conference June 5-10, 2016, Girona, Spain

Applications of Tissue Engineering

The applications of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine are innumerable as they mark the replacement of medication and organ replacement. The applications involve cell tracking and tissue imaging, cell therapy and regenerative medicine, organ harvesting, transport and transplant, the application of nanotechnology in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine and bio banking. Globally the research statistics are increasing at a vast scale and many universities and companies are conducting events on the subject regenerative medicine conference like tissue implants workshops, endodontics meetings, tissue biomarkers events, tissue repair meetings, regenerative medicine conferences, tissue science conference, regenerative medicine workshop, veterinary regenerative medicine, regenerative medicine symposiums, tissue regeneration conferences, regenerative medicine congress.

Related Conferences

World Congress on Human Genetics October 31- November 02, 2016 Valencia, Spain; 5th International Conference on Tissue Science and Regenerative Medicine September 12-14, 2016 Berlin, Germany; 2nd International Conference & Exhibition on Tissue preservation and Bio-banking August 18-19, 2016 Portland, USA; European Conference on Genomics and Personalized Medicine April 25-27, 2016 Valencia, Spain; 4th International Conference on Plant Genomics July 14-15, 2016 Brisbane, Australia; Biocatalysis (GRS) Gordon Research Seminar Jul 9-10, 2016 New England, UK; World Conference on Regenerative Medicine October 2123, 2015 Lepizig, Germany; 18thInternational Conference on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Applications May 12 – 13, 2016 Amsterdam, Netherlands; International Bone-Tissue-Engineering Congress 8 – 10 October 2015. Stuttgart, Germany; Craniofacial Morphogenesis & Tissue Regeneration March 12-18, 2016California, USA.

Market Analysis in Regenerative Medicine:

There are strong pricing pressures from public healthcare payers globally as Governments try to reduce budget deficits. Regenerative medicine could potentially save public health bodies money by reducing the need for long-term care and reducing associated disorders, with potential benefits for the world economy as a whole.The global market for tissue engineering and regeneration products reached $55.9 billion in 2010, is expected to reach $59.8 billion by 2011, and will further grow to $89.7 billion by 2016 at a compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 8.4%. It grows to $135 billion to 2024. The contribution of the European region was 43.3% of the market in 2010, a value of $24.2 billion. The market is expected to reach $25.5 billion by 2011 and will further grow to $36.1 billion by 2016 at a CAGR of 7.2%. It grows to $65 billion to 2024.

Related Conferences

2ndInternational Conference & Exhibition on Tissue preservation andBio-bankingAugust 18-19, 2016 Portland, USA; European Conference on Genomics andPersonalized MedicineApril 25-27, 2016 Valencia, Spain;3rdInternational Conference onGynecology& Obstetrics October 17-19, 2016 Dubai, UAE; 5thInternational Conference on Tissue Science andRegenerative MedicineSeptember 12-14, 2016 Berlin, Germany; 6thWorld Congress on Cell &Stem Cell ResearchFebruary 29-March 02, 2016 Philadelphia, USA;18thInternational Conference on Bone, Muscle andJoint DiseasesFebruary 25 – 26, 2016 London, UK; 2ndConference on Tissue Engineering andRegenerative MedicineMarch 18 to 20, 2016 Los Angeles, USA;InternationalBone-Tissue-Engineering Congress 8 – 10 October 2015. Stuttgart, Germany; CraniofacialMorphogenesis& Tissue Regeneration March 12-18, 2016California, USA.

Market Analysis Report:

Tissue engineering is an interdisciplinary field that applies the principles of engineering and life sciences toward the development of biological substitutes that restore, maintain, or improve tissue function or a whole organ. Regenerative medicine is not one discipline. It can be defined as a therapeutic intervention which replaces or regenerates human cells, tissues or organs, to restore or establish normal function and deploys small molecule drugs, biologics, medical devices and cell-based therapies

Currently it has emerged as a rapidly diversifying field with the potential to address the worldwide organ shortage issue and comprises of tissue regeneration and organ replacement. Regenerative medicine could potentially save public health bodies money by reducing the need for long-term care and reducing associated disorders, with potential benefits for the world economy as a whole.The global tissue engineering and regeneration market reached $17 billion in 2013. This market is expected to grow to nearly $20.8 billion in 2014 and $56.9 billion in 2019, a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 22.3%. On the basis of geography, Europe holds the second place in the global market in the field of regenerative medicine & tissue engineering. In Europe countries like UK, France and Germany are possessing good market shares in the field of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Spain and Italy are the emerging market trends for tissue engineering in Europe.

Tissue engineering is “an interdisciplinary field that applies the principles of engineering and life sciences toward the development of biological substitutes that restore, maintain, or improve tissue function or a whole organ. Currently it has emerged as a rapidly diversifying field with the potential to address the worldwide organ shortage issue and comprises of tissue regeneration and organ replacement. A novel set of tissue replacement parts and implementation strategies had shown a great revolution in this field. Cells placed on or within the tissue constructs is the most common methodology in tissue engineering.

Regenerative medicine is not one discipline. It can be defined as a therapeutic intervention which replaces or regenerates human cells, tissues or organs, to restore or establish normal function and deploys small molecule drugs, biologics, medical devices and cell-based therapies

This field continues to evolve. In addition to medical applications, non-therapeutic applications include using tissues as biosensors to detect biological or chemical threat agents, and tissue chips that can be used to test the toxicity of an experimental medication. Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine is the major field in Medicine, which is still under research and the advancements are maximizing day to day.

Regenerative Medicine-2015 is an engrossed a vicinity of cognizant discussions on novel subjects like Tissue Regeneration, Materials & Designs for Tissue Engineering, Stem CellTools to Battle Cancer, Bioreactors in Tissue Engineering, Regeneration & Therapeutics, Cord Blood & Regenerative Medicine and Clinical Medicine, to mention a few. The three days event implants a firm relation of upcoming strategies in the field of Tissue Science & Regenerative Medicine with the scientific community. The conceptual and applicable knowledge shared, will also foster organizational collaborations to nurture scientific accelerations.We bring together business, creative, and technology leaders from the tissue engineering, marketing, and research industry for the most current and relevant.

