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Pass Christian, Mississippi – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Apr 292016
 

Pre-historyEdit

The exact date when Native Americans first arrived in the Gulf Coast area is not known, but artifacts have been found suggesting that humans have inhabited the area for many thousands of years.

Indian mounds can be found throughout the Gulf coast region of southern Mississippi, but many have been destroyed by artifact hunters, farmers, developers, and flooding. A 1768 English map shows one large mound existed on the shore near to Market Street. Others existed at Bayou Portage and the Shelly Plantation on the shore north of the Bay of St. Louis near DeLisle. The mounds and middens in the area containing arrowheads, pottery, and human skeletons were pilfered by amateur archaeologists over the years and many of the items recovered are in private collections. At the border of Pass Christian and Long Beach near White Harbor Road meets Hwy. 90 there once existed an Indian village, whose inhabitants were referred to by locals as “The Pitcher Point Indians”. The approximate location of the Indian Village is just a few hundred yards east of White Harbor Road. There are no ruins at this location but the beach in this area has produced many arrowheads and pottery shards over the years.

It is likely that Pitcher Point is the location where survivors of the 1528 lvar Nez Cabeza de Vaca Narvez expedition landed naked and starving among a people called the Carnones. This story was told to DeVaca by friendly Indians who stated that, the natives had killed the Spanish who were so feeble that they could not defend themselves.

Pass Christian was discovered by French-Canadian explorers in 1699, shortly after the first French colony was established in Biloxi. In June of 1699, while sounding the channel at the Pass Christian peninsula, the French named that channel Passe aux Hutres for the many oysters they found there. Pass Christian was named for a nearby deepwater pass, which in turn was named for Nicholas Christian L’Adnier, who lived on nearby Cat Island beginning in 1746.[2]

They remained on Ile aux Vaisseaux the following day due to bad weather. On the 13th Iberville and his brother Bienville with a party of thirteen men went ashore, sailing due north from the west end of the island. Their landing would have been somewhere between present-day Beauvoir and Edgewater.

The following morning they explored eastward along the beach, following footprints in the sand until they caught sight of three Indians in a canoe leaving Deer Island. Iberville pursued them across Biloxi Bay, catching up just as they reached shore at Ocean Springs. The younger natives fled into the woods leaving an old and dying man. The Frenchmen made him a bed of straw and built him a fire before withdrawing to make a camp for themselves. Unfortunately, the grasses around him soon caught fire and though the fires were extinguished, the old man died half an hour later.

Ibervilles hunters captured an old woman in the woods and heaped gifts upon her to take to her people. The first diplomatic contact with the native people had been accomplished and the Indians told them of the great river to the west.

On February 27 Iberville set out in wind and drizzle with Bienville, M. Sauvolle and about 48 men to visit the Mississippi River. They spent the night near the south end of the later named Bay of Saint Louis and the following day traversed the Breton Sound in fog and rain which continued through the following day. On March 2, running before a storm, they located and entered the mouth of the Mississippi and traveled up stream making contact with various tribes until on March 16 they came upon a decorated pole which marked the boundary between the Houmas and the Bayagoulas tribes. They called the place Red Stick or Baton Rouge. On the return trip, Iberville discovered the proof he sought in the form of letter written by Henri de Tonti to La Salle fourteen years earlier. The letter had been left with the chief of the Mongoulachas who bartered it to Iberville for a few hatchets and knives.

Iberville shortly thereafter divided his party into two groups. Bienville returned by the mouth of the Mississippi while Iberville explored the area of Pass Manschac, lakes Maurepas and Pontchartrain and returned to the open water by the Rigolets.

When Iberville departed from his ships on April 27, he instructed them to return to France if he had not returned within one month. On March 30 he camped near the mouth of the Bay of Saint Louis where he built a large fire to signal his return.

The following morning he recognized Cat island, and shortly thereafter reached his ships. About an hour later Bienville and his party arrived.

In 1781 all of Pass Christian peninsula was owned by Julia de la Brosse (Widow Asmard). Upon her death in 1799, Widow Asmard deeded 800 arpents the entire downtown Pass Christian to Charles Asmar, a free person of color,[3] who upon his death left the property to his heirs. Pass Christian was officially chartered as a town in 1848.[4]

On the night of December 12, 1814, more than 1000 British troops and 42 barges en route to New Orleans moved through the pass between Ship and Cat Islands and sailed westward along the Mississippi coast, passing just offshore of Pass Christian. They were closely watched by Lt. Thomas ap Catesby Jones, commanding the seven American boats standing off Malheureux Island as the British proceeded to anchor off Hendersons Point (western tip of Pass Christian) the night of the 13th of December. He dispatched the tender, Sea Horse, under the command of Sailing Master William Johnson into the Bay of Saint Louis to assist in the removal of the public stores lest they fall to the British. He then sent the ship, Alligator to Chalmette to warn General Andrew Jackson of the British approach.

Word of the British fleets arrival spread throughout the county and a large crowd gathered at sunrise on the 14th, along the bluff to watch the fleet passing. Three British boats were dispatched to capture the Sea Horse as it endeavored to load munitions below the bluff at Ulman Avenue. Among the crowd was an elderly lady on crutches, a Miss Claiborne, who was visiting from Natchez. About 2 p.m., on observing the impending attack, she is quoted as saying Will no one fire a shot in defense of our country whereupon it is said that she took Mayor Toulmes cigar and lighted one of the cannon. The ball sailed past the Seahorse and landed close to the approaching British. Assuming that he had fire cover from shore, Capt. Johnson seized the initiative and attacked the British fleet. He had a 6-pounder (canon) on his deck and after half an hour of intense barrage the British retreated. Four more barges joined the first three and the seven renewed the attack. Although Capt. Johnsons defense was gallant, superior numbers forced him to blow up the little schooner rather than surrender her.

The rest of the American fleet in the Mississippi Sound, consisting of four barges, was anchored in the westerly current between Malheureux Island and Point Clear. On the morning of the 15th, the British rowed their boats into the current until they were about two miles away where they anchored to take tea (breakfast) and rest before attacking. About 10:30 they closed on the brave little fleet under the command of Lt. Thomas ap Catesby Jones.

By 12:40 the battle was over. Six Americans were dead and 35 were wounded. The British suffered 17 dead and 77 wounded. The greater significance of this battle and the greater loss to the British was the passage of time allowing General Andrew Jackson to gather more troops and to complete fortifications for the defense at Chalmette where victory over the British was achieved on January 7.

The British were so certain of victory that they brought civil servants to assume governing the areas they expected to conquer with them, as well as wives and children who were waiting on the Mississippi Coast islands. However, the great victory for the Americans was rendered inconsequential because the peace treaty had already been signed and word had not reached the Coast.

Mississippi became a state in December, 1817 and the first act of the Mississippi legislature was to incorporate the city of Bay Saint Louis (directly across the bay from Pass Christian) to become the capital of the state. The incorporation was completed at the morning session but at the afternoon session, the representative from Rankin County changed his vote and Natchez was designated capital instead. It remained the capital for two years before the capital was moved to Jackson where it remains.

The town was a famous resort prior to the American Civil War. It was a favorite location for the beach and summer homes of the wealthy of New Orleans, who built a row of historic mansions along the shoreline, where Scenic Drive was one of the country’s notable historic districts.[citation needed] The Southern Yacht Club, established in 1849, was the first yacht club in the South and the second in the United States, and was originally located in Pass Christian before moving to New Orleans in 1857.[5] The Pass Christian Yacht Club was itself founded in the mid 20th century.

During the Civil War, the Battle of Pass Christian occurred when the USSMassachusetts(1860) began shelling the town. The 3rd Mississippi Regiment, which was stationed in Pass Christian, had marched toward Biloxi expecting a Union landing there, leaving Pass Christian completely unprotected. A housewife dashed to her upper floor balcony and waved a white bed sheet, the flag of surrender, and the bombardment ceased. Union soldiers plundered the town before withdrawing, there being little of value, including food, for them to confiscate. This skirmish became known as the Bedsheet Surrender.

On September 4, 1861, 69 men, including Captain Ashbel Green were mustered into military service. They made up the Dahlgren Guards Company, which was part of the Third Mississippi Infantry “C” Regiment, commanded by Col. John Deason. The Pass Christian Dahlgren Guards was headed by Lt. Col. Thomas A. Mellon during their encampment at Camp Tugville, which was located two miles northeast of the Pass near the intersection of White Rock Road and Pass Road.

In the early months of 1862, the women of the Pass raised their spirits by creating a flag that represented their love for their men, devotion for their sovereign state, and dedication to the war effort. The flag they created, The Pass Christian Flag, was an adaptation of the official flag of the Sovereign Republic of Mississippi.[6]

Pass Christian was in the path of two of the most intense hurricanes ever to hit the United States–Hurricane Camille on August 17, 1969, and Hurricane Katrina on August 29, 2005. Each hurricane caused the near total destruction of the city. Hurricane Camille, the 2nd strongest hurricane of the 20th century, was declared a hurricane (meaning it had sustained wind speeds of 74 m.p.h.) on Friday, August 15, 1969. By the time it smashed into the Mississippi Gulf Coast at Pass Christian, Mississippi 2 days later on Sunday, August 17, it had sustained winds of 190 m.p.h. with gusts in the 210 220 m.p.h. range. It also had the 2nd lowest barometric pressure ever recorded [909 millibars (26.85)]. Raindrops hit with the force of bullets, and waves off the Gulf Coast crested between twenty-two and twenty-eight feet above normal tide range. Camille was only the 2nd hurricane on record to reach Category 5 at the time of landfall, as well as being the 2nd most intense hurricane at the time of landfall. The 1935 Labor Day hurricane was the first Category 5 hurricane as well as the strongest and most intense hurricane ever to make landfall in the United States in recorded history.[7][8]

Hurricane Camille destroyed the Richelieu Apartments killing eight people who had chosen to ride the storm out. The Richelieu Apartments faced the Gulf of Mexico and was less than 250 feet away from the surf on the beach. Early Sunday, August 17, the storm was southeast of New Orleans by 200 miles. A Hurricane Warning was then announced for the entire Mississippi Coast. Evacuation was advised but some of the occupants of the Richelieu apartments ignored the warning. At 10:15p.m. on August 17, 1969 the front wall of the storm came ashore. The Richelieu Apartments were totally destroyed; all that remained were the foundation and the shell of the in-ground swimming pool, the force of the water pounded the concrete block construction until it completely destroyed the building. The hurricane party depicted in “Hurricane”, a 74 min TV Movie featuring some notable stars includes actual footage of hurricane “Camille”.

On August 29, 2005, Pass Christian was almost completely destroyed by Hurricane Katrina. Of the approximately 8,000 homes in Pass Christian, all but 500 were damaged or destroyed. In spite of the fact that the beachfront Scenic Drive follows the crest of a small bluff, affording it some elevation, most of the historic mansions along the road were severely damaged, and many were completely destroyed, including the superbly restored Greek Revival mansion “Union Quarters” described in the National Register of Historic Places as having been built in 1855. A cast iron fence fronted the property enclosing a Magnolia Historical Marker which was dedicated in 1960. It read, “Union officers were temporarily quartered here during the invasion of Pass Christian.”

Hurricane Katrina totally destroyed the local public library. It was rebuilt.[9] Thirteen members of the city’s police department retreated to the library after the police station became unsafe and water from the Gulf of Mexico began to pour in.

The library was immediately north of City Hall across a small parking lot but was at a lower elevation. When the water crested the elevation of City Hall, the police cars in the parking lot began to float and were carried around the parking lot by the current. One car struck the south side doors, causing them to implode, and the Gulf of Mexico driven by Katrina’s powerful winds rushed into the building. With no way to fight against the current they were trapped inside a concrete box that was rapidly filling with water. Knowing that they had to escape they attempted to shoot the glass out of the north side of the building. This was unsuccessful, as the bullets ricocheted off the glass. The laminated glass proved impervious to the .45 caliber rounds of the police-issue handguns. The force of the water entering the building after the southern wall was destroyed by the car was far too strong to swim against. The only way out was with the current. Police Chief John Dubbisson swam to the rear doors that had to be opened where he successfully touched the push bar. He then grabbed a railing before the storm surge could carry him off. All that were inside the library made it outside and rode out the rest of the storm on the roof.[10][11]

The storm surge from Hurricane Katrina that hit Pass Christian was estimated at 8.5m (27.8ft),[12] which is the US record high,[13] leveling Pass Christian up to half a mile inland from the shore; estimation of highest storm surges was complicated because high-water markers were also destroyed. Highway 90 along the beach was damaged, and the bridge over the Bay of St. Louis was thrown completely apart, not being reopened until a new bridge was partially completed in May 2007. (Connection was temporarily replaced by a ferry service.) Sewage contamination rendered the local water supply unusable, as some samples tested positive for more than 250 bacteria and parasites. By late September 2005, access was restricted south of the railroad tracks (about four blocks inland) without proper credentials, as crews continued to search for victims and clear debris. In early 2007, although rebuilding was underway in much of the city, a large portion of empty, deserted homes and other structures remain. Many residents were still living in FEMA trailers, and out-of-state volunteers were still needed for the rebuilding effort.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 15.3 square miles (40km2), of which 8.4 square miles (22km2) is land and 6.9 square miles (18km2) (44.97%) is water.

Geographically, the town of Pass Christian located on the Mississippi Sound, and is situated on a peninsula, with water on three sides: the Gulf of Mexico to the south, the Bay of St. Louis to the west and a long stretch of bayou to the north.

The unincorporated area north of the bayou, known as DeLisle (pronounced “duh LILL” or “duh LEEL”), shares a zip code with Pass Christian, but is not within the city limits. DeLisle was formerly known as Wolf Town or Wolftown.

The Municipal Harbor was formalized in 1956 with the creation of a Harbor Commission. In 1958, an 11-foot high, 350-foot long, concrete, breakwater wall was constructed in the sound by the T.L. James Company. There are only two such concrete harbor walls in the world, with the other in Japan. Almost 1000 linear feet of public fishing is permitted on the two breakwalls. The harbor consists of seven piers, four assigned for pleasure craft and three for commercial vessels. Before it was destroyed by waves from Hurricane Katrina there were 346 slips ranging in berth sizes from 31-feet to 84-feet, in addition to a skiff-pier providing 20 tie-ups. Water, electricity, showers, restrooms, and a bait and fuel station and a vessel pump-out station were available, all overseen from the two-story Harbor Master office.[citation needed]

Pass Christian possessed some of the finest oyster reefs in the world, which have served to anchor Pass Christians economy. The oyster reefs that lie just offshore are among the largest on the Mississippi Gulf Coast. The Pass Christian group of Oyster Reefs have been documented on maps since D’Iberville and Bienville chartered these waters in 1699. Early French maps of the area refer to the reefs and batures as Passe aux Hutres (Oyster Pass). There are nine reefs comprising an area of about twenty square miles. Further west are the Henderson Point and Calico reefs which are one to two miles south of Henderson Point.

