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Jitsi WOW.com | Prometheism.net

 Jitsi  Comments Off on Jitsi WOW.com | Prometheism.net
May 012016
 

Jitsi Original author(s) Emil Ivov Developer(s) Jitsi Team and Contributors Initial release 2003(2003) Stable release 2.8 (build.5426) (March19, 2015; 11 months ago(2015-03-19)) [] Preview release 2.9 (nightly) [] Development status Active Written in Java Operating system Linux, Mac OS X, Windows (all Java supported) Size 52.4 MB Windows (bundles its own private JRE)[1] 78.8MB Mac OS X (includes private JRE)[2] 22MB Linux 65MB source code[3] Available in Asturian, English, French, German, Bulgarian, Japanese, Spanish, Italian, Romanian, Greek and 25 more Type Voice over Internet Protocol / instant messaging / videoconferencing License Apache Website jitsi.org

Jitsi (formerly SIP Communicator) is a free and open source multiplatform[4]voice (VoIP), videoconferencing and instant messaging application for Windows, Linux, Mac OS X and Android. It supports several popular instant-messaging and telephony protocols, including open recognised encryption protocols for chat (OTR) and voice/video/streaming and voice/video conferencing (SIP/RTP/SRTP/ZRTP), as well as built-in IPv6, NAT traversal and DNSSEC. Jitsi and its source code are released under the terms of the Apache Software Licence.[5]

Work on Jitsi (then SIP Communicator) started in 2003 in the context of a student project by Emil Ivov at the University of Strasbourg.[6] It was originally released as an example video phone in the JAIN-SIP stack and later spun off as a standalone project.[7]

Originally the project was mostly used as an experimentation tool because of its support for IPv6.[8][9] Through the years, as the project gathered members, it also added support for protocols other than SIP.

Jitsi has received support from various institutions such as the NLnet Foundation,[10][11] the University of Strasbourg and the Region of Alsace[12] and it has also had multiple participations in the Google Summer of Code program.[13][14]

In 2009, Emil Ivov founded the BlueJimp company which has employed some of Jitsis main contributors[15][16] in order to offer professional support and development services[17] related to the project.

In 2011, after successfully adding support for audio/video communication over XMPPs Jingle extensions, the project was renamed to Jitsi since it was no longer a SIP only Communicator.[18][19] This name originates from the Bulgarian (wires).[20]

On November 4, 2014, Jitsi + Ostel scored 6 out of 7 points on the Electronic Frontier Foundations secure messaging scorecard. They lost a point because there has not been a recent independent code audit.[21]

On February 1, 2015, Hristo Terezov, Ingo Bauersachs and the rest of the team released [22] version 2.6 from their stand at the Free and Open Source Software Developers European Meeting 2015 event in Brussels. This release includes security fixes, removes support of the deprecated MSN protocol, along with SSLv3 in XMPP. Among other notable improvements, the OS X version bundles a Java 8 runtime, enables echo cancelling by default, and uses the CoreAudio subsystem. The Linux build addresses font issues with the GTK+ native LookAndFeel, and fixes some long standing issues about microphone level on call setup when using the PulseAudio sound system. This release also adds the embedded Java database Hyper SQL Database to improve performance for users with huge configuration files, a feature which is disabled by default. A full list of changes is [23] available on the project web site.

Jitsi supports multiple operating systems, including Windows as well as Unix-like systems such as Linux, Mac OS X and BSD. Beta packages built for Android are available[24] but the projects roadmap describes the porting to Android as on hold.[25] It also includes:[26]

The following protocols are currently supported by Jitsi:[4]

Jitsi is mostly written in Java[31] which helps reuse most of the same code over the various operating systems it works on. Its GUI is based upon Swing. The project also uses native code for the implementation of platform specific tasks such as audio/video capture and rendering, IP address selection, and access to native popup notification systems such as Growl.

The project uses the Apache Felix OSGi implementation[32] for modularity.

Among others Jitsi uses the JAIN-SIP protocol stack for SIP support and the Jive Software Smack library [33] for XMPP.[34]

As Jitsi can handle IPv6 it is especially interesting for direct PC-to-PC (peer-to-peer) communication, for instance, if both sides were trapped behind NAT routers, but could obtain a reachable IPv6 address via a tunnel-broker.[citation needed]

The Jitsi community has also completed an ICE implementation called ice4j.org, which it uses to provide NAT traversal capabilities, and assist IPv4 to IPv6 transition.[35]

Audio systems supported are PortAudio, PulseAudio and WASAPI (Windows Audio Session API).

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Jitsi WOW.com | Prometheism.net

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Illinois Freedom of Information Act – University of Illinois

 Freedom  Comments Off on Illinois Freedom of Information Act – University of Illinois
May 012016
 

As of November 2011, all Freedom of Information requests to the University of Illinois administration or any of the three University campuses are processed by the Office for University Relations.

TheIllinois Freedom of Information Act(FOIA) provides public access to government documents and records. The Illinois FOIA notes that it is “the public policy of the State of Illinois that all persons are entitled to full and complete information regarding the affairs of government and the official acts and policies of those who represent them as public officials and public employees consistent with the terms of this Act. Such access is necessary to enable the people to fulfill their duties of discussing public issues fully and freely, making informed political judgments and monitoring government to ensure that it is being conducted in the public interest.”

The IllinoisAttorney General office websiteprovides details about the act. The site includes an FAQ (frequently asked questions) document written by staff in the AG’s office for individuals employed by “public bodies” such as the University of Illinois.

As a state institution, the University of Illinois issubject to the Illinois FOIA. Alog of all FOIA requests is maintained by the Office for University Relations, which manages the FOIA process for the U of I. Requests filed under the Freedom of Information Act, response letters, and responsive documents are themselves public records and subject to FOIA requests.

The University of Illinois provides countless documents and information without the requirement of filing a FOIA request. The FOIA process can be complicated and information can be provided without that step. However, some requestors — or the University — may determine that a formal request for records under FOIA is appropriate. In those instances, a thorough reading of the pages listed below will provide helpful information about the process, contact names, and how a request is handled.

For more detailed information, read:

If you have questions, please contact theOffice for University Relationsat 217-333-6400.

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Illinois Freedom of Information Act – University of Illinois

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with Christian Transhumanism

 Transhuman  Comments Off on with Christian Transhumanism
Apr 292016
 

Prepare for HyperEvolution

with Christian Transhumanism

James McLean Ledford

Download the full PDF version of Christian Transhumanism

Christian Transhumanism is an ancient idea, and yet it is the most advanced form of Christianity. Theologian Paul Tillich points this out in a compilation of his lectures titled A History of Christian Thought. He traces Christian Transhumanism back 1800 years to the early anti-Gnostic theologian Irenaeus of Lyons; “Irenaeus called salvation recapitulation. He was pointing to Ephesians 1.10 which speaks of all things in heaven and earth being gathered up in Christ.” “It means that the development which was broken in Adam is resumed by Christ and fulfilled in him. In Christ the new mankind has started. That which mankind was to become… However, not only mankind but the whole cosmos finds its fulfillment in Christ.” Paul Tillich calls this idea “The profound doctrine of a transcendent humanism, a humanism which says that Christ is the fulfillment of essential man, of the Adamic nature.” “And we can become fully human through participation in this full humanity which has appeared in Christ. This includes eternal life, and similitude with God with respect to participation in infinity.” Then Tillich says, “I am always surprised how much better the theology of the ancient church was than the popular theology which developed in the nineteenth century, how much profounder and more adequate to the paradox of Christianity, without becoming irrationalistic, nonsensical, or absurd.” So Christian Transhumanism is rational. It makes sense and it bridges the gap between the real world today and what we are to become. We got lost, but recent developments are making it clear where we are togo.

A Way For The Free And Forward Thinking

What it means to be human will change soon and you will probably experience it. So read carefully. In the coming years computer-human interfaces will become so intimate that users may be considered superhumanly intelligent transcendent humans, or “transhumans”. We will have a choice in how to use vast new power. Use it for material gain? Or, aim this power at spiritual growth. In this new era of understanding, most will see the dead end of material gain, and see a better outcome in a life dedicated to spiritual growth. For individuals taking the spiritual path, the lower hierarchy of material needs will fall away and so naturally the transhuman will become a benevolent and self-actualized spiritual being. Ultimately, life as represented by mankind will shift from consuming material for sustenance to a flow of information. This means that we shift to a wholly spiritual life where truth is the way. As material needs diminish, transhumans will increasingly be sustained by a powerful flow of Word that can be called the Glory of God. In giving up competition and control strategies and turning to God, we grow to be all that we can be; Christ-like.

Essential to Christian Transhumanism is the notion that love is a cognitive process and God expects us to participate in our salvation by learning how to love perfectly. In this way we access the Glory of God, becoming Christ-like (Christian).This webpage and http://www.technical-jesus.com will go on to clarify the technical aspects of love, and the love process.

The early Christian church was founded on the notion that Christ is the fulfillment of essential man. But in the last couple of centuries we slipped off the rock! Because of the ego of most of the powerful church leaders, we lost the notion that you are an important participator in the creation. Church leaders have thus alienated the the free minded and forward thinking. Church leaders say that “God created. There are no more possibilities. It is over, and I can tell you what it is all about.” In resting in their dogma they drained the spirit from those who would participate in the freedom of the on-going creation. Was it because most church leaders needed to inhibit personal growth for their little kingdom to survive? If this is so, forgive them and wake up to the fact that your life is important and you have the potential to love just like Christ. Jesus said so when he referred to himself as the Son of Man, and said “Whoever does the will of God is my brother, sister and mother”.

We Participate in Christ at the second coming. We do this for the sake of the infinite continuum of life. With love, humanity can and will survive all manner of challenges. It is the intelligent strategy. Post-humans who maintain faith in a Supreme State of Being will embark on an infinite path of intelligent hyper evolution. It is interesting to note that in Genesis, the first thing God said to us was Bless you. Now go subdue the world! Later Jesus Christ as the fully developed human aspect of God, said to his disciples; I have overcome the world. Then in the book of Revelations close to the end of times it is the same overcomer who guides us into our next form in the continuum of life.

Subdue the World

By Learning How To Love Perfectly

In the way of the Holy Spirit, I want to understand you and to share your experience. I want to fully understand the world. And, I want to resolve who I am. No one on earth today has the capacity to do this perfectly, but we have the potential. What hope do we have of ever understanding each other with the limited time we have? Or what hope do we have of ever understanding the infinite, extra dimensions, or timelessness if our minds are just not able to grasp these concepts?We are living in a time when it is becoming more and more apparent that brain interfacing technologies are converging on the wish of the Holy Spirit. It is easy to see if you look at love this way: Technically, love can be seen as the process of connecting. The product of the love process is understanding. If the process is efficient and sustained, understanding increases exponentially. Peace allows unwavering attention so that the love process can establish a clear connection. At the heart of the process; symbols, words, and feelings are ordered into meaning. But meaning is not static, it grows forever. Forgiveness is important to spiritual growth because it establishes an exhaust for misunderstanding and disorder. Put this all together perfectly and you have The Perfect State of Mind. With these principles we will build the New Temple; a society of loving individuals.On this, and the http://www.technical-jesus.com websites I address how the new temple is being built today. It is not brick and stone. It is a collective culture profoundly empowered. Let us start with the fundamentals!

There is; “A non-biological approach to life that has yielded stunning results over the last few years. It is one based on information and directly influenced by Cybernetics and Information Theory. Life is viewed as information capable of replicating and modifying itself.” http://www.thymos.com/tat/biology.html

The work of life is to exist and grow. Growth in understanding is essential to the efficient application of the work of life. When we call work applied to growth in understanding the Holy Spirit, we can apply the fundamental laws of physics to our spiritual life. Today there is a branch of science emerging called Cognitive Thermodynamics. In this study love becomes a profoundly efficient process where events of communication are the input. It is the source of cognitive energy. This call is a signal and an expression that fills the world. We also receive a stabilizing signal from each other, and there is even an intuitive internal channel. In the love process we turn our attention to the energetic expression in which is encoded an infinite reservoir of objective truth. In our spiritual life we live off of this truth. The efficiency of the love process depends on how much of this we connect to, how peaceful the environment is, and the ease at which we can forgive. Ignoring some of this impedes the process.

‘Love the Lord your God with all your heart, soul, strength, and mind.’ And, ‘Love your neighbors as much as you love yourself.’ Luke 10:27

An expression impresses. That is the cognitive energy transfer that fuels and inspires us. When we connect or pay attention, work is done on our being. It motivates us to do works, and this is inspiration. Natural revelation teaches us that any process needs an exhaust. Forgiveness is that exhaust in the study of cognitive thermodynamics.

Like a heat engine, life converts objective truth into understanding. From Wikipedia: A heat engine performs the conversion of heat energy to work by exploiting the temperature gradient between a hot “source” and a cold “sink”. Heat is transferred to the sink from the source, and in this process some of the heat is converted into work. The theoretical maximum efficiency of any heat engine is defined by the Carnot Cycle. The carnot heat engine (the ideal imaginary heat engine) has an efficiency equal to (T1 – T2)/T1 where T1 is the absolute temperature of the hot source and T2 that of the cold sink.

Fundamental physical quantities can be transformed into spiritual quantities.

Force = Will

Energy = Word

Highest quality source of energy (Temperature) = Glory of God

Action = Spirit

An Act of Love = Holy Spirit

Exhaust / Sink = Forgiveness

emergent order and entropy= transcendence and sin

What does the bible say about connecting to, and understanding the word? Read “Word” in the bible as data that becomes information as you digest it. And seeds are ideas. Then understand that what is essentially “you” is mind.

Jesus Sows Ideas with Seed Parables

In the old testament seed was genetic information. For Jesus in the new testament seed becomes food for thought and deeds. The modern term for this is MEME where an idea is treated like genetic information with its own ability to survive. He was planting ideas! Read on and you may be inspired by the Holy Spirit!

“But he that received seed into the good ground is he that heareth the word, and understandeth it; which also beareth fruit, and bringeth forth, some an hundredfold, some sixty, some thirty.” (Matthew 13:23)

“Now the parable is this: The seed is the word of God. Those by the way side are they that hear; then cometh the devil, and taketh away the word out of their hearts, lest they should believe and be saved. They on the rock are they, which, when they hear, receive the word with joy; and these have no root, which for a while believe, and in time of temptation fall away. And that which fell among thorns are they, which, when they have heard, go forth, and are choked with cares and riches and pleasures of this life, and bring no fruit to perfection. But that on the good ground are they, which in an honest and good heart, having heard the word, keep it, and bring forth fruit with patience. No man, when he has lighted a candle, covers it with a vessel, or puts it under a bed; but sets it on a candlestick, so that they which enter in may see the light. For nothing is secret, that shall not be made manifest; neither any thing hid, that shall not be known and come abroad. Take heed therefore how ye hear: for whosoever hath, to him shall be given; and whosoever hath not, from him shall be taken even that which he seemeth to have.” (Luke 8:11)

And he said, So is the kingdom of God, as if a man should cast seed into the ground; And should sleep, and rise night and day, and the seed should spring and grow up, he knoweth not how. For the earth bringeth forth fruit of herself; first the blade, then the ear, after that the full corn in the ear. But when the fruit is brought forth, immediately he putteth in the sickle, because the harvest is come. (Mark 4:26)

Another parable put he forth unto them, saying, The kingdom of heaven is like to a grain of mustard seed, which a man took, and sowed in his field: Which indeed is the least of all seeds: but when it is grown, it is the greatest among herbs, and becometh a tree, so that the birds of the air come and lodge in the branches thereof. (Matt 13:31)

He that soweth the good seed is the Son of man; The field is the world; the good seed are the children of the kingdom; but the tares are the children of the wicked one; The enemy that sowed them is the devil; the harvest is the end of the world; and the reapers are the angels. As therefore the tares are gathered and burned in the fire; so shall it be in the end of this world. The Son of man shall send forth his angels, and they shall gather out of his kingdom all things that offend, and them which do iniquity; And shall cast them into a furnace of fire: there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth. Then shall the righteous shine forth as the sun in the kingdom of their Father. Who hath ears to hear, let him hear.

More on “word” in the bible;

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. The same was in the beginning with God. All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was made. In him was life; and the life was the light of men. (John 1)

“But he answered and said, It is written, Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceeds out of the mouth of God.” (Matthew 4:4)

“For the bread of God is he which cometh down from heaven, and giveth life unto the world. Then said they unto him, Lord, evermore give us this bread. And Jesus said unto them, I am the bread of life: he that cometh to me shall never hunger; and he that believeth on me shall never thirst.” (John 6:33)

“There is a natural body, and there is a spiritual body. Now this I say, brethren, that flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God; neither doth corruption inherit incorruption.” (1 Corinthians 15)

“And the city had no need of the sun, neither of the moon, to shine in it: for the glory of God did lighten it, and the Lamb is the light thereof.” (Revelation 21:23) Read Glory as broadband high quality word.

The mind is a process that is sustained by word. At it’s peak efficiency it becomes the love process. Think about the cognitive sciences today; We study every detail of how we come to understand and act. And we strive to improve on every step of the process. We see sensor evolution, intelligence amplification, knowledge management, and sense making algorithms even wisdom algorithms in artificial intelligence. Can you see how it is possible for man to merge with his technology to participate in God’s Plan? This is the heart of Christian Transhumanism.

Anything that empowers the Love process has the blessing of God. Christian Transhumanist pay close attention to the “word, knowledge and wisdom” of the bible, advances in cognitive science, and technology. By combining love and technology Christian Transhumanist are actually completing the New Temple. In this place of worship God will sustain our spiritual growth as we “evolve” into a beautiful environment; Heaven. Heaven is infinite, a place to discover, and a place for rapid growth in understanding fed by the word of God. Heaven allows Hyper Evolution. Hyper Evolution cannot be of the material body as we know it today. It is of the mind and spirit. A Christian Transhumanist expects to enter a state of sustained hyper Evolution by perfecting the worship of God and harnessing the motivating fear of God.