Berlin is one of the largest and most diverse science regions in Europe. Roughly 200,000 people from around the world teach, research, work and study here. Approximately 17 percent of all students come from abroad, most of them from China, Russia and the USA. Many cooperative programs link Berlins institutes of higher education with partner institutes around the world. Berlin is a city of science at the heart of Europe a city whose history of scientific excellence stems from its many important research institutions and its long track record of scientific breakthroughs. Berlin has numerous modern Technology Centers. Their science-oriented infrastructure makes them attractive locations for young, technology-oriented companies.

Germany places great emphasis on globally networked research cooperation. Many organizations support international researchers and academics: Today more than 32,000 are being supported with scholarships. Besides this, research funding in Germany has the goal of financing the development of new ideas and technologies. The range covers everything from basic research in natural sciences, new technologies to structural research funding at institutions of higher education. On the basis of geography, the regenerative medicine bone and joint market Europe hold the second place in the global market in the field of regenerative medicine & tissue engineering. The market growth is expected to reach $65 billion by 2024 in Europe. In Europe countries like UK, France, and Germany are possessing good market share in the field of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Spain and Italy are the emerging market trends for tissue engineering in Europe. As per the scope and emerging market for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine Berlin has been selected as Venue for the 5th International Conference on Tissue Science and Regenerative Medicine.

Meet Your Target MarketWith members from around the world focused on learning about Advertising and marketing, this is the single best opportunity to reach the largest assemblage of participants from the tissue engineering and regenerative medicine community. The meeting engrossed a vicinity of cognizant discussions on novel subjects like Tissue Regeneration, Materials & Designs for Tissue Engineering, Stem CellTools to Battle Cancer, Bioreactors in Tissue Engineering, Regeneration & Therapeutics, Cord Blood & Regenerative Medicine and Clinical Medicine, to mention a few. The three days event implants a firm relation of upcoming strategies in the field of Tissue Engineering & Regenerative Medicine with the scientific community. The conceptual and applicable knowledge shared, will also foster organizational collaborations to nurture scientific accelerations.Conduct demonstrations, distribute information, meet with current and potential customers, make a splash with a new product line, and receive name recognition.

International Stem Cell Forum (ISCF)

International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR)

UK Medical Research Council (MRC)

Australian Stem Cell Center

Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)

Euro Stem Cell (ACR)

Center for Stem Cell Biology

Stem Cell Research Singapore

UK National Stem Cell Network

Spain Mobile Marketing Association

European Marketing Confederation (EMC)

European Letterbox Marketing Association(ELMA)

European Sales & Marketing Association (ESMA)

The Incentive Marketing Association (IMA Europe)

European Marketing Academy

Figure 1: Statistical Analysis of Societies and Associations

Source: Reference7

Presidents or Vice Presidents/ Directors of Associations and Societies, CEOs of the companies associated with regenerative medicine and tissue engineering Consumer Products. Retailers, Marketing, Advertising and Promotion Agency Executives, Solution Providers (digital and mobile technology, P-O-P design, retail design, and retail execution), Professors and Students from Academia in the study of Marketing and Advertising filed.

Industry 40%

Academia 50%

Others 10%

Figure 2: Target Audience

Technische University Munchen

University of Wrzburg

University Medical Center

University of Tubingen

Universittsklinikum Mnster

Technische Universitt Dresden

Leipzig University

University Medicine of Rostock

Institut fur Humangenetik und Anthropologie der Universitat

Otto-von-Guericke University

Hannover Medical School

Max Planck Institute

Figure 3: Top Universities in Germany

There are strong pricing pressures from public healthcare payers globally as Governments try to reduce budget deficits. Regenerative medicine could potentially save public health bodies money by reducing the need for long-term care and reducing associated disorders, with potential benefits for the world economy as a whole.The global market for tissue engineering and regeneration products reached $55.9 billion in 2010, is expected to reach $59.8 billion by 2011, and will further grow to $89.7 billion by 2016 at a compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 8.4%. It grows to $135 billion to 2024

The contribution of the European region was 43.3% of the market in 2010, a value of $24.2 billion. The market is expected to reach $25.5 billion by 2011 and will further grow to $36.1 billion by 2016 at a CAGR of 7.2%. It grows to $65 billion to 2024. [Source: Reference2]

Figure 4: Global Market Growth of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

Figure 5: Industries associated with Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

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Scientists Open Letter on Cryonics | Evidence-Based Cryonics

 Cryonics  Comments Off on Scientists Open Letter on Cryonics | Evidence-Based Cryonics
Dec 142015
 

To whom it may concern,

Cryonics is a legitimate science-based endeavor that seeks to preserve human beings, especially the human brain, by the best technology available. Future technologies for resuscitation can be envisioned that involve molecular repair by nanomedicine, highly advanced computation, detailed control of cell growth, and tissue regeneration.

With a view toward these developments, there is a credible possibility that cryonics performed under the best conditions achievable today can preserve sufficient neurological information to permit eventual restoration of a person to full health.

The rights of people who choose cryonics are important, and should be respected.

Sincerely (67 Signatories)

Signatories encompass all disciplines relevant to cryonics, including Biology, Cryobiology, Neuroscience, Physical Science, Nanotechnology and Computing, Ethics and Theology.

[Signature datein brackets]

Gregory Benford, Ph.D. (Physics, UC San Diego) Professor of Physics; University of California; Irvine, CA [3/24/04]

Alex Bokov, Ph.D. (Physiology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio) [6/02/2014]

Alaxander Bolonkin, Ph.D. (Leningrad Politechnic University) Professor, Moscow Aviation Institute; Senior Research Associate NASA Dryden Flight Research Center; Lecturer, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ [3/24/04]

Nick Bostrom, Ph.D. Research Fellow; University of Oxford; Oxford, United Kingdom [3/25/04]

Kevin Q. Brown, Ph.D. (Computer Science, Carnegie-Mellon) Member of Technical Staff; Lucent Bell Laboratories (retired); Stanhope, NJ [3/23/04]

Professor Manfred Clynes, Ph.D. Lombardi Cancer Center; Department of Oncology and Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Georgetown University; Washington, DC [3/28/04]