As of the census[16] of 2000, there were 6,579 people, 2,687 households, and 1,797 families residing in the city. The population density was 781.2 people per square mile (301.7/km). There were 3,351 housing units at an average density of 397.9 per square mile (153.7/km). The racial makeup of the city was 65.91% White, 28.17% African American, 0.62% Native American, 3.48% Asian (almost all Vietnamese American), 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.62% from other races, and 1.17% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.75% of the population.

There were 2,687 households out of which 27.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.6% were married couples living together, 16.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 33.1% were non-families. 27.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.88.

In the city the population was spread out with 23.4% under the age of 18, 6.9% from 18 to 24, 25.3% from 25 to 44, 25.2% from 45 to 64, and 19.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 86.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.6 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $40,743, and the median income for a family was $46,232. Males had a median income of $35,352 versus $22,195 for females. The per capita income for the city was $26,008. About 8.2% of families and 10.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.0% of those under age 18 and 6.2% of those age 65 or over.

The Du Pont White Pigment and Mineral Products Plant now known as the Chemours DeLisle Plant is located just south of I-10 in DeLisle. The plant is one of the world’s largest producers of titanium dioxide and has been in operation since 1979. The town of Pass Christian is near the plant, directly across the Bay of St. Louis. Some community members also expressed concerns that chemical releases, as reported on EPAs Toxic Release Inventory, from the DuPont plant could have contaminated the communitys water and air. DuPont DeLisle’s titanium dioxide plant reported the third highest amount of dioxin-like compounds in EPAs Toxic Release Inventory (TRI). In 2005, the Hurricane Katrina storm surge flooded significant portions of the plant. Unlike other aquatic organisms, blue crabs do not have the ability to metabolize quickly certain dioxin-like compounds Polychlorinated dibenzofurans that predominate in the coke and ore solids waste stream of the plant.

The Pass Packing Company was formed on May 16, 1899, with George Brandt, F Andressen, Frank Sutter, TV Courtenay, JH Knost, and George H Taylor as its founding officers. This plant was bought out by the Dunbar and Dukate interests of Biloxi who also acquired the cannery at Bay St. Louis. The plant was located at the present site of the Pass Christian Yacht Club. Originally built in 1902, the building was destroyed by the 1947 hurricane. Workers arrived by truck or box car and were housed in special cottages owned by the factory. There was a large apartment building on Market Avenue which the locals called the “White Elephant”, and was reported to house as many as 30 families. Additionally, there were the Row Houses consisting of rows of duplexes built one after the other.The “Green Row” on Dunbar Street had 16 duplexes, and the “Red Row” on Woodman Avenue had 19 duplexes.These houses were eventually abandoned when in 1956 mechanical oyster shuckers were installed, thereby eliminating the need for so many employees.

Besides seafood packer George Washington Dunbar, there was Ernest Hudson Merrick, who was one of the first importers of out of state labor for the seafood packing industry at Pass Christian. In 1908, he started visiting the Pass during summers to escape the heat of New Orleans. During his summers he became interested in the potential of fishing along the coast and proceeded to build a fleet of fishing schooners and a factory for processing, packing, and shipping oysters and shrimp,said one of his sons, Bill Merrick. He was one of the first to ship fresh oysters and shrimp to the north packed in ice. The delicacy of the Gulf Coast oysters created a large demand in the Midwest.

Seafood production in the region has been severely impacted by large scale fish die-offs. The The Deepwater Horizon oil spill, which occurred in the spring and summer of 2010along with the presence of toxic sediments stirred up by Hurricane Katrina and record amounts of fresh water diverted into the Bonnet Carre Spillway in Louisianahave brought seafood production to a standstill. Offshore oyster beds were hit especially hard. Field crews have reported a 50 percent to 65 percent mortality rate in some areas. An even greater mortality rate of 90 percent to 95 percent has been seen in other oyster beds.

The owner of a Mississippi seafood company filed a federal class-action lawsuit Friday over the rig explosion that caused a massive oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. On April 30, 2010 A local Seafood shipper, Jerry Forte, owner of Jerry Forte Seafood in Pass Christian, claims the spill could damage the commercial seafood industry. Forte’s attorneys filed the suit in U.S. District Court in Gulfport. The suit seeks at least $5 million in compensatory damages, plus an unspecified amount of punitive damages against Transocean, BP, Halliburton Energy Services Inc. and Cameron International Corp. and Hyundai Heavy Industries Co.

Between 1923 and 1929 New Orleans residents Rudolf Hecht and Lynne Watkins Hecht developed Middlegate Japanese Gardens at their summer home in Pass Christian, Mississippi.[17] The Hechts built Middlegate Japanese gardens to perpetuate their pleasant memories of their travels in Japan. The gardens are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Since 1923 when the Hechts established them, Middlegate Japanese Gardens have been private, residential gardens.[18] The gardens were extensively damaged by Hurricane Katrina in 2005. The Smithsonian Institution has included the gardens on their Collection Search Center website.[19]

James M. Sherman, at age 67, began construction of Sherman Castle. Designed and built of solid cement, the steel-reinforced castle located at 1012 West Beach, Highway 90 has withstood many hurricanes. At the time of his death, Sherman had completed most of the structure with walls that are nine inches thick. Much of the structure was first laid out in molds that were shaped and poured with concrete to erect the castle piece by piece. The theme of the Castle, “God is my Sculptor” is located on a plaque within the castle.[20]

Pass Christian’s government is a mayorcouncil government system. The current mayor, Leo “Chipper” McDermott, was elected in a special election in 2006, following the resignation of the previous mayor, and then re-elected for a full term in 2009.

Current Board of Aldermen

Naval Construction Battalion Center Gulfport, Mississippi, launched Seabees on Sept. 9 to neighboring communities throughout Harrison and Stone counties, including Pass Christian, to assist its citizens with disaster recovery in the wake of Hurricane Katrina. In a measure to improve health, sanitation and morale, the Seabees cleared approximately three miles of railroad track for a temporary sewer line, they set up a laundry unit and installed a nine-head shower unit for the firefighters and volunteers. They also built temporary housing to house 1,000 people rendered homeless by the impact of Hurricane Katrina. 250 Seabees from detachments across the United States gathered behind the city’s War Memorial Park, where they constructed a temporary police department headquarters and other municipal offices. This was not the first time that Seabees have answered the call to duty in Pass Christian. The naval construction teams performed a similar feat after Hurricane Camille struck the town hard in 1969.

The Pass Christian School District operates the schools in the city, and in the inland, unincorporated areas around and to the north of DeLisle. The Pass Christian Middle School (formerly the Pass Christian High School) on the corner of 2nd Street and Church Street was destroyed by Hurricane Katrina. A monument proclaiming that the school had withstood Hurricane Camille was left standing. The new Pass Christian High School, which opened in 2001, was flooded almost to the second level, but was renovated and re-opened in October 2006. The Pass Christian Elementary School, across the street from the high school, was also flooded and was torn down because of mold concerns. Delisle Elementary was the only school left standing, and became a temporary grounds for all of the students of the Pass Christian School District, housed either in temporary trailer classrooms or in the elementary school, sharing cafeteria and gymnasium facilities with the school.

A new educational complex housing Pass Christian Middle School and Pass Christian Elementary School is the $32 million Pass Christian Center of Excellence. It includes a day care center and an attached Boys & Girls Club,[21] on the north side of campus. It opened in 2010. As of 2011, Delisle Elementary School has been torn down and is under reconstruction.[citation needed]

Pass Christian High School is a Blue Ribbon school.[22]

The parochial elementary and middle school of St. Paul’s Roman Catholic church was destroyed by Katrina, and the school was merged with the neighboring Long Beach parochial school to form St. Vincent de Paul School. Coast Episcopal High School is a parochial high school in Pass Christian.

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Pass Christian, Mississippi – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Top SEO Company, Affordable SEO Services and Hosting

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Apr 242016
 

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Freedom House in Cleveland, Ohio with Reviews & Ratings – YP.com

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Apr 202016
 

Trilby’s Svengali was a character of fiction. Conversely, Marc Breed, has captivated a generation with such a unique and engaging personality that we’ve allowed him the ultimately luxury of a true freedom. The Art he has created, as a result of this, only seems odd; in that …morewe view it while tinged with envy. That we in Cleveland possess such a close-up look, should be a source of extreme pride. For we may live vicariously through his artistic rampage among us. -Dr. Stanley Workman, Art History, Professor Emeritus http://artistmarcbreed.blogspot.com/view less

Drug abuse and addiction is a public health issue with serious consequences. From prescription drugs to cocaine, inhalants and marijuana, illicit substances have affected nearly every community and person in some way. But what exactly is drug abuse and how do people seek treatment for this disease?

Making the decision to seek help for drug addiction is a huge step toward improving your health and overall wellness, as well as that of your family and community. But where do you start? There are many options.

Attend a Rehabilitation Program: There are a plethora of rehab options available to people who abuse drugs. You should be able to find one that fits your budget and lifestyle. For a very intensive treatment, try an inpatient rehab program at a facility that is well-versed in addressing long-term addiction. These organizations provide a place for you to stay while you go through withdrawals, as well as medical assistance if it is needed. Drug rehab facilities offer therapeutic programs such as cognitive behavioral therapy to help users address the problems that may drive them to drug use. You’ll also be surrounded by others in similar positions who are looking to stop using and seek support, which can be very helpful and inspiring.

1. Intake Process: Every person beginning an inpatient rehab program will go through an intake process. This involves a physical exam from a doctor and a mental exam from a therapist or psychiatrist. These professionals note any mental conditions, like bipolar disorder and depression, as well as physical issues, such as chronic fatigue or multiple sclerosis, which may be affected by drug use. New patients are usually searched to ensure they do not bring any drugs to the facility on their person or in their belongings. Once a patient has undergone the intake process, they will likely not be allowed to have visitors or even talk with friends and family over the phone for a few days. This promotes focus on recovery without distractions. Each facility is different, but after a few days or weeks, patients are typically allowed to make phone calls and receive visitors.

2. Detox: The first week of inpatient drug rehabilitation is often spent detoxing. Most facilities do not host many classes or require users to attend functions at this time, as it is instead spent dealing with the emotional and physical consequences of coming down from drug use. Long-time users may experience intense symptoms such as temporary blackouts, memory loss, depression, irritability, unpredictable mood swings, headache, insomnia, anxiety, nausea and more. Most patients just entering rehab find their first few days are some of the most difficult as they must completely adjust their habits and mindset, all while going through complex bodily symptoms. Physicians supervise this time of withdrawal to address any symptoms that require medical attention. After you have completed the detox phase and there is no more trace of drugs in your body, you will likely begin attending group and individual therapy sessions.

3. Therapy: While in drug rehabilitation, you don’t simply stay away from the substance that you’ve become addicted to. Instead, you will spend your time learning about what triggers your abuse, and how to address urges and make amends. You will also likely attend group therapy sessions where you and other addicts can share your experiences and learn from one another under the supervision of a therapist or psychiatrist. Being in the presence of others who are learning how to restructure their lives after drug abuse can be very helpful. Knowing you’re not alone is a huge step, plus you may be able to turn to those in similar situations for advice.

4. Reintegration: Eventually you will need to leave the safety and routine of your inpatient rehabilitation program and return to regular society. This comes with a lot of risks, as you may interact with situations and individuals that triggered your drug use. Before you leave a drug treatment program, you will learn skills to cope in the real world that don’t involve turning to drugs. You might learn to walk away from certain individuals or not go to particular places where you formerly used to go. You may also return to the inpatient program facility for outpatient counseling. This helps many drug users to reintegrate into society and still maintain some source of assistance by going to daily or weekly therapy sessions.

Consider an Outpatient Program Outpatient programs offer similar assistance to inpatient options such as therapy sessions and counseling, but the patient sleeps in his or her own home and is not confined to the rehabilitation center. Some patients prefer this option because it resembles some form of normality and allows them to potentially work and partake in family activities. It is important to note, though, that a person may require more serious, constant treatment than these outpatient programs can offer. If you are considering seeking treatment for drug addiction, discuss these possibilities with your doctor. He or she will help you decide what program is right for you.

Painkillers and Therapy Some drug users who have been abusing pain medications like Oxycontin or morphine require pain relief but must find it in other ways than potentially addictive drugs. To address this issue, some people receive methadone, a synthetic narcotic. Individuals in inpatient or outpatient programs may use methadone, as can people who are not seeking any formal treatment but are trying to stop abusing painkillers. Your doctor may prescribe a methadone treatment plan if you have chronic pain issues and are recovering from addiction. Methadone can be given intravenously, via a tablet or as a dispersible. Use of this medication is carefully monitored as it can cause respiratory issues when you first begin or anytime you up your dosage. If you are concerned that you may be abusing prescription painkillers, talk to your physician about Methadone and other options like Suboxone or Narcan.

Working With a Sponsor Similar to alcoholism treatment, some former drug users require assistance from sponsors. These individuals are often previous addicts themselves or have experiences as therapists or psychiatrists. They meet with patients regularly and are often available at a moment’s notice to talk when an individual is feeling vulnerable and triggered. Sponsors can offer help when you need them the most and provide a firm sense of accountability.

To go through treatment successfully, it’s important to find the right facility for you. To do so, first talk with your doctor. A physician can determine how severe your addiction is, which will help you decide if you want to try inpatient or outpatient treatment. He or she can also consider any withstanding health issues such as psychiatric conditions that should also be factored into your decision.

Next, check out facilities and programs that offer treatment for the substances that you abuse. Attending a program that is specific to your drug of choice will make your treatment much more likely to be impactful and successful. Look into potential facilities and learn about their drug policies. Some provide certain users with medications like Valium and Xanax to counteract symptoms of distress associated with alcohol or drug withdrawals. You may not want to attend such programs if you fear that you may instead become addicted to these substances or if you have ever had issues with abusing these medications in the past.

You should also note what potential programs to turn to during drug cravings. Some offer excellent nutrition and wellness plans that use healthy eating and exercise to reduce the physical and psychological want or need for a substance. Learning this coping skill is imperative to transitioning back into society, as you will be better prepared to face cravings once you are no longer in drug abuse treatment.

Some treatment programs promote quick sobriety through seemingly impossible means, such as herbal supplements or religious affiliation. When choosing a treatment facility, be wary of questionable claims like, “Shake your drug addiction in one week!” If the advertising sounds too good to be true, the program could potentially be a scam. Instead, look for organizations that include approval and certification from real doctors and health care providers. If a well-known drug abuse therapist or hospital recommends a clinic, for example, it is much more likely that you will have a successful treatment experience there.