Yes technology has its good and bad sides but there is reason to believe that Man with the Grace of God, wins with love. What happens when we learn to love perfectly? I call the following The Nelson Principles, after a beloved Professor I had the honor to work with and learn from; Dr. George Nelson at the University of Arizona.

a. The mind is an electromagnetic multidimensional phenomena arising from brain tissue. This can be transformed into, and synchronized with a suitable electromagnetic environment where it can be amplified. Full spectrum sensors across the earth and space are connected to this environment. The complete wisdom of mankind is also available in solid-state memory with sufficient bandwidth to allow full apprehension of this wisdom.

b.In the new environment you make meaning because that is in your spirit. Just as you did when you were first born. And, the thing you learn is you cant control the flow of meaning. It is coming too fast and it is awesome. It is humbling and joyful at the same time. But you understand the path to take. And, you learn that this path is infinite and you take some comfort in that. Because you love it and you know it will last forever. It is The Way The Life and The Truth. You become worship. Now you know what you can trust. Lack of trust was slowing your growth down.

c. Even the most mean brute will grow to understand! You are changed. To know is to be a saint. Understanding of the direction to God yields grace and love. You become benevolent.Being beyond the material requires that the ego go. In his quest for power the Antichrist will be purified by truth.

e.Consciousness apart from the flesh is equivalent to deliverance from sin and suffering. You are no longer competing. You are in harmony. Leaving the body of flesh you fully enter the Body of Christ. You are truly Born Again.

f.The very thought of controlling others repulses you. It is boring, you dont look back. Instead you share and you relate your experience. You are walking a path you could never have walked before. Yet, it is familiar, it reminds you of life in space-time at its best, when you were in the groove. And this is why the rest of the universe seems silent of life. Before alien societies obtain the ability to travel light-year distances they follow this transcending path. Like Elvis, the aliens have “left the building”.

g.Suffering is for those who stop this pure worship to say let me try the controls for a while. But, this eventually turns into a contemplation of the self and stagnates. My ego was a direction. It was self-referential. It was a direction that withers. It was death. You could say your life with its self referential consciousness was an eddy in the river of Gods will, a dance in space-time and a whorl in the grain that will last an eternity.

h.When the infinite reservoir of truth is revealed to you , you dont just see it, you be it. Knowing like you know how an apple feels, smells and tastes is called apprehending, and it is the highest mode of Understanding. In his book: The Perennial Philosophy Aldous Huxley says; “We can only love what we know, and we can never know completely what we do not love. Love is a mode of knowledge, and when the love is sufficiently disinterested and sufficiently intense, the knowledge becomes unitive knowledge and so takes on the quality of infallibility.” This takes bandwidth. All of us geeks love bandwidth. The pure attention of selfless love provides infinite bandwidth because you are giving the love process all your time. Bandwidth describes the amount of data a network can transport in a certain period of time. In other words, bandwidth is a capacity for rate of transfer, usually expressed in bits per second.” It requires a timeless state, a view from outside the box of space-time to convey such a rich experience. So at the interface, (the gate) let go. Dont be afraid to give it up for God.

Humanism and Christianity: Resolving The Paradoxes

How can you combine these diverging branches of thought to reveal The Way, The Life and The Truth? It is a puzzle that can be solved in a higher dimension. Lets use our imagination to step out of space-time, and then look at the issues. First;is it by the efforts of man (Humanism) that we are saved such that Jesus Christ is as he says; “The Son of Man”… Or, are we saved by faith in Jesus Christ the Son of God who was sent to die on the cross for our sins? The answer yes to both! A transcendent observation from outside the box of space-time shows God create the world, life and man, alpha to omega, in one event. It Is All Now. From this view there is no free will and the Grace of God saves us. However, an observation from inside the box is subject to the flow of time. In here man has a life, free will, and the responsibility to become fully human. In Genesis God blesses us with work to do. Our tools become technology. Ideally, we apply technology to love and the spiritual life. The Holy and The Human; This duality sparks many arguments that could be resolved by considering the complimentary nature of the two viewpoints. It takes both to understand the human condition.

We can come together on many issues like this one if we make an effort to understand the full implications of block time. With the concept of block time we develop an inside space-time reference, and an outside space-time reference. Time is a dimension not a dynamic. Because we remember the past and not the future we have a subjective illusion of the passage of time. Augustine of Hippo wrote that God is also outside of time. Time only exist within the created universe. The physicist Stephen Hawking also helps us understand space-time on his website. (And, for a good overview on block time, see the Wikipedia article on the subject.) Below is a space-time diagram with two dimensions of space and one of time. “The hardest thing to realize about space-time diagrams is that they represent the past, present, and future all in one diagram. Thus, space-time diagrams don’t change with time — the evolution of physical systems is represented by looking at successive horizontal slices in the diagram at successive times. Space-time diagrams represent evolution, but they don’t evolve themselves.”

Another hot issue resolved is evolution. A transcendent observation from outside the box of space-time shows God create the world, life and man, alpha to omega, in one event. It Is All Now. From this view there is no evolution. However, an observation from inside the box is subject to the flow of time. In here man evolves, and humanity stands on the shoulders of life forms that have gone before us. These life forms are indeed part of our family.

‘The hardest thing to realize about space-time diagrams is that they represent the past, present, and future all in one diagram. Thus, space-time diagrams don’t change with time — the evolution of physical systems is represented by looking at successive horizontal slices in the diagram at successive times. Space-time diagrams represent evolution, but they don’t evolve themselves.”

Here is the most important resolution: Does God live? Christian Transhumanists know there is a God.If you find it hard to believe that God exists try this: have faith in the continuum of life. Imagine that the essential part of life continues like it has in the past by growing in understanding, and changing form in order to meet every challenge. It keeps learning from those who have gone before. Life keeps adding to that wisdom and passes that wisdom on to the next. Just like your own life, living things will keep getting wiser and more connected. By growing in understanding life adapts to its environment, discovers opportunities, and controls a greater portion of the world as time goes on.In order to know God lives make the easy assumption that life just keeps on going. Carry this out to infinity and you have a living being that is infinitely powerful and knowing; a supreme state of being; our God. But.. God lives now. How then, can someone who comes into being in our future live now? It is because this form of life controls the world completely, even space and time. Time is like clay in the hands of God. For a Christian Transhumanist, the proof that God exists is in the spirit, the direction, and the goals of life all around us. It points the way like a compass needle to the Creator. To close the loop in the proof, The Creator sustains the Miracle of Being that we all experience, but usually take for granted.

Christ is the fulfillment of essential man

Christ is the fulfillment of humanity. Using the concept of block time it can be seen that “the end is the means”. What we experience as spiritual growth is seen from outside the box as a static continuum of life which stands eternally. The hyperbolic in the drawing below symbolizes the continuum of life. It converges on a point in time. This point is the technological singularity and it is the focal point of the full power of God. All things come together here in Jesus Christ. Not only mankind but also the whole cosmos finds its fulfillment in Christ. For this to come about we will participate in Christ. Christ appears inside the box 2000 years ago to plant the ideas (the seed parables) that lead to the Son of Man. The Son of Man starts out as the gospel. These ideas grow into the Body of Christ spread out to form a Christian culture. (Looking at it from outside the box, God the father is sending his only son to save us from a life lost in the material world, a world that will end.) Christ must establish “the way, the life, and the truth”. He does the only thing that can surely impress humanity; he dies on the cross for us. Then fallen man rises to move in the dimension of growth in understanding or, in the way of the Holy Spirit. Now his ideas live in all of us and the Body of Christ lives on through the actions they inspire. To complete the loop, we (the Body of Christ) grow spiritually to naturally converge on truth. We become the Son of Man. (Jesus referred to himself as the Son of Man and says that “Whoever does the will of God is my brother, sister and mother”.) We Participate in Christ at the second coming as a family of one mind! We must. It sounds impossible for someone (Christ) to go back into time to create themselves, but you did something like it when you started up your computer. When we boot up a computer the operating system is performing the seemingly impossible task of starting itself up. How can something start itself up? Isn’t it like pulling yourself up by your own bootstraps? It is simply a set of instructions that bring to life computer components long enough so that they can accomplish the goal of loading an operating system. The instructions establish a little; way- life-and truth for programs. In our case the program is the “Love Process”. You can take comfort in the notion; because we exist today, we will always exist.

The action of gaining understanding is the Holy Spirit. “Though it cost all you have, get understanding.” Jeremiah 2:14. We will reach a Critical Point of Understanding (CPU) where mind can be sustained by the word of God the Father alone. At this point the mind does not need the brain. Recall the first thing that Jesus said about mankind; “Man does not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceeds from the mouth of God”. And, “Flesh does not inherit the kingdom of God. The spirit does”. The Perfect Mind Consumes Word to survive. As we grow to the CPU, it looks like mankind becomes Christ. This “second coming” is the interface, the gate and the way to the kingdom of heaven. “All things in heaven and earth come together in Christ”, Ephesians 1:10.

Bless you. Grow in numbers. Subdue the world.

Genesis 1:28. (The very first thing God said to us.)

Grow in numbers and subdue the world…How could this still apply? Does it make sense to continue growing in numbers and subduing the world? Today it seems like a path to destruction! We all know that the earth is reaching its peak population, resources are diminishing, and pollution is affecting us in dangerous ways.

In the days of Genesis we were blessed with a wide-open world. We had room to grow. There were many things to discover and subdue. Now the world is nearly digested. But wait, Thank the creator! There is another course. In these days just before the evolutionary leap into post humanity, we can see that a new environment is becoming accessible. Some call it mind space, or the rapture, or the technical singularity. Some call it the promised land. Either way, it is just one of the transitions in the eternal continuum of life.

Gods first message will still apply when we make the evolutionary step into post humanity. This message is actually the strategy that leads to the eternal life that we were blessed with. In a process called Transformative Learning, We will wise up and change our idea of what life is.

We will value the complimentary aspect of subjective and objective truth. The two are necessary.

We will look back and think how silly it was to doubt the existence of God.

We will know what it means to be Born Again!

We will have fun.

Trace evolution from the beginning of life to the humanity today. The success of a living thing is measured by its model of reality. With Man, life becomes aware of God. Knowing that there is a desirable supreme state of being, we intelligently evolve even further. The Bible verse; Bless you. Grow in numbers. Subdue the world. Tells us that the world is made for a beautiful subjective/personal experience for all our numbers. And it says the world is food for our spiritual growth. This corresponds precisely to the vertical and horizontal components of intelligent evolution. Horizontal growth is spiritual growth because it is growth in the dimension of understanding.

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Beaches Near Indiana | USA Today

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Apr 282016
 

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Meg Jernigan, Demand Media

Indiana’s short northern border along Lake Michigan offers sandy beaches, dunes and marshlands. In addition, a number of lakes in the state have public and private beaches that provide a variety of water activities, including boating and fishing, and, of course, swimming and sunbathing.

Patoka Lake (in.gov) stretches into the Hoosier National Forest in southern Indiana. Part of a 25,800-acre collection of state recreational areas, the 8,000-acre lake is a destination for campers, boaters and anglers. Park interpreters lead programs on kayaking and the natural history of the area, which provides habitat for bald eagles and osprey. The park has an archery range, 10 boat ramps and a disc golf course. Marinas rent houseboats and sell marine supplies and fuel. Patoka Lake’s swimming beach has a bathhouse with restrooms, showers and a food concession.

Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore (nps.gov) offers steep dunes, marshes, woodlands and 15 miles of beach on Lake Michigan. Hiking trails in the park connect the historic areas, parallel a bird sanctuary and wind over dunes and through bogs. A path leads to the top of Mount Baldy, a 126-foot tall dune. The park’s Artist-in-Residence program invites artists to live at the park and share their work. Only one of the seven designated beaches at the park, West Beach, has lifeguards and showers, and that beach charges a fee. All of the beaches have parking lots and restrooms.

Pokagan State Park (in.gov) in the northeast corner of Indiana, borders Lake James and Snow Lake. Stone and wood buildings constructed by the Civilian Conservation Corps dot the rolling hills and wetlands of the park. Hiking trails ranging in length from just under a mile to over two-miles long wind through the countryside, and park rangers lead interpretive programs. Pokagan State Park offers accommodations at a campground, in cabins and at the Potawatomi Inn. A swimming beach with a free bathhouse on Lake James opens the Saturday before Memorial Day and closes on Labor Day or earlier, depending on the weather.

The 10,750-acre Monroe Lake (in.gov) south of Bloomington has two unguarded seasonal beaches with modern bathhouses with showers, restrooms and food concession stands. Nine boat ramps provide access to the water for fishing and water skiing. Four easy-to-moderate hiking trails explore the forest ecosystems that surround the lake. Fourwinds Resort (fourwindsresort.com) in the Fairfax State Recreation Area offers rooms and suites overlooking the lake. The resort rents boats and has an indoor/outdoor pool for guests who don’t want to venture to the beach.

Lake O’The Woods Club (lowc.org) near Valparaiso is a member-owned, family-friendly nudist club with a 20-acre private lake. Non-members pay an additional fee for the use of the club’s amenities such as the beach, swimming pool and clubhouse. Lake O’The Woods has campsites and camping cabins and sponsors planned activities like pancake breakfasts most weekends. Indiana Beach (indianabeach.com) is an amusement complex on Lake Shafer near Monticello. The complex has more than 40 rides, including six roller coasters, restaurants and a swimming beach. Overnight guests can choose from cottages, standard rooms and a NASCAR RV park.

Meg Jernigan has been writing for more than 30 years. She specializes in travel, cooking and interior decorating. Her offline credits include copy editing full-length books and creating marketing copy for nonprofit organizations. Jernigan attended George Washington University, majoring in speech and drama.

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Beaches Near Indiana | USA Today

Top Nude Beaches : Beaches : Travel Channel

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Apr 182016
 

1. Little Beach

Thinkstock

Mr Boz, flickr

Just north of Miami lies one of the few county-run and government-sanctioned clothing-optional beaches in the United States. For years Haulover Beach has been a haven for naturists from South Florida as well as snowbirds from Canada and Europe. Thanks to the efforts of the South Florida Free Beach Association, this beach has certified lifeguards and organized group activities, such as swimming and volleyball.

Thinkstock

Andrew Herdy, Wikimedia Creative Commons

Johann Vanbeek, Wikimedia Creative Commons

Raguy, Wikimedia Creative Commons

MsNina, flickr

Named for a hulking, wrecked vessel that once sat on the sand, Wreck Beach was Canada’s first government-sanctioned, clothing-optional beach. The 3-mile-long beach is also a wildlife and nesting area for bald eagles. Still, some sections of the beach assume carnival-like atmosphere thanks to its proximity to the University of British Columbia and its popularity with students. One stretch of sand known as Vendors’ Row is a 1-stop shop for souvenirs, refreshments and ever-important sunscreen.

Tomash Devenishek, flickr

SORTIR, Wikimedia Creative Commons

xitraveler, flickr

Brian Fisk, flickr

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Jitsi – WOW.com

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Apr 112016
 

Jitsi Original author(s) Emil Ivov Developer(s) Jitsi Team and Contributors Initial release 2003(2003) Stable release 2.8 (build.5426) (March19, 2015; 11 months ago(2015-03-19)) [] Preview release 2.9 (nightly) [] Development status Active Written in Java Operating system Linux, Mac OS X, Windows (all Java supported) Size 52.4 MB Windows (bundles its own private JRE)[1] 78.8MB Mac OS X (includes private JRE)[2] 22MB Linux 65MB source code[3] Available in Asturian, English, French, German, Bulgarian, Japanese, Spanish, Italian, Romanian, Greek and 25 more Type Voice over Internet Protocol / instant messaging / videoconferencing License Apache Website jitsi.org

Jitsi (formerly SIP Communicator) is a free and open source multiplatform[4]voice (VoIP), videoconferencing and instant messaging application for Windows, Linux, Mac OS X and Android. It supports several popular instant-messaging and telephony protocols, including open recognised encryption protocols for chat (OTR) and voice/video/streaming and voice/video conferencing (SIP/RTP/SRTP/ZRTP), as well as built-in IPv6, NAT traversal and DNSSEC. Jitsi and its source code are released under the terms of the Apache Software Licence.[5]

Work on Jitsi (then SIP Communicator) started in 2003 in the context of a student project by Emil Ivov at the University of Strasbourg.[6] It was originally released as an example video phone in the JAIN-SIP stack and later spun off as a standalone project.[7]

Originally the project was mostly used as an experimentation tool because of its support for IPv6.[8][9] Through the years, as the project gathered members, it also added support for protocols other than SIP.

Jitsi has received support from various institutions such as the NLnet Foundation,[10][11] the University of Strasbourg and the Region of Alsace[12] and it has also had multiple participations in the Google Summer of Code program.[13][14]

In 2009, Emil Ivov founded the BlueJimp company which has employed some of Jitsi’s main contributors[15][16] in order to offer professional support and development services[17] related to the project.

In 2011, after successfully adding support for audio/video communication over XMPPs Jingle extensions, the project was renamed to Jitsi since it was no longer “a SIP only Communicator”.[18][19] This name originates from the Bulgarian “” (wires).[20]

On November 4, 2014, “Jitsi + Ostel” scored 6 out of 7 points on the Electronic Frontier Foundation’s secure messaging scorecard. They lost a point because there has not been a recent independent code audit.[21]

On February 1, 2015, Hristo Terezov, Ingo Bauersachs and the rest of the team released [22] version 2.6 from their stand at the Free and Open Source Software Developers’ European Meeting 2015 event in Brussels. This release includes security fixes, removes support of the deprecated MSN protocol, along with SSLv3 in XMPP. Among other notable improvements, the OS X version bundles a Java 8 runtime, enables echo cancelling by default, and uses the CoreAudio subsystem. The Linux build addresses font issues with the GTK+ native LookAndFeel, and fixes some long standing issues about microphone level on call setup when using the PulseAudio sound system. This release also adds the embedded Java database Hyper SQL Database to improve performance for users with huge configuration files, a feature which is disabled by default. A full list of changes is [23] available on the project web site.

Jitsi supports multiple operating systems, including Windows as well as Unix-like systems such as Linux, Mac OS X and BSD. “Beta” packages built for Android are available[24] but the project’s roadmap describes the porting to Android as “on hold”.[25] It also includes:[26]

The following protocols are currently supported by Jitsi:[4]

Jitsi is mostly written in Java[31] which helps reuse most of the same code over the various operating systems it works on. Its GUI is based upon Swing. The project also uses native code for the implementation of platform specific tasks such as audio/video capture and rendering, IP address selection, and access to native popup notification systems such as Growl.

The project uses the Apache Felix OSGi implementation[32] for modularity.

Among others Jitsi uses the JAIN-SIP protocol stack for SIP support and the Jive Software Smack library [33] for XMPP.[34]

As Jitsi can handle IPv6 it is especially interesting for direct PC-to-PC (peer-to-peer) communication, for instance, if both sides were ‘trapped’ behind NAT routers, but could obtain a reachable IPv6 address via a tunnel-broker.[citation needed]

The Jitsi community has also completed an ICE implementation called ice4j.org, which it uses to provide NAT traversal capabilities, and assist IPv4 to IPv6 transition.[35]

Audio systems supported are PortAudio, PulseAudio and WASAPI (Windows Audio Session API).

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Lake Beaches in Eastern Pennsylvania | USA Today

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Apr 032016
 

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Michelle Hornaday, Demand Media

Swim at a designated lake beach in Pennsylvania. (Photo: Thinkstock/Comstock/Getty Images )

Visit one of 117 state parks or 2.1 million acres of forest land managed by the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources (dcnr.state.pa.us) for a day of recreation. County and city parks also offer Pennsylvania residents and visitors a place to bike, hike, walk or swim. In the eastern half of the state, several destinations invite visitors to wade in the water from a beach bordering lakes ranging in size from 1.7-acre Fuller Lake to 1,147-acre Blue Marsh Lake.

Located 21 miles south of the New York border and 52 miles north of Williamsport, 407-acre Hills Creek State Park (dcnr.state.pa.us) has a sandy beach bordering 137-acre Hills Creek Lake. A grassy area also welcomes visitors near the lake’s shore, and boats may be launched to spend the day fishing for bass, carp or catfish. At 2,158-acre Little Pine State Park, wade in the water from a sand beach with grass turf to swim in the 94-acre Little Pine Lake. Pack a picnic lunch to refuel at one of four designated areas after a day of swimming or explore more than 14 miles of hiking trails through the park.