L. Stephen Coles, M.D., PhD (RPI, Columbia, Carnegie Mellon University) Director, Supercentenarian Research Foundation Inglewood, California [10/7/06]

Daniel Crevier, Ph.D. (MIT) President, Ophthalmos Systems Inc., Longueuil, Qc, Canada; Professor of Electrical Engineering (ret.), McGill University & cole de Technologie Suprieure, Montreal, Canada. [4/7/05]

Antonei B. Csoka, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine Pittsburgh Development Center, Magee-Womens Research Institute [9/14/05]

Aubrey D.N.J. de Grey, Ph.D. Research Associate; University of Cambridge;Cambridge, United Kingdom [3/19/04]

Wesley M. Du Charme, Ph.D. (Experimental Psychology, University of Michigan) author of Becoming Immortal, Rathdrum, Idaho [11/23/05]

Joo Pedro de Magalhes, Ph.D. University of Namur; Namur, Belgium [3/22/04]

Thomas Donaldson, Ph.D. Editor, Periastron; Founder, Institute for Neural Cryobiology; Canberra, Australia [3/22/04]

Christopher J. Dougherty, Ph.D. Chief Scientist; Suspended Animation Inc; Boca Raton, FL [3/19/04]

K. Eric Drexler, Ph.D. Chairman of Foresight Institute; Palo Alto, CA [3/19/04]

Llus Estrada, MD., Ph.D.

Ex Head of the Clinical Neurophysiology Section (retired) at the University Hospital Joan XXIII of Tarragona, Spain. [11/21/2015]

Robert A. Freitas Jr., J.D. Author, Nanomedicine Vols. I & II; Research Fellow, Institute for Molecular Manufacturing, Palo Alto, CA [3/27/04]

Mark Galecki, Ph.D. (Mathematics, Univ of Tennessee), M.S. (Computer Science, Rutgers Univ), Senior System Software Engineer, SBS Technologies [11/23/05]

D. B. Ghare, Ph.D. Principal Research Scientist, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India [5/24/04]

Ben Goertzel, Ph.D. (Mathematics, Temple) Chief Scientific Officer, Biomind LLC; Columbia, MD [3/19/04]

Peter Gouras, M.D. Professor of Ophthalmology, Columbia University; New York City, NY [3/19/04]

Rodolfo G. Goya, PhDSenior Scientist, Institute for Biochemical Research (INIBIOLP), School of Medicine,, National University of La Plata, La Plata city, Argentina. [11/22/2015]

Amara L. Graps, Ph.D. Researcher, Astrophysics; Adjunct Professor of Astronomy; Institute of Physics of the Interplanetary Space; American University of Rome (Italy) [3/22/04]

Raphael Haftka, Ph.D. (UC San Diego) Distinguished Prof. U. ofFlorida; Dept. of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, Gainesville, FL [3/22/04]

David A. Hall, M.D. Dean of Education, World Health Medical School [11/23/05]

J. Storrs Hall, Ph.D. Research Fellow, Institute for Molecular Manufacturing, Los Altos, CA Fellow, Molecular Engineering Research Institute, Laporte, PA [3/26/04]

Robin Hanson, Ph.D. (Social Science, Caltech) Assistant Professor (of Economics); George Mason University; Fairfax, VA[3/19/04]

Steven B. Harris, M.D. President and Director of Research; Critical Care Research, Inc; Rancho Cucamonga, CA[3/19/04]

Michael D. Hartl, Ph.D.(Physics, Harvard & Caltech) Visitor in Theoretical Astrophysics; California Institute of Technology; Pasadena, CA [3/19/04]

Kenneth J. Hayworth, Ph.D. (Neuroscience, University of Southern California) Research Fellow; Harvard University; Cambridge, MA [10/22/10]

Henry R. Hirsch, Ph. D. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1960) Professor Emeritus, University of Kentucky College of Medicine [11/29/05]

Tad Hogg, Ph.D. (Physics, Caltech and Stanford) research staff, HP Labs, Palo Alto, CA [10/10/05]

James J. Hughes, Ph.D. Public Policy Studies Trinity College; Hartford, CT [3/25/04]

James R. Hughes, M.D., Ph.D. ER Director of Meadows Regoinal Medical Center; Director of Medical Research & Development, Hilton Head Longevity Center, Savanah, GA [4/05/04]

Ravin Jain, M.D. (Medicine, Baylor) Assistant Clinical Professor of Neurology, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA [3/31/04]

Subhash C. Kak, Ph.D. Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA [3/24/04]

Professor Bart Kosko, Ph.D. Electrical Engineering Department; University of Southern California [3/19/04]

Jaime Lagnez, PhDNGS and Systems biologist for INSP (National Institutes of Health of Mexico) and CONACYT (National Science and Technology Council). [11/21/2015]

James B. Lewis, Ph.D. (Chemistry, Harvard) Senior Research Investigator (retired); Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Research Institute; Seattle, WA [3/19/04]

Marc S. Lewis, Ph.D. Ph.D. from the University of Cincinnati in Clinical Psychology. Associate Professor at the University of Texas at Austin of Clinical Psychology. [6/12/05]

Brad F. Mellon, STM, Ph.D. Chair of the Ethics Committee; Frederick Mennonite Community; Frederick, PA [3/25/04]

Ralph C. Merkle, Ph.D. Distinguished Professor of Computing; Georgia Tech College of Computing; Director, GTISC (GA Tech Information Security Center); VP, Technology Assessment, Foresight Institute [3/19/04]

Marvin Minsky, Ph.D. (Mathematics, Harvard & Princeton) MIT Media Lab and MIT AI Lab; Toshiba Professor of Media Arts and Sciences; Professor of E.E. and C.S., M.I.T [3/19/04]

John Warwick Montgomery, Ph.D. (Chicago) D.Thol. (Strasbourg), LL.D. (Cardiff) Professor Emeritus of Law and Humanities, University of Luton, England [3/28/04]

Max More, Ph.D. Chairman, Extropy Institute,Austin, TX [3/31/04]

Steve Omohundro, Ph.D. (Physics, University of California at Berkeley) Computer science professor at the University of Illinois at Champaign/Urbana [6/08/04]

Mike ONeal, Ph.D. (Computer Science) Assoc. Professor and Computer Science Program Chair; Louisiana Tech Univ.; Ruston, LA [3/19/04]