Finances are another major part in your treatment program choice. Some facilities accept health insurance like United Healthcare, BlueCross BlueShield, Cigna, Humana and Medicaid. To learn what options are financially feasible for you, call your insurance provider and ask about any programs with which they are connected. Many carriers support in-state assessment, detox and outpatient treatment. Some also partially cover residential or inpatient treatment.

Because drug addiction is considered a disease, major health insurance providers must treat it like any other chronic condition that requires medical treatment. Make a call to the member services phone line at your insurance company and they can explain both in-network and out-of-network coverage for addiction and drug abuse treatment. Be sure to inquire about co-pays and deductibles so you don’t receive a surprise bill months after you start a program. If you don’t have insurance, you may be able to find outpatient programs like Narcotics Anonymous that offer counseling and meetings for patients at no cost.

Drug Abuse Facts Every illegal use of a drug, from prescription medications to a hit of methamphetamine, creates an addiction risk for the user. One single dose of a club drug, for example, can cause long-term cognitive damage because it changes the chemical makeup of the brain. It is not always the substance that leads to a label of drug abuse. Instead, it is the nature in which the substance is used. For example, you may break a bone and require surgery. You will likely be prescribed some painkillers to promote healing in your body and make you more comfortable. If, however, you find that the medication creates feelings of euphoria so you pretend you need the drug longer than you do in order to get more pills, that is considered drug abuse. It doesn’t matter that you have a prescription and the substance is technically legal.

Helping Your Family Cope You are not the only one affected by your drug abuse. You family and friends may also appreciate going to therapy to learn how to cope with your addiction. Many people attend support meetings or join groups to mingle with others who are close to drug addicts to provide emotional assistance. When you go through treatment, those close to you must also learn to change their mindsets and behaviors to address these changes to the new you. Many patients have to stop associating with some former friends in order to stay away from illicit substances and avoid situations that may trigger drug abuse. Starting a hobby is a good way to meet new people outside of these social circles once you’ve received treatment.

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Lynchburg, Virginia – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 Eugenics  Comments Off on Lynchburg, Virginia – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Apr 192016
 

Lynchburg is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 75,568. The 2014 census estimates an increase to 79,047.[2] Located in the foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains along the banks of the James River, Lynchburg is known as the “City of Seven Hills” or the “Hill City”.[3] Lynchburg was the only major city in Virginia that was not captured by the Union before the end of the American Civil War.[4]

Lynchburg is the principal city of the Metropolitan Statistical Area of Lynchburg, near the geographic center of Virginia. It is the fifth largest MSA in Virginia with a population of 254,171[5] and hosts several institutions of higher education. Other nearby cities include Roanoke, Charlottesville, and Danville. Lynchburg’s sister cities are Rueil-Malmaison, France and Glauchau, Germany.

A part of Monacan country upon the arrival of English settlers in Virginia, the region had traditionally been occupied by them and other Siouan Tutelo-speaking tribes since ca. 1270, driving Virginia Algonquians eastward. Explorer John Lederer visited one of the Siouan villages (Saponi) in 1670, on the Staunton River at Otter Creek, southwest of the present-day city, as did Batts and Fallam in 1671. The Siouans occupied the area until c. 1702, when it was taken in conquest by the Seneca Iroquois. The Iroquois ceded control to the Colony of Virginia beginning in 1718, and formally at the Treaty of Albany in 1721.

First settled in 1757, Lynchburg was named for its founder, John Lynch, who at the age of 17 started a ferry service at a ford across the James River to carry traffic to and from New London. He was also responsible for Lynchburg’s first bridge across the river, which replaced the ferry in 1812. He and his mother are buried in the graveyard at the South River Friends Meetinghouse. The “City of Seven Hills” quickly developed along the hills surrounding Lynch’s Ferry. Thomas Jefferson maintained a home near Lynchburg, called Poplar Forest. Jefferson frequented Lynchburg and remarked “Nothing would give me greater pleasure than to be useful to the town of Lynchburg. I consider it as the most interesting spot in the state.”

Lynchburg was established by charter in 1786 at the site of Lynch’s Ferry on the James River. These new easy means of transportation routed traffic through Lynchburg, and allowed it to become the new center of commerce for tobacco trading. In 1810, Jefferson wrote, “Lynchburg is perhaps the most rising place in the U.S…. It ranks now next to Richmond in importance…” Lynchburg became a center of commerce and manufacture in the 19th century, and by the 1850s, Lynchburg (along with New Bedford, Mass.) was one of the richest towns per capita in the U.S.[6] Chief industries were tobacco, iron and steel. Transportation facilities included the James River Bateau on the James River, and later, the James River and Kanawha Canal and, still later, four railroads, including the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad and the Norfolk and Petersburg Railroad.

Early on, Lynchburg was not known for its religiosity. In 1804, evangelist Lorenzo Dow wrote of Lynchburg “… where I spoke in the open air in what I conceived to be the seat of Satan’s Kingdom. Lynchburg was a deadly place for the worship of God.” This was in reference to the lack of churches in Lynchburg. As the wealth of Lynchburg grew, prostitution and other “rowdy” activities became quite common and, in many cases, ignored, if not accepted, by the “powers that be” of the time. Much of this activity took place in an area of downtown referred to as the “Buzzard’s Roost[citation needed].”

During the American Civil War, Lynchburg, which served as a Confederate supply base, was approached within 1-mile (1.6km) by the Union forces of General David Hunter as he drove south from the Shenandoah Valley. Under the false impression that the Confederate forces stationed in Lynchburg were much larger than anticipated, Hunter was repelled by the forces of Confederate General Jubal Early on June 18, 1864, in the Battle of Lynchburg. To create the false impression, a train was continuously run up and down the tracks while the citizens of Lynchburg cheered as if reinforcements were unloading. Local prostitutes took part in the deception, misinforming their Union clients of the large number of Confederate reinforcements.

From April 610, 1865, Lynchburg served as the Capital of Virginia. Under Governor William Smith, the executive and legislative branches of the commonwealth escaped to Lynchburg with the fall of Richmond. Then Gen. Robert E. Lee surrendered to Gen. Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Courthouse, roughly 20 miles east of Lynchburg, ending the Civil War.

In the latter 19th century, Lynchburg’s economy evolved into manufacturing (sometimes referred to as the “Pittsburgh of the South”) and, per capita, made the city one of the wealthiest in the United States. In 1880, Lynchburg resident James Albert Bonsack invented the first cigarette rolling machine. Shortly thereafter Dr. Charles Browne Fleet, a physician and pharmacological tinkerer, introduced the first mass marketed over-the-counter enema. About this time, Lynchburg was also the preferred site for the Norfolk & Western junction with the Shenandoah Valley Railroad. However, the citizens of Lynchburg did not want the junction due to the noise and pollution it would create. Therefore, it was located in what would become the City of Roanoke.

In the late 1950s, a number of interested citizens, including Virginia Senator Mosby G. Perrow, Jr., requested the federal government to change its long-planned route for the interstate highway now known as I-64 between Clifton Forge and Richmond.[7] Since the 1940s, maps of the federal interstate highway system depicted that highway taking a northern route, with no interstate highway running through Lynchburg, but the federal government assured Virginia that the highway’s route would be decided by the state.[8] A proposed southern route called for the Interstate to follow from Richmond via US-360 and US-460, via Lynchburg to Roanoke and US-220 from Roanoke to Clifton Forge, then west following US-60 into West Virginia. Although the State Highway Commission’s minutes reflected its initial approval of the northern route, the issue remained in play,[9] proponents of the southern route ultimately succeeded in persuading a majority of Virginia Highway Commissioners to support the change after a study championed by Perrow demonstrated that it would serve a greater percentage of the state’s manufacturing and textile centers. But in July 1961 Governor Lindsay Almond and U.S. Secretary of Commerce Luther Hodges announced that the route would not be changed.[10] This left Lynchburg as the only city with a population in excess of 50,000 (at the time) not served by an interstate.[11]

For several decades throughout the mid-20th century, the state of Virginia authorized compulsory sterilization of the mentally retarded for the purpose of eugenics. The operations were carried out at the Virginia State Colony for Epileptics and Feebleminded, now known as the Central Virginia Training School, located just outside Lynchburg in Madison Heights. An estimated 8,300 Virginians were sterilized and relocated to Lynchburg, known as a “dumping ground” of sorts for the feeble-minded, poor, blind, epileptic, and those otherwise seen as genetically “unfit”.[12]

Sterilizations were carried out for 35 years until 1972, when operations were finally halted. Later in the late 1970s, the American Civil Liberties Union filed a class-action lawsuit against the state of Virginia on behalf of the sterilization victims. As a result of this suit, the victims received formal apologies and counseling if they chose. Requests to grant the victims reverse sterilization operations were denied.

Carrie Buck, the plaintiff in the United States Supreme Court case Buck v. Bell, was sterilized after being classified as “feeble-minded”, as part of the state’s eugenics program while she was a patient at the Lynchburg Colony for Epileptics and Feebleminded.

The story of Carrie Buck’s sterilization and the court case was made into a television drama in 1994, Against Her Will: The Carrie Buck Story.

“Virginia State Epileptic Colony,” a song by the Manic Street Preachers on their 2009 album ‘Journal For Plague Lovers,’ addresses the state’s program of eugenics.

Downtown Lynchburg has seen a significant amount of revitalization since 2002 with hundreds of new loft apartments created through adaptive reuse of historic warehouses and mills. Since 2000, there has been more than $110 million in private investment in downtown and business activity increased by 205% from 2004 – 2014.[13] In 2014, 75 new apartments were added to downtown with 155 further units under construction increasing the number of housing units downtown by 48% from 2010 – 2014.[14] In 2015, the $5.8 million Lower Bluffwalk pedestrian street zone opened to the public in downtown which has seen a significant amount of residential and commercial development around the zone in recent years.[15] Notable projects underway in downtown by the end of 2015 include the $25 million Hilton Curio branded Virginian Hotel restoration project, $16.6 million restoration of the Academy Center of the Arts, and $4.6 million expansion of Amazement Square Children’s Museum. [16][17][18][19]

Over 40 sites in Lynchburg are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.[20]

Lynchburg is located at 372413N 791012W / 37.40361N 79.17000W / 37.40361; -79.17000 (37.403672, 79.170205).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 49.6 square miles (128.5km2), of which 49.2 square miles (127.4km2) is land and 0.5 square miles (1.3km2) (1.0%) is water.[21]

Lynchburg has a four-season humid subtropical climate (Kppen Cfa), with cool winters and hot, humid summers. The monthly daily average temperature ranges from 35.1F (1.7C) in January to 75.3F (24.1C) in July. Nights tend to be significantly cooler than days throughout much of the year due in part to the moderate elevation. In a typical year, there are 26 days with a high temperature 90F (32C) or above, and 7.5 days with a high of 32F (0C) or below.[22] Snowfall averages 12.9 inches (33cm) per season but this amount varies highly with each winter; the snowiest winter is 199596 with 56.8in (144cm) of snow, but the following winter recorded only trace amounts, the least on record.[23]

Temperature extremes range from 106F (41C), recorded on July 10, 1936, down to 11F (24C), recorded on February 20, 2015.[22] However, several decades may pass between 100F (38C) and 0F (18C) readings, with the last such occurrences being July 8, 2012 and February 20, 2015, respectively.[22]

As of the 2010 census,[31] there were 75,568 people, 25,477 households, and 31,992 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,321.5 people per square mile (510.2/km). There were 27,640 housing units at an average density of 559.6 per square mile (216.1/km). The racial makeup of the city was 63.0% White, 29.3% African American, 0.2% Native American, 2.5% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.63% from other races, and 1.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.0% of the population.

There were 25,477 households out of which 27.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.6% were married couples living together, 16.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 38.8% were non-families. 32.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.92.

The age distribution of the city had: 22.1% under the age of 18, 15.5% from 18 to 24, 25.3% from 25 to 44, 20.8% from 45 to 64, and 16.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 84.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 79.1 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $32,234, and the median income for a family was $40,844. Males had a median income of $31,390 versus $22,431 for females. The per capita income for the city was $18,263. About 12.3% of families and 15.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.4% of those under age 18 and 10.7% of those age 65 or over.

Lynchburg ranks below the 2006 median annual household income for the U.S. as a whole, which was $48,200, according to the US Census Bureau.[32]

The city’s population was stable for 25+ years: in 2006, it was 67,720; in 2000, it was 65,269; in 1990, it was 66,049; in 1980, it was 66,743.[33]

In 2009 almost 27% of Lynchburg children lived in poverty. The state average that year was 14 percent.[34]

Lynchburg features a skilled labor force, low unemployment rate,[35] and below average cost of living. Of Virginia’s larger metro areas, Forbes Magazine ranked Lynchburg the 5th best place in Virginia for business in 2006, with Virginia being the best state in the country for business.[36] Only 6 places in Virginia were surveyed and most of Virginia’s cities were grouped together by Forbes as “Northern Virginia”. Lynchburg achieved the rank 109 in the whole nation in the same survey.

Industries within the Lynchburg MSA include nuclear technology, pharmaceuticals and material handling. A diversity of small businesses with the region has helped maintain a stable economy and minimized the downturns of the national economy.[37][38] Reaching as high as 1st place (tied) in 2007, Lynchburg has been within the Top 10 Digital Cities survey for its population since the survey’s inception in 2004.

The Lynchburg News & Advance reports that while more people are working than ever in greater Lynchburg, wages since 1990 have not kept up with inflation. Central Virginia Labor Council President Walter Fore believes this is due to lack of white-collar jobs. According to the Census Bureau, adjusted for inflation, 1990 median household income was about $39,000 compared to 2009 median household income of $42,740. As of 2009 Forbes has named Lynchburg as the 70th best metro area for business and careers, ahead of Chicago and behind Baton Rouge. The reason for the decent ranking was due to the low cost of living and low wages in Lynchburg. In other areas, the region didn’t come in as strong. It ranked at 189 for cultural and leisure and at 164 for educational attainment.[39]

Virginia Business Magazine reports that Young Professionals in Lynchburg recently conducted a study that clearly showed how much of its young workforce has been lost.[40]

According to Lynchburg’s 2012 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[41] the top private employers in the city are:

The city is served by the Lynchburg City Public Schools. The school board is appointed by the Lynchburg City Council.

The city is also home to a number of mostly religious private schools, including Holy Cross Regional Catholic School, James River Day School, Liberty Christian Academy, New Covenant Classical Christian School, Appomattox Christian Academy, Temple Christian School, and Virginia Episcopal School.

Lynchburg is also home to the Central Virginia Governor’s School for Science and Technology located in Heritage High School. This magnet school consists of juniors and seniors selected from each of the Lynchburg area high schools. As one of eighteen Governor’s Schools in Virginia, the Central Virginia Governor’s School focuses on infusing technology into both the math and science curriculum.

Further education options include a number of surrounding county public school systems.