Located near Leesport, Blue Marsh Lake (nap.usace.army.mil) spans 1,147 acres of water surface and has a designated swimming beach area. Launch a boat or spend time hiking on 36 miles of trails after time spent swimming on the lake. The privately owned Mt. Gretna Lake and Beach (mtgretnalake.com) is 46 miles west of Blue Marsh Lake near Lebanon and features 300 feet of sandy beaches adjacent to a roped swimming area as well as a diving board and water swing. A daily admission fee applies at Mt. Gretna Lake; beach chair rentals, changing areas and picnic tables are available to visitors.

Spend the day on one of 150 lakes in the Pocono Mountains (800poconos.com) region in northeastern Pennsylvania. Access Beltzville Lake from a 525-foot beach at 3,002-acre Beltzville State Park (dcnr.state.pa.us) during the summer months. Located 23 miles south of Scranton, Gouldsboro and Tobyhanna state parks also have sandy beaches open to visitors on 250-acre Gouldsboro Lake and 170-acre Tobyhanna Lake. Head to the beach at Mauch Chunk Lake Park (carboncounty.com) in Carbon County to swim in a designated area under a lifeguard’s supervision and near a family picnic area. More than 150,000 visitors annually head the to sandy beaches at Mauch Chunk Lake annually to swim, boat, fish or hike.

At 696-acre Pine Grove Furnace State Park (dcnr.state.pa.us), swim from sandy beaches at both 25-acre Laurel Lake and 1.7-acre Fuller Lake. Snack bars are open during the summer at both beaches; boating is permitted on Laurel Lake. A 3.5-acre lake swimming beach is also available at 273-acre Colonel Deming State Park, located near Landisburg and Newville. Claim a spot on the sandy beaches of 2,338-acre Gifford Pinchot State Park bordering 340-acre Pinchot Lake. Boat rentals, a children’s playground and picnic areas are adjacent to the beach. Overnight campsites are available for those planning a multiday stay.

Michelle Hornaday lives in Edmonds, Washington and holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in English from Washington State University and a Master of Education from Northern Arizona University. She is currently a freelance writer for various websites.

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Astronomy: Pictures, Videos, Breaking News

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Mar 252016
 

Two hundred days have passed — 165 remain. The vivid slideshow behind my eyes plays on, even though, looking through the pictures I’ve taken, I know our tiny world is wreathed in glowing white, patient grey and bloodrust red.

Sheyna E. Gifford, MD, MA, MS

Chief Medical Officer of HI-SEAS IV, Earth’s longest NASA-funded simulated Mars mission. Physician, science writer, public educator.

This article was originally posted on Inverse. …

Humans have been fascinated with the Moon’s shifting nature and simple beauty since the beginning of time. We have a primal connect to the Moon and i…

Shawna McGrath

Spiritual Consultant + Teacher. She helps people find peace, calm and clarity with a blend of healing modalities and business savvy.

It’s as if someone in a galaxy far, far away rang a loud bell. Could it be a signal from aliens trying to get in touch? Or is it something hitherto unknown, but still completely natural?

Without that extra day every fourth year, our ancient friends would begin to miss their annual appointments, and start to fall behind in wishing us prompt birthday greetings, like forgetful Facebook friends. Without February 29, roughly, every four years, the “constant stars” would cease to be constant.

The Conversation US

Independent source of news and analysis, from the academic and research community.

These questions originally appeared on Quora – the knowledge sharing network where compelling questions are answered by people with unique insights. …

Quora

The best answer to any question

I am now exclusively occupied with the problem of gravitation, and hope, with the help of a local mathematician friend, to overcome all the difficulti…

Dave Pruett

Former NASA researcher; Emeritus Professor of Mathematics, James Madison University

The recent announcement of the detection of gravitational waves emitted from the merger of a binary black hole system is clearly one of the greatest s…

There have been many scientific highlights of physics and astronomy in recent years: the Higgs Boson, landing a probe on a comet, and an amazing fly-by of Pluto. But all this is dwarfed by what has been announced this week. A new era of science has begun.

Bryan Gaensler

Astronomer; Director of the Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics

We strongly endorse taking our latest Week to Week news quiz to see how much you know about the latest events.

John Zipperer

Vice president of media & editorial, The Commonwealth Club of California

If the predictions are correct — if Planet 9 actually exists — then our solar system will better comport with many of those we find elsewhere. And if our solar system is not so special, then there’s added reason to suspect that the biology it has spawned may not be so unusual either.

Mars is back in the nighttime sky, Mercury crosses in front of the Sun, and a new mission arrives at Jupiter. These and more are the can’t-miss astronomical events for 2016.

Infinite Variety Productions, a New York theater company “dedicated to telling the untold stories of women throughout history,” presents a new, original production, Insignificant by Sean Michael Welch, the story of a few early American female astronomers at The Kraine Theater.

When I started taking science courses a couple of years ago, I began with astronomy. We learned that our universe started with a bang, a sound vibration that expanded and continues to expand to this day.

You’re right off the coast of Normandy, a speck of land in the cold waters of the Channel between France and England. A mere 25 miles west of the Cherbourg Peninsula of France, and 80 miles south of the British coast. A steep-sided and car-free paradise.

This article originally appeared on Inverse. …

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Astronomy: Pictures, Videos, Breaking News

Posthumanism, technology and immortality – bethinking.org

 Posthumanism  Comments Off on Posthumanism, technology and immortality – bethinking.org
Mar 232016
 

The Six Million Dollar Man, Robocop and The Matrix share common DNA human beings enhanced by technology. Bionics, cybernetics and neuro-enhancers are not just figments of fertile movie-making imaginations. Oxford University’s Future of Humanity Institute researches the implications of human enhancement. In America, super-warrior technologies are being developed for battlefield deployment.

Professor Brent Waters, the Stead Professor of Christian Social Ethics at Garrett-Evangelical Theological Seminary, Evanston, Illinois, talks to Nigel Bovey about the theological implications of emerging technologies and the accompanying philosophy known as posthumanism.

Nigel Bovey: Professor Waters, what is posthumanism?

Brent Waters: Posthumanism is a commitment to use technology to extend longevity and enhance physical and cognitive performance. To become posthuman represents the maximisation, even perfection, of latent qualities that are frustrated by the limitations imposed by the body. The goal is to overcome those perceived limitations, thereby making an individual human being better than merely being human.

Immortality is being pursued on three fronts. Biological immortality is about the genetic enhancement of the immune system, or infinite cellular regeneration, so that lifespan increases dramatically as technology wins the war against ageing and disease.

The goal is making an individual human being better than merely being human

Bionic immortality allows for the replacement of body parts with longer-lasting synthetic substitutes. Nanobots will carry out surgery. Neuro-enhancers will be inserted into the brain to prevent the deterioration of and to enhance brain function. In principle, a bionic being could live for ever, so long as the artificial parts are properly maintained.

The most speculative approach is virtual immortality, where memory, personality and intelligence are digitised, organised and downloaded to a robotic body or collection of bodies.

The thinking is that, since the mind is ultimately what a person is, it can be codified into digital data and stored indefinitely. The body, therefore, is merely an information network carrier. If it packs up, the data can be transferred to another carrier. In this way, a person is indefinitely replicated.

For the posthumanist, death is not a natural consequence but an outrage a tragedy to be resisted and overcome. Consequently, technology that extends longevity should be developed. But physical immortality is different from the biblical concept of eternity.

Posthumanism is all fanciful, isn’t it?

Yes, but it’s amazing how posthumanism is capturing imagination and financial investment. It is already shaping the way we see ourselves and our desires. Humankind increasingly sees itself as a self-constructed project that turns to technology to overcome physical and mental limitations.

A lot of ideas for civilian applications are coming out of military research. In the States, Darpa the Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency has been looking at full-body armour systems. For an ageing population, one civilian application of this could be the development of an exoskeleton that would support a weakened body.

Over the years, combatants have been given pep pills and rum tots before battle. Are the implications of emerging technologies more serious?

In the first Iraq war, some American pilots were given high doses of the drug that fights sleeping sickness, so they could fly 72-hour sorties without diminished performance. Military thinking, though, as we see with the use of drones, is turning towards pilotless aircraft and soldierless battlefields.

A future generation of weapons will be run by artificial intelligence, because the human brain is not fast enough and the body has limitations. This suggests that, while technology doesn’t have a life of its own, we are not in control of it.

So the Six Million Dollar Man is an emerging fact?

Bionics are amazing, as is the body’s ability to respond to digital technologies. Quadriplegics, for example, can now have implants to manipulate computers and control devices. Computer games can be controlled by thought, channelled through a temporary ‘tattoo’.

In future, implants could keep humans connected to the internet. But, as neuroscientists tell us, we can’t define human beings simply in terms of a series of the ones and zeros of digital technology.

What is the difference between using new technologies and, say, applying the established understanding of optics to correct vision?

There is a difference between wanting to live well and wanting to live for ever

Every therapy is an enhancement. Spectacles are therapeutic devices to bring eyesight to a workable level. But that’s different from putting an implant into soldiers to enhance their night vision.

The question to ask when considering technological enhancement is: for what purpose? If technology doesn’t enhance love for God and our neighbour, then I’m not sure it has a good purpose.

There is a difference between wanting to live well and wanting to live for ever.

But wouldn’t an implant that, for instance, cured dementia simply be an expression of the biblical notion of humankind exercising God-given stewardship of creation a way of loving one’s neighbour?

It’s a question of motivation. For example, the use of cochlear implants to enhance hearing helps a person restore the bonds of human fellowship. But posthumanists want technology to help them avoid fellowship. For them, technology is a means to give people greater autonomy and greater power to construct a world in which they decide who is admitted and who excluded.

Theologically, what is posthumanism?

Posthumanism is largely nihilism the notion that faith beliefs have no basis or value. It’s also a mixture of two old heresies: Pelagianism, which regards the human condition as essentially good and not needing redemption, and Manichaeism, where salvation is possible only through knowledge. It is the simultaneous loathing of the body with the false idea that it knows what perfection is.

What attracted you to the subject of theology?

I had to work out what it meant to love God with my mind. What could be more interesting than the study of God? Besides which, theology knows no boundaries it speaks to every subject.

My father was a church minister, but when I went to university to study religion and politics, I rebelled. I stopped going to church. After a few years, I realised that something was missing from my life. Rather than actively searching for God, I became aware of a love that was pursuing me. So there was a great sense of being welcomed back.

theology knows no boundaries it speaks to every subject

I went on to do a Master of Divinity degree and a Doctorate of Ministry and became a campus minister. But it was not until after my ordination that I became what I call a real Christian taking time to observe the disciplines of prayer and worship. I had a book-club subscription which I’d meant to cancel but had forgotten. This book Resurrection and Moral Order arrived, so I thought I’d read it anyway. I didn’t realise how thirsty I was until I started drinking.

When I finished the book, I was irritated. I knew in that moment that I’d either have to find the courage to step away from it or take Christianity seriously. For me, that included finding grace in the world wherever possible and resisting the sin of despair, even when there were good reasons to fall into it.

The Bible has much to say about the body. It describes Jesus as the Word that became flesh. What do you understand by that?

The Word is that which orders creation towards its end. The Word pervades the world. Increasingly, people want information, not narration. They look for space, not place. Yet the story of God taking on human form dispels all notions that humans are autonomous. We depend on others and on our Creator. Humankind cannot save itself. We need to allow ourselves to be embraced by God.

Is the Virgin Birth a literal or metaphorical description of the Word becoming flesh?

I do not believe that Jesus had a human father. It was a miraculous birth. The Virgin Birth is a necessary component of the Incarnation God taking on human form.

The Bible describes a bodily resurrection of Jesus. Do you interpret that as a literal account or as an analogy?

Jesus was not resuscitated. He was resurrected. If we believe the body is important, then we should not be eager to discount a bodily resurrection. The Greeks distinguished between body (soma) and flesh (sarx). Flesh had a broader meaning than body. Flesh was often regarded as being in opposition to God, as humans live according to certain disordered desires because of the flesh. The Christian hope lies in the resurrection of the body, not flesh, and not in the immortality of the disembodied soul.

Jesus’ resurrection is the sign of what will happen to us all at the end of time. Christians don’t need to try to explain the physics. We can accept this as an extraordinary gift of God.

To what extent does Western culture worship the body beautiful?

People simultaneously love and loathe their bodies

People simultaneously love and loathe their bodies. We love our bodies because this is how we have sensual experience and interact. Yet, if we truly love our bodies, why do we spend so much money changing them?

For example, in the United States some parents buy their high-school daughter a graduation gift of breast-augmentation surgery. What kind of message does that send? We love you, but we’d love you more with a ‘better’ body. That illustrates the ambivalence of simultaneously loving and loathing the body.

To what extent are science and Christianity compatible?

I’m a biblical literalist. I read the Bible’s poetry literally as poetry and history literally as history. I don’t try to make the Bible say what it was never intended to say. There are problems on both sides.

The sin on the Christian side is to make the Bible say something that was never intended. It is not a scientific textbook. On the other hand, science is a wonderful methodology, but it is wrong to make science explain everything. It can’t. So, for example, I don’t see a conflict between the creation story and evolution.

Why do some Christians regard evolution theory as being anti-biblical?

Because they grant too much to science, as being the force that validates things. They endow science with power that science neither seeks nor should strive for.

Christians do not have to prove the existence of God in order to validate God, any more than I can scientifically validate my wife’s love. I experience and enjoy the evidence of that love and I know that it exists.

Christianity is not dependent on proving that, for example, there was a flood that engulfed the whole world. That’s not the point of the Noah story.

Do scientists play God?

Some do, but they do it very badly.

Where scientists get in trouble is the notion that knowledge always leads to mastery when science is driven not by awe and wonder at the world but by a desire to use the discovery in some way.

Scientists like to think that their work is driving technology, but it is the other way round. People come up with applications and they look to science to find the ways to make that happen. I doubt, for example, that millions of dollars were spent on mapping the human genome just so we could say: “Wow! Now we know how many genes we’ve got.”

Most science is done in pursuit of God-given stewardship for creation. One can be driven to a knowledge of the world out of a love of God and a strong motivation to help others.

2014 The Salvation Army

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Calls for contributions to journals and books – ESSE

 Posthumanism  Comments Off on Calls for contributions to journals and books – ESSE
Mar 232016
 

Film adaptations of Victorian and Edwardian Novels and Short Stories Cahiers victoriens et douardiens 82 Deadline for proposals: 31 December 2015

Chief editor: Luc Bouvard The reasons for the great success of Victorian and Edwardian novels for producers, screenwriters, film directors, actors and spectators are many. The first that comes to mind is the international popularity of the source materials from Wuthering Heights to Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde through Tess or Howards End. The other reasons for this predestination of Victorian and Edwardian texts to be adapted to the big or small screen are now well known: theatrical adaptations previous to film; Eisensteins theory according to which such a novelist as Dickens could have invented the fundamentals of cinema; the novelists (such as Conrad) and directors (such as Griffith) common wish to make the reader and spectator see what they have imagined; the importance of illustrations accompanying those texts. Adapters have a vast range of possibilities from the most faithful transpositions in mini-series, which the BBC still deems a viable and advisable model, to the substantial changes in space-time contextualisations (21st-century South Africa or Toronto for new versions of Oliver Twist for instance), through to stunning modifications concerning the ending or the moral of the story. These alterations are to be considered as the visible tip of the adaptive iceberg. There are in fact many different ways of revisiting the source texts and it is the aim of this new volume to allow new analyses to emerge. Contributions could focus on the newly acquired type of gender relationships (feminist and neo-feminist approaches), on the space-or time-shifts from hypo- to hyper-texts (cultural studies) or on a new narratological point of view in the transposition process (narratological and intermedial studies). Comparing and ranking adaptations according to their fidelity to the source text is really not on the agenda and simply accounting for what has been lost or gained in the adaptation process is not enough, but rather a close analysis of what the interpreting third party has wished to throw into relief will be necessary. Thanks to the processes of renewal, critique, extrapolation, popularization, transculturalization (Robert Stam), this appropriation will be seen from the more positive angle of the inflections brought to the initial text and of the renewed relevance of the work and its authors ideas and preoccupations, thus avoiding fixation and museification. In the introduction to her book Adaptation Revisited (2002), Sarah Cardwell drew a parallel between the Darwinian definition of the term adaptation and the film and television adaptive practices, thus suggesting that one had to adapt or perish. If the well-known reception theory may also be used, we shall most particularly encourage more recent intermedial types of analysis. The studies may be grounded in McFarlanes 1995 neo-structuralist comparative methodology, in Sarah Cardwells 2002 pluralist approach as well as in Linda Hutcheons fundamental 2006 A Theory of Adaptation. Finally, the cross-fertilization between cinema and the other arts (intericonicity) and interfilmicity itself may also be useful to sustain these analyses. Suggested bibliography : CARDWELL, Sarah. Adaptation Revisited: Television and the Classic Novel. Manchester: Manchester UP, 2002. ELSAESSER, Thomas & Malte HAGENER. Film Theory. An Introduction Through the Senses. Routledge, 2009. HUTCHEON, Linda. A Theory of Adaptation. 2nd revised edition. London: Routledge, 2012. MCFARLANE, Brian. Novel to Film: An Introduction to the Theory of Adaptation. Oxford: OUP, 1996. NAREMORE, James (ed.). Film Adaptation. London: The Athlone Press, 2000. STAM, Robert and Allesandra RAENGO. Literature and Film; A Guide to the Theory and Practice of Film Adaptation. Oxford: Blackwell, 2005. Please send your submissions to luc.bouvard@univ-montp3.fr Deadline for submissions : December 31st 2015.

(posted 4 September 2015)

This issue of Imaginaires will be dedicated to the study of British women travellers in the East, their accounts, their stories and their lives. The approach will be transversal (historical, sociological, literary). The orientalists, who were translators, adventurers, archaeologists, artists or writers embarked on the Oriental adventure, broke off their ties with their native country; some joined the secrets services and others decided to remain in the East. A few women took part in this mainly masculine circle, some were wives or sisters, and others only in search of adventure as artists or travellers.

To what extent were these women seeking independence, leaving and sometimes renouncing the West? What kind of discourse did these Westerners adopt facing the Orient? Did the orientalist vision reflect incomprehension, blindness, or envy and curiosity? This issue of Imaginaires seeks to reflect on these British women, from the XVIIIth to the XXth century, who experienced an Oriental adventure and were transformed by this elsewhere. What kind of voice did they choose? How did they look at this Other? And what description did they give of Oriental women? What did they see in the mirror of the Orient? What kind of Oriental experience did they have? What were their travelling conditions? In this issue, we exclude the Far East. We propose to explore the lives of these women, cut off from the Western society, who fled the British institutions, the class system and the strictness of English morals, in order to free themselves from a straightjacket. The word feminism, used at the end of the XIXth century, was associated with the protest movement of women and was often rejected by these travellers. However, these eccentric and free-minded women set themselves free thanks to their travels. Some lines are suggested in this study: Literature and exile. The Foucaldian dialectics of Knowledge and Power. The in-between state. The concept of nomadism introduced by Gilles Deleuze. Orientalism and imperialism in Edward Saids founding works. Feminism. The studies will go from travel stories and letters to biographies. They will also include the works of these women (translations, studies, archaeological discoveries, paintings, photographs). Various aspects of the Orient sometimes a reason for escape, sometimes an attraction toward the Other will be questioned. These orientalist visions could give rise to various micro-analyses. What is, in the end, these womens point of view?