R. Michael Perry, Ph.D. Computer Science Patient care and technical services, Alcor Life Extension Foundation [9/30/09]

Yuri Pichugin, Ph.D. Former Senior Researcher, Institute for Problems of Cryobiology and Cryomedicine; Kharkov, Ukraine [3/19/04]

Peter H. Proctor, M.D., Ph.D. Independent Physician & Pharmacologist; Houston, Texas [5/02/04]

Martine Rothblatt, Ph.D., J.D., M.B.A. Responsible for launching several satellite communications companies including Sirius and WorldSpace. Founder and CEO of United Therapeutics. [5/02/04]

Klaus H. Sames, M.D. University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Center of Experimental Medicine (CEM) Institute of Anatomy II: Experimental Morphology; Hamburg, Germany [3/25/04]

Anders Sandberg, Ph.D. (Computational Neuroscience) Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm University; Stockholm, Sweden [3/19/04]

Sergey V. Sheleg, M.D., Ph.D. Senior Research Scientist, Alcor Life Extension Foundation; Scottsdale, AZ [8/11/05]

Stanley Shostak, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Biological Sciences; University of Pittsburgh; Pittsburgh, PA [3/19/04]

Rafal Smigrodzki, M.D., Ph.D. Chief Clinical Officer, Gencia Company; Charlottesville VA [3/19/04]

David S. Stodolsky, Ph.D. (Univ. of Cal., Irvine) Senior Scientist, Institute for Social Informatics [11/24/05]

Gregory Stock, Ph.D. Director, Program on Medicine, Technology, and Society UCLA School of Public Health; Los Angeles, CA [3/24/04]

Charles Tandy, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Humanities and Director Center for Interdisciplinary Philosophic Studies Fooyin University (Kaohsiung, Taiwan) [5/25/05]

Peter Toma, Ph.D. President, Cosmolingua, Inc. Sioux Falls, South Dakota. Inventor and Founder of SYSTRAN. Director of International Relations, Alcor Life Extension Foundation. Residences in Argentina, Germany, New Zealand, Switzerland and USA [5/24/05]

Natasha Vita-More, PhD Professor, University of Advancing Technology, Tempe, Arizona, USA. [11/22/2015]

Mark A. Voelker, Ph.D. (Optical Sciences, U. Arizona) Director of Bioengineering; BioTime, Inc.; Berkeley, CA [3/19/04]

Roy L. Walford, M.D. Professor of Pathology, emeritus; UCLA School of Medicine; Los Angeles, CA [3/19/04]

Mark Walker, Ph.D. Research Associate, Philosophy; Trinity College; University of Toronto (Canada) [3/19/04]

Michael D. West, Ph.D. President, Chairman & Chief Executive Office; Advanced Cell Technology, Inc.; Worcester, MA [3/19/04]

Ronald F. White, Ph.D. Professor of Philosophy; College of Mount St. Joseph; Cincinnati, OH [3/19/04]

James Wilsdon, Ph.D. (Oxford University) Head of Strategy for Demos, an independent think-tank; London, England [5/04/04]

Brian Wowk, Ph.D. Senior Scientist 21st Century Medicine, Inc.; Rancho Cucamonga, CA [3/19/04]

Selected Journal Articles Supporting Cryonics:

First paper showing recovery of brain electrical activity after freezing to -20C. Suda I, Kito K, Adachi C, in: Nature (1966, vol. 212), Viability of long term frozen cat brain in vitro, pg. 268-270.

First paper to propose cryonics by neuropreservation: Martin G, in: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine (1971, vol. 14), Brief proposal on immortality: an interim solution, pg. 339.

First paper showing recovery of a mammalian organ after cooling to -196C (liquid nitrogen temperature) and subsequent transplantation: Hamilton R, Holst HI, Lehr HB, in: Journal of Surgical Research (1973, vol 14), Successful preservation of canine small intestine by freezing, pg. 527-531.

First paper showing partial recovery of brain electrical activity after 7 years of frozen storage: Suda I, Kito K, Adachi C, in: Brain Research (1974, vol. 70), Bioelectric discharges of isolated cat brain after revival from years of frozen storage, pg. 527-531.

First paper suggesting that nanotechnology could reverse freezing injury: Drexler KE, in: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (1981, vol. 78), Molecular engineering: An approach to the development of general capabilities for molecular manipulation, pg. 5275-5278.

First paper showing that large organs can be cryopreserved without structural damage from ice: Fahy GM, MacFarlane DR, Angell CA, Meryman HT, in: Cryobiology (1984, vol. 21), Vitrification as an approach to cryopreservation, pg. 407-426.

First paper showing that dogs can be recovered after three hours of total circulatory arrest (clinical death) at 0C (32F). This supports the reversibility of the hypothermic phase of cryonics: Haneda K, Thomas R, Sands MP, Breazeale DG, Dillard DH, in: Cryobiology (1986, vol. 23), Whole body protection during three hours of total circulatory arrest: an experimental study, pg. 483-494.

First detailed discussion of the application of nanotechnology to reverse human cryopreservation: Merkle RC, in: Medical Hypotheses (1992, vol. 39), The technical feasibility of cryonics, pg. 6-16.

First successful application of vitrification to a relatively large tissue of medical interest: Song YC, Khirabadi BS, Lightfoot F, Brockbank KG, Taylor MJ, in: Nature Biotechnology (2000, vol. 18), Vitreous cryopreservation maintains the function of vascular grafts, pg. 296-299.

First report of the consistent survival of transplanted kidneys after cooling to and rewarming from -45C: Fahy GM, Wowk B, Wu J, Phan J, Rasch C, Chang A, Zendejas E, in: Cryobiology (2004 vol. 48),Cryopreservation of organs by vitrification: perspectives and recent advances, pg. 157-78. PDF here.

First paper showing good ultrastructure of vitrified/rewarmed mammalian brains and the reversibility of prolonged warm ischemic injury in dogs without subsequent neurological deficits, and setting forth the present scientific evidence in support of cryonics: Lemler J, Harris SB, Platt C, Huffman T, in: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, (2004 vol. 1019), The Arrest of Biological Time as a Bridge to Engineered Negligible Senescence, pg. 559-563. PDF here.