Colleges and universities in Lynchburg include Central Virginia Community College, Liberty University, Lynchburg College, Randolph College, Sweet Briar College, and Virginia University of Lynchburg.

The Greater Lynchburg Transit Company (GLTC) operates the local public transport bus service within the city. The GLTC additionally provides the shuttle bus service on the Liberty University campus.

The GLTC has selected a property directly across from Lynchburg-Kemper Street Station as its top choice of sites upon which to build the new transfer center for their network of public buses. They are interested in facilitating intermodal connections between GLTC buses and the intercity bus and rail services which operate from that location. The project is awaiting final government approval and funding, and is expected to be completed around 2013.[42]

Intercity passenger rail and bus services are based out of Kemper Street Station, a historic, three-story train station recently restored and converted by the city of Lynchburg to serve as an intermodal hub for the community. The station is located at 825 Kemper Street.[43]

Greyhound Lines located their bus terminal in the main floor of Kemper Street Station following its 2002 restoration.[43] Greyhound offers transport to other cities throughout Virginia, the US, Canada, and Mexico.

Amtrak’s long distance Crescent and a Northeast Regional connect Lynchburg with Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, Charlotte, Atlanta, Birmingham, New Orleans and intermediate points.

In October 2009, Lynchburg became the southern terminus for a Northeast Regional that previously had overnighted in Washington. The forecast ridership was 51,000 for the 180-mile extension’s first year, but the actual count was triple that estimate, and the train paid for itself without any subsidy.[44] By FY 2015, the Regional had 190,000 riders. The Lynchburg station alone served a total of 85,000 riders in 2015. It is located in the track level ground floor of Kemper Street Station.[45]

Lynchburg has two major freight railroads. It is the crossroads of two Norfolk Southern lines. One is the former mainline of the Southern Railway, upon which Kemper Street Station is situated. NS has a classification yard located next to the shopping mall. Various yard jobs can be seen. Railfans who wish to visit the NS Lynchburg yard are advised to inquire with an NS official. CSX Transportation also has a line through the city and a small yard.

Lynchburg Regional Airport is solely served by American Eagle to Charlotte. American Eagle, a subsidiary of American Airlines, is the only current scheduled airline service provider, with seven daily arrivals and departures. In recent years air travel has increased with 157,517 passengers flying in and out of the airport in 2012, representing 78% of the total aircraft load factor for that time period.

Primary roadways include U.S. Route 29, U.S. Route 501, U.S. Route 221, running north-south, and U.S. Highway 460, running east-west. While not served by an interstate, much of Route 29 has been upgraded to interstate standards and significant improvements have been made to Highway 460.

In a Forbes magazine survey, Lynchburg ranked 189 for cultural and leisure out of 200 cities surveyed.[39]

The following attractions are located within the Lynchburg MSA:

Lynchburg is home to sporting events and organizations including:

The first neighborhoods of Lynchburg developed upon seven hills adjacent to the original ferry landing. These neighborhoods include:

Other major neighborhoods include Boonsboro, Rivermont, Fairview Heights, Fort Hill, Forest Hill (Old Forest Rd. Area), Timberlake, Windsor Hills, Sandusky, Linkhorne, and Wyndhurst.

Notable residents of Lynchburg include:

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Lynchburg, Virginia – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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4th Amendment – Revolutionary War and Beyond

 Fourth Amendment  Comments Off on 4th Amendment – Revolutionary War and Beyond
Apr 122016
 

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The 4th Amendment to the United States Constitution was added as part of the Bill of Rights on December 15, 1791. It deals with protecting people from the searching of their homes and private property without properly executed search warrants. The 4th Amendment reads like this:

“The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.”

The 4th Amendment requires that in order for a government official, such as a police officer, to search a person’s home, business, papers, bank accounts, computer or other personal items, in most cases, he must obtain a search warrant signed by the proper authority, which usually means by a judge.

In order for a warrant to be issued, someone must affirm to the judge that he has a reasonable belief that a crime has been committed and that by searching the premises of a particular location, he believes he will find evidence that will verify the crime. The person submitting this information to the judge is usually a police officer. The police officer does not have to be correct in his assumption, he just has to have a reasonable belief that searching someone’s private property will yield evidence of the crime.

The judge then reviews the information and if he also believes the information the officer has submitted shows probable cause, he will issue the warrant. In order for the warrant to be good, it must identify the place and the particular items or persons that are to be seized if they are found. A warrant is not a general order that can be used to search for anything, anywhere the officer wants. In order for the warrant to be in compliance with the 4th Amendment, the warrant must be very specific about what is being looked for and where the officer can look for it.

The 4th Amendment idea that citizens should be protected from unreasonable searches and seizures goes back far into English history. In 1604, in the famous Semayne’s Case, the Judge, Sir Edward Coke, first identified this right. He ruled that, “The house of every one is to him as his castle and fortress, as well for his defence against injury and violence as for his repose.”

In this case, it was determined that subjects of the kingdom had the right to be protected from searches and seizures that were unlawfully conducted, even if they were conducted by the king’s representatives. The case also recognized that lawfully conducted searches and seizures were acceptable. This case established a precedent that has remained a part of English law ever since.

The most famous English case dealing with the right to freedom from illegal search and seizure is called Entick vs. Carrington, 1765. In this case, royal representatives had broken into the private home of John Entick in search of material that was critical of the king and his policies. In the process, they broke into locked boxes and desks and confiscated many papers, charts, pamphlets, etc. The officers were acting on the orders of Lord Halifax.

During the trial, Entick charged that the entire search and seizure had been unlawfully conducted, and the Court agreed. The Court said that Lord Halifax had no standing to issue the order to search the premises, that probable cause that a crime had been committed had not been demonstrated and that the warrant allowed a general confiscation of anything the officers found, not specifying exactly what they were to look for or could seize. In addition, there were no records kept of what the officers seized.

Click to enlarge

Charles Pratt, Lord Camden

This ruling essentially declared that the government was not allowed to do anything that was not specified by law. It required the search and seizure be carried out according to the law. It also established that the right to be able to protect one’s private property was an important right to be safeguarded by the government. In his ruling, Lord Camden, the Chief Justice made this famous statement:

“The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property. That right is preserved sacred and incommunicable in all instances, where it has not been taken away or abridged by some public law for the good of the whole. The cases where this right of property is set aside by private law, are various. Distresses, executions, forfeitures, taxes etc are all of this description; wherein every man by common consent gives up that right, for the sake of justice and the general good. By the laws of England, every invasion of private property, be it ever so minute, is a trespass. No man can set his foot upon my ground without my license, but he is liable to an action, though the damage be nothing; which is proved by every declaration in trespass, where the defendant is called upon to answer for bruising the grass and even treading upon the soil. If he admits the fact, he is bound to show by way of justification, that some positive law has empowered or excused him. The justification is submitted to the judges, who are to look into the books; and if such a justification can be maintained by the text of the statute law, or by the principles of common law. If no excuse can be found or produced, the silence of the books is an authority against the defendant, and the plaintiff must have judgment.”

In 1886, in a case called Boyd vs. United States, the Supreme Court of the United States referred to Entick vs. Carrington as a “great judgment,” “one of the landmarks of English liberty” and “one of the permanent monuments of the British Constitution.” This established the Entick decision as a guide to understanding what the Founding Fathers meant concerning search and seizure laws when they wrote the 4th Amendment.

The British government generally looked at the American colonies as a money making enterprise. Consequently, they passed many revenue collection bills aimed at generating as much money from the colonists as possible. The colonists naturally resented this and engaged in substantial smuggling operations in order to get around the customs taxes imposed by the British government. You can learn more about these and other causes of the American Revolution here.

Click to enlarge

King George III

In response to the widespread smuggling, Parliament and the King began to use “writs of assistance,” legal search warrants that were very broad and general in their scope. Customs agents could obtain a writ of assistance to search any property they believed might contain contraband goods. They could enter someone’s property with no notice and without any reason given. Tax collectors could interrogate anyone about their use of customed goods and require the cooperation of any citizen. Searches and seizures of private property based on very general warrants became an epidemic in colonial America.

In response to this, the Massachusetts legislature passed search and seizure laws in 1756 outlawing the use of general warrants. This created a great deal of friction between the Royal Governor and the people of Massachusetts until the death of King George II in 1760. Writs of assistance by law were good until 6 months after the death of the king who issued them. This meant that the Royal Governor had to have new writs of assistance issued by the new king.

Click to enlarge

James Otis

by Joseph Blackburn

James Otis, a Boston lawyer, had recently been appointed Advocate General of the Admiralty Court, which meant he was essentially the top lawyer for the Crown in the colony. In this position, Otis was required to defend the use of writs of assistance by the government. He strongly objected to these arbitrary searches and seizures of private property and consequently resigned his position. Instead, he became the lawyer for a group of over 50 merchants who sued the government claiming that the writs of assistance were unjust.

James Otis represented these merchants for free. His speech condemning British policies, including writs of assistance and general search warrants, was so powerful and eloquent, that it was heard of throughout the colonies and catapulted him to a place of leadership in the swelling tide of disillusionment toward Great Britain.

Future President, John Adams, who was 25 at the time, was sitting in the courtroom and heard Otis’ famous speech that day. Later he said:

“The child independence was then and there born, every man of an immense crowded audience appeared to me to go away as I did, ready to take arms against writs of assistance.”

He viewed Otis’ speech “as the spark in which originated the American Revolution.”

Later, in 1776, George Mason’s Virginia Declaration of Rights, which was a document on which Thomas Jefferson relied heavily when he wrote the Declaration of Independence, included prohibitions against general warrants that did not specify probable cause or exactly what was to be searched for. The passage of the Virginia Declaration of Rights dealing with general warrants reads like this:

“That general warrants, whereby any officer or messenger may be commanded to search suspected places without evidence of a fact committed, or to seize any person or persons not named, or whose offense is not particularly described and supported by evidence, are grievous and oppressive and ought not to be granted.”

You can read the Virginia Declaration of Rights here and you can read the Declaration of Independence here. You can also read more about how Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence here.

Once the Constitution was written, each state held a convention to debate its worth. Many people opposed the Constitution because they thought it gave the federal government too much power at the expense of the states and of individual rights. Those opposing the Constitution were known as anti-Federalists. They were led by such men as Patrick Henry, George Mason and Elbridge Gerry.

The anti-Federalists were concerned that the federal government would trample on the rights of individual citizens. They believed the Constitution did not specify clearly enough which rights of individuals were protected from government interference. Some of them called for the addition of a bill of rights to the Constitution, which would specify exactly which rights of the citizens were protected.

Those who were in support of the Constitution were known as Federalists because they did support a strong federal government. The Federalists were led by such men as James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, John Adams and George Washington.

In order to convince enough anti-Federalists to support the Constitution to pass it and have it go into effect, the Federalists made a promise that if the anti-Federalists would vote to accept the Constitution, the First Congress would address their concerns by adding a bill of rights to it. This promise succeeded in persuading enough anti-Federalists to support the Constitution that it passed and became law. It also ensured that the Founders concerns about illegal searches and seizures would eventually become law embodied in the 4th Amendment.

On June 8, 1789, James Madison kept the promise of the Federalists by proposing to the First Congress twenty amendments to be added to the Constitution. You can read James Madison’s June 8, 1789 speech here.

One of these amendments, that dealt with search and seizure laws, eventually became what we know as the 4th Amendment. Congress approved twelve of the amendments suggested by Madison on September 25, 1789 and ten of those were eventually ratified by the states. The First Ten Amendments, also known as the Bill of Rights, became law on December 15, 1791. You can read more about the History of the Bill of Rights here.

The 4th Amendment only applied originally to the federal government, but through the Due Process Clause of the 14th Amendment, the Supreme Court has now applied most parts of the Bill of Rights to state and local governments as well.

The 4th Amendment only provides protection from illegal search and seizure by government officials, not by private citizens. So, if an employer unreasonably searched your possessions at work, the 4th Amendment would not have been violated.

There are certain exceptions to the 4th Amendment right to have a properly executed search warrant issued before a search or seizure of private property can be conducted. The Supreme Court has ruled that, for example, a police officer may conduct a pat down search of someone he has observed engaging in suspicious behavior, if he has reasonable suspicion that some crime is being committed. Also, if a police officer observes someone committing a crime, or believes that he has probable cause to suspect someone has committed a crime, he may arrest the person without a warrant.

There are a number of other exceptions to the 4th Amendment warrant rule:

Supreme Court of the United States

In general, any evidence that is obtained in an illegal search and seizure is not admissible in court by the prosecution in a criminal defendant’s trial. This is known as the 4th Amendment Exclusionary Rule because evidence obtained in this manner is excluded from the trial. The Supreme Court established this rule in a case called Weeks vs. United States, 1914. Before that time, any evidence, even if it was gathered in an illegal search and seizure, was admissible in court.

There are some exceptions to the 4th Amendment Exclusionary Rule. For example, Grand Juries may use illegally obtained evidence to question witnesses. The method of gathering the evidence can be challenged later if the defendant is charged. Evidence gathered in good faith by an officer can be used in court. This means that if an officer is following the directions of a warrant that is faulty, not realizing that it is faulty, the evidence may be used.

Evidence obtained through illegal search and seizure can also be used in the following circumstances:

Read about some of the most interesting and significant Fourth Amendment Court cases here.

Preamble to the Bill of Rights Learn about the 1st Amendment here. Learn about the 2nd Amendment here. Learn about the 3rd Amendment here. Learn about the 4th Amendment here. Learn about the 5th Amendment here. Learn about the 6th Amendment here. Learn about the 7th Amendment here. Learn about the 8th Amendment here. Learn about the 9th Amendment here. Learn about the 10th Amendment here.

Read the Bill of Rights here.

Learn more about theBill of Rightswith the following articles:

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The Octane Agency – Web Design | SEO

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Apr 042016
 

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Hedonism – New World Encyclopedia

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Mar 282016
 

Hedonism (Greek: hdon ( from Ancient Greek) “pleasure” +ism) is a philosophical position that takes the pursuit of pleasure as the primary motivating element of life, based upon a view that “pleasure is good.” The concept of pleasure is, however, understood and approached in a variety of ways, and hedonism is classified accordingly.

The three basic types of philosophical hedonism are psychological hedonism, which holds that the tendency to seek pleasure and avoid pain is an essential attribute of human nature; evaluative or ethical hedonism, which sets up certain ethical or moral ends as desirable because attaining them will result in happiness; and reflective, or normative hedonism, which seeks to define value in terms of pleasure. The ancient Greek philosophers Democritus, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Epicurus (341 270 B.C.E.) and their followers developed ethical theories centered on the good life (the ideal life, the life most worth living, eudaimonia, happiness) and the role of pleasure of achieving it. During the Middle Ages, hedonism was rejected as incompatible with Christian ideals, but Renaissance philosophers revived it on the grounds that God intended man to be happy. Nineteenth-century British philosophers John Stuart Mill and Jeremy Bentham established the ethical theory of Utilitarianism with a hedonistic orientation, holding that all action should be directed toward achieving the greatest amount of happiness for the greatest number of people.