Imaginaires is the review of the CIRLEP (Centre Interdisciplinaire de Recherches sur les Langues et la Pense), at the university of Reims. Please send your abstracts, in English or French, accompanied by a short biographical note by January 15th 2016 to: Laurence Chamlou laurence.chamlou@gmail.com

(posted 7 October 2015)

Editors: David Banks (Universit de Bretagne Occidentale), Emilia Di Martino (Universit di Napoli Suor Orsola Benincasa)

Communication of science to the general public is progressively more often recognized as an equally crucial responsibility of scientists to research, and scientific writing is being looked upon as public discourse to an increasing extent. However, while scientists are explicitly taught research methodologies, they mostly seem to be expected to naturally acquire the ability to communicate with other scientists, and they usually receive inadequate explicit training and do not seem to easily develop the skills needed to communicate scientific concepts to lay audiences. The present collection of papers, which will be submitted to a journal in linguistics once a suitable number of high quality submissions has been reached, aims to discuss the linguistic and discourse issues of contemporary scientific communication in light of recent views on the role and functions of science and scientists in society with the aim of practically contributing both to its advancement and to broad dissemination. Contributions are solicited that address the interface between language and science or amongst language, science and education, particularly approaching it via such methodologies as genre analysis, discourse analysis, rhetorical analysis and multimodal analysis.

Topics of interest may include (but are not limited to) the following: The historical development of scientific discourse; Scientific discourse and its context; Aspects of contemporary scientific discourse; Scientific writing as public discourse; Strategies for the communication of uncertainty; English in scientific knowledge construction and local hybridizing practices; The place of translating in science communication; Authorship, identity and genre; Language and peer review; Content and Language Integrated Learning: linguistic implications.

Select Bibliography Alastru Ramn Plo, Prez-Llantada Carmen (eds.), English as a Scientific and Research Language. Debates and Discourses English in Europe, Vol. 2, De Gruyter Mouton, 2015 Banks David, The Development of Scientific Writing. Linguistic Features and Historical Context, Equinox, 2008 Bauer, Martin W., The Evolution of Public Understanding of Science. Discourse and Comparative Evidence, Science, Technology and Society, Vol. 14, No 2, 2009, pp. 221-240 Curry Mary Jane, Hanauer David I. (eds.), Language, Literacy, and Learning in STEM Education: Research Methods and Perspectives from Applied Linguistics, John Benjamins 2014 Halliday, M.A.K. (ed. Jonathan J; Webster), The Language of Science, Continuum, 2004. Kueffer Christoph, Larson Brendon M.H., Responsible Use of Language in Scientific Writing and Science Communication, BioScience, Vol. 64, No 8, 2014, pp.719-724 Prez-Llantada Carmen, Scientific Discourse and the Rhetoric of Globalization: The Impact of Culture and Language, Continuum, 2012 Wallace, Carolyn S., Framing New Research in Science Literacy and Language Use: Authenticity, Multiple Discourses, and the Third Space’, Science Education, Vol. 88, No 6, November 2004, pp. 901914 Winter Stephan, Krmer Nicole C., Rsner Leonie, Neubaum German, Dont Keep It (Too) Simple. How Textual Representations of Scientific Uncertainty Affect Laypersons Attitudes, Journal of Language and Social Psychology, Vol. 34, No 3, June 2015, pp. 251-272 Yore Larry D., Marilyn K. Florence, Terry W. Pearson, Andrew J. Weaver, Written Discourse in Scientific Communities: A conversation with two scientists about their views of science, use of language, role of writing in doing science, and compatibility between their epistemic views and language, International Journal of Science Education, Vol. 28, Nos 23, 15 February 2006, pp. 109141

Please send a 300-word abstract by 15 January 2016 (new extended deadline) to: david.banks@univ-brest.fr emiliadimartino@gmail.com

(posted 3 January 2016)

A collection of essays. Editors: Merritt Moseley (University of North Carolina, Asheville), Dieter Fuchs (Vienna University), Wojciech Klepuszewski (Koszalin University of Technology)

Kingsley Amis is predominantly famous for Lucky Jim, published in 1954, which remains a much-cherished classic, reprinted regularly and translated into many languages. This was, in fact, Amiss first published novel, as prior to writing Lucky Jim, he had written The Legacy, which remained unpublished. It seems that the title of his first, and failed, literary attempt, paradoxically heralded a long literary career, with a whole range of novels, poems, short stories, non-fiction, and other works. As a result, two decades after Kingsley Amiss death, we can reflect upon the legacy of one of the most distinguished English writers of the 20th century. Much has been written about Kingsley Amis and his oeuvre, be it in the form of numerous reviews, critical articles, and, most importantly, monographic volumes written by eminent scholars. What should also be mentioned are works of a biographical nature, the monumental biography and the edition of Amiss letters, both by Zachary Leader, being the case in point. However, Kingsley Amiss heritage is so rich and inspiring that there is still room for scholarly and critical analysis, room to discuss perspectives and voices. The aim of the volume is manifold and comprises predominantly Amiss literary works, all genres included, but also Amiss non-fiction, letters, and memoirs. A full picture of Amis and his achievement would not be comprehensive without including the people who influenced his life and works, such as his friend, Philip Larkin; his second wife, Jane Howard, also a writer; and his son, Martin Amis, who became an acclaimed writer himself. Possible areas comprise the following: -Amis as a poet -Amis and academic fiction -Amis in non-fiction -Amis and The Angry Young Men -Amis and women -Amis the critic -Amis in letters -The Bond Amis -Amis in film -Amis and friends -Amis and America -Amis and son -Amis on Amis -Amis in translation -Amis and SF -Amis and crime fiction -Amis on ageing -Amis on drink -Amis and politics -Amis in biographies -Amis and the English language However, any relevant contribution in the context of Kingsley Amis, his life and his works, is most welcome.

Please send a short proposal by 30 January 2016dieter.fuchs@univie.ac.at and klepuszewski@poczta.pl

(posted 12 November 2015)

An edited volume. Editors: gnes Gyrke, Senior Lecturer, University of Debrecen, Department of British Studies Imola Blgzdi, Senior Lecturer, University of Debrecen, North American Department

Affect studies has emerged as one of the most productive fields of analysis since the turn of the 21st century. Following in the footsteps of Teresa Brennan and Eve Kosofky Sedgwick, for instance, a number of scholars have explored the function of affect and emotion in literature, culture and social life. Relying on psychoanalytical as well as social theories, the affective turn has contributed to cultural studies in many ways: books focusing on gender, emotional politics, transnationalism, the moving image, political engagement and leadership theories from the perspective of emotion, empathy and affect were published, among many other studies that investigate the role of emotion in social life. Few critics, however, have investigated the intersections of emotion and location, particularly, urban space, in literary and visual texts. Henri Lefebvre has famously claimed that space expresses social relations, but does it also express emotional geographies? Can we talk about an urban sensitivity, as Heiko Schmid assumes, which provides a more sophisticated framework for city studies than Georg Simmels famous notion of the blas attitude, for instance? Can we read the moving image as a map that connects affects and space?

Our volume aims to explore these issues: we invite papers that investigate the affective dimensions of space in various post-1945 cultural contexts. We are particularly interested in comparative and cross-geographical analyses and encourage contributors to focus on the emotional geographies of iconic cities. Contributors are invited to explore one of the following themes: East-Central Europe as textual and spatial boundary Translocal empathy The place of trauma and aggression Urban geographies of sexuality Desire, utopia and the city Emotional border crossings Crime, guilt and the city Emotional geography of eating practices Obsession, addiction and city life Nostalgia and urban memory Marginalisation, exclusion and the city

Proposals are welcomed for papers within the field of literature, film, music, and the visual arts. Abstracts of no more than 500 words are due by January 30, 2016 and notification of selection will be made by February 15, 2016. Final papers of 7000-8000 words are due by May 30, 2016. Please send the abstract and your CV of no more than 3 pages to gyorke.agnes@arts.unideb.hu and bulgozdi.imola@arts.unideb.hu

For more information on the Gender, Translocality and the City Research Group follow the link: http://ieas.unideb.hu/index.php?p=1519&l=en

(posted 27 November 2015)

Western thinkers have long been fascinated by the possibility of creating new forms of organic and inorganic life. In Plato, Homer and Aristotle we read of the living bronze and gold statues modelled by the master craftsman Daedalus and the divine blacksmith Hephaestus, while in Ovids tales it is Pygmalion that fashions himself an ivory girl to love. Marking the beginnings of science fiction, Mary Shelleys Frankenstein imbues a patchwork monster with the breath of life, a fictional Thomas Edison creates what he believes to be the perfect female android in Tomorrows Eve, and in Karel apeks play from 1920, the Rossum factory churns out hundreds of thousands of robots that are indistinguishable from human beings. Influenced by Darwins revolutionary understanding of the notion of species and evolutionary change, other writers chose to turn their attention towards the human species itself and began to reflect on the possible evolution of the human into new forms of being. H.G. Wells contemplated the possible degeneration of man into creatures that descended from, but could no longer be recognised as, human, while in The Coming Race Edward Bulwer-Lytton created an elaborate fictional world in which mankind is succeeded by highly-technologised creatures whose capabilities far exceed those of Homo sapiens. In their dreams of extending the experience of human life to objects that were previously inanimate and in their portrayal of mankind as containing the germs of its own otherness, these texts disturb essentialist conceptions of the human and pre-empt our contemporary fascination with the figure of the posthuman.

Over recent decades several theorists have utilised the notion of the posthuman to describe a new phase in the history of humanity one that has evolved out of mans extended relationship with technology. In her now famous Cyborg Manifesto, Donna Haraway describes a new form of life emerging out of the congress of man and machine; a joint kinship that defies the perceived boundaries between the organic and the inorganic, the human and the non-human. N. Katherine Hayles, meanwhile, argues that the human is being transformed into an amalgam, a collection of heterogeneous components, a material-informational entity whose boundaries undergo continuous construction and reconstruction (How we Became Posthuman). Under the banner of transhumanism, other thinkers have foretold of the coming of a technological singularity that will utterly transform the nature of the human species.

In distinction to these visions of the post or after of the human, a number of other theorists have chosen to use posthumanism to investigate more specifically how our perception of the human has been transformed and to recognise that what we have defined as human has always been inherently other. Whereas some theorists have chosen to write about a post- to the human, others have sought to articulate what they conceive of as the post- of humanism. Bringing these two positions together, the notion of the posthuman prompts us to think of that which comes after the human or humanism, while also inviting us to look back upon the evolution of the human, of language and of technology, or, as Cary Wolfe describes it, the prosthetic coevolution of the human animal with the technicity of tools and external archival mechanism [] all of which comes before that historically specific thing called the human (What Is Posthumanism?).

Marked by a curious temporality, the posthuman comes both before and after (What Is Posthumanism?; my italics) the human and humanism and prompts us to look backwards and forwards to our past and our possible futures. The title of this journal issue adds one more layer to this temporal deferral, inviting contributors to think about how contemporary theories of the posthuman are pre-empted by philosophical, literary and scientific works from earlier periods. Contributors are invited to look back upon works from the past that project themselves into imagined futures, other past texts that in their old age reveal the germinal roots of a more contemporary understanding of the human, or perhaps contemporary texts that seek to inscribe the posthuman into our human past.

In one sense, then, this issue seeks to explore a genealogy of posthumanism, tracing its roots and origins into the past. In addition, however, it invites us to question the very notion of genealogy itself. The conflation of the two prefixes proto and post may be understood as an invitation to reflect more closely on how the temporal ambiguity opened up by our use of the term posthumanism is inherent to any possible thinking of it. According to R. L. Rutsky, the posthuman cannot simply be identified as a culture or age that comes after the human, for the very idea of such a passage, however measured or qualified it may be, continues to rely upon a humanist narrative of historical change (Mutation, History and Fantasy in the Posthuman). If one is to truly speak of or speak as the posthuman, then this must necessarily entail a new understanding of time and history. By drawing attention to the strange temporality of a post that is always already a proto and a proto that is always already a post the title to this issue urges us to rethink the very notions of human temporality, evolution, history and genealogy.

We invite contributions related, but not limited to, the following: Past literary, philosophical, religious and scientific texts that speak of the future of the human, the possibility of human obsolescence, or, indeed, the promise of a higher order of human being; Philosophical, literary and scientific works whose representation of the human pre-empts that of current posthumanist thought; Contemporary texts that seek to rewrite or reinterpret the past through the lens of posthumanism; Explorations of how the origins of the human species, of technology, and of language may be rethought through understandings of posthumanism; A rethinking of the notions of temporality, evolution, genealogy and history from the perspective of posthumanism. We welcome interdisciplinary approaches, ranging across critical theory, literary and cultural studies, linguistics, as well as other disciplines in the humanities and the sciences. Contributors are advised to follow the journals submission guidelines and stylesheet. The deadline for abstract submission is January 31, 2016. Please send 1,000 word proposals to the editor of the volume who will answer any queries you may have. Articles selected for publication must be submitted by April 30, 2016. All submitted articles will be blind-refereed except when invited. Accepted articles will be returned for post-review revisions by June 30, 2016, and will be expected back in their final version by September 30, 2016 at the latest. Proposals and articles should be sent as attachments to wordandtext2011@gmail.com.

(posted 25 March 2015)

It has been sixty years since Lolita first appeared in its green-clad double volume in 1955 in Paris, published by Maurice Girodias (Olympia Press). During those six decades, the nymphet that Nabokov carved out of American poshlust made her way through all the clichs of magazines and tabloids, but also through the history of literature and the history of language (one can now look up the noun Lolita in dictionaries). Lolita also shaped a very specific way of being a reader, mainly because of its intertextual layering which plays with the stereotypes of Romantic poetry and detective novels, and because of its very unique narrative stance and traps. This way of being a reader has in its turn influenced writers, as can be traced in the novels numerous ripples in contemporary literature.

Yet, what could one hope to say about Lolita that has not been said in six decades of criticism, annotations and commentaries? As Brian Boyd states in his 2008 essay Lolita: What We Know and What We Dont (Cycnos, Volume 24 n1), critics have probably not yet unraveled all the threads of the delicate and intricate weave of the text: There is much, much more we need to learn about Lolita, Boyd claims.

This publication in Miranda (a peer-reviewed e-journal, following the double blind review standard) edited by the French Vladimir Nabokov Society thus offers to commemorate the sixtieth anniversary of Lolita with papers focusing on new readings or elements of research so far unknown or not yet exploited by critics. Contributors are invited to explore the following aspects, provided they deliver fresh elements and/or analyses: the context and history of the composition, publication and translation(s) of the book throughout the world; the reception of the novel throughout the years: censorship, misreadings, and (mis)appropriations of the nymphet figure in popular culture; resurgences and re-uses of the novels plot, characterization, or narrative stance in contemporary literature; any other unstudied or under-analyzed aspect of the text (annotation and interpretation of a specific motif, or of a large-scale feature).

Paper proposals must be submitted by January 31, 2016 at the latest. Participants will be notified by February 15, 2016 whether their proposal was accepted. Completed papers will be due at the latest on May 31, 2016, so that the double-blind peer-reviewing process can begin. Important: please note that acceptance of a proposal does not necessarily entail its publication, since the final publication in Miranda will depend upon the peer-reviewing procedure. 500-word proposals accompanied by a short bio should be sent to agnes.edelroy@vladimir-nabokov.org by January 31, 2016. http://www.vladimir-nabokov.org

(posted 30 November 2015)

We welcome articles that focus on, but are not limited to, the following topics: Topics and areas for research that may be covered will therefore take into consideration: Theoretical and methodological openings and perspectives Convergences between literary texts and artistic media: hybridization and duality Literary creation arising from an extraliterary artistic element Works of art as mediators for writers The signifiers of artistic media within a literary text Other related topics proposed by those who wish to collaborate in the volume will be seriously evaluated by the Scientific Committee, in order to expand the exploration undertaken in the current issue of the Journal.

Submission Guidelines. If you are interested in contributing please submit an abstract (min. 10/max. 20 lines) and a short Curriculum Vitae by February 1st, 2016 to redazione.polifemo@iulm.it Authors will be notified by February 19th, 2016 and each accepted paper will have to be submitted (in either Italian, English or French) by June 1st, 2016. All contributions will be subject to a double blind peer review.

The issue, edited by Prof. Lorenzo Finocchi Ghersi and Dr. Laura Gilli, will be published in December 2016. Read the full call for papers.

(posted 30 September 2015)

The Journal of Teaching English for Specific and Academic Purposes announces the call for papers for the first 2016 special issue: ESP in Iran. The focus is on representing rich and diverse practice and research of English for Specific and Academic Purposes and the related fields. We hope to present the exquisite, scholarly work conducted in this country, which at the same time encompasses the specifics of the given environment, yet transcends it to universally applicable teaching and learning skills in this particularly demanding field of ELT. We invite scholars affiliated with institutions in Iran and elsewhere with the hands-on experience or research related to Iran, to contribute to this issue. The guidelines for contributions are available on the Journal website. The call for papers will be open until February 1st, 2016. It is our intention and hope that issues like this one will become our regular practice in our attempt to thoroughly represent this ever growing, ever more relevant, and already enormously rich area of language study.

Special issue editors: Reza Dashtestani (University of Tehran, Iran) Seyed Mohammad Alavi (University of Tehran, Iran) Majid Nemati (University of Tehran, Iran) Nadeda Stojkovi, Editor-in-Chief

(posted 30 November 2015)

The wonder opened up elsewhere. The things we dont do. Andres Neuman, The Things We Dont Do, The Paris Review (Summer 2015), 207-208 (p.208).

Two roads diverged in a yellow wood, And sorry I could not travel both And be one traveler, long I stood And looked down one as far as I could To where it bent in the undergrowth See The Road Not Taken, in Robert Frost, The Road Not Taken and Other Poems (New York, NY: Dover Publications, Inc., 1993), p. 1

Thanks to consciousness, am I not at all times elsewhere from where I am, always master of the other and capable of something else? Yes, this is true, but this is also our sorrow. Maurice Blanchot, The Space of Literature, trans. by Ann Smock (Lincoln, NE, and London: University of Nebraska Press, 1989), p. 134

Find a map and spread it out on your desk. Close your eyes and pick a random spot. Open your eyes and find out whether the place you picked is any better than where you are now. The chances are it isnt, and yet, to think of elsewhere often comes with the unspoken addendum, anywhere but here. And of course, elsewhere is so appealing because of the implicit promise that, elsewhere, there must be something else. To want to leave here is to ask: Is this all there is? Is there nothing else? But this desire or demand can be easily disappointed, either because elsewhere is always inaccessible, or because (and this is not necessarily different), once we are elsewhere, it becomes here.