First discussion of cryonics in a major medical journal: Whetstine L, Streat S, Darwin M, Crippen D, in: Critical Care, (2005, vol. 9), Pro/con ethics debate: When is dead really dead?, pg. 538-542. PDF here.

First demonstration that both the viability and structure of complex neural networks can be well preserved by vitrification: Pichugin Y, Fahy GM, Morin R, in: Cryobiology, (2006, vol. 52), Cryopreservation of rat hippocampal slices by vitrification, pg. 228-240.PDF here.

Rigorous demonstration of memory retention following profound hypothermia, confirming theoretical expectation and clinical experience. Alam HB, Bowyer MW, Koustova E, Gushchin V, Anderson D, Stanton K, Kreishman P, Cryer CM, Hancock T, Rhee P, in: Surgery (2002, vol. 132), Learning and memory is preserved after induced asanguineous hyperkalemic hypothermic arrest in a swine model of traumatic exsanguination, pg. 278-88.

Review of scientific justifications of cryonics: Best BP, in: Rejuvenation Research (2008, vol. 11), Scientific justification of cryonics practice, pg. 493-503. PDF here.

First successful vitrification, transplantation, and long-term survival of a vital mammalian organ: Fahy GM, Wowk B, Pagotan R, Chang A, Phan J, Thomson B, Phan L, in: Organogensis (2009, vol. 5), Physical and biological aspects of renal vitrification pg. 167-175. PDF here.

First demonstration of memory retention in a cryopreserved and revived animal: Vita-More N, Barranco D, in:Rejuvenation Research, (2015, vol. 18), Persistence of Long-Term Memory in Vitrified and Revived Caenorhabditis elegans, pg. 458-463.PDF here.

Note: Signing of this letter does not imply endorsement of any particular cryonics organization or its practices. Opinions on how much cerebral ischemic injury (delay after clinical death) and preservation injury may be reversible in the future vary widely among signatories.

Contact: contact@evidencebasedcryonics.org

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Scientists Open Letter on Cryonics | Evidence-Based Cryonics

The Libertarianism FAQ – catb.org

 Misc  Comments Off on The Libertarianism FAQ – catb.org
Dec 142015
 

There are a number of standard questions about libertarianism that have been periodically resurfacing in the politics groups for years. This posting attempts to answer some of them. I make no claim that the answers are complete, nor that they reflect a (nonexistent) unanimity among libertarians; the issues touched on here are tremendously complex. This posting will be useful, however, if it successfully conveys the flavor of libertarian thought and gives some indication of what most libertarians believe.

The word means approximately “believer in liberty”. Libertarians believe in individual conscience and individual choice, and reject the use of force or fraud to compel others except in response to force or fraud. (This latter is called the “Non-Coercion Principle” and is the one thing all libertarians agree on.)

Help individuals take more control over their own lives. Take the state (and other self-appointed representatives of “society”) out of private decisions. Abolish both halves of the welfare/warfare bureaucracy (privatizing real services) and liberate the 7/8ths of our wealth that’s now soaked up by the costs of a bloated and ineffective government, to make us all richer and freer. Oppose tyranny everywhere, whether it’s the obvious variety driven by greed and power-lust or the subtler, well-intentioned kinds that coerce people “for their own good” but against their wills.

Modern libertarianism has multiple roots. Perhaps the oldest is the minimal-government republicanism of the U.S.’s founding revolutionaries, especially Thomas Jefferson and the Anti-Federalists. Adam Smith, John Stuart Mill and the “classical liberals” of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were another key influence. More recently, Ayn Rand’s philosophy of “ethical egoism” and the Austrian School of free-market capitalist economics have both contributed important ideas. Libertarianism is alone among 20th-century secular radicalisms in owing virtually nothing to Marxism.

Once upon a time (in the 1800s), “liberal” and “libertarian” meant the same thing; “liberals” were individualist, distrustful of state power, pro-free- market, and opposed to the entrenched privilege of the feudal and mercantilist system. After 1870, the “liberals” were gradually seduced (primarily by the Fabian socialists) into believing that the state could and should be used to guarantee “social justice”. They largely forgot about individual freedom, especially economic freedom, and nowadays spend most of their time justifying higher taxes, bigger government, and more regulation. Libertarians call this socialism without the brand label and want no part of it.

For starters, by not being conservative. Most libertarians have no interest in returning to an idealized past. More generally, libertarians hold no brief for the right wing’s rather overt militarist, racist, sexist, and authoritarian tendencies and reject conservative attempts to “legislate morality” with censorship, drug laws, and obnoxious Bible-thumping. Though libertarians believe in free-enterprise capitalism, we also refuse to stooge for the military-industrial complex as conservatives are wont to do.

Libertarians want to abolish as much government as they practically can. About 3/4 are “minarchists” who favor stripping government of most of its accumulated power to meddle, leaving only the police and courts for law enforcement and a sharply reduced military for national defense (nowadays some might also leave special powers for environmental enforcement). The other 1/4 (including the author of this FAQ) are out-and-out anarchists who believe that “limited government” is a delusion and the free market can provide better law, order, and security than any goverment monopoly.

Also, current libertarian political candidates recognize that you can’t demolish a government as large as ours overnight, and that great care must be taken in dismantling it carefully. For example, libertarians believe in open borders, but unrestricted immigration now would attract in a huge mass of welfare clients, so most libertarians would start by abolishing welfare programs before opening the borders. Libertarians don’t believe in tax-funded education, but most favor the current “parental choice” laws and voucher systems as a step in the right direction.

Progress in freedom and prosperity is made in steps. The Magna Carta, which for the first time put limits on a monarchy, was a great step forward in human rights. The parliamentary system was another great step. The U.S. Constitution and Bill of Rights, which affirmed that even a democratically-elected government couldn’t take away certain inalienable rights of individuals, was probably the single most important advance so far. But the journey isn’t over.

All Libertarians are libertarians, but not the reverse. A libertarian is a person who believes in the Non-Coercion Principle and the libertarian program. A Libertarian is a person who believes the existing political system is a proper and effective means of implementing those principles; specifically, “Libertarian” usually means a member of the Libertarian Party, the U.S.’s largest and most successful third party. Small-ell libertarians are those who consider the Libertarian Party tactically ineffective, or who reject the political system generally and view democracy as “the tyranny of the majority”.