There are many philosophical forms of hedonism, but they can be distinguished into three basic types: psychological hedonism; evaluative, or ethical hedonism; and reflective, or rationalizing hedonism. Psychological hedonism holds that it is an essential aspect of human nature to seek pleasure and avoid pain; human beings cannot act in any other way. A human being will always act in a way that, to his understanding, will produce what he perceives as the greatest pleasure, or protect him from undesirable pain. Psychological hedonism is either based on observation of human behavior, or necessitated by a definition of desire. Psychological hedonism is often a form of egoism, preoccupied with pleasure of the individual subject, but it can also be concerned with the pleasure of society or humanity as a whole. Altruistic versions of psychological hedonism involve deep-seated convictions, cultural or religious beliefs which motivate a person to act for the benefit of family or society, or the expectation of an afterlife. Problems of psychological hedonism include the definitions of desire and pleasure. Is desire tied to the satisfaction of physical sensations or does it extend to mental and rational conceptions of pleasure? Are all positive experiences, even minor and mundane ones, psychological motivations?

Evaluative hedonism is an attempt to set up certain ends or goals as desirable, and to persuade others that these goals ought to be pursued, and that achieving them will result in pleasure. Evaluative hedonism is sometimes used to support or justify an existing system of moral values. Many altruistic and utilitarian moral systems are of this type, because they encourage the individual to sacrifice or restrict immediate sensual gratification in favor of a more rational gratification, such as the satisfaction of serving others, or the maintenance of an egalitarian society where every individual receives certain benefits. Evaluative hedonism raises the problem of deciding exactly what ends are desirable, and why.

Reflective, normative, or rationalizing hedonism, seeks to define value in terms of pleasure. Even the most complex human pursuits are attributed to the desire to maximize pleasure, and it is that desire which makes them rational. Objections to determining value based on pleasure include the fact that there is no common state or property found in all experiences of pleasure, which could be used to establish an objective measurement. Not all experiences of pleasure could be considered valuable, particularly if they arise from criminal activity or weakness of character, or cause harm to others. Another objection is that there are many other types of valuable experiences besides the immediate experience of pleasure, such as being a good parent, creating a work of art or choosing to act with integrity, which, though they could be said to produce some kind of altruistic pleasure, are very difficult to categorize and quantify. Normative hedonism determines value solely according to the pleasure experienced, without regard for the future pleasure or pain resulting from a particular action.

Among the ancient Greek philosophers, discussion of ethical theory often centered on the good life (the ideal life, the life most worth living, eudaimonia, happiness) and the role of pleasure of achieving it. Various expressions of the concept that pleasure is the good were developed by philosophers such as Democritus, Aristippus, Plato, Aristotle and Epicurus and their followers, and vigorously disagreed with by their opponents. Aristippus (fifth century B.C.E.) and the Cyrenaic school maintained that the greatest good was the pleasure of the moment and advocated a life of sensual pleasure, on the grounds that all living creatures pursue pleasure and avoid pain. This position reflected a skepticism that only the sensations of the moment could be known, and that concern with the past or the future only caused uncertainty and anxiety and should be avoided.

Ancient Greeks looked to the natural world and agreed that every organism was motivated to act for its own good, but differed as to whether that good was pleasure. Democritus (c. 460 c. 370 B.C.E.) is reported to have held that the supreme good was a pleasant state of tranquility of mind (euthumia), and that particular pleasures or pains should be chosen according to how they contributed to that tranquility. In the Protagoras, Socrates (470 -399 B.C.E.) presented a version of Democritean hedonism which included a method for calculating relative pleasures and pains. Socrates argued that an agents own good was not immediate pleasure, and that it was necessary to differentiate between pleasures that promoted good, and harmful pleasures. In his later dialogues, Plato (c. 428 -347 B.C.E.) agreed that while the good life was pleasant, the goodness consisted in rationality and the pleasantness was an adjunct.

Aristotle challenged the definition of pleasure as a process of remedying a natural deficiency in the organism (satisfying hunger, thirst, desire), declaring instead that pleasure occurs when a natural potentiality for thought or perception is realized in perfect conditions. Every kind of actualization has its own pleasure; the pleasure of thought, the pleasure of art, the bodily pleasures. Eudaimonia (the ideal state of existence) consists of the optimal realization of mans capacity for thought and rational choice; it would naturally be characterized by the greatest degree of pleasure.

Epicurus (341 270 B.C.E.) and his school distinguished two types of pleasure: the pleasure that supplying the deficiency of an organism (such as hunger or desire) and the pleasure experienced when the organism is in a stable state, free from all pain or disturbance. He gave supremacy to the latter type, and emphasized the reduction of desire over the immediate acquisition of pleasure. Epicurus claimed that the highest pleasure consists of a simple, moderate life spent with friends and in philosophical discussion, and discouraged overindulgence of any kind because it would ultimately lead to some kind of pain or instability.

We recognize pleasure as the first good innate in us, and from pleasure we begin every act of choice and avoidance, and to pleasure we return again, using the feeling as the standard by which we judge every good. (Epicurus, “Letter to Menoeceus”)

Christian philosophers of the Middle Ages denounced Epicurean hedonism as inconsistent with the Christian aims of avoiding sin, obeying the will of God, cultivating virtues such as charity and faith, and seeking a reward in the afterlife for sacrifice and suffering on earth. During the Renaissance, philosophers such as Erasmus (1465 1536) revived hedonism on the grounds that it was Gods wish for human beings to be happy and experience pleasure. In describing the ideal society of his Utopia (1516), Thomas More said that “the chief part of a person’s happiness consists of pleasure.” More argued that God created man to be happy, and uses the desire for pleasure to motivate moral behavior. More made a distinction between pleasures of the body and pleasures of the mind, and urged the pursuit of natural pleasures rather than those produced by artificial luxuries.

During the eighteenth century, Francis Hutcheson (1694-1747) and David Hume (1711-1776) systematically examined the role of pleasure and happiness in morality and society; their theories were precursors to utilitarianism.

The nineteenth-century British philosophers John Stuart Mill and Jeremy Bentham established fundamental principles of hedonism through their ethical theory of Utilitarianism. Utilitarian value stands as a precursor to hedonistic values in that all action should be directed toward achieving the greatest amount of happiness for the greatest number of people. All actions are to be judged on the basis of how much pleasure they produce in relation to the amount of pain that results from them. Since utilitarianism was dealing with public policy, it was necessary to develop a hedonistic calculus to assign a ratio of pleasure to pain for any given action or policy. Though consistent in their pursuit of the greatest amount of pleasure for the greatest number of people, Bentham and Mill differed in the methods by which they measured happiness.

Jeremy Bentham and his followers argued a quantitative approach. Bentham believed that the value of a pleasure could be understood by multiplying its intensity by its duration. Not only the number of pleasures, but their intensity and duration had to be taken into account. Benthams quantitative theory identified six dimensions of value in a pleasure or pain: intensity, duration, certainty or uncertainty, propinquity or remoteness, fecundity, and purity (Bentham 1789, ch. 4).

John Stuart Mill argued for a qualitative approach. Mill believed that there are different levels of pleasure, and that pleasure of a higher quality has more value than pleasure of a lower quality. Mill suggested that simpler beings (he often referenced pigs) have easier access to the simpler pleasures; since they are not aware of other aspects of life, they can simply indulge themselves without thinking. More elaborate beings think more about other matters and hence lessen the time they spend on the enjoyment of simple pleasures. Critics of the qualitative approach found several problems with it. They pointed out that ‘pleasures’ do not necessarily share common traits, other than the fact that they can be seen as “pleasurable.” The definition of ‘pleasant’ is subjective and differs among individuals, so the ‘qualities’ of pleasures are difficult to study objectively and in terms of universal absolutes. Another objection is that quality is not an intrinsic attribute of pleasure; the quality of pleasure is judged either its quantity and intensity or by some non-hedonistic value (such as altruism or the capacity to elevate the mind).

Nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters, pain, and pleasure. It is for them alone to point out what we ought to do, as well as to determine what we shall do. (Bentham 1789)

Christian Hedonism is a term coined in 1986 for a theological movement originally conceived by a pastor, Dr. John Piper, in his book, Desiring God: Meditations of a Christian Hedonist. The tenets of this philosophy are that humans were created by (the Christian) God with the priority purpose of lavishly enjoying God through knowing, worshiping, and serving Him. This philosophy recommends pursuing one’s own happiness in God as the ultimate in human pleasure. Similar to the Epicurean view, the highest pleasure is regarded as something long-term and found not in indulgence but in a life devoted to God. Serious questions have been raised within the Christian community as to whether Christian Hedonism displaces “love God” with “enjoy God” as the greatest and foremost commandment.

A typical apologetic for Christian Hedonism is that if you are to love something truly, then you must truly enjoy it. It could be summed up in this statement: “God is most glorified in us, when we are most satisfied in Him.”

More recently, the term Christian Hedonism has been used by the French philosopher Michel Onfray to qualify the various heretic movements from Middle-Age to Montaigne.

In common usage, the word hedonism is often associated with self-indulgence and having a very loose or liberal view of the morality of sex. Most forms of hedonism actually concentrate on spiritual or intellectual goals, or the pursuit of general well-being.

All links retrieved February 13, 2014.

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Wage slavery – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Mar 262016
 

Wage slavery refers to a situation where a person’s livelihood depends on wages or a salary, especially when the dependence is total and immediate.[1][2] It is a pejorative term used to draw an analogy between slavery and wage labor by focusing on similarities between owning and renting a person.

The term wage slavery has been used to criticize exploitation of labour and social stratification, with the former seen primarily as unequal bargaining power between labor and capital (particularly when workers are paid comparatively low wages, e.g. in sweatshops),[3] and the latter as a lack of workers’ self-management, fulfilling job choices, and leisure in an economy.[4][5][6] The criticism of social stratification covers a wider range of employment choices bound by the pressures of a hierarchical society to perform otherwise unfulfilling work that deprives humans of their “species character”[7] not only under threat of starvation or poverty, but also of social stigma and status diminution.[8][9][10]

Similarities between wage labor and slavery were noted as early as Cicero in Ancient Rome.[11] With the advent of the industrial revolution, thinkers such as Proudhon and Marx elaborated the comparison between wage labor and slavery in the context of a critique of societal property not intended for active personal use,[12][13] while Luddites emphasized the dehumanization brought about by machines. Before the American Civil War, Southern defenders of African American slavery invoked the concept of wage slavery to favorably compare the condition of their slaves to workers in the North.[14][15] The United States abolished slavery after the Civil War, but labor union activists found the metaphor useful. According to Lawrence Glickman, in the Gilded Age, “References abounded in the labor press, and it is hard to find a speech by a labor leader without the phrase.”[16]

The introduction of wage labor in 18th century Britain was met with resistance&emdash;giving rise to the principles of syndicalism.[17][18][19][20] Historically, some labor organizations and individual social activists have espoused workers’ self-management or worker cooperatives as possible alternatives to wage labor.[5][19]

The view that working for wages is akin to slavery dates back to the ancient world.[22]

In 1763, the French journalist Simon Linguet published a description of wage slavery:[13]

The slave was precious to his master because of the money he had cost him … They were worth at least as much as they could be sold for in the market … It is the impossibility of living by any other means that compels our farm labourers to till the soil whose fruits they will not eat and our masons to construct buildings in which they will not live … It is want that compels them to go down on their knees to the rich man in order to get from him permission to enrich him … what effective gain [has] the suppression of slavery brought [him?] He is free, you say. Ah! That is his misfortune … These men … [have] the most terrible, the most imperious of masters, that is, need. … They must therefore find someone to hire them, or die of hunger. Is that to be free?

The view that wage work has substantial similarities with chattel slavery was actively put forward in the late 18th and 19th centuries by defenders of chattel slavery (most notably in the Southern states of the US), and by opponents of capitalism (who were also critics of chattel slavery).[9][23] Some defenders of slavery, mainly from the Southern slave states argued that Northern workers were “free but in name the slaves of endless toil,” and that their slaves were better off.[24][25] This contention has been partly corroborated by some modern studies that indicate slaves’ material conditions in the 19th century were “better than what was typically available to free urban laborers at the time.”[26][27] In this period, Henry David Thoreau wrote that “[i]t is hard to have a Southern overseer; it is worse to have a Northern one; but worst of all when you are the slave-driver of yourself.”[28]

Some abolitionists in the United States regarded the analogy as spurious.[29] They believed that wage workers were “neither wronged nor oppressed”.[30]Abraham Lincoln and the Republicans argued that the condition of wage workers was different from slavery, as laborers were likely to have the opportunity to work for themselves in the future, achieving self-employment.[31] The abolitionist and former slave Frederick Douglass initially declared, “now I am my own master”, upon taking a paying job.[32] But later in life, he concluded to the contrary, “experience demonstrates that there may be a slavery of wages only a little less galling and crushing in its effects than chattel slavery, and that this slavery of wages must go down with the other”.[33][34] Douglass went on to speak about these conditions as arising from the unequal bargaining power between the ownership/capitalist class and the non-ownership/laborer class within a compulsory monetary market. “No more crafty and effective devise for defrauding the southern laborers could be adopted than the one that substitutes orders upon shopkeepers for currency in payment of wages. It has the merit of a show of honesty, while it puts the laborer completely at the mercy of the land-owner and the shopkeeper.”.[35]

Self-employment became less common as the artisan tradition slowly disappeared in the later part of the 19th century.[5] In 1869 The New York Times described the system of wage labor as “a system of slavery as absolute if not as degrading as that which lately prevailed at the South”.[31]E. P. Thompson notes that for British workers at the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th centuries, the “gap in status between a ‘servant,’ a hired wage-laborer subject to the orders and discipline of the master, and an artisan, who might ‘come and go’ as he pleased, was wide enough for men to shed blood rather than allow themselves to be pushed from one side to the other. And, in the value system of the community, those who resisted degradation were in the right.”[17] A “Member of the Builders’ Union” in the 1830s argued that the trade unions “will not only strike for less work, and more wages, but will ultimately abolish wages, become their own masters and work for each other; labor and capital will no longer be separate but will be indissolubly joined together in the hands of workmen and work-women.”[18] This perspective inspired the Grand National Consolidated Trades Union of 1834 which had the “two-fold purpose of syndicalist unions the protection of the workers under the existing system and the formation of the nuclei of the future society” when the unions “take over the whole industry of the country.”[19] “Research has shown”, summarises William Lazonick, “that the ‘free-born Englishman’ of the eighteenth century even those who, by force of circumstance, had to submit to agricultural wage labour tenaciously resisted entry into the capitalist workshop.”[20]

The use of the term wage slave by labor organizations may originate from the labor protests of the Lowell Mill Girls in 1836.[36] The imagery of wage slavery was widely used by labor organizations during the mid-19th century to object to the lack of workers’ self-management. However, it was gradually replaced by the more neutral term “wage work” towards the end of the 19th century, as labor organizations shifted their focus to raising wages.[5]

Karl Marx described Capitalist society as infringing on individual autonomy, by basing it on a materialistic and commodified concept of the body and its liberty (i.e. as something that is sold, rented or alienated in a class society). According to Friedrich Engels:[37][38]

The slave is sold once and for all; the proletarian must sell himself daily and hourly. The individual slave, property of one master, is assured an existence, however miserable it may be, because of the master’s interest. The individual proletarian, property as it were of the entire bourgeois class which buys his labor only when someone has need of it, has no secure existence.