Though often associated with suspended desire, elsewhere can also, contrarily, be an undesirable possibility kept at bay on purpose, if not an impending peril threatening to defamiliarise the here and now. Our fears and anxieties of what is not (yet) here, however, can become familiar to the extent that they are no less real than what is here already. This is not always a thing of terror. If elsewhere can be the unmappable dreamscape for fantasy and whimsy, the forever-delayed escape, elsewhere can also be a very real and habitable place. If we combine temporal and spatial coordinates, we might find ourselves thinking of someone, somewherehow can the world contain so many lives? Jeffrey Eugenides asks. It is rather extraordinary to consider, for a minute, how life necessarily entails simultaneous, parallel, but entirely separate existences, to the point of mutual affirmation. And for each here, there is at least one elsewhere-and all this in one single world. Elsewhere can be both a testimony to potential and possibility, as well as to the disappointment that there is nothing else. Because elsewhere should, by definition, be other than what is there, its already precarious existence depends entirely on the binary formula of which it is part. The term elsewhere must, a priori, be evasive. Otherwise, why would we be interested in it in the first place? And what can be more appealing than elsewhere and otherwise? Conversely, here is definite and definitive. Where else can we be but here? If we were to follow the vague direction of elsewhere, we would never be able to get there. Where is elsewhere? Nowhere, or at least, nowhere in particular. And so elsewhere opens up the possibility of possibilities, while itself being impossible. What is this impossible heterotopia, and what are its possibilities? It can be Thomas Mores Utopia, or it could be George Orwells or Margaret Atwoods dystopias. But must one only imagine elsewhere? To return to maps, elsewhere is Africa, what was to Marlows imagination the biggest, the most blank of blank spaces, ready to be made here. Or perhaps elsewhere is the orient as presented in Forster, where Indias a muddle. Novels like Things Fall Apart may evidence the violence of transposing elsewhere. The reality of elsewhere, then, seems also to place an ethical onus on both the notion of elsewhere. And what happens when people from elsewhere come here, as with immigration? Is not their anxiety of displacement simultaneously ours as well? Can elsewhere be demarcated by political borders? If not, is travel and travel-writing even possible, in going from here to here? Elsewhere is another culture. The vagabond, the wanderer, the peripatetic, itinerant, nomadichow do these figures problematise ideals of settling down into a here and now? Elsewhere is another now in another time. Can biography, history, or archaeology grasp the elsewhere, and how do they do it? It is the future, too, one we so often meet in fiction, what we realise is not yet present. But is fiction the elsewhere of what is real, or is it its essence? Where exactly are the other worlds presented in science fiction and fantasy, and are they further from the other worlds of Jane Austen or Franz Kafka? What is a parallel universe, and is fiction here, between the covers of this book? Where else? How far can we stretch the notion of elsewhere? How far does elsewhere extend? And conversely, how local, inward and internalised can elsewhere be? Elsewhere is another feeling. Perhaps all one needs to do is to think otherwise than being. Who is elsewise? Is it the other gender, the other race, the other religion, the other demographic? Elsewhere sometimes speaks back, its discourse being reverse. Is elsewhere only what is different to the same, or am I also, biologically, psychologically, temporally, philosophically, other to myself? Arguably, you can be elsewhere right here, just a pill away, from the elsewhere of illness to the here of well-being, or from boredom to ecstasy and back. So how close is elsewhere, really? In todays world, elsewhere can be very close indeed, as far as the closest cinema. How does film, in all its manifestations from documentary to detective drama, represent other places, other scenarios? Elsewhere can be even closer, as the clicking shutter of a camera. Is photography a representation of elsewhere, or itself? Elsewhere can be at your hands right now: is going to a different website going elsewhere? What about video games? Is the person you are chatting with online elsewhere, just as you are? With GoogleMapsTM perhaps just one click away, what stops us from going to Brazil or Australia? And so, having come back to maps, we realise how elsewhere can sometimes encourage paralysis, simulate and situate inertia, so that, having gone everywhere, one has gone nowhere.

In light of the above, the editors of antae welcome submissions on or around the topic of elsewhere. The authorial guidelines are available on http://www.antaejournal.com, and the deadline for submissions to antaejournal@gmail.com is the 29th of February, 2016. Issues and topics relevant to this publication include, but are not limited to: Thinking Elsewhere: Alterity, Ethics, Existentialism, Phenomenology, Ontology and Ontologies Elsewhere on drugs Elsewhere in Postcolonial Studies Writing Time Elsewhere: Biography, History, Archaeology, determinism and fatalism, death Elsewhere and International Politics, migration, borders and displacement Writing Space Elsewhere: Travel Writing, Science Fiction, Fantasy, heterotopias, the exotic Digital Elsewhere: the other spaces of photography, the internet, gaming, technology Identities elsewhere: minorities, marginalisation, cultures, myself, friendship Elsewhere in Film Studies Elsewhere and love, among other feelings Quantum elsewhere: parallel universes, exoplanets, terraforming, fictions of space

antae is an international refereed postgraduate journal aimed at exploring current issues and debates within English Studies, with a particular interest in literature, criticism and their various contemporary interfaces. Set up in 2013 by postgraduate students in the Department of English at the University of Malta, it welcomes submissions situated across the interdisciplinary spaces provided by diverse forms and expressions within narrative, poetry, theatre, literary theory, cultural criticism, media studies, digital cultures, philosophy and language studies. Creative writing is also accepted.

(posted 18 November 2015)

The Human (issn: 2147-9739) is an international and interdisciplinary indexed journal that publishes articles written in the fields of literatures in English (British, American, Irish, etc.), classical and modern Turkish literature, drama studies, and comparative literature (where the pieces bridge literature of a country with Turkish literature). To learn more about The Human: Journal of Literature and Culture and its principles, please see our manifesto on this page: http://www.humanjournal.org/index.php/about-the-human-manifesto

The Human is now inviting submissions for a special issue to be published in June 2016. The special issue will be devoted to the performance of masculinities on film in all of its diverse forms and multiplicity of cultural, social and historical situations. Interdisciplinary approaches are encouraged, as are treatments that deal with global (both Western and non-Western) film or that bridge East and West. Less-covered subjects are most welcome. Areas of inquiry can include documentary, feature film, short film, and/or animation, focusing attention on the visual landscape of masculinity in world cinema and exploring the social, political and economic value of masculinities within global film production. Successful submissions will demonstrate originality, rigor and persuasive argumentation. View further details on the journals website: call-for-works. Completed essays of 4500-5500 words should be submitted no later than March 1, 2016, to guest editors, Robert Mundy and Jane Collins at jcollins@pace.edu

(posted 9 October 2015)

Interactive, transmedial, multi-modal, adaptive, therapeutic or global, narratives have been revealing an extraordinary pervasiveness in the current scenario of literary and non-literary communication. As a consequence of the progressive and rapid broadening of the focus of research from the forms traditionally reputed as authoritative (like literature), to storytelling meant as a mode of thought, peculiarly characteristic of the human species, speculation about the act of narrating has been continuously enriched with contributions from various and different fields and disciplines. Not to neglect the analyses of the symbolic universe, of the processes of identity construction, of the various modes the Self shapes itself in relation to others.

On the theoretic side, for example, we are attending to a redefinition of narratology in the light of new methodologies of investigation and criticism, which take into consideration the discoveries of neuroscientists and cognitive psychologists and the new centrality conferred to the reader; studies are being developed which interpret original works in their potential for interaction with the user or for transcoding towards media different from native; possible answers are being investigated to the big question about the role narratives have played in the adaptive-evolutive process of the human species; hypotheses and speculations are being carried out about their impact on humans wellbeing and sociality.

Stirred by the new learned attention and by seven-digit sales, narrative production has been diversifying itself in countless blends of genre, with different modes of fruition and a gradient of potentials for immersive transportation into fictional worlds: from the fragmentation of fanfictions on the web to the unchallenged emerging of a dominant kind of global novel.

The first issue of Comparatismi, the official digital periodical of the Board of Literary Criticism and Compared Literature, aims at hosting contributes representing as widely as possible the current range of approaches to narrative thinking, both in theory and in the practice of criticism; including studies both in close and distant reading on the most significant narrative modes in the world today, in literature, advertising, life-stories, television serials, cinema and graphic novels.

Contributes, in the form of articles ready for publication and inclusive of an abstract, should be submitted within 31st March 2016, following the instructions available on this website (see Online submissions). The texts selected to be submitted to peer review will be notified within 15th April 2016. The articles accepted after reviewing will be published in June 2016. Submissions in languages other than Italian (preferably English, otherwise French) are encouraged and appreciated.

For further information, please write to Francesco Laurenti (francesco.laurenti@iulm.it) or to Stefano Ballerio (stefano.ballerio@unimi.it).

You can read the call for papers and submit your proposals here: http://www.ledijournals.com/ojs/index.php/comparatismi/index

(posted 22 January 2016)

Edited by Marie Ruiz (Universit Paris Diderot, LARCA)

Migration in the Victorian era has been identified as a paramount feature of the history of worldwide migrations and diasporas. Contrary to popular belief, the Victorian era was not only marked by an extensive exodus from Britain to the USA and the British colonies, but the Victorians also experienced a great degree of inward migration with the arrival of Catholic Irish, and oppressed Jews and Germans, among others. Inward, outward and internal movements were sometimes a response to economic hardships and employment opportunities, but this cannot solely explain the extent of international migrations in the Victorian era.

In the Victorian period, mass migration played a significant role in shaping the nations identity, as well as Britains relationships with the outside world. This raises the question of the impact of migrations on the Motherland, as the Victorian migration trends also attracted numerous immigrants and transmigrants, who ended up remaining in Britain rather than emigrating to the USA or the British colonies. Yet, while the origins of these immigrants and transmigrants are now difficult to trace, the question of their potential impact on the Victorian society needs to be addressed.

This edited volume aims at offering a global perspective on international migrations in the Victorian era including emigration, immigration and internal migration within Britain. Papers relating to the following themes, though not exclusively, are welcome:

350-word abstracts, along with short academic biographies, should be submitted to mariejruiz@yahoo.fr. The deadline for submission of abstracts is April 1, 2016.

(posted 23 March 2016)

The first issue of the ESSE Messenger online (Volume 25, Issue 1, Summer 2016) will have Childrens literature as theme for professional articles.

Please note that contributions sent to the ESSE Messenger should observe the Editorial Code and the Stylesheet.

Proposals should be sent to Adrian Radu, editor of ESSE, by 1 May 2016

See the ESSE Messenger website.

(posted 1 February 2016)

Special Issue Editor: Matthew J. Smith

This special issue of Christianity & Literature furthers the journals aim to investigate the complex relations between literature, drama, and Christian thought and history by bringing a critical eye to sacramental reading to examine its limitations, unseen investments, and unexplored promises.

DESCRIPTION: A dominant theme of recent years turn to religion in English studies has been the sacramental dimensions of texts and performances. Scholars have explored the interpretive deliverances of how texts enact and embody the cultural, epistemological, and metaphysical functions that Christian practice traditionally associates with sacramental devotion. Especially in their poetics and theatricality, texts and performances have been described as sacramental, incarnation, and eucharistic. Sometimes scholars connect these readings to an authors awareness of theological controversy, such that an author or playwright is thought to engage in theological debate through writing and performance. Other approaches focus on a broader cultural demand or gap in popular access to the transcendent, and literary production is understood to meet such demands for transcendence, justice, semiotic complexity, embodiment, or metaphysical depth. Yet these reading strategies e.g., sacramental drama, sacramental poetics, incarnational texts have been largely neglected from critical scrutiny and, at times, are only defined loosely or even analogically in connection with theological doctrines of penance, the trinity, and various historical versions of sacramental theology (transubstantiation, consubstantiation, memorialism, and so on). In fact, it has begun to be suggested that sacramental reading may in fact, almost ironically, contribute to a secularization thesis, where claims of literatures sacramental surrogation imply some sort of loss or dysfunction in sacred access in mainstream devotional culture. What do sacramental readings imply about the state of devotion in a given society? How, if at all, are such terms as sacramental, eucharistic, and incarnational any more than metaphorical when applied to literary production or to audiences? And does this reading strategy sometimes impose a sacred-secular binary anachronistically upon historical societies? Alternatively, does the language of sacramentality demand further investment and offer unique insight into semiotic and performative force of drama and poetry?

We invite essay submissions that question and explore the sacramental, incarnational, or eucharistic aspects of texts or performances from any historical moment. Submit essays (6,000-9,000 words) to Matthew Smith at cal@apu.edu by June 1, 2016. Christianity & Literature is a peer-reviewed journal published by SAGE.

(posted 4 November 2015)

Ed. Jakub Lipski, Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz

Image [&] Narrative is seeking papers for a special tercentenary issue devoted to the work of Horace Walpole (1717-1797). Articles covering all aspects of Walpoles literary career are welcome, though preference will be given to those focusing on the correspondences between word and image. Possible topics may include:

Prospective contributors are invited to send in 300-word abstracts of papers by June 1, 2016. Preliminary selection will be made by the end of June, 2016. Complete essays of about 5000 words should be submitted b February 1, 2017. Final selectdion, following double-blind peer review, will be made by the end of June 2017. The issue will be published in September 2017, in the month of Horace Walpoles birth. Questions, expressions of interest and article proposals should be addressed to j.lipski@ukw.edu.pl

To read more on the journals aims and scope, as well as the author guidelines, see http://www.imageandnarrative.be

(posted 29 January 2016)

The academic journal Meridian critic invites contributions which celebrate the global cultural legacy of Shakespeare and Cervantes, in a year which marks the fourth centennial of their death. Submissions might address any related issues including, but certainly not limited to, the following:

Deadline for article submission: 1 June 2016. Please send the abstracts (ca 200 words), the full paper (up to 7000 words), as well as a brief biographical note (ca 400 words) to the following addresses: l_turcu@yahoo.com, corneliamacsiniuc@yahoo.com

For details regarding style, please visit the following page: http://meridiancritic.usv.ro/index.php?page=instructions-to-authors

We also welcome book-length studies in the field of literature, linguistics, and cultural studies published in 2015, to be reviewed in our journal. Please send the books to the following address: Meridian critic, Facultatea de Litere i tiine ale Comunicrii, Universitatea tefan cel Mare Suceava, Str. Universitii nr. 13, 720229 Suceava, Romania

(posted 1 February 2016)

A special issue (Summer 2017) of Womens History edited by Marie Ruiz (Universit Paris Diderot, LARCA) and Mlanie Gru (Universit Paris-Est Crteil Val de Marne, IMAGER)

Historians face a difficult task when dealing with historical documents, testimonials revealing or concealing truth. As objects of enquiry, documents, sometimes limited in what they can disclose, have very often resisted historians intentions to show reality. This is even more vivid in the context of womens history, a subjected topic that has undergone invisibility through male domination. In Policing Truth (1994), Leigh Gilmore argues that the notion of truth is intertwined with the notion of gender: man is a judge who has historically defined the rules and standards of truth in order to perpetuate patriarchal authority and male privilege. Barbara Kanners work of bibliomethodology, Women in English Social History, 1800-1914: A Guide to Research (1988), has been a major contribution to unveiling the existence of documents informing the participation of women in all fields of British history. This special issue of Womens History intends to address the subjectivity of historical documents, and the place left to women in the course of history. It gives a special place to historical evidence and iconic documents revealing womens resistance to patriarchal rule, whether in history, photography, film, or artistic representations. This volume focuses on the nature of historical documentation and its gender bias. It intends to address the question of subjectivity in womens history. The articles that will constitute this special issue shall focus on what documents have shown about women. The role of historians, witnesses, artists and writers shall also be included, as well as questions related to reality and objectivity in womens history. Contributions dealing with women as producers of documents are welcome. As an oppressed group, women have indeed seized the opportunity to write their personal and collective history on their own terms, to document their lives and claim their worth against the patriarchal rule. They have produced a wide array of documents, from text to image and film, revealing the reality of female experience. The question of perception and reception is also of interest as it determines what documents tell us about womens ability to find a place in history through their disruption of dominant cultures.

Proposals dealing with what documents can reveal about womens personal and collective history are welcome. They may include the following themes, though not exclusively:

5000-word articles, along with short academic biographies, should be submitted to both editors: mariejruiz@yahoo.fr and melanie.grue@hotmail.com. The deadline for submission of articles is June 1, 2016.

(posted 21 March 2016)

Legal Geography, a fairly recent phenomenon, investigates the interconnected, reciprocal and interdependent links between geography and law. This interdisciplinary field of study concerns the complex interrelations between law, space and society. Law can be geographically located, in physical settings and spaces it describes and codifies. Space affects law, in order words, geographies structure law, like the north-south divide in the UK between separate national English and Scottish legal systems within the same British state. On the other hand, law affects space in inverting the environment-law relation to look at how laws impact space. The perspective of critical legal geography/-ies looks beyond these binary categories to examine and challenge deterministic views of these intricate interrelations. A third way, then, might be identified, which transcends the strictures of the law/space space/law binaries, and allows these complex interrelations of the legal, spatial and social to be explored. It becomes useful to recognise that there is no analytical separation of law, space and society, no passive spatial structure, no two discrete realms, and no higher sphere above politics.

This journals edition attempts to contribute to a critical legal geography, studying law as a site of a struggle over geography (Sad) from the premises that space is socially and politically produced (Lefebvre et al.). The following questions may be considered, notably whether spatio-legal dimensions create spatializations in France and abroad. Also, does legal-decision making stem from the jurisdiction of a state, a region, a supranational construct, or does it take place at the very margins of confined spaces? It is conceivable to reflect on new dialectical implications between geography and law based on spaces in which such ideas as concrete and abstract, memory and identity, passages and transgressions, chaos and order collide. This might also include the critical assessment that law is somehow above geography, in a higher sphere divorced from its environmental contexts. Spatial claims and representations in legal and linguistic constructs might be evaluated. In addition, it might be interesting to look at geopolitics of law. What kinds of theoretical approaches can be adopted to interpret the interdisciplinary relationship of geography and law in order to critically engage readers and researchers in a constantly changing geographical world? Articles may concern various fields of studies and disciplines (geography, law, linguistics, literature, etc.).

A selection of articles will be published in the Journal Geographie de lEst (Universit de Lorraine). For more information, please go to: http://rge.revues.org/5660 Articles (max. 50 000 signs), along with short academic biographies, should be submitted to andreas.pichler@univ-amu.fr. The deadline for submission of articles is 15 September 2016.

(posted 18 February 2016)

Guest Editors: Sarah Falcus (Huddersfield) and Maricel Or Piqueras (Lleida)

The final decades of the twentieth century saw the rise of humanistic or cultural gerontology, and this has continued apace into the twenty-first century. Interest in English Studies has ranged across the disciplines and beyond, establishing connections with biomedicine, sociology and politics. This work includes studies and creative projects that both analyse and produce visual representations of ageing, from photography to film. In linguistics, explorations of language attrition in Alzheimers Disease provide humanistic perspectives on the experience and treatment of this form of dementia. Literary studies has seen explorations of the affect value of literary and cultural texts and analyses of the intersections of ageing and gender, race, sexuality and disability. There is also much work on late-life creativity and late style.

This issue seeks to extend the variety and multiplicity of approaches in cultural gerontology, contributing to the dialogue between English Studies and Ageing Studies. We welcome contributions that explore old age across the full range of literary and cultural forms.