By privatizing them. Taxation is theft — if we must have a government, it should live on user fees, lotteries, and endowments. A government that’s too big to function without resorting to extortion is a government that’s too big, period. Insurance companies (stripped of the state-conferred immunities that make them arrogant) could use the free market to spread most of the risks we now “socialize” through government, and make a profit doing so.

Enforce contracts. Anarcho-libertarians believe the “government” in this sense can be a loose network of rent-a-cops, insurance companies, and for-profit arbitration boards operating under a shared legal code; minarchists believe more centralization would be necessary and envision something much like a Jeffersonian constitional government. All libertarians want to live in a society based (far more than ours now is) on free trade and mutual voluntary contract; the government’s job would be strictly to referee, and use the absolute minimum of force necessary to keep the peace.

Most libertarians are strongly in favor of abortion rights (the Libertarian Party often shows up at pro-rights rallies with banners that say “We’re Pro-Choice on Everything!”). Many libertarians are personally opposed to abortion, but reject governmental meddling in a decision that should be private between a woman and her physician. Most libertarians also oppose government funding of abortions, on the grounds that “pro-lifers” should not have to subsidize with their money behavior they consider to be murder.

Libertarians believe that every human being is entitled to equality before the law and fair treatment as an individual responsible for his or her own actions. We oppose racism, sexism, and sexual-preference bigotry, whether perpetrated by private individuals or (especially) by government. We reject racial discrimination, whether in its ugly traditional forms or in its newer guises as Affirmative Action quotas and “diversity” rules.

We recognize that there will always be bigotry and hatred in the world, just as there will always be fear and stupidity; but one cannot use laws to force understanding any more than one can use laws to force courage or intelligence. The only fair laws are those that never mention the words “black” or “white”; “man” or “woman”; “gay” or “straight”. When people use bigotry as an excuse to commit force or fraud, it is the act itself which is the crime, and deserves punishment, not the motive behind it.

Consistently opposed. The revolutionaries who kicked out King George based their call for insurrection on the idea that Americans have not only the right but the duty to oppose a tyrannical government with force — and that duty implies readiness to use force. This is why Thomas Jefferson said that “Firearms are the American yeoman’s liberty teeth” and, in common with many of the Founding Fathers, asserted that an armed citizenry is the securest guarantee of freedom. Libertarians assert that “gun control” is a propagandist’s lie for “people control”, and even if it worked for reducing crime and violence (which it does not; when it’s a crime to own guns, only criminals own them) it would be a fatally bad bargain.

Libertarians are opposed to any government-enforced limits on free expression whatsoever; we take an absolutist line on the First Amendment. On the other hand, we reject the “liberal” idea that refusing to subsidize a controversial artist is censorship. Thus, we would strike down all anti-pornography laws as unwarranted interference with private and voluntary acts (leaving in place laws punishing, for example, coercion of minors for the production of pornography). We would also end all government funding of art; the label of “artist” confers no special right to a living at public expense.

We believe the draft is slavery, pure and simple, and ought to be prohibited as “involuntary servitude” by the 13th Amendment. Any nation that cannot find enough volunteers to defend it among its citizenry does not deserve to survive.

That all drugs should be legalized. Drug-related crime (which is over 85% of all crime) is caused not by drugs but by drug laws that make the stuff expensive and a monopoly of criminals. This stance isn’t “approving” of drugs any more than defending free speech is “approving” of Nazi propaganda; it’s just realism — prohibition doesn’t work. And the very worst hazard of the drug war may be the expansion of police powers through confiscation laws, “no-knock” warrants and other “anti-drug” measures. These tactics can’t stop the drug trade, but they are making a mockery of our supposed Constitutional freedoms.

Libertarians would leave in place laws against actions which directly endanger the physical safety of others, like driving under the influence of drugs, or carrying a firearm under the influence.

First of all, stop creating them as our government does with military contractors and government-subsidized industries. Second, create a more fluid economic environment in which they’d break up. This happens naturally in a free market; even in ours, with taxes and regulatory policies that encourage gigantism, it’s quite rare for a company to stay in the biggest 500 for longer than twenty years. We’d abolish the limited-liability shield laws to make corporate officers and stockholders fully responsible for a corporation’s actions. We’d make it impossible for corporations to grow fat on “sweetheart deals” paid for with taxpayers’ money; we’d lower the cost of capital (by cutting taxes) and regulatory compliance (by repealing regulations that presume guilt until you prove your innocence), encouraging entrepreneurship and letting economic conditions (rather than government favoritism) determine the optimum size of the business unit.

Who owns the trees? The disastrous state of the environment in what was formerly the Soviet Union illustrates the truism that a resource theoretically “owned” by everyone is valued by no one. Ecological awareness is a fine thing, but without strong private-property rights no one can afford to care enough to conserve. Libertarians believe that the only effective way to save the Earth is to give everyone economic incentives to save their little bit of it.

No. What favors the rich is the system we have now — a fiction of strong property rights covering a reality of property by government fiat; the government can take away your “rights” by eminent domain, condemnation, taxation, regulation and a thousand other means. Because the rich have more money and time to spend on influencing and subverting government, such a system inevitably means they gain at others’ expense. A strong government always becomes the tool of privilege. Stronger property rights and a smaller government would weaken the power elite that inevitably seeks to seduce government and bend it to their own self-serving purposes — an elite far more dangerous than any ordinary criminal class.

No, though abandoning the poor might be merciful compared to what government has done to them. As the level of “anti-poverty” spending in this country has risen, so has poverty. Government bureaucracies have no incentive to lift people out of dependency and every incentive to keep them in it; after all, more poverty means a bigger budget and more power for the bureaucrats. Libertarians want to break this cycle by abolishing all income-transfer programs and allowing people to keep what they earn instead of taxing it away from them. The wealth freed up would go directly to the private sector, creating jobs for the poor, decreasing the demand on private charity, and increasing charitable giving. The results might diminish poverty or they might leave it at today’s levels — but it’s hard to see how they could be any less effective than the present wretched system.