Critics of wage work have drawn several similarities between wage work and slavery:

According to American anarcho-syndicalist philosopher Noam Chomsky, the similarities between chattel and wage slavery were noticed by the workers themselves. He noted that the 19th century Lowell Mill Girls, who, without any reported knowledge of European Marxism or anarchism, condemned the “degradation and subordination” of the newly emerging industrial system, and the “new spirit of the age: gain wealth, forgetting all but self”, maintaining that “those who work in the mills should own them.”[44][45] They expressed their concerns in a protest song during their 1836 strike:

Oh! isn’t it a pity, such a pretty girl as I Should be sent to the factory to pine away and die? Oh! I cannot be a slave, I will not be a slave, For I’m so fond of liberty, That I cannot be a slave.[46]

Defenses of wage labor and chattel slavery in the literature have linked the subjection of man to man with the subjection of man to nature; arguing that hierarchy and a social system’s particular relations of production represent human nature and are no more coercive than the reality of life itself. According to this narrative, any well-intentioned attempt to fundamentally change the status quo is naively utopian and will result in more oppressive conditions.[47] Bosses in both of these long-lasting systems argued that their system created a lot of wealth and prosperity. Both did, in some sense create jobs and their investment entailed risk. For example, slave owners might have risked losing money by buying expensive slaves who later became ill or died; or might have used those slaves to make products that didn’t sell well on the market. Marginally, both chattel and wage slaves may become bosses; sometimes by working hard. It may be the “rags to riches” story which occasionally occurs in capitalism, or the “slave to master” story that occurred in places like colonial Brazil, where slaves could buy their own freedom and become business owners, self-employed, or slave owners themselves.[48] Social mobility, or the hard work and risk that it may entail, are thus not considered to be a redeeming factor by critics of the concept of wage slavery.[49]

Anthropologist David Graeber has noted that, historically, the first wage labor contracts we know about whether in ancient Greece or Rome, or in the Malay or Swahili city states in the Indian ocean were in fact contracts for the rental of chattel slaves (usually the owner would receive a share of the money, and the slave, another, with which to maintain his or her living expenses.) Such arrangements, according to Graeber, were quite common in New World slavery as well, whether in the United States or Brazil. C. L. R. James argued that most of the techniques of human organization employed on factory workers during the industrial revolution were first developed on slave plantations.[50]

The usage of the term “wage slavery” shifted to “wage work” at the end of the 19th century as groups like the Knights of Labor and American Federation of Labor shifted to a more reformist, trade union ideology instead of worker’s self-management. Much of the decline was caused by the rapid increase in manufacturing after the industrial revolution and the subsequent dominance of wage labor as a result. Another factor was immigration and demographic changes that led to ethnic tension between the workers.[5]

As Hallgrimsdottir and Benoit point out:

increased centralization of production… declining wages… [an] expanding… labor pool… intensifying competition, and… [t]he loss of competence and independence experienced by skilled labor” meant that “a critique that referred to all [wage] work as slavery and avoided demands for wage concessions in favor of supporting the creation of the producerist republic (by diverting strike funds towards funding… co-operatives, for example) was far less compelling than one that identified the specific conditions of slavery as low wages…[5]

Some anti-capitalist thinkers claim that the elite maintain wage slavery and a divided working class through their influence over the media and entertainment industry,[51][52] educational institutions, unjust laws, nationalist and corporate propaganda, pressures and incentives to internalize values serviceable to the power structure, state violence, fear of unemployment[53] and a historical legacy of exploitation and profit accumulation/transfer under prior systems, which shaped the development of economic theory:

Adam Smith noted that employers often conspire together to keep wages low, and have the upper hand in conflicts between workers and employers:[54]

The interest of the dealers… in any particular branch of trade or manufactures, is always in some respects different from, and even opposite to, that of the public [They] have generally an interest to deceive and even to oppress the public We rarely hear, it has been said, of the combinations of masters, though frequently of those of workmen. But whoever imagines, upon this account, that masters rarely combine, is as ignorant of the world as of the subject. Masters are always and everywhere in a sort of tacit, but constant and uniform combination, not to raise the wages of labor above their actual rate It is not, however, difficult to foresee which of the two parties must, upon all ordinary occasions, have the advantage in the dispute, and force the other into a compliance with their terms.

The concept of wage slavery could conceivably be traced back to pre-capitalist figures like Gerrard Winstanley from the radical Christian Diggers movement in England, who wrote in his 1649 pamphlet, The New Law of Righteousness, that there “shall be no buying or selling, no fairs nor markets, but the whole earth shall be a common treasury for every man,” and “there shall be none Lord over others, but every one shall be a Lord of himself.”[55]

Aristotle stated that “the citizens must not live a mechanic or a mercantile life (for such a life is ignoble and inimical to virtue), nor yet must those who are to be citizens in the best state be tillers of the soil (for leisure is needed both for the development of virtue and for active participation in politics)”,[56] often paraphrased as “all paid jobs absorb and degrade the mind.”[57]Cicero wrote in 44 BC that “vulgar are the means of livelihood of all hired workmen whom we pay for mere manual labour, not for artistic skill; for in their case the very wage they receive is a pledge of their slavery.”[58] Somewhat similar criticisms have also been expressed by some proponents of liberalism, like Henry George,[9]Silvio Gesell, and Thomas Paine,[59] as well as the Distributist school of thought within the Catholic Church.

To Marx and anarchist thinkers like Bakunin and Kropotkin, wage slavery was a class condition in place due to the existence of private property and the state. This class situation rested primarily on:

and secondarily on:

Proponents of anarcho-capitalism such as John Frederic Kosanke, in contrast, believe that in the absence of restrictive statutory regulations and political cronyism, the natural pursuit of property and capital allows a positive sum enrichment of all actors. Employers and employees, as buyers and sellers of services, become peers on an equal footing.[61]

Fascism was more hostile against independent trade unions than modern economies in Europe or the United States.[62] Fascist economic policies were widely accepted in the 1920s and 1930s and foreign (especially US) corporate investment in Italy and Germany increased after the fascist take over.[63][64]

Fascism has been perceived by some notable critics, like Buenaventura Durruti, to be a last resort weapon of the privileged to ensure the maintenance of wage slavery:

No government fights fascism to destroy it. When the bourgeoisie sees that power is slipping out of its hands, it brings up fascism to hold onto their privileges.[65]

According to Noam Chomsky, analysis of the psychological implications of wage slavery goes back to the Enlightenment era. In his 1791 book On the Limits of State Action, classical liberal thinker Wilhelm von Humboldt explained how “whatever does not spring from a man’s free choice, or is only the result of instruction and guidance, does not enter into his very nature; he does not perform it with truly human energies, but merely with mechanical exactness” and so when the laborer works under external control, “we may admire what he does, but we despise what he is.”[66] Both the Milgram and Stanford experiments have been found useful in the psychological study of wage-based workplace relations.[67]

According to research, modern work provides people with a sense of personal and social identity that is tied to

Thus job loss entails the loss of this identity.[68]

Erich Fromm argued that if a person perceives himself as being what he owns, then when that person loses (or even thinks of losing) what he “owns” (e.g. the good looks or sharp mind that allow him to sell his labor for high wages), then, a fear of loss may create anxiety and authoritarian tendencies because that person’s sense of identity is threatened. In contrast, when a person’s sense of self is based on what he experiences in a state of being (creativity, love, sadness, taste, sight etc.) with a less materialistic regard for what he once had and lost, or may lose, then less authoritarian tendencies prevail. The state of being, in his view, flourishes under a worker-managed workplace and economy, whereas self-ownership entails a materialistic notion of self, created to rationalize the lack of worker control that would allow for a state of being.[69]

Investigative journalist Robert Kuttner analyzed the work of public-health scholars Jeffrey Johnson and Ellen Hall about modern conditions of work, and concludes that “to be in a life situation where one experiences relentless demands by others, over which one has relatively little control, is to be at risk of poor health, physically as well as mentally.” Under wage labor, “a relatively small elite demands and gets empowerment, self-actualization, autonomy, and other work satisfaction that partially compensate for long hours” while “epidemiological data confirm that lower-paid, lower-status workers are more likely to experience the most clinically damaging forms of stress, in part because they have less control over their work.”[70]

Wage slavery, and the educational system that precedes it “implies power held by the leader. Without power the leader is inept. The possession of power inevitably leads to corruption in spite of good intentions [Leadership means] power of initiative, this sense of responsibility, the self-respect which comes from expressed manhood, is taken from the men, and consolidated in the leader. The sum of their initiative, their responsibility, their self-respect becomes his [and the] order and system he maintains is based upon the suppression of the men, from being independent thinkers into being ‘the men’ In a word, he is compelled to become an autocrat and a foe to democracy.” For the “leader”, such marginalisation can be beneficial, for a leader “sees no need for any high level of intelligence in the rank and file, except to applaud his actions. Indeed such intelligence from his point of view, by breeding criticism and opposition, is an obstacle and causes confusion.”[71] Wage slavery “implies erosion of the human personality [because] some men submit to the will of others, arousing in these instincts which predispose them to cruelty and indifference in the face of the suffering of their fellows.”[72]

In 19th-century discussions of labor relations, it was normally assumed that the threat of starvation forced those without property to work for wages. Proponents of the view that modern forms of employment constitute wage slavery, even when workers appear to have a range of available alternatives, have attributed its perpetuation to a variety of social factors that maintain the hegemony of the employer class.[43][73]

Harriet Hanson Robinson in an account of the Lowell Mill Girls wrote that generously high wages were offered to overcome the degrading nature of the work:

At the time the Lowell cotton mills were started the caste of the factory girl was the lowest among the employments of women. … She was represented as subjected to influences that must destroy her purity and selfrespect. In the eyes of her overseer she was but a brute, a slave, to be beaten, pinched and pushed about. It was to overcome this prejudice that such high wages had been offered to women that they might be induced to become millgirls, in spite of the opprobrium that still clung to this degrading occupation.[74]

In his book Disciplined Minds, Jeff Schmidt points out that professionals are trusted to run organizations in the interests of their employers. Because employers cannot be on hand to manage every decision, professionals are trained to ensure that each and every detail of their work favors the right interestsor skewers the disfavored ones in the absence of overt control:

The resulting professional is an obedient thinker, an intellectual property whom employers can trust to experiment, theorize, innovate and create safely within the confines of an assigned ideology.[75]

Parecon (participatory economics) theory posits a social class “between labor and capital” of higher paid professionals such as “doctors, lawyers, engineers, managers and others” who monopolize empowering labor and constitute a class above wage laborers who do mostly “obedient, rote work”.[76]

The terms “employee” or “worker” have often been replaced by “associate”. This plays up the allegedly voluntary nature of the interaction, while playing down the subordinate status of the wage laborer, as well as the worker-boss class distinction emphasized by labor movements. Billboards, as well as TV, Internet and newspaper advertisements, consistently show low-wage workers with smiles on their faces, appearing happy.[77]

Job interviews and other data on requirements for lower skilled workers in developed countries particularly in the growing service sector indicate that the more workers depend on low wages, and the less skilled or desirable their job is, the more employers screen for workers without better employment options and expect them to feign unremunerative motivation.[78] Such screening and feigning may not only contribute to the positive self-image of the employer as someone granting desirable employment, but also signal wage-dependence by indicating the employee’s willingness to feign, which in turn may discourage the dissatisfaction normally associated with job-switching or union activity.[78]

At the same time, employers in the service industry have justified unstable, part-time employment and low wages by playing down the importance of service jobs for the lives of the wage laborers (e.g. just temporary before finding something better, student summer jobs etc.).[79][80]

In the early 20th century, “scientific methods of strikebreaking”[81] were devised employing a variety of tactics that emphasized how strikes undermined “harmony” and “Americanism”.[82]

Some social activists objecting to the market system or price system of wage working, historically have considered syndicalism, worker cooperatives, workers’ self-management and workers’ control as possible alternatives to the current wage system.[4][5][6][19]

The American philosopher John Dewey believed that until “industrial feudalism” is replaced by “industrial democracy,” politics will be “the shadow cast on society by big business”.[83]Thomas Ferguson has postulated in his investment theory of party competition that the undemocratic nature of economic institutions under capitalism causes elections to become occasions when blocs of investors coalesce and compete to control the state.[84]

Noam Chomsky has argued that political theory tends to blur the ‘elite’ function of government:

Modern political theory stresses Madison’s belief that “in a just and a free government the rights both of property and of persons ought to be effectually guarded.” But in this case too it is useful to look at the doctrine more carefully. There are no rights of property, only rights to property that is, rights of persons with property,…

[In] representative democracy, as in, say, the United States or Great Britain […] there is a monopoly of power centralized in the state, and secondly and critically […] the representative democracy is limited to the political sphere and in no serious way encroaches on the economic sphere […] That is, as long as individuals are compelled to rent themselves on the market to those who are willing to hire them, as long as their role in production is simply that of ancillary tools, then there are striking elements of coercion and oppression that make talk of democracy very limited, if even meaningful.[85]

In this regard Chomsky has used Bakunin’s theories about an “instinct for freedom”,[86] the militant history of labor movements, Kropotkin’s mutual aid evolutionary principle of survival and Marc Hauser’s theories supporting an innate and universal moral faculty,[87] to explain the incompatibility of oppression with certain aspects of human nature.[88][89]

Loyola University philosophy professor John Clark and libertarian socialist philosopher Murray Bookchin have criticized the system of wage labor for encouraging environmental destruction, arguing that a self-managed industrial society would better manage the environment. They, like other anarchists,[90] attribute much of the industrial revolution’s pollution to the “hierarchical” and “competitive” economic relations accompanying it.[91]

Some criticize wage slavery on strictly contractual grounds, e.g. David Ellerman and Carole Pateman, arguing that the employment contract is a legal fiction in that it treats human beings juridically as mere tools or inputs by abdicating responsibility and self-determination, which the critics argue are inalienable. As Ellerman points out, “[t]he employee is legally transformed from being a co-responsible partner to being only an input supplier sharing no legal responsibility for either the input liabilities [costs] or the produced outputs [revenue, profits] of the employer’s business.”[92] Such contracts are inherently invalid “since the person remain[s] a de facto fully capacitated adult person with only the contractual role of a non-person” as it is impossible to physically transfer self-determination.[93] As Pateman argues:

The contractarian argument is unassailable all the time it is accepted that abilities can ‘acquire’ an external relation to an individual, and can be treated as if they were property. To treat abilities in this manner is also implicitly to accept that the ‘exchange’ between employer and worker is like any other exchange of material property … The answer to the question of how property in the person can be contracted out is that no such procedure is possible. Labour power, capacities or services, cannot be separated from the person of the worker like pieces of property.[94]

In a modern liberal-capitalist society, the employment contract is enforced while the enslavement contract is not; the former being considered valid because of its consensual/non-coercive nature, and the later being considered inherently invalid, consensual or not. The noted economist Paul Samuelson described this discrepancy.