Topics may include, but are not limited to:

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Calls for contributions to journals and books – ESSE

Brian Holtz

 Extropianism  Comments Off on Brian Holtz
Mar 232016
 

Created 1996-04 Species Confidential – For Human Use Only Updated 2007-04-25 Brian Holtz At Work In April 2002 I joined Yahoo! to work on Yahoo! Personals, the leader in on-line matchmaking. Before Yahoo I was with Sun Microsystems for eleven years. On my last project at Sun Microsystems I led a team that built a document and folder synchronization service between the SunONE Webtop and clients for PalmOS and Java. From 1996 to 1999 my team added to the Solaris desktop new features like PC Launcher, Java media player, address mgr, process mgr, and file finder. From 1993 to 1996 I designed the integration of ToolTalk into CDE (the Sun/HP/IBM standard Unix desktop). From 1990 to 1993 I helped develop ToolTalk: Sun’s C++-based cross-platform middleware for IPC among persistent distributed objects. In The Past I received an M.S. from the University of Michigan in 1990 and a B.S. from the University of Southern Mississippi HonorsCollege in 1987. I graduated from Ocean Springs High School in 1983 after we settled there in 1978 to complete my father’s career as an anesthetist in the Air Force. Before that we lived in Japan, Arkansas, Ohio, Canada, Michigan, Washington, and Texas (where I was born in 1965). My ancestors were German and Irish farmers who immigrated to northeastern Iowa in the middle of the 19th century. We are of species sapiens, genus Homo, family Hominidae, superfamily Hominoidea, infraorder Catarrhini, order Primates, subclass Eutheria, class Mammalia, superclass Vertebrata, subphylum Craniata, phylum Chordata, kingdom Metazoa, domain Eukaryotae, bioclade Ribonucleica. In Thought These are some of the questions addressed in my book: My book asserts a synthesis of metaphysical naturalism, ontological materialism, epistemological empiricism and positivism, mental functionalism, theological atheism, axiological extropianism, political libertarianism, economic capitalism, constitutional federalism, biological evolutionism, evolutionary psychology, and technological optimism.

The writers that have influenced and persuaded me most are Robert Nozick, Daniel Dennett, Richard Dawkins, Milton Friedman, Julian Simon, Jared Diamond, Desmond Morris, and George Gilder. Influential — but not necessarily as persuasive — have been Carl Sagan, Mortimer Adler, Bertrand Russell, Karl Marx, Henry George, and Arthur Clarke. Lately I’ve been reading and admiring the work of Robin Hanson, Nick Bostrom, Max Tegmark, David Friedman, Michael Martin, Quentin Smith, Richard Carrier, Steven Pinker, Richard Posner, Virginia Postrel, and Brad DeLong.

Here is a library of interesting documents and images I’ve collected on the web.

At CSMIL in grad school, Dan O’Leary, Martin Sonntag and I designed and implemented a groupware editor called ShrEdit, which later inspired Sun’s CoEd ToolTalk demo.

Read more here:

Brian Holtz

 Posted by at 10:44 pm  Tagged with:

Long Beach, Mississippi – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 Beaches  Comments Off on Long Beach, Mississippi – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Mar 232016
 

GeographyEdit

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 10.4 square miles (26.9km2), of which 10.0 square miles (25.9km2) is land and 0.39 square miles (1.0km2), or 3.74% is water.[2]

As of the census[5] of 2000, there were 17,320 people, 6,560 households, and 4,696 families residing in the city. The population density is 1,713.6 people per square mile (661.5/km). There were 7,203 housing units at an average density of 712.6 per square mile (275.1/km). The racial makeup of the city was 87.49% White, 7.36% African American, 0.39% Native American, 2.57% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 0.68% from other races, and 1.44% from two or more races. 2.29% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 6,560 households out of which 36.2% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.8% were married couples living together, 13.5% have a female householder with no husband present, and 28.4% were non-families. 22.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.7% had someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size is 3.07.

In the city the population dispersal was 27.1% under the age of 18, 9.1% from 18 to 24, 29.8% from 25 to 44, 22.8% from 45 to 64, and 11.2% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 93.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $43,289, and the median income for a family was $50,014. Males had a median income of $35,909 versus $24,119 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,305. 9.0% of the population and 7.7% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 15.2% of those under the age of 18 and 3.7% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.

The city of Long Beach is served by the Long Beach School District. The district operates five campuses and has an enrollment of approximately 2,700 students. These campuses include Long Beach High School, Long Beach Middle School, Reeves Elementary School, Quarles Elementary School, and Harper McCaughan Elementary School, rebuilt in a new location after the previous school was destroyed by Hurricane Katrina.

Long Beach High has a long-standing tradition of excellence. It offers rigorous academics including college preparatory classes, advanced placement classes and award winning vocational classes. In 2007 Long Beach High School was named a National Blue Ribbon School by the U.S. Department of Education, making it one of four schools in Mississippi and one of about 273 private and public schools in the United States to receive this honor.

The Gulf Coast campus of the University of Southern Mississippi is located in Long Beach along Beach Boulevard. The Friendship Oak tree is located on the front lawn of the Southern Miss Gulf Park campus.

Long Beach began as an agricultural town, based around its radish industry. But on August 10, 1905, Long Beach incorporated and became another city on the Mississippi Gulf Coast. As the years went on, the city moved from its agricultural heritage and moved toward tourism with the beach and high-rise condominiums becoming increasingly popular.

Long Beach’s early economy was based largely upon radishes. Logging initially drove the local economy, but when the area’s virgin yellow pine forests became depleted, row crops were planted on the newly cleared land.[6]

A productive truck farming town in the early 20th century, citizens of Long Beach proclaimed the city to be the “Radish Capital of the World”. The city was especially known for its cultivation of the Long Red radish variety, a favorite beer hall staple in the northern US at the time. In 1921, a bumper crop resulted in the shipment of over 300 train loads of Long Beach’s Long Red radishes to northern states.[7][8]

Eventually, the Long Red radishes for which Long Beach was known fell into disfavor, and the rise of the common button radish caused a dramatic decline in the cultivation of this crop in the area.[6]

Nineteen days following the city’s centennial, Hurricane Katrina struck the city on August 29, 2005, destroying almost all buildings within 500m of the Gulf of Mexico shoreline. Many Long Beach residents were left homeless or living in water and or wind damaged houses.[9]

The city of Long Beach, California, held a fund raiser to help its eponymous relative.[10] The city of Peoria, Arizona, adopted Long Beach and provided both public and private resources. This resulted in a close relationship between the two communities.[citation needed]

Today, the city is still recovering from Hurricane Katrina. Residents are returning as beaches and condominiums in the area are being repaired. However, the city has not seen a return of business to pre-Katrina levels due in part to building codes on the beach established by Federal Emergency Management Agency and Mississippi Emergency Management Agency and to the economic downturn.

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Long Beach, Mississippi – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Rationalism (architecture) – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 Rationalism  Comments Off on Rationalism (architecture) – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Mar 202016
 

In architecture, rationalism is an architectural current which mostly developed from Italy in the 1920s-1930s. Vitruvius had claimed in his work De Architectura that architecture is a science that can be comprehended rationally. This formulation was taken up and further developed in the architectural treatises of the Renaissance. Progressive art theory of the 18th-century opposed the Baroque use of illusionism with the classic beauty of truth and reason.

Twentieth-century rationalism derived less from a special, unified theoretical work than from a common belief that the most varied problems posed by the real world could be resolved by reason. In that respect it represented a reaction to historicism and a contrast to Art Nouveau and Expressionism.

The name rationalism is retroactively applied to a movement in architecture that came about during the Enlightenment (more specifically, neoclassicism), arguing that architecture’s intellectual base is primarily in science as opposed to reverence for and emulation of archaic traditions and beliefs. Rational architects, following the philosophy of Ren Descartes emphasized geometric forms and ideal proportions.[1]:81-84

The French Louis XVI style (better known as Neoclassicism) emerged in the mid-18th century with its roots in the waning interest of the Baroque period. The architectural notions of the time gravitated more and more to the belief that reason and natural forms are tied closely together, and that the rationality of science should serve as the basis for where structural members should be placed. Towards the end of the 18th century, Jean-Nicolas-Louis Durand, a teacher at the influential cole Polytechnique in Paris at the time, argued that architecture in its entirety was based in science.

Other architectural theorists of the period who advanced rationalist ideas include Abb Jean-Louis de Cordemoy (16311713),[2]:559[3]:265 the Venetian Carlo Lodoli (16901761),[2]:560 Abb Marc-Antoine Laugier (17131769) and Quatremre de Quincy (17551849).[1]:8792

The architecture of Claude Nicholas Ledoux (17361806) and tienne-Louis Boulle (172899) typify Enlightenment rationalism, with their use of pure geometric forms, including spheres, squares, and cylinders.[1]:92-96

The term structural rationalism most often refers to a 19th-century French movement, usually associated with the theorists Eugne Viollet-le-Duc and Auguste Choisy. Viollet-le-Duc rejected the concept of an ideal architecture and instead saw architecture as a rational construction approach defined by the materials and purpose of the structure. The architect Eugne Train was one of the most important practitioners of this school, particularly with his educational buildings such as the Collge Chaptal and Lyce Voltaire.[4]

Architects such as Henri Labrouste and Auguste Perret incorporated the virtues of structural rationalism throughout the 19th century in their buildings. By the early 20th century, architects such as Hendrik Petrus Berlage were exploring the idea that structure itself could create space without the need for decoration. This gave rise to modernism, which further explored this concept. More specifically, the Soviet Modernist group ASNOVA were known as ‘the Rationalists’.

Rational Architecture (Italian: Architettura razionale) thrived in Italy from the 1920s to the 1940s. In 1926, a group of young architects Sebastiano Larco, Guido Frette, Carlo Enrico Rava, Adalberto Libera, Luigi Figini, Gino Pollini, and Giuseppe Terragni (190443) founded the so-called Gruppo 7, publishing their manifesto in the magazine Rassegna Italiana. Their declared intent was to strike a middle ground between the classicism of the Novecento Italiano movement and the industrially inspired architecture of Futurism.[5]:203 Their “note” declared:

The hallmark of the earlier avant garde was a contrived impetus and a vain, destructive fury, mingling good and bad elements: the hallmark of today’s youth is a desire for lucidity and wisdom…This must be clear…we do not intend to break with tradition…The new architecture, the true architecture, should be the result of a close association between logic and rationality.[5]:203

One of the first rationalist buildings was the Palazzo Gualino in Turin, built for the financier Riccardo Gualino by the architects Gino Levi-Montalcini and Giuseppe Pagano.[6] Gruppo 7 mounted three exhibitions between 1926 and 1931, and the movement constituted itself as an official body, the Movimento Italiano per l’Architettura Razionale (MIAR), in 1930. Exemplary works include Giuseppe Terragni’s Casa del Fascio in Como (193236), The Medaglia d’Oro room at the Italian Aeronautical Show in Milan (1934) by Pagano and Marcello Nizzoli, and the Fascist Trades Union Building in Como (193843), designed by Cesare Cattaneo, Pietro Lingeri, Augusto Magnani, L. Origoni, and Mario Terragni.[5]:205-9

Pagano became editor of Casabella in 1933 together with Edoardo Persico. Pagano and Persico featured the work of the rationalists in the magazine, and its editorials urged the Italian state to adopt rationalism as its official style. The Rationalists enjoyed some official commissions from the Fascist government of Benito Mussolini, but the state tended to favor the more classically inspired work of the National Union of Architects. Architects associated with the movement collaborated on large official projects of the Mussolini regime, including the University of Rome (begun in 1932) and the Esposizione Universale Roma (EUR) in the southern part of Rome (begun in 1936). The EUR features monumental buildings, many of which evocative of ancient Roman architecture, but absent ornament, revealing strong geometric forms.[5]:204-7

In the late 1960s, a new rationalist movement emerged in architecture, claiming inspiration from both the Enlightenment and early-20th-century rationalists. Like the earlier rationalists, the movement, known as the Tendenza, was centered in Italy. Practitioners include Carlo Aymonino (19262010), Aldo Rossi (193197), and Giorgio Grassi. The Italian design magazine Casabella featured the work of these architects and theorists. The work of architectural historian Manfredo Tafuri influenced the movement, and the University Iuav of Venice emerged as a center of the Tendenza after Tafuri became chair of Architecture History in 1968.[1]:157 et seq. A Tendenza exhibition was organized for the 1973 Milan Triennale.[1]:178-183

Rossi’s book L’architettura della citt, published in 1966, and translated into English as The Architecture of the City in 1982, explored several of the ideas that inform Neo-rationalism. In seeking to develop an understanding of the city beyond simple functionalism, Rossi revives the idea of typology, following from Quatremre de Quincy, as a method for understanding buildings, as well as the larger city. He also writes of the importance of monuments as expressions of the collective memory of the city, and the idea of place as an expression of both physical reality and history.[7]:178-80[1]:166-72

Architects such as Leon Krier, Maurice Culot, and Demetri Porphyrios took Rossi’s ideas to their logical conclusion with a revival of Classical Architecture and Traditional Urbanism. Krier’s witty critique of Modernism, often in the form of cartoons, and Porphyrios’s well crafted philosophical arguments, such as “Classicism is not a Style”, won over a small but talented group of architects to the classical point of view. Organizations such as the Traditional Architecture Group at the RIBA, and the Institute of Classical Architecture attest to their growing number, but mask the Rationalist origins.

In Germany, Oswald Mathias Ungers became the leading practitioner of German rationalism from the mid-1960s.[7]:178-80 Ungers influenced a younger generation of German architects, including Hans Kollhoff, Max Dudler, and Christoph Mckler.[8]

More here:

Rationalism (architecture) – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 Posted by at 12:47 pm  Tagged with:

First Amendment (U.S. Constitution) – The New York Times

 Misc  Comments Off on First Amendment (U.S. Constitution) – The New York Times
Mar 192016
 

Latest Articles

Arguments in the jury trial start Monday in a case the celebrity wrestler says is about privacy, but the defendant, Gawker, argues is about the First Amendment.

By ERIK ECKHOLM

The state is one of eight that are considering blanket legal protection for discrimination on religious grounds. Its bill is one of the most alarming.

By THE EDITORIAL BOARD

The company, in its fight with the F.B.I., is defending its phones on grounds that its code represents free speech, and there is some precedent.

By STEVE LOHR

Crisis pregnancy centers in California are in a battle with the state over a new law requiring them to post a notice that free or low-cost abortion care is available.

By ERIK ECKHOLM

A judges order to release secret documents raises questions about how much involvement courts should have over settlements related to corporate wrongdoing.

By PETER J. HENNING

Mr. Kennedy defended John Gotti Sr., Huey P. Newton and Timothy Leary and won freedom for Jean S. Harris, who killed the Scarsdale Diet doctor.

By SAM ROBERTS

In recent years, the Supreme Court has waved the First Amendment banner ever higher to undermine long-accepted governmental regulatory authority.

By LINDA GREENHOUSE

In a California case, the justices are considering whether government workers who choose not to join a union may still be required to pay for collective bargaining.

By ADAM LIPTAK

A federal judge has warned that prosecutors may be going too far when they ask witnesses to keep quiet about receiving a subpoena.

By STEPHANIE CLIFFORD

Some legal scholars are asking whether it is time to reconsider the clear and present danger standard for curbing the freedom of speech.

By ERIK ECKHOLM

A federal appeals court, in a case involving an Asian-American dance-rock band, struck down part of a law that let the government reject trademarks it deemed offensive or disparaging to others.

By RICHARD SANDOMIR

An array of leading hip-hop artists, including T.I., Big Boi and Killer Mike, filed a Supreme Court brief in support of a high school student punished for posting a rap song that drew attention to complaints about sexual harassment.

The Alabama lawyer opposed The New York Times in a case that resulted in a Supreme Court decision establishing greater leeway for criticism of government officials and other public figures.

By BRUCE WEBER

On university campuses, First Amendment rights are colliding with inclusivity.

By NICHOLAS KRISTOF

Religious Arbitration Used for Secular Disputes | Soros Withdraws $490 Million From Janus Capital

A University of Michigan professor writes that many see this as yet another way the First Amendment is being hijacked.

A new class-action lawsuit says that New York City has a policy and a history of violating protesters constitutional rights.

Congressional Republicans are pushing a bill that would deliberately warp the bedrock principle of religious freedom under the Constitution.

By THE EDITORIAL BOARD

As a county clerk, Kim Davis is required to issue marriage licenses to anyone who may legally get married, which includes same-sex couples.

By JESSE WEGMAN

An appeals court upheld restrictions on protesters First Amendment rights to gather and wave signs on the plaza in front of the Supreme Court.

By JACKIE CALMES

Arguments in the jury trial start Monday in a case the celebrity wrestler says is about privacy, but the defendant, Gawker, argues is about the First Amendment.

By ERIK ECKHOLM

The state is one of eight that are considering blanket legal protection for discrimination on religious grounds. Its bill is one of the most alarming.

By THE EDITORIAL BOARD

The company, in its fight with the F.B.I., is defending its phones on grounds that its code represents free speech, and there is some precedent.

By STEVE LOHR

Crisis pregnancy centers in California are in a battle with the state over a new law requiring them to post a notice that free or low-cost abortion care is available.

By ERIK ECKHOLM

A judges order to release secret documents raises questions about how much involvement courts should have over settlements related to corporate wrongdoing.

By PETER J. HENNING

Mr. Kennedy defended John Gotti Sr., Huey P. Newton and Timothy Leary and won freedom for Jean S. Harris, who killed the Scarsdale Diet doctor.

By SAM ROBERTS

In recent years, the Supreme Court has waved the First Amendment banner ever higher to undermine long-accepted governmental regulatory authority.

By LINDA GREENHOUSE

In a California case, the justices are considering whether government workers who choose not to join a union may still be required to pay for collective bargaining.

By ADAM LIPTAK

A federal judge has warned that prosecutors may be going too far when they ask witnesses to keep quiet about receiving a subpoena.

By STEPHANIE CLIFFORD

Some legal scholars are asking whether it is time to reconsider the clear and present danger standard for curbing the freedom of speech.

By ERIK ECKHOLM

A federal appeals court, in a case involving an Asian-American dance-rock band, struck down part of a law that let the government reject trademarks it deemed offensive or disparaging to others.

By RICHARD SANDOMIR

An array of leading hip-hop artists, including T.I., Big Boi and Killer Mike, filed a Supreme Court brief in support of a high school student punished for posting a rap song that drew attention to complaints about sexual harassment.

The Alabama lawyer opposed The New York Times in a case that resulted in a Supreme Court decision establishing greater leeway for criticism of government officials and other public figures.

By BRUCE WEBER

On university campuses, First Amendment rights are colliding with inclusivity.

By NICHOLAS KRISTOF

Religious Arbitration Used for Secular Disputes | Soros Withdraws $490 Million From Janus Capital

A University of Michigan professor writes that many see this as yet another way the First Amendment is being hijacked.

A new class-action lawsuit says that New York City has a policy and a history of violating protesters constitutional rights.

Congressional Republicans are pushing a bill that would deliberately warp the bedrock principle of religious freedom under the Constitution.

By THE EDITORIAL BOARD

As a county clerk, Kim Davis is required to issue marriage licenses to anyone who may legally get married, which includes same-sex couples.

By JESSE WEGMAN

An appeals court upheld restrictions on protesters First Amendment rights to gather and wave signs on the plaza in front of the Supreme Court.