This issue makes minarchists out of a lot of would-be anarchists. One view is that in a libertarian society everyone would be heavily armed, making invasion or usurpation by a domestic tyrant excessively risky. This is what the Founding Fathers clearly intended for the U.S. (the Constitution made no provision for a standing army, entrusting defense primarily to a militia consisting of the entirety of the armed citizenry). It works today in Switzerland (also furnishing one of the strongest anti-gun-control arguments). The key elements in libertarian-anarchist defense against an invader would be: a widespread ideology (libertarianism) that encourages resistance; ready availability of deadly weapons; and no structures of government that an invader can take over and use to rule indirectly. Think about the Afghans, the Viet Cong, the Minutemen — would you want to invade a country full of dedicated, heavily armed libertarians? :-)

Minarchist libertarians are less radical, observe that U.S. territory could certainly be protected effectively with a military costing less than half of the bloated U.S. military budget.

Voluntary cooperation is a wonderful thing, and we encourage it whenever we can. Despite the tired old tag line about “dog-eat-dog competition” and the presence of government intervention, the relatively free market of today’s capitalism is the most spectacular argument for voluntary cooperation in history; millions, even billions of people coordinating with each other every day to satisfy each others’ needs and create untold wealth.

What we oppose is the mockeries politicians and other criminals call cooperation but impose by force; there is no “cooperation” in taxation or the draft or censorship any more than you and I are “cooperating” when I put a gun to your head and steal your wallet.

Think about freedom, and act on your thoughts. Spend your dollars wisely. Oppose the expansion of state power. Promote “bottom-up” solutions to public problems, solutions that empower individuals rather than demanding intervention by force of government. Give to private charity. Join a libertarian organization; the Libertarian Party, or the Advocates for Self-Government, or the Reason Foundation. Start your own business; create wealth and celebrate others who create wealth. Support voluntary cooperation.

No one knows. Your author thinks libertarianism is about where constitutional republicanism was in 1750 — a solution waiting for its moment, a toy of political theorists and a few visionaries waiting for the people and leaders who can actualize it. The collapse of Communism and the triumph of capitalist economics will certainly help, by throwing central planning and the “nanny state” into a disrepute that may be permanent. Some libertarians believe we are headed for technological and economic changes so shattering that no statist ideology can possibly survive them (in particular, most of the nanotechnology “underground” is hard-core libertarian). Only time will tell.

There’s an excellent FAQ on anarchist theory and history at http://www.princeton.edu/~bdcaplan/anarfaq.htm with links to many other Web documents.

Peter McWilliams’s wise and funny book Ain’t Nobody’s Business If You Do is worth a read.

Friedman, Milton and Friedman, Rose, Free to Choose: A Personal Statement (Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1980).

Hayek, Friedrich A. The Constitution of Liberty (Henry Regnery Company, 1960).

Hayek, Friedrich A. The Road to Serfdom (University of Chicago Press, 1944).

Lomasky, Loren, Persons, Rights, and the Moral Community (Oxford University Press, 1987).

Machan, Tibor, Individuals and Their Rights (Open Court, 1989).

Murray, Charles A. In Pursuit of Happiness and Good Government (Simon and Schuster, 1988).

Rasmussen, Douglas B. and Den Uyl, Douglas J., Liberty and Nature (Open Court, 1991).

Rothbard, Murray N. For a New Liberty: The Libertarian Manifesto, 2nd ed (Macmillan, 1978).

Reason. Editorial contact: 3415 S. Sepulveda Blvd., Suite 400, Los Angeles, CA 90034. Subscriptions: PO Box 526, Mt. Morris, IL 61054

Liberty. PO Box 1167, Port Townsend, WA 98368.

1202 N. Tenn. St., Suite 202 Cartersville, GA 30120

3415 S. Sepulveda Blvd., Suite 400, Los Angeles, CA 90034

1000 Massachusetts Ave, NW, Washington, DC 20001-5403

938 Howard St. San Francisco, Suite 202, CA 94103

818 S. Grand Ave., Suite 202, Los Angeles, CA 90017

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The Libertarianism FAQ – catb.org

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– National Association of Speakers New Orleans

 NSA  Comments Off on – National Association of Speakers New Orleans
Nov 052015
 

The best keynote speakers and trainers in the New Orleans areas belong to the National Speakers Association of New Orleans, also known as NSA New Orleans.

The goal of NSA New Orleans is to advance the art and business skills of experts who are hired to speak and present at conferences, conventions and corporate events.

This website serves as a resource to meeting planners who wish to hire expert speakers and trainers for conference keynote speeches, conference breakout sessions or training for corporate meetings and for individual companies. It is also a resource for members who are active professional speakers, as well as individuals who aspire to be a professional speaker and earn a living as a speaker who shares his or her expertise with audiences in New Orleans, across the United States and around the world.

Walter Bond CSP & CPAE who has taken the speaking business by storm is headed our way. After being on the speaking circuit for a short period of time Walter Bond has already graced the main stage at NSA. He is now making his rounds teaching at various NSA chapter events sharing his speaking secrets. Bond says it is all in the fundamentals. I learned in the NBA how to become a real pro. There is difference between a professional speaker and a professional who speaks and Bond aims to show us the difference. After this powerful session on the basics you will be ready to take your business to the next level.

You will learn powerful insights on:

For nearly two decades, Walter Bond has been a premiere expert on peak performance. Walters mastery in two different global industries has made him an authority on peak performance. Walter has delivered his entertaining and dynamic message to companies and associations throughout the United States, Canada, Mexico, the Caribbean and Europe. Clients include Accenture, Blue Cross/Blue Shield, The Dwyer Group, Allianz, Amway, GNC, Hilton, Medtronic, UPS Store, Radio Shack, Red Robin and many national associations.

Walters passion for personal development has been anchored by his professional basketball career. Although a reserve throughout his college basketball career at the University of Minnesota, Bond miraculously enjoyed an eight year career while spending time as a shooting guard for teams such as the Dallas Mavericks, Utah Jazz and Detroit Pistons. This is where he learned peak performance truths that he has also applied to a wildly successful speaking career.