Since slavery was abolished, human earning power is forbidden by law to be

capitalized. A man is not even free to sell himself; he must rent himself at a wage.[95]

Some advocates of right-libertarianism, among them philosopher Robert Nozick, address this inconsistency in modern societies, arguing that a consistently libertarian society would allow and regard as valid consensual/non-coercive enslavement contracts, rejecting the notion of inalienable rights.

The comparable question about an individual is whether a free system will allow him to sell himself into slavery. I believe that it would.[96]

Others like Murray Rothbard allow for the possibility of debt slavery, asserting that a lifetime labour contract can be broken so long as the slave pays appropriate damages:

[I]f A has agreed to work for life for B in exchange for 10,000 grams of gold, he will have to return the proportionate amount of property if he terminates the arrangement and ceases to work.[97]

In the philosophy of mainstream, neoclassical economics, wage labor is seen as the voluntary sale of one’s own time and efforts, just like a carpenter would sell a chair, or a farmer would sell wheat. It is considered neither an antagonistic nor abusive relationship, and carries no particular moral implications.[98]

Austrian economics argues that a person is not “free” unless they can sell their labor, because otherwise that person has no self-ownership and will be owned by a “third party” of individuals.[99]

Post-Keynesian economics perceives wage slavery as resulting from inequality of bargaining power between labor and capital, which exists when the economy does not “allow labor to organize and form a strong countervailing force.”[100]

The two main forms of socialist economics perceive wage slavery differently:

Continue reading here:

Wage slavery – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Ephemerisle: The First Step in Seasteading or Just a Party?

 Seasteading  Comments Off on Ephemerisle: The First Step in Seasteading or Just a Party?
Mar 262016
 

Aug 7, 2015 10,422 views

Ephemerisle 2009, (photo: Liz Henry)

About a hundred miles east of the Pacific Coast, the San Joaquin River and the Sacramento River collide with the east side of the San Francisco Bay. The result is a sprawling delta, as socially and politically fraught as it is beautiful. Dragonflies mate in its marshes, children wade, and vacationers fish, carefully avoiding the 800-foot cargo ships that slice like metal icebergs down deep-water channels from the bay. 40 miles northeast, in Sacramento, Californias congress hotly debates how to ration the states diminishing supply of fresh water.

Once every summer, for one week, the Delta gets even more surreal. A couple hundred people, many of them members of the San Francisco tech community, float a bunch of boats into one of the more spacious coves, drop anchor, and lash their craft together into islands. There, they form an ad hoc, quasi-techno-utopian society.

This is Ephemerisle: the strangest, most anarchic, boisterous and buoyant party-cum-libertarian-social-experiment on earth.The festival was started by people with the ultimate goal of floating free from California and its turmoil, from the United States and its economic regulations, and getting away from it all, literally.

Step 1 to Colonizing the Open Ocean: Throw a Festival?

Patri Friedman, 2011 (photo: Hannu Makarainen)

Ephemerisle was the brainchild of Patri Friedman, a small-statured software engineer with a dark beard and bright demeanor, grandson to the Nobel-winning economist Milton Friedman. Milton Friedman was a famous advocate of classical liberalism, free markets, and small government. In the early 2000s, his grandson was in a graduate program in computer science at Stanford University, and had some pretty radical ideas about how to put his grandfather’s ideas into practice.

I want to live in freedom, he wrote, (by which I mean at least libertarianism, if not anarcho-capitalism). Unfortunately, no such political system is implemented on a significant scale anywhere in the world.

Thus, he concluded: I am interested in helping to create a new libertarian country.

There were, of course, obstacles to this goal. To Patris eye, one in particular stood out: [A]lmost all land is controlled by governments, which tend to be very reluctant to give up sovereignty. Like many before him, Patri looked to the ocean as his frontier.

If youre a certain distance from the coast of any country, youre in international waters. If the vessel youre on is registered under a countrys flag, that countrys laws apply. If the vessel isnt registered, most bets are off (with a few notable exceptions — laws against piracy still apply, for example). Boats in international waters have been used to circumvent regulations on gambling, surgeries, broadcast bandwidth, and more.

Although its been the ambition of many separatists, nobodys ever been able to establish a sovereign state on the high seas. Of the attempts that have been made, none could have been called successful, (the closest call, the Principality of Sealand, was an old military fort off the coast of the UK, held by the family of a pirate radio DJ since the 1960s. The fort used to be in international waters, but the UK has since extended its territorial waters, technically annexing Sealand.)

Thats becauseseasteading, the establishment of permanent dwellings on the open ocean, ishard.A lot of things we land dwellers take for granted — not-drowning, charging a laptop, having food to eat today and tomorrow and the next day — become a lot more challenging on the open ocean. It should be no surprise that many, many people think seasteading is impossible.

Seasteadings proponents say it isnt impossible, it just has a funding problem: existing solutions cost money to implement, and the solutions that dont exist yet cost money to develop. But even they admit its a hell of a funding problem.The funding necessary to launch even the simplest floating city was in the billions, leaving most proposed projects dead in the water, so to speak.

Still of a floating city in “Waterworld” (1995)

Patri dreamed up the festival, Ephemerisle, originally as an answer to that funding problem.

He was inspired by the writings of Wayne Gramlich, an older programmer and aspiring seasteader whose work Patri found online. Instead of planning elaborate floating metropoli, Gramlich proposed seasteading the ocean much like American settlers homesteaded the midwest: one by one, or family by family, on a budget. To this notion, Patri suggested another way to baby-step towards seasteading:

[Previous seasteading] projects all suffered from too much ambition. They attempted to tackle a difficult problem all at once, rather than dividing it into realistically small pieces. Realistically small, for a country, may not merely mean space, it may also mean time.

Patri had already witnessed one temporally limited proto-country: Burning Man, a massive, spectacular, week-long art festival in the desolate Black Rock Desert, Nevada. There, tens of thousands of people camp together in an ad hoc city of art, inclusion and radical self-expression. The feats of engineering, social organization, and creativity that tens of thousands achieve, given one a week in a wasteland chemically incapable of supporting life, inspired Patri. It also struck him as a potentially harnessable force.”

Perhaps, Patri thought, he could throw a festival like Burning Man on a temporary seastead in international waters. It could be a raft-up — attendants could boat out to the event and lash their vehicles together to make a large, artificial island. Because the island would only exist for the duration of the festival, Patri named it Ephemerisle, a portmanteau of ephemeral and isle.

Unlike Burning Man, where participants are still subject to the laws of the United States, Ephemerisle would offer attendants true autonomy from American government. Also unlike Burning Man, which bans cash transactions between participants at the event, Ephemerisle would embrace money and commerce, as a respected feature of society. And also unlike Burning Man, Ephemerisle would be unticketed, free to anybody who could get there.

If people liked the festival enough, Patri thought, they might start staying out there for longer year after year, and invite their friends. It would grow both temporally and in population. For that to happen, the island itself would have to grow, too. Over time, maybe these people would be motivated to solve a lot of seasteadings hard engineering problems, so Ephemerisle could continue to grow. As Patri later explained his thinking:

If there was some difficult but solvable technical problem that those people had to solve that to get Burning Man to a place where they didnt have to pay a large portion of ticket fees, […] [and] where they didnt have U.S. legal requirements, could that community of […] amazing builders and creators […] solve that problem? Hell yes.

That community of inspired enthusiastic people, they could solve a technical problem, no problem. […] They solve a lot of really tough problems because theyre inspired to do so.

Patri bought ephemerisle.com in 2001, and seasteading.org in 2002 (he has said of Ephemerisle, One third of the reason why I wrote all of this down and put up a website about it is because I really like the name.) For a long time, not much happened. He reached out to and befriended Gramlich, who also happened to live in the Bay Area. In 2002, the two of them floated a few homemade crafts onto Patris pool and called them poolsteads (Might stick a plant or two on top just for fun.)

Then, half a decade later, Patri and Gramlich met Peter Thiel.

The Vision Meets the Money

Seasteading Contest WinnerAndrs Gyrfi’s design for a modular seastead

Patri was, and still is, a man of many blogs. He’s blogged about everything and anything: seasteading, fatherhood (he has two children), romance, libertarian politics, novels, and nutrition. In 2007, he announced that he and Gramlich were working on a book on seasteading. Eventually, his blogs found their way to the screen of an independently-minded libertarian venture capitalist, bent on funding ideas most sane people thought were crazy.

Enter Peter Thiel. The year is 2008. Thiel was a founder of PayPal, an early investor in Facebook, and a founder of the venture capital firm Founders Fund. Founders Fund specializes in revolutionary technologies, claiming in its manifesto that VC culture’s shift to incrementalist investments has held back innovation. We wanted flying cars,” they write, “instead we got 140 characters. In 2008, Thiel himself had funded anti-aging research via the Methuselah Foundation, and the Singularity Institute, (which would later become the Machine Intelligence Research Institute: MIRI).

Patri and Gramlich had not made much technical progress on seasteading since 2001, but their thinking on the subject had significantly developed. Patri and Gramlich envisioned a future in which thousands, if not millions, of artificial islands dotted the oceans. Their idea was that archipelagos of these micronations would increase market competition between governmental systems, and lower the cost to an individualleaving a system they didnt like:

Rather than adapting policy to voter preferences, local governments can keep policy constant and allow consumer-citizens to adopt whichever bundle of services best matches their preferences. If consumers can vote with their feet, local government planners do not face the same information deficit as central government planners.

Patri and Gramlich theorized that this competition for citizens would drive up the quality of governing systems, and allow people better and more granular choices. They even suggested the islands could be designed so that individuals who wished to change affiliation could just untie their house and the land it was built on, and float away.

Apparently this vision fell into the category of flying car visions of the future. Thiel, Gramlich, and Patri met, and Thiel invested $500,000 for the partners to found the Seasteading Institute. Thiels eventual total investment in the Seasteading Institute was a reported $1.25 million in 2011.

Poke around the Seasteading Institutes website and youll find 8 Moral Imperatives to make seasteading possible. Whether or not you believe their claims, seasteading — or at least its rhetoric — had gone from one mans hearts desire to help start a libertarian country, to a philanthropic cause to save the world via its economies.

It is a way for people to unilaterally bring about change and make the world a better place, Peter Thiel said in 2009 as the keynote speaker at the first Seasteading Conference.

And part of that mission was Ephemerisle.

Although Patri said most of those resources were going towards a top-down approach — investing in businesses and engineering research — Ephemerisle remained part of the plan. We see it as a parallel, cheaper, bottom-up option, he said in at the first Seasteading Conference, days before the first Ephemerisle, that reduces our risk by having it in our portfolio. In addition to trying to architect and engineer the worlds first floating countries, the Seasteading Institute started planning a big, floating party.

The Man Who Made Things Float

Chicken John Rinaldi at the first Ephemerisle, 2009 (cropped photo: Christopher Rasch)

Patri is a slick little shit, isnt he? San Francisco artist Chicken John Rinaldi tells us. Swindling millions of dollars for absolutely nothing.

Chicken John is the man who built the first Ephemerisle. When planning the event, Patri asked his friends in the Burning Man community a lot of questions about how to organize a festival. He was also asking people whether they knew anything about boats, about floating platforms, about camping for extended periods on water.

And he kept getting the same answer: Well, I dont know. Call Chicken John! At least, thats what Chicken John says.

Chicken John was a member of the famed Cacophony Society, the artists, street artists, and performance artists who organized the first Burning Man, and the first Santacon. In 2007, he ran for mayor of San Francisco, telling the Chronicle, “The government should be like someone you want to invite to the party, not someone you would call to do your taxes.

Chicken John knew a thing or two about boats, because of a series of collaborations he did from 2006-2009 with street artist Swoon. Swoon makes boats, Chicken John wrote of the projects. Well. She causes boats to be made. Like static electricity causes lightning and thunder.

The premise was simple. Swoon would design towering Winchester mystery structures out of trash and scrap. She and her friends, including Chicken John, would voyage on and live on them for months at a time — part as art, part as an experiment in communal living, and part just for fun. Chicken John’s job was to stick recycled motors on the junk boats, make them go, and make sure they didnt sink.

I knew what I was doing, Im a mechanic, Chicken John tells us, about starting the project in 2006. But I didnt know how anything floated, I had no idea. Nothing. From nowhere.

He learned. They took their first boats down the Mississippi in 2006 and 2007, and another fleet down the Hudson in 2008. Eventually we packed them all in shipping containers, and then floated across the Adriatic Sea, Chicken John says. On that voyage, they took their craft 250 miles from Slovenia to Venice. We crashed the Biennale while Yoko Ono was getting her lifetime achievement award.

One of Swoons Swimming Cities, docked (photo: RJ)

When Patri approached him in 2009, Chicken John might have been the worlds leading expert on the mechanics and perils of doing weird stuff on the water, including living on it. He was also a self-described rich, white Republican, which might have made him seem more culturally approachable to the likes of Patri and Gramlich. Patri commissioned him to build Ephemerisle 1.0s central platform.

I was like, sure, Ill do your project for you, Chicken John says. He says he thought the seasteading aspect of the festival was for fun, or funny, and didnt know the seasteaders were serious when he agreed to work with them. Anybody who says theyre going to build seasteads on the open ocean is an asshole and a swindler. Yeah, sure were gonna build seasteads on the ocean. And then the moon!

When Chicken John joined, Patri had already changed his position on what qualified as a realistically small first version of the festival. They were still going to start small in terms of duration and population — 100 people, one weekend. But given the state of seasteading technology, and the dearth of practical nautical experience within the institute, (The prototypical seasteader was a nerdy tech entrepreneur, Patri told us), debuting the festival on international waters was deemed too ambitious. The first Ephemerisle had to take place somewhere with calm waters, predictable weather, and easy access.