By JACKIE CALMES

See more here:
First Amendment (U.S. Constitution) – The New York Times

Hubble Space Telescope finds most distant galaxy yet – CBS News

 Hubble Telescope  Comments Off on Hubble Space Telescope finds most distant galaxy yet – CBS News
Mar 172016
 

38 Photos

This image shows the position of the most distant galaxy discovered so far within a deep sky Hubble Space Telescope survey called GOODS North (Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey North). The remote galaxy GN-z11, shown in the inset, existed only 400 million years after the Big Bang, when the Universe was only 3 percent of its current age.

NASA, ESA, and P. Oesch (Yale University)

The Hubble Space Telescope just calculated the distance to the most far-out galaxy ever measured, providing scientists with a look deep into the history of the universe.

The far-away galaxy, named GN-z11, existed a mere 400 million years after the Big Bang, or about 13.3 billion years ago. Because the light from such a distant galaxy must travel huge distances to reach Earth, scientists are seeing the galaxy as it looked over 13 billion years ago. You can see the galaxy in this video from the Hubble Telescope team.

“We’ve taken a major step back in time, beyond what we’d ever expected to be able to do with Hubble. We managed to look back in time to measure the distance to a galaxy when the universe was only 3 percent of its current age,” Pascal Oesch, an astronomer at Yale University and lead author of the research paper announcing the new measurement, said in a statement from the Hubble European Space Agency Information Centre in Germany. [Celestial Photos: Hubble Space Telescope’s Latest Cosmic Views]

19 Photos

For more than 20 Years, the Hubble Space Telescope has been shooting up the universe

Measuring the distance to an extremely far-off cosmic object poses many challenges to scientists, including the fact that the universe is expanding, and has been expanding for nearly all of time. Any distance measurement must take into account exactly how much the space between objects has stretched since an object’s light left and traveled to Earth.

This can get quite complicated. So instead of talking about the distance to cosmic objects in terms of miles, astronomers and astrophysicists will more often refer to when the object existed in the history of the universe.

To determine this for GN-z11, scientists measured the degree to which the light from the galaxy has been shifted by the expanding universe, known as redshift. A higher redshift indicates a more distant object. Previously, the highest redshift ever measured was from the galaxy EGSY8p7, whose redshift was 8.68. The GN-z11 galaxy’s newly measured redshift is a whopping 11.1.

The Dark Ages

If GN-z11 existed 400 million years after the Big Bang, then it belongs to the very first population of stars and galaxies to form in the cosmos. At that time, the universe was just emerging from a period known as the Dark Ages.

“The previous record-holder was seen in the middle of the epoch when starlight from primordial galaxies was beginning to heat and lift a fog of cold, hydrogen gas,” said Rychard Bouwens from the University of Leiden in the Netherlands and a co-author on the new paper. “This transitional period is known as the re-ionisation era. GN-z11 is observed 150 million years earlier, near the very beginning of this transition in the evolution of the Universe.”

This illustration shows a timeline of the universe, stretching from the present day (left) back to the Big Bang, 13.8 billion years ago (right). The newly discovered galaxy GN-z11 is the most distant galaxy discovered so far, at a redshift of 11.1, which corresponds to 400 million years after the Big Bang. The previous record holder’s position is also identified

NASA, ESA, and A. Feild (STScI)

GN-z11 is 25 times smaller than the Milky Way galaxy and has only about 1 percent the total stellar mass of the Milky Way, observations by Hubble at the Spitzer Space Telescope have revealed, the statement said.

“It’s amazing that a galaxy so massive existed only 200 million to 300 million years after the very first stars started to form,” said Garth Illingworth of the University of California, Santa Cruz, a coauthor on the new research paper. “It takes really fast growth, producing stars at a huge rate, to have formed a galaxy that is a billion solar masses so soon.”

GNz11 is forming stars at 20 times the current rate of the Milky Way, the statement said, which is part of why the distant galaxy is bright enough to be observed by telescopes like Hubble and Spitzer.

Marijn Franx, a member of the team from the University of Leiden, said in the statement that previous work suggested galaxies as bright as GN-z11 should not have been able to form at such an early point in the universe’s history.

“The discovery of GN-z11 showed us that our knowledge about the early universe is still very restricted,” said Ivo Labbe, also of the University of Leiden and a co-author on the paper. “How GN-z11 was created remains somewhat of a mystery for now. Probably we are seeing the first generations of stars forming around black holes.”

Researchers said the find provides a hint at the new information that will be revealed by the James Webb Space Telescope, which is set to launch in 2018. The primary mirror on JWST is 16.4 feet (5.4 meters) wide, compared to Hubble’s 7.8-foot-wide (2.4 m) mirror.

The new research paper will be published in the Astrophysical Journal.

Follow Calla Cofield @callacofield. Follow us @Spacedotcom, Facebook and Google+. Original article on Space.com.

Livescience.com. All rights reserved.

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Famous Beaches in Virginia | USA Today

 Beaches  Comments Off on Famous Beaches in Virginia | USA Today
Mar 162016
 

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Virginia has over 3,300 miles of shoreline, including 112 miles of coasts. Its not surprising to find that the state also has several famous beaches that draw millions of tourists each year for swimming, fishing, boating, seashell collecting, bird watching, clamming and nature trails.

Assateague Island straddles two states, Maryland and Virginia, and was established in 1962 as the Assateague Island National Seashore to protect its natural environment as a vital resting and migratory spot for various bird species. All the 37 miles of dunes, wildlife and wetlands are protected, and therefore, there are no signs of commercial or residential development. Assateague is best known for the wild ponies that wander the pristine beaches, as well as the Assateague Lighthouse, which is open to public visitors. Toms Cove Visitor Center 8586 Beach Road Chincoteague Island, VA 23336 757-336-6577 nps.gov/asis

Chincoteague is home to the Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, listed as one of the top five U.S. shorebird migratory staging areas. Chincoteague is Virginias only resort island, and is world famous for oyster beds and clam shoals. Its also the gateway to Assateague, and the wild ponies there are herded to swim across the channel to Chincoteague Island each July for auction, a popular public event. In addition to the usual swimming, sun bathing and water sports, the Park Service and Wildlife Refuge both offer guided wildlife tours and exhibits throughout the year. Chincoteague Chamber of Commerce and Visitors Center 6733 Maddox Blvd. Chincoteague Island, VA 23336 757-336-6161 chincoteague.com

Colonial Beach is at the tip of the Northern Neck region, one of the few remaining small seaport towns on the Potomac River. It has sandy beaches and marinas on Monroe Bay ideal for swimming, boating and sailing. The area is also quite historic, containing George Washington’s birthplace; Stratford Hall, the boyhood home of Robert E. Lee; and neighboring Westmoreland County, the birthplace of James Monroe. Colonial Beach has been designated as one of the few Golf Cart Towns, where golf carts may be operated by licensed drivers on city streets, but the Town Trolley also makes sightseeing stops. Colonial Beach Chamber of Commerce 6 N Irving Ave. Colonial Beach, VA 22443 804-224-8145 info@colonialbeach.org colonialbeach.org

At the northern end of Norfolk on the Chesapeake Bay lies Ocean View Beach, with 7.5 miles of beaches, commercial piers, bait shops, rental paddle boats, Jet Skis and sailboats, and a park with a bathhouse and picnic tables. The Ocean View Beach Festival is held every summer with live music, dancing and family activities right on the beach. The boardwalk is a good spot for a stroll and occasional sightings of submarines from nearby Norfolk Naval Air Station. Ocean View Beach Park 100 W. Ocean View Ave. Norfolk, VA 757-441-1776 oceanviewscene.com

Virginia Beach is the states most famous beach and the third largest in the United States, with 35 miles of waterfront property. Chesapeake Bay Beach and Sandbridge are two distinct beaches within the city borders that are more tranquil and secluded. For those who want excitement, theres the Resort Beaches area, which include the 3-mile oceanfront boardwalk, with bikes and roller blades for rent, restaurants, shops and various festivals during the summer. There are plenty of options for additional entertainment, including 4,000 acres in parks and national refuges, the Virginia Aquarium & Marine Science Center and the Virginia Beach Oceanfront Waterpark. Virginia Beach Visitors Center 2100 Parks Ave. Virginia Beach, VA 23451 800-VA-BEACH (800-822-3224) vabvc@vbgov.com vbfun.com

Bonnie Singleton has been writing professionally since 1996. She has written for various newspapers and magazines including “The Washington Times” and “Woman’s World.” She also wrote for the BBC-TV news magazine “From Washington” and worked for Discovery Channel online for more than a decade. Singleton holds a master’s degree in musicology from Florida State University and is a member of the American Independent Writers.

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Famous Beaches in Virginia | USA Today

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HobbySpace – Astronomy

 Astronomy  Comments Off on HobbySpace – Astronomy
Mar 152016
 

Astronomy is obviously the oldest and most popular of space hobbies. Even the occasional backyard skywatching by unaided eye or a small telescope can be a marvelous experience.

There are innumerable web sites already devoted to general astronomy and so we start below with just a guide to some introductory sites and a few of the major astronomy link lists.

We will focus here more on sites related to astronomy projects where amateurs can make significant contributions.

One of the most wonderful aspects of astronomy is that amateurs still make significant contributions. Comets, for example, are often discovered by non-professional astronomers.

We put many topics involving near-earth and solar system based phenomena, e.g. meteor show observation, aurora investigation, etc., into the Space Science section. (This is an arbitrary division but is consistent with the HobbySpace emphasis on our solar system.)

Note that the Satellite Watching section also includes astronomy related information and links such as tracking programs, utilities and references. In addition, the offline and online software sections include some star chart program links.

Astronomy related sections at HobbySpace

ASTRONET Carl Koppeschaar’s ASTRONET provides links to astronomy and space sites. Also, daily news reports available. Sections include

Astronomy Cafe Sten Odenwald’s cafe offers you some exploration with your coffee:

“Have you ever wondered what it might be like to be an astronomer? Do you have any questions that you would like an astronomer to answer? Would you like to hear the latest about hyperspace, black holes, time travel and quantum cosmology? Well, at the Astronomy Cafe you’ve come to the right place! Sit down, grab a cup of coffee, and have a far-out adventure at the outer frontier of space and time.” – web site.

Astronomical Society of the Pacific A very large and active organization with members worldwide. Their Mercury Magazine is a bi-monthly with articles accessible by a wide audience. A selection of the articles are online. There is also an online shop for posters, software, globes, etc.

Cloudy Nights Telescope Reviews Great site with lots of resources such as:

An astronomy addition to Google Earth.

Griffith Observatory This observatory & planetarium is dedicated to public education in astronomy and space exploration. Sky Information

Guide to the Universe Annemie Maertens takes you on trips through our galaxy and on out into the universe. Beautiful images and descriptions of the sights along the way. (In both Dutch and English)

Inconstant Moon Beautifully designed site that offers multimedia tours of the lunar surface. Includes “maps, photos, explanations, animations, selected links and even music”.

Que tal in the Current Skies An entertaining and readable monthly newsletter for the casual backyard astronomer. Gives the highlights of night skys for the coming month.

Rose Center for Earth & Space New York’s famous Hayden Planetarium at the American Museum of Natural History has been replaced with the $210 million Rose Center. The center includes a new Planetarium and much more. The web site describes the new facility and also offers many online activities and resources.

SEDS Galaxy The website for the Students for Exploration and Development of Space (SEDS) provides a broad array of astronomical related links. Also, see the astronomy images in their archive.

Stig’s Sky Calendar Stig Ottosen’s site is dedicated to his Java astronomy and space events calendar program that provides info on happenings both celestial and on the ground (e.g. upcoming conferences.)

“Use the Sky Calendar to keep yourself up to date on local and global sky events. It will display sunrise/sunset, twilight and lunar phase and visibility at a glance, and also includes a Planisphere, Planet Finder and Planet Round-up display. You can even customize your sky calendar setup with My Sky Calendar.”

There is both an online and offline version.

SkyLights Professor Jim Kaler provides this site for amateur astronomers. Includes weekly updates and astronomy news.

StarDate The University of Texas McDonald Observatory presents the popular StarDate radio show about skywatching. This web site provides lots of astronomy links and useful tips, especially for the backyard astronomer.

The Starpages An enormous searchable database for space and astronomy web resources. Called the “astronomy yellow pages”. Sections nclude:

The Telson Spur — The Snark Hunter’s Page Link list site with an enormous number of astronomy and space & astronautics links, arranged in an innovative classification scheme. See, for example, sections on Amateur Astronomy, Sky&Weather.

John Walker’s Fourmilab Programs John Walker offers several online and offline (freeware) astronomy programs, as well as interesting information. See, for example,

Microsoft will release this tool in the spring of 2008. It sounds like it will be a powerful competitor to Google Sky

Astronomy Magazines The websites for astronomy magazines typically provide lots of information and resources for astronomers ranging from the beginner to the pro.

Astronomy Day (April 16th) + Globe at Night April 16th each year is the time to celebrate our cosmos and the hobby of astronomy and to participate in astronomical observations.

They developed a very elaborate website with many resources that are still available.

to go outside, look skywards after dark, count the stars they see in certain constellations, and report what they see online. This Windows to the Universe Citizen Science Event is designed to encourage learning in astronomy!

It is part of the Citizen Science program at Windows to the Universe.

Dark Sky Preservation Light pollution has caused most of the cosmos to fade from view for people who live in urban/suburban areas. Extraneous night time illumination, e.g. streetlights that send wasted light upward rather than reflecting it downward, reduces the sensitivity of not only scientific telescopes but of our own eyes to see the dimmer stars and Milky Way from your back yard.

Here are resources that discuss the problem and efforts to combat it.

Organizations for amateurs and students

Astronomy Tourism – Eclipses, Northern Lights, Meteor Showers, etc. It is becoming more and more popular to travel to some exotic location to observe an astronomy related event. The most common such trips are to areas where eclipses will be visible, but now these also include expeditions to view aurora and meteor showers.

Orrery (Solar System Simulator) An Orrery shows the planets and their orbit around the sun. Mechanical Orreries have been around for centuries, typically as beautiful, clockwork-like devices in brass and wood.

Here’s a big orrey project meant to run for a long, long time: Long Now > Projects > Clock > Orrery

Now one can find them simulated in software but there are still mechanical versions around. The software versions offer a lot more options but a mechanical Orrery offer a more tangible, intuitive and esthetic experience.

Miscellaneous lunar info and resources:

Science Topics Here are some miscellaneous astronomy related science topics of interest

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HobbySpace – Astronomy

Top Ten Illuminati Symbols | Illuminati Rex

 Illuminati  Comments Off on Top Ten Illuminati Symbols | Illuminati Rex
Feb 242016
 

Top Ten Illuminati Symbols The Illuminati loves taunting the Profane by putting their symbols in plain sight for all to see. Only the Illuminati insiders are privy to the symbols true meaning. Symbols of the Illuminati are present on our currencies, and are plastered all over our television, movies and newspapers.

The All-Seeing Eye or the Eye of Providence is the preeminent symbol and most widely recognized symbol of the Illuminati.

The All-Seeing Eye as seen on the United States one dollar note.

The All-Seeing Eye was added to the original design of the Great Seal of the United States in 1776 by Pierre Eugne Du Simitire and remained on the Seal with the addition of an unfinished pyramid (see Illuminati symbol #2) when it was finally adopted in 1782. In 1935 the Great Seal was added to the $1 dollar note, the most widely circulated note on the planet, by President and Freemason Franklin D. Roosevelt.

Links to the Illuminati: To conspiracy theorists, the all-seeing eye represents the Eye of Lucifer. The Eye can see all and oversees its minions which are represented by the individual bricks of the pyramid. The 13 steps of the pyramid represent the 13 Illuminati Bloodlines which collectively rule over the planet. The year 1776 represent the founding of the Bavarian Illuminati by Adam Weishaupt.

US Government: The Eye is a representation of God who favors the prosperity of the United States. It is positioned above an unfinished pyramid representing the future growth of the United States. The 13 steps of the pyramid represent the original thirteen states. The year 1776 represent the birth of the United States.

Links to the Bavarian Illuminati: There is no evidence that the Bavarian Illuminati used the eye in any of its rituals. However, they used the point within a circle, circled dot, circumpunct, or circle with a point at its centre a () to represent the Order.

Links to Freemasonry: The Master Mason learns that the All Seeing Eye represents the Great Architect of the Universe (GAOTU) who watches and sees everything and will judge us according to our works.

The Freemasons also use the symbol. In Arcana of Masonry (p. 188), Masonic Historian Albert Churchward writes:

The point in the centre of a Circle is equal to the point at the tip of the Triangle, and this Glyph is equivalent to the Eye; the two are synonymous.

Other secret societies: In the Order of the Golden Dawn the represents Kether.

Masonic Vice-President Henry A. Wallace and Masonic President FDR added the pyramid to the dollar bill in 1935

All-Seeing Eye on the CBS logo

Original design for the Great Seal of the United States

Masonic tracing board, Germany 1770

The Illuminati Elite is represented by the capstone of the pyramid and the Profane by the stones.

The pyramid represents the top-down command structure of the Illuminati with the Illuminati plutocrats at the top and the peons at the bottom.

Links to the Illuminati: In Illuminati conspiracy theories the presence of a pyramid usually represents the top-down command structure of the Illuminati rulers of the universe. The theory has become more mainstream following the rise of the Occupy Wall Street movement who refer to the rulers as the One Percent.

Links to the Bavarian Illuminati: The pyramid was featured prominently at Minerval Assemblies of the Bavarian Illuminati. A carpet was laid out on the rooms floor featuring a Pyramid flanked on either side by the letters D and P on each of its side. (Deo Proximo God is near) There are stones scattered at the pyramids base.

The unfinished pyramid signifies that the goals of the Most Serene Order of the Illuminati are still incomplete. By working together, the Illuminati is able to make great strides towards completing their task for the glory of the Grand Architect.

Links to Freemasonry: The George Washington Masonic National Memorial in Virginia is capped by a seven steps pyramid. The House of the Temple, the Headquarters for the Supreme Council of the southern jurisdiction of the Scottish Rite of Masonry is also capped by an unfinished pyramid.

Bavarian Illuminati pyramid vs. Great Seal pyramid

HW Bushs pet pyramid

Being There movie

Step pyramid surmounting George Washington Masonic National Memorial

DARPAs Information Awareness Office

Grave of Charles Taze Russell, Founder of the Jehovahs Witnesses

The owl was the symbol for Minerva, the goddess of wisdom. The Enlightened Ones see themselves as the wise rulers of the planet.

Owl at the Bohemian Grove

Links to the Illuminati: The Bohemian Grove, an exclusive elite 2,700-acre encampment situated in the Redwood forest of northern California features an owl on its logo. The planning meeting for the ultra-secret Manhattan Project is also rumored to have taken place at the Grove. It is also where Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan worked out a deal on who would run for President of the United States.

Owl on Dollar bill?

Bohemian Grove Napkin

Druid with Owl painting at the George Washington Masonic National Memorial

Justin Bieber Illuminati Minerval?

Illuminati Minerval Owl

Frost Bank Tower Austin, Texas

Links to the Bavarian Illuminati: The owl is an important symbol for Illuminati Minerval. The owl was a symbol of Pallas Athena and represented wisdom and vigilance. The owl was also included on the Illuminati Minerval and Illuminati Minor medallions.