Bonds college basketball career did not say NBA at all. Only hard work, dedication and commitment got him there. That mentality is what he wants to share with your audience. Whether its a new product launch, hitting sales goals, gelling as a team Bond is passionate about sharing his 31 Truths to Boost Peak Performance.

In 2013, Walter appeared as the host of The Food Networks show Giving You The Business. Walter was chosen over numerous candidates because of his infectious personality and franchise business experience. Episodes featured restaurants such as Saladworks, Famous Familia and Jersey Mikes.

Walters program is not just another session. Treat your audience to a memorable, impactful and educational experience. Walter is sure to make you look good.

Communication techniques to improve ones personal, financial, business and emotional life understanding the psychology of happiness.

40 years ago and over a half million consultations later has polished Glenn Michael Milliet into a communications expect sought often and respected throughout the beauty and fashion industry for developing, defining and refining the art of Happiness Selling through the use of time tested and power communication techniques.

Glenn Michael Milliet is now expanding his High Touch, High Energy, High Sales communication seminars for businesses and individuals that want and desire increased sales and long term happy client relationships.

In addition to How to be a Powerful Communicator, Glenns programs include:

Metrics can be like magic. Have you wondered: how can the reports and analytics of digital marketing give you the insight and key info you need to succeed? This seminar will take you step-by-step through the amazing data generated by some of the key online marketing tools and give you tips on how to use it.

Kathryn Cariglino has been a pioneer in the world of women in business since starting her Womens Yellow Pages business in 1989. In 1993 she founded one of the earliest, continuously contracted SBA Womens Business Centers based in Mobile, Alabama. Now retired, she does marketing consulting and serves as the Authorized Local Expert for the Constant Contact Company. The name of her business reflects her own philosophy of life and business: Never Give Up!

I owe much of my success to NSA, and I am proud to serve as the New Orleans Chapter President this year. If you are interested in professional speaking, or marketing yourself as an expert, you cannot afford not to check out the National Speakers Association. Please come visit us and see for yourself. Kevin Gilheany

NEW! Chapter Member All Access Pass to Monthly Workshops $25 per Month

Guest All Access Pass to Monthly Workshops $27 per month subscription

To get regular updates and meeting remindersJoin Our Mailing List

December 5, 2015 Barbara Glanz Rocket to the Top 10 Secrets for Speaking Success

January 9, 2016 Tim Richardson Sales, Marketing, and Reinvention Lessons Learned from 25+ Years in the Speaking Profession

February No Meeting

March 12, 2016 Doug Stevenson Story Theater Storytelling Mastery That Grows Your Business

April 2, 2016 Dan Thurmon Doing What It Takes How to Differentiate and Deliver In Todays Competitive Marketplace

May 14, 2016 Lenora Billings-Harris Embracing the Change Capture Your Audience

June 4, 2016 Mary Kelly Product Development to Increase Bookings and Profits for Speakers

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– National Association of Speakers New Orleans

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Institute for Astronomy

 Astronomy  Comments Off on Institute for Astronomy
Nov 032015
 

Asteroid Discovered by UH Telescope to Make Close Halloween Flyby

A large near-Earth asteroid named 2015 TB145, discovered by the University of Hawaiis Pan-STARRS1 Telescope atop Haleakala, Maui on October 10, will pass close to Earth on October 31. The asteroid has a diameter of approximately 400 meters (1,300 feet), and will pass within approximately 480,000 km (300,000 miles) of Earth. There is no possibility of this object impacting Earth.

Press Release

IfA Maui will hold its annual Open House on Friday, October 23 from 6 to 8 p.m. at the Maikalani building in Pukalani, Maui. Admission is free. Guests will have the opportunity to look through a telescope, tour laboratories, see science and 3D printer demonstrations.

The Kamaina Observatory Experience, presented by Maunakea Observatories and Imiloa Astronomy Center, is a free monthly community event that seeks to inspire a passion for astronomy and an appreciation for the cultural and environmental future of Maunakea among Hawaii residents. It will launch in early 2016. Participation is free and open to all Hawaii residents. Tours will be open once a month to individuals 16 and older with a valid Hawaii ID. Registration is required and will be available via this website on a first come, first served basis.

More

IfA will hold three events in Honolulu in conjunction with White House Astronomy Night on October 19:

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The worlds first robotic laser adaptive optics system, developed by a team led by University of Hawaii at Mnoa astronomer Christoph Baranec, will soon find a new home at the venerable 2.1-meter (83-inch) telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory in Arizona. This system, renamed Robo-AO KP, will be the worlds first dedicated adaptive optics astronomical observatory and will allow astronomers to take an unprecedented number of highly detailed images of a wide range of celestial objects.

Press release

A team of astronomers at the International Astronomical Union meeting in Honolulu, including University of Hawaii astronomer Nader Haghighipour, will announce on August 14 the discovery of the tenth transiting circumbinary planet. Reminiscent of the fictional planet Tatooine in Star Wars, circumbinary planets orbit two stars and have two suns in their skies. The new planet, known as Kepler-453 b, takes 240 days to orbit its parent stars.

Press release

Scientists from the University of Hawaii, including Jeff Kuhn, David Harrington, and John Messersmith, are part of a team headed by Prof. Dr. Svetlana Berdyugina, a visiting scientist at the University of Hawaii NASA Astrobiology Institute, that has proposed a sensitive technique for detecting life on other planets. This technique could be instrumental in searching for life in the planetary system nearest to the sun, Alpha Centauri, with existing telescopes.

Press release

IfA and UHNAI astronomer Nader Haghighipour has been elected president of Division F (Planetary Systems and Astrobiology) of the International Astronomical Union (IAU) for 2015-18. In this capacity, he will have an important role in promoting and encouraging the study of planetary systems around our sun and outside our solar system, as well as the search for life in the universe, one of the most vital fields of astronomy today.

UH News story

For the second year in a row, a graduate of the University of Hawaii at Manoas Institute for Astronomy (IfA) has received the Robert J. Trumpler Award, given by the Astronomical Society of the Pacific to recognize a recent PhD thesis considered unusually important to astronomy. The 2015 recipient is Dr. H. Jabran Zahid, who received his PhD in 2014.

Press release

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Institute for Astronomy

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Pierre Teilhard De Chardin | Designer Children | Prometheism | Euvolution | Transhumanism