They chose a spot on the San Joaquin-Sacramento River Delta called Disappointment Slough. It was close to a marina that often rented out houseboats, designed to be lashed together for large parties. Its very common to tie boats together like that, Chicken John says. Its the best way to anchor a bunch of boats close together — if you anchor them separately, the waves smash them together and you damage the boats.

The boats werent designed for large waves, which is something the Seasteading Institute hoped to figure out in later years, as international waters were still on Ephemerisles roadmap. The secondEphemerisle was to take place on the San Francisco Bay, one year later. After that,” he had said, “this is a big step that may take more than one year, wed like to take it to the coast. […] And then, the ocean.

Ephemerisle 1.0

Ephemerisle 2009 (photo: Christopher Rasch)

The first Ephemerisle was documented in an eight minute video by Jason Sussberg — at the time a Stanford MFA student in film. About a hundred people showed up on eight houseboats, which they eventually lashed to Chicken Johns platform. There was food, drink, dancing and general revelry. As Reason Magazines Brian Doherty claims in the film, it delivered on its main promise: Theres a central space, 100 people are on it, enjoying themselves, most of the little things are docked to it.

But there was also a lot that went wrong — things went over budget, and building the island and its platforms took twice the time expected (We have a lot of optimists here, someone observed, as construction that was supposed to be complete Friday morning continued into Saturday.) Merely anchoring a single boat in a current proved more challenging than expected.

The film ends with a shot of Patri on a derelict ship, soberly recapping the weekends lessons. I think I have a better idea now of just how hard […] the ocean is, he says to the camera. [Water] makes everything more difficult, it makes everything more expensive, it makes everything take longer. I think seasteading is still worth going after in spite of that.

Doherty also brings up a criticism in the film: Im not entirely certain I can see the throughline between this and the end of seasteading goal. Seasteading has to involve economic activity, and this is not that. Youre like building a cult around seasteading! This is great! Were all in this together-

Lonely Islands Im on a Boat! starts playing in the background, and Doherty starts laughing and drops the rest of his sentence. And the dance party has begun! he says, waving a can of PBR at a group of people singing atop a houseboat.

Chicken John at the first Ephemerisle, (still from Jason Sussberg)

All the shots of Chicken John in the 8 minute film are of him working. Theres not a lot of people here that are very salty, he says in one clip, meaning nobody there knew much about being on the water.

They basically spent a bunch of money on a weekend camping trip and it failed miserably, he tells us, of that first year.

According to him the build was even more difficult than the documentary conveys. He had to enlist help from the local marina just to cart his materials out. I thought that Patri and his community would provide me with people to help me out, Chicken John says. And then it was just me. When the weekend was over, seemingly through further mismanagement, he was abandoned at Disappointment Slough:

I had one guy helping me out. And Monday morning that guy was gone. He was gone, his houseboat was gone. They just left me with this giant platform. And, honestly, it was scary. What happened if I dropped my cellphone into the water? There was nobody fucking there.

Chicken John also says he fronted all the money for the platforms, and then had to push the Seasteading Institute to reimburse him. It made me violently ill, he says. If I was 20 instead of 40, I would have beat them to an inch of their fucking lives.

Ephemerisle, Today

The chandelier boat

Six years later, Ephemerisle took place from July 20-26, 2015. In total there were an estimated 500 attendants, and the official event lasted seven days. Many participants were out there for ten, building up and taking down islands.

A 130-foot 1930s research vessel attended, as did a barge carrying a two-story RV covered in LEDs, and another with a DJ booth and a 10×2 grid of speakers. Ferries ran between islands throughout the weekend, some of them imaginative art boats. One was a small dance barge, The Artemiid, with a shade-structure that made it look like a giant nudibranch. By day, it shed and collected swimmers, and its fins rippled in the headwind when riders tugged on certain ropes and levers. Another art boat was a small dinghy, with a chandelier that dangled like an angler fishs lantern. Another art boat was a Delorean chassis modified into a hovercraft.

The Delorean (still from Oceanus)

The event has grown in many of the ways predicted — its larger, grander, and lasts longer.But, even in its 6th year, Ephemerisle did not take place in the open ocean, nor just off the coast, nor in the bay. It still hasnt made it out of the Delta it started in.

I think the ways Ephemerisle has grown are the easy ones, Patri tells us. “Its still too early to tell whether its on the incremental trajectory to seasteading. Like, in some ways, its been really successful. But it also doesnt look like its developing into autonomous independent communities for a week a year.

The Seasteading Institute never sponsored a second Ephemerisle. Having gone uninsured the first year, they officially cancelled the event in 2010 when they couldnt find insurance less expensive than $300 per participant. The community decided to have a party on the planned weekend anyways, under the name Not-Ephemerisle. They moved it a few miles to a cove called Mandeville Tip, where it is still held today. In 2011, the Seasteading Institute officially handed the event over to the community.

Patri left his position as president of the Seasteading Institute in 2011 to pursue a Free Cities project in Honduras. Hes now back in the Bay Area, working at Google again, and chairman of the Seasteading Institutes board. He says the Seasteading Institute has refocused its efforts solely into more top-down, less speculative ventures.

Over time, weve come to the viewpoint that we want to work with countries, he says. You have to be really big in order to actually start your own country.

But even though the Seasteading Institute is no longer officially involved, its not clear that Ephemerisle is far off-track on the route to seasteading. The road might just be exponentially longer, and much murkier than Patri expected.

The Robert Grey at sunset (still from Oceanus)

One example of possible progress towards seasteading was Project Oceanus. They rented out the Robert Grey, a 130-foot, 1930s research vessel, and hosted daytime talks and night-time dance parties. Project Oceanus is in the process of acquiring 300 foot ship to fix up and turn into a live/work space on the San Francisco Bay. Their plan is, ultimately, to pilot it to the Pacific Garbage Patch and 3D-print the plastic into the foundation for a floating city.

Another example of progress is that, year to year, the community has built up nautical expertise. The Ephemerisle github and wiki are both chock-full of documentation: recaps on what worked and what didnt year to year, diagrams on how to anchor a raft-up, or how to build a platform. Organizers say that theyve been prototyping build designs in calmer parts of the San Francisco Bay during the year, and a Bay-based festival might not be far off.

This year, about 65% of the population of the festival stayed on an archipelago called Elysium. In Elysium, long narrow bridges made out of plywood and inner tubes connected small satellite groups of houseboat islands, and one sailboat island, to other floating platforms: a dance floor, a few platforms designated for lounging or meditation. Such a structure wouldnt even have been conceivable in 2009. When Patri and his partner ferried in this year, this is where they stayed.

Elysium, from above

Elysium is run by Simone Syed and Scott Norman, managing partners at Velorum Capital (they are also a couple). Although Syed does not identify as a seasteader, she was brought to Ephemerisle in 2012 by friends in the community. Syed was horrified by the unsafe conduct of some of the attendants. (This included a young man who freaked out on acid, stripped naked, and sprinted away from the Coast Guard — first by swimming, and then, when he reached the shore, on foot. This year, Elysium held a race in his honor.) At first, Syed was so upset she resolved never to attend Ephemerisle again.

But the people who come to Ephemerisle are some of the most brilliant people on the planet, Syed says. It would be a travesty if any of these individuals perished in an accident we could have prevented. So she changed her mind, and decided to run her own island the next year, as a safety-first dictatorship:

My friends and I realized we could create our own island nation state, and our own form of governance. The people we wanted to participate with us would buy into those rules. We ended up being the biggest island, the party island, but we had instilled a sense of personal responsibility in each of our crew members.

Part of Patris original vision for Ephemerisle was that, while Burning Man celebrated artistic expression, Ephemerisle would celebrate political expression. Instead of art, people would build their own toy systems of governance — maybe one boat would merely permit nudity, for example, and another would require it. People could vote with their feet, in a toy way, and hang out at the boat with the best legal system for their immediate needs.

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Ephemerisle: The First Step in Seasteading or Just a Party?

 Posted by at 8:44 am  Tagged with:

Counselling and Hypnotherapy in … – Personal Empowerment

 Personal Empowerment  Comments Off on Counselling and Hypnotherapy in … – Personal Empowerment
Mar 262016
 

At times in our lives, we can all benefit from the help and support of another and personal therapy can make a huge positive difference.

With therapy rooms in Great Barr,Birmingham and Sutton Coldfield, I work on the basis that we are all unique and individual. This is reflected in Your therapy, therefore,my primary ethic is to ensure that you are at the forefront of everything we do, after all, your therapy is about and for You.

Asan experienced Counsellor and Psychotherapist, Iam Accredited by the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) and a UKRCP registered Counsellor and Psychotherapist. As well as seeing individuals on a one to one basis, I also see couples for Relationship Counselling.

Appointments are available in the daytime and evening in north Birmingham(close to the Scott Arms crossroads, just off the A34 that links Walsall and Birmingham City Centre)and in Sutton Coldfield (near Banners Gate). Both locations are very easy to find, offer ease of parkingand arein easy reach of Birmingham, Walsall, Sutton Coldfield and West Bromwich. My FAQ page has address and map details.

Feel free to contact me I am happy to provide as much information as your require to allow you to make an informed choice. If you have any questions, would like any additional information or if you would like to set up an initial appointment, please contact me.

Im often asked about what happens in the first therapy session. Heres an article I published that gives an insight Click here.

Hypnotherapy is a very effective way to help you become a non-smoker. Information on how this works Stop Smoking Main Page

In follow-up to the previous two articles, below are some mindfulness exercises to experiment with. Experimenting with techniques is really important to find what you prefer and what fits best for you. Often we are advised to do things that may have been wonderfully beneficial or even life-changing for the person telling us, but it may not suit ourselves.

Read more .

I have recently been asked forthe address of my Facebook page Here it is- https://www.facebook.com/personalempowermenttherapy

If you have time, please share

Wishing you a lovely day

Duncan.

It is extremely hard to feelanxious or stressedwhen we have a sense of gratitude and appreciation for what we have in life. We are surrounded by such rich splendour and we have all created truly brilliant things in our lives, however, often these parts of us feel distanced and not felt. Read more .

Mindfulness is increasingly being recognised as being very effective to help people manage anxiety and depression. Put very simply, it is the practise of focusing our attention on being in the here and now without wishing it were different. It is enjoying the present when things are good and not holding onto it when it changes and being with the unpleasant without fearing it will always be this way. Read More .

Throughout our lives we encounter a vast range of experiences and many can indelibly ink themselves into our memories whether pleasant or unpleasant. Unpleasant and harmful experiences can often create symptoms of trauma that can stay with us for some time. Read more ..

It can be very easy for us to slip into unhealthy eating and drinking patterns and often this can be gradual which results into us putting on extra weight. Losing this weight isnt easy and not being as we would like to be can begin to chip away at our self esteem. It can also alter our behaviours for example it can influence how we dress or we may go out less or become a little less confident. Read more .

Keeping a journal can bring great benefits and you can do this in a number of ways. A valid point to remember is that this is your journal and often we can place undue pressure on ourselves to write every day or can give up if weve missed a few days or weeks. This is Yours so if you find it a help to write once a week, month, quarter then do so. Read more .

With seemingly an ever increasing number of therapies available, it can be hard to decide what to look for to ensure you have the help and support that is going to be best for you. From the greater researched and evidence based therapies of Counselling, CBT, Psychotherapy and EMDR to Life Coaching and complimentary therapies such as Hypnotherapy and Reflexology. Read more ..

We have been very fortunate to be able to show the pictures of Gary Davison. Garys artistic depth and expertise isexpressed through his photography and we are grateful to be able to incorporate them on this website. For more information on his photos, please go to facebook.com/gary.davison

Managing any strong emotion can be a challenge for us as when we are flooded with strong feelings, our ability to think rationally diminishes significantly. Anger is one of our primary emotions and is often sparked by frustration or injustice. Read more .

Attending any appointment for the first time can be a daunting prospect and this is especially true of Hypnotherapy due to the many myths that accompany it and the nature of the therapy.

So in the first session, what can you realistically expect? The information that is stated below relates to how I work and there maybe differences between different therapists. Read more.

In the previous article Do you value your sleep, it raised some significant points as to why sleep is so important for us to be able to function at our best. Its one thing to be appreciate this but achieving this cannot always be easy. Read more .

Sleep is a fundamental for our wellbeing and recent research emphasis this greatly.

Read more .

Therapeutic writing is very widely used form of self help. Writing is a form of expression and any form of expression helps us to manage and deal with our emotions. When faced with issues and problems in life, it can be very easy for our thoughts to spiral, go round in circles and meander down some dark negative alleyways and as this happens, our emotions become engaged.

Read more .

Its been 5 years since the smoking ban was introduced in England and it has been hailed as bringing huge benefits. It has brought about huge behavioural changes, for example, where for many its a natural act for smokers to disappear to the designated areas and for others, it has altered whether they go out socially or create their social interactions at home.

Read more .

Feeling inspired and being inspired can provide such powerful positive feelings. Often this means getting in touch with a thought, feeling, way of being or an emotion that we truly connect with.

Read more

From today, we are able to offer coaching and counselling via Skype. This can be done directly or through http://www.mootu.co.uk. It is very easy to useand begins with booking a session. To do this, simply email me or call and well arrange a mutually convenient time and I offer a free 15 minute taster to allow you to become familiar with talking to me over Skype.

As the New Year gets under way, we often look to make positive changes to ensure this year is a great year. Making it is not always easy. Read more

Relaxation is often under-estimated as a great way to alleviate stress. Living in the UK can be very stressful with a multitude of perceived demands that we place upon ourselves such as the need to earn a certain amount, to have our status needs met, to perform well as a friend, family member, work colleague or cope with demands such as brining up children or meeting our monthly outgoings. Also, we can feel a sense of guilt if were not being productive or if were not busying ourselves. Read more .

The way we view life can often influence our emotions and how we behave. We tend to attach meaning to things that happen to us such as the manner in which someone talks to us, how our team performs, watching the news etc.Read more

CBT has been given a lot of press over the last few years. This is largely due to it being an evidence based therapy meaning that organisations such as the NHS can see the differences that are being made. It is can also be a very effective therapy to allow people to free themselves from their self limiting thoughts and beliefs and for them to have tools and strategies to manage their lives effectively. Read more

An investigation by The Guardian has found that prescription rates for anti-depressants in the north of England are up to 3 times higher than in the south. NICE guidelines clearly state that pills should not be the first resort in helping mild to moderate depression and instead favour talking therapies such as CBT or Counselling as these work better and do not have risky side effects.

Read more

Life pressures often take their toll on our relationships. From long hours to the time and effort required to care for children. It is very easy for us to become distanced from our partner and for us to fall into routine ways of being where the enjoyment we used to share is less.

Read More

The tips below are to allow people to manage panic attacks and their symptoms. Some or all may be relevant and useful and these are only a guide of the more common ways to manage anxiety.

Read more

Panic attacks (also known as anxiety attacks) can be a terrifying ordeal as our mind gives a