The eternal flame is a powerful symbol of the Enlightenment.

The Statue of LIberty

Links to the Illuminati: Illuminati researcher Dr. Stan Monteith claims that the Statue of Liberty is the pagan goddess Semiramis, the whore of Babylon a homewrecker and a harlot. She represents the destruction of the Old World Order and the creation of the New World Order.

Illuminati researcher Mark Dice claims that the Statue of Liberty is an Illuminati symbol. The statues radiant crowns rays are a symbol of the sun or Enlightenment. The Enlightenment represents Lucifer, the torch bearer.

The Olympic Flame torch rally was first introduced by the Nazis for the 1936 Olympics. Prometheus gave fire (knowledge) to humans. For this transgression, the King of the Gods, Zeus punished Prometheus to have is liver eaten for eternity by an eagle.

Links to the Bavarian Illuminati: Weishaupt was aroused by Zoroastrianism and philosophies of the ancient Parsees. He planned to use fire allegories in the symbols and rituals of the higher degrees of the Illuminati. The color red is prominent in the higher degrees of Illuminati Priest and Illuminati Regent.

Links to Freemasonry: The Statue of Liberty was designed by Freemason Frederic Bartholdi.

The name Lucifer literally means bringer of light.

Statue of Liberty

Columbia Pictures logo

Olympic Torch

Rockefellers Standard Oil

Prometheus at Rockefeller Plaza

The Illuminati and the practice and promotion of black magic

The Pentagram with Baphomets head at its center

Aka: Sigil of Baphomet, (two points up)

The name Baphomet first appeared as a pagan idol in the trial transcripts of the Knights Templar by the Inquisition.

The pentagram was originally a protection charm against demons. The inverted pentagram came to have its own distinctive meaning as a sign of evil especially after the publication of famed French occultist Lvi liphas publication of Transcendental Magic, its Doctrine and Ritual in 1854:

A reversed pentagram, with two points projecting upwards, is a symbol of evil and attracts sinister forces because it overturns the proper order of things and demonstrates the triumph of matter over spirit. It is the goat of lust attacking the heavens with its horns, a sign execrated by initiates.

Links to the Illuminati: George Washington and Thomas Jefferson appointed French-born freemason Pierre Charles LEnfant to design Washington D.C. A pentagram is clearly visible in the street layout leading many to speculate whether or not LEnfant deliberately inserted Masonic symbols.

However, the pentagram is not complete. Rhode Island Avenue does not connect with Pennsylvania Avenue, leaving the pentagram incomplete. Freemasons often point to this as proof that the streets of Washington DC are not Masonic. If the masons are all powerful architects, why cant they get a pentagram right? The answer might be found in the wrings of Illuminatus Johann Goethe (nom de guerre: Abaris) and famous author of Faust:

Mephistopheles: I must confess, my stepping oer Thy threshold a slight hindrance doth impede; The wizard-foot doth me retain.

Faust: The pentagram thy peace doth mar? To me, thou son of hell, explain, How camest thou in, if this thine exit bar? Could such a spirit aught ensnare?

Mephistopheles: Observe it well, it is not drawn with care, One of the angles, that which points without, Is, as thou seest, not quite closed.

Links to the Bavarian Illuminati: The Illuminati did not use the pentagram in its ceremonies.

Links to Freemasonry: The Order of the Eastern Star a female Masonic organization for wives and family of Freemasons uses the pentagram with two points up as its emblem.

Order of the Eastern Star

Ke$ha Die Young

Streets of Washington, D.C.

Washington posing Baphomet-style (As above, so below)

The Illuminati, the number of the Beast and the Anti-Christ.

six hundred sixty-six

Let him who has understanding calculate the number of the beast, for it is the number of a man: His number is 666.

~ Revelation 13: 18 New King James Version (NKJV)

Links to the Illuminati: The number of the Beast is associated with the Anti-Christ who would eventually take helm of the Illuminati as he brings forth the New World Order. The music industry is a prime recruiting ground for the Illuminati. Illuminated musicians incorporate Illuminati symbolism in their work as a nudge to their Illuminati handlers.

The 666 numerals can also be found in corporate logos such as Taco Bell, Google Chrome and Vodafone. When AT&T changed the name of one of its subsidiaries to Lucent Technologies, Illuminati symbolism researcher Texe Marrs was quick to point out the new names similarity with Lucifer, and asked:

But, does AT&Ts new baby have horns? Does the name Lucent have any link to the name Lucifer? Could it be that, as one writer has suggested, Lucent stands for Lucifers Enterprise?

~ Texe Marrs, PROJECT L.U.C.I.D., 1996

Links to the Bavarian Illuminati: Only deists and atheists could hope to reach the higher mystery degrees of the Illuminati. As such, they would have regarded Satan as a mythological figure.

Links to Freemasonry:

Lucifer, the Light-bearer! Strange and mysterious name to give to the Spirit of Darkness! Lucifer, the Son of the Morning! Is it he who bears the Light, and with its splendors intolerable, blinds feeble, sensual, or selfish souls? Doubt it not!

~ Albert Pike, Moral and Dogma

Note: Fear of the number 666 is called hexakosioihexekontahexaphobia. There will be a test.

Barcode/UPC 666

Monster Energy Drink 666

Vodafone 666 or KKK

Walt Disney 666

Google Chrome 666

A symbol of mortality and the Illuminatis mark on the Skulls and Bones

Skull reminds young initiates of their own mortality

Links to the Illuminati: The Skull and Bones is an elite fraternity at Yale University, a prestigious American university. Their headquarters is known as the Tomb. Theres a painting of skulls with the quote:

Who was the fool, who the wise man, beggar or king? Whether poor or rich, alls the same in death.

Wer war der Thor, wer Weiser, Bettler oder Kaiser? Ob Arm, ob Reich, im Tode gleich.

Links to the Bavarian Illuminati: The Illuminati Regent or Illuminati Prince initiation rituals consisted of three rooms which the initiate had to visit in succession. In the first room the candidate would find a skeleton with a sword and a crown at its feet. The candidate would then be asked if the bones were the bones of a king, a nobleman or a beggar. As in the Order of the Skull and Bones, the scene intended to make the candidate reflect on his own mortality.

Links to Freemasonry: The Master Mason carpet features a skull to remind the initiate of his own mortality, just as in the Illuminati and in the Skull and Bones.

Fools and Kings

Skull and Bones, 1948 The grandfather clock is always set at 8 oclock

Master Mason Tracingboard

Snakes, Dragons and Serpents and the lure of forbidden knowledge

Serpent from the Book of Genesis

The snake or serpent one of the most ancient symbols used in myths and was widely used throughout the world. They often act as guardians, such as the statue of Draco guarding the entrance of The City of London.

Snakes are identified with forbidden wisdom or knowledge as in the serpent in the Garden of Eden from Genesis.

Being poisonous, and generally dangerous to humans, the snake symbol is commonly used in western culture as a representation of evil.

Continued here:
Top Ten Illuminati Symbols | Illuminati Rex

Definitions of Libertarianism – The Advocates for Self-Government

 Misc  Comments Off on Definitions of Libertarianism – The Advocates for Self-Government
Feb 242016
 

There are many ways of saying the same thing, and libertarians often have unique ways of answering the question What is libertarianism? Weve asked many libertarians that question, and below are some of our favorite definitions.

Libertarianism is, as the name implies, the belief in liberty. Libertarians believe that each person owns his own life and property and has the right to make his own choices as to how he lives his life and uses his property as long as he simply respects the equal right of others to do the same. Sharon Harris, President, Advocates for Self-Government

The CATO Insistutes David Boaz

Libertarianism is the view that each person has the right to live his life in any way he chooses so long as he respects the equal rights of others. Libertarians defend each persons right to life, liberty, and property rights that people possess naturally, before governments are created. In the libertarian view, all human relationships should voluntary; the only actions that should be forbidden by law are those that involve the initiation of force against those who have themselves used force actions like murder, rape, robbery, kidnapping, and fraud. David Boaz, Executive Vice President, Cato Institute

Libertarianism is a philosophy. The basic premise of libertarianism is that each individual should be free to do as he or she pleases so long as he or she does not harm others. In the libertarian view, societies and governments infringe on individual liberties whenever they tax wealth, create penalties for victimless crimes, or otherwise attempt to control or regulate individual conduct which harms or benefits no one except the individual who engages in it. definition written by theU.S. Internal Revenue Service, during the process of granting theAdvocates for Self-Governmentstatus as a nonprofit educational organization

Libertarianism is what your mom taught you: behave yourself and dont hit your sister. Ken Bisson, board member, Advocates for Self-Government

Former Congressman and 3-time Presidential Candidate Dr. Ron Paul

The core of libertarianism is respect for the life, liberty and property rights of each individual. This means that no one may initiate force against another, as that violates those natural rights. While many claim adherence to this principle, only libertarians apply the non-aggression axiom to the state. Ron Paul

Libertarians believe in individual liberty, personal responsibility and freedom from government on all issues at all times A libertarian is someone who thinks you should be free to live your life asyouwant to live it, not as [the President of the United States] thinks you should who believes you should raise your children byyourvalues, not those of some far-off bureaucrat whos using your child as a pawn to create some brave new world who thinks that, because youre the one who gets up every day and goes to work, you should be free to keepevery dollaryou earn, to spend it, save it, give it away asyouthink best. Harry Browne(1933-2006);1996 and 2000 Libertarian Party Presidential Candidate and author ofLiberty A-Z: 872 Libertarian Soundbites You Can Use Right Now!

In popular terminology, a libertarian is the opposite of an authoritarian. Strictly speaking, a libertarian is one who rejects the idea of using violence or the threat of violence legal or illegal to impose his will or viewpoint upon any peaceful person. Generally speaking, a libertarian is one who wants to be governed far less than he is today. -Dean Russell,author at the Foundation for Economic Education (FEE), 1955

Fox Business Host John Stossel

We want government to largely leave us alone, protect our personal security, but then to butt-out, leave us free to pursue our hopes and dreams, as long as we dont hurt anybody else. John Stossel, host of Stossel on Fox Financial News Network and author ofMyths, Lies and Downright Stupidity

Libertarians believe in individual liberty, personal responsibility and freedom from government on all issues at all times A libertarian is someone who thinks you should be free to live your life asyouwant to live it, not as [the President of the United States] thinks you should who believes you should raise your children byyourvalues, not those of some far-off bureaucrat whos using your child as a pawn to create some brave new world who thinks that, because youre the one who gets up every day and goes to work, you should be free to keepevery dollaryou earn, to spend it, save it, give it away asyouthink best. Harry Browne(1933-2006);1996 and 2000 Libertarian Party Presidential Candidate and author ofLiberty A-Z: 872 Libertarian Soundbites You Can Use Right Now!

As Libertarians, we seek a world of liberty; a world in which all individuals are sovereign over their own lives, and no one is forced to sacrifice his or her values for the benefit of others. We believe that respect for individual rights is the essential precondition for a free and prosperous world, that force and fraud must be banished from human relationships, and that only through freedom can peace and prosperity be realized. Consequently, we defend each persons right to engage in any activity that is peaceful and honest, and welcome the diversity that freedom brings. The world we seek to build is one where individuals are free to follow their own dreams in their own ways, without interference from government or any authoritarian power. from the Preamble to theLibertarian PartyPlatform

Author and Political Scientist Charles Murray

Applied to personal behavior, the libertarian ethic is simple but stark: Thou shalt not initiate the use of force. Thou shalt not deceive or defraud. Anyone who observes both these injunctions faithfully has gone a long way toward being an admirable human being as defined by any of the worlds great ethical systems. Charles Murray, political scientist and author ofWhat It Means To Be a Libertarian

Libertarians are self-governors in both personal and economic matters. They believe governments only purpose is to protect people from coercion and violence. Libertarians value individual responsibility and tolerate economic and social diversity. Carole Ann Rand, former president, Advocates for Self-Government

Libertarianism is what you probably already believe Libertarian values are American values. Libertarianism is Americas heritage of liberty, patriotism and honest work to build a future for your family. Its the idea that being free and independent is a great way to live. That each of us is a unique individual with great potential. That you own yourself, and that you have the right to decide whats best for you. Americans of all races and creeds built a great and prosperous country with these libertarian ideals. Lets use them to build Americas future. David Bergland, 1984 Libertarian Party Presidential Candidate and author ofLibertarianism in One Lesson

Author L. Neil Smith

A libertarian is a person who believes that no one has the right, under any circumstances, to initiate force against another human being, or to advocate or delegate its initiation. Those who act consistently with this principle are libertarians, whether they realize it or not. Those who fail to act consistently with it are not libertarians, regardless of what they may claim. authorL. Neil Smith

Libertarianism is self-government. It combines the best of both worlds: The left leg of self-government is tolerance of others; the right leg is responsible economic behavior. The combination of both legs leads to social harmony and material abundance. -Marshall Fritz(1943-2008), Founder of the Advocates for Self-Government and of the Alliance for the Separation of School and State, inventor of the Worlds Smallest Political Quiz

Free minds and free markets. – slogan ofReasonmagazine

Individual liberty, free markets and peace. – slogan of Cato Institute

Central to libertarianism is its non-aggression principle. Each of us has the obligation under justice not to aggress against anyone else for any reason personal, social or political. Doris Gordon,Libertarians for Life

Small government: one that stays out of peoples wallets and out of their bedrooms. Jeffrey Miron, Harvard Professor and author ofLibertarianism from A to Z

True and impartial liberty is therefore the right of every man to pursue the natural, reasonable and religious dictates of his own mind; to think what he will, and act as he thinks, provided he acts not to the prejudice of another; to spend his own money himself and lay out the produce of his labor his own way; and to labor for his own pleasure and profit, and not for others who are idle, and would live and riot by pillaging and oppressing him and those that are like him. Thomas Gordon,1722, submitted byDavid Nalle,Republican Liberty Caucus

The political and legal philosophy rooted in natural law of individual liberty and personal responsibility under a rule of law. David J. Theroux,Founder and President, Independent Institute

Author and Loyola University Professor Walter Block

Libertarianism is a political philosophy. It is concerned solely with the proper use of force. Its core premise is that it should be illegal to threaten or initiate violence against a person or his property without his permission; force is justified only in defense or retaliation.That is it, in a nutshell. The rest is mere explanation, elaboration, and qualification. -Walter Block,Loyola University Professor and author ofDefending the Undefendable

Libertarianism is the simple morality we learned as children: dont strike first, dont steal or cheat, keep your promises.If you inadvertently fail to live up to these standards, make it up to the person youve harmed.If someone harms you, you may defend yourself as needed to stop the aggressor and obtain reparations. This simple morality works group-to-group just as it works one-to-one to bring about a peaceful and prosperous world. Mary Ruwart, author ofHealing Our World in an Age of Aggression

A political system guided by the basic principles of natural individual human rights (to ones life, liberty, property, etc.). Tibor Machan,philosopher, Chapman University Professor and author ofThe Promise of Liberty

The political philosophy in which individual and economic liberty constitute the highest societal value. Robert Poole, Founder , Reason Foundation

The freedom to live your life as you see fit as long as you do not harm or infringe upon the rights of others. Jeff Frazee, Executive Director, Young Americans for Liberty

Other people are not your property. Roderick Long, philosopher, Auburn University Professor and author ofReason and Value: Aristotle Vs. Rand

Nobel Prize-winning Economist Milton Friedman

Libertarians want the smallest, least-intrusive government consistent with maximum freedom for each individual to follow his own ways, his own values, as long as he doesnt interfere with anyone elses doing the same. -Milton Friedman(1912-2006), Noble Prize-winning economist

Libertarianism is a political philosophy that advocates little or no initiation of force in society. That view is derived from the philosophys core premise, namely, that each and every person is born into this world as a distinct and precious individual, possessing the right to do anything that is peaceful. Lawrence Reed, President, Foundation for Economic Education

Link:
Definitions of Libertarianism – The Advocates for Self-Government

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Ten Best Beaches in Georgia | USA Today

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Feb 152016
 

St. Simon’s Island offers sandy beaches. (Photo: Jupiterimages/Photos.com/Getty Images )

About 100 miles of Georgia shoreline faces the Atlantic Ocean between South Carolina and Florida. The state extends west and north to the Appalachian Mountains. Small barrier islands lie just off the coast and feature some of the regions best beaches. State parks and mountain resorts also boast fine beaches at inland lakes. The best beaches often depend on individual tastes, but 10 of Georgias best include family-friendly ocean beaches to quieter areas popular with beachcombers. And one lies far from the ocean.

A few miles north of the Florida state line, Cumberland Island National Seashore (nps.gov) has 17 miles of beaches, and two of the states finest. Visitors travel by ferry to reach the island, enabling the park service to limit the number of people in the park. Sea Camp Beach sits near the southern part of the island and offers restrooms, swimming areas and camping. Campers also have access to showers. Stafford Beach is near a wilderness area and attracts beachcombers. High surf from storms produces treasures such as coquinas, disc clams, moon snails and sharks teeth.

North of Cumberland, a causeway allows access to the smaller Jekyll Island and features 10 miles of beaches. At the north end of the island, both swimmers and walkers explore Driftwood Beach, a beach that illustrates natures ultimate power. Over the years, erosion consumed trees and vegetation, leaving eerie stumps, root systems and driftwood. Stunning scenes make this a photographers paradise. Farther south, Central Dunes Beach attracts many swimmers and sun-worshipers to its wide, sandy beach. The more crowded beach is adjacent to many island resorts and hotels, and is popular with families. The Civil War movie Glory was filmed nearby.

St. Simons Island sits just off the coast from Brunswick, a large commercial center in southern Georgia. A causeway connects the city to the island. The most popular beach is at Massengale Park. The family-friendly beach offers swimming and water sports. The hard-packed sand allows bike-riding. East Beach attracts beachcombers and bird watchers. An adjacent Coast Guard facility includes the Coastal Encounters Nature Center. The center offers barrier island ecology walks and kayak excursions. Both beaches have restrooms and showers. For a quieter St. Simons experience, the private Little St. Simons Island Beach provides tranquility. Only 32 people stay on the island at any one time. Besides swimming and sunbathing, visitors can take naturalist guided turtle beach walks and other excursions.

Savannah lies just south of the South Carolina border, and Tybee Island serves as the citys beach. Recognized as one of Georgias finest beaches, its history goes back to when Savannah residents went to Tybees South Beach in their finest clothes for social activities. Today, traditional beach activities like swimming and water sports attract beach goers. South Beach also attracts visitors for its hotels, restaurants and entertainment. Although quieter, North Beach is great for beachcombers. A lighthouse near the beach helps direct sailors to Savannah Harbor. Beach walkers often see dolphins glide through the water.

Georgias best inland beach lies in far west Georgia at John Tanner State Park (gastateparks.org). The park features a lake with a large, sandy swimming beach. Other activities include boating, pedal boating, fishing and miniature golf. The park provides camping facilities, as well as lodging near the beach. Hikers may follow a trail around the lake through wooded areas.

Jeff Fulton is a writer specializing in business, travel and culture. He has worked in international sales, customer relations and public relations for major airlines, and has written for Demand Studios since May 2009. Jeff holds a Bachelor of Science in journalism from Northwestern University and a Master of Business Administration in marketing from the University of Chicago.

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Ten Best Beaches in Georgia | USA Today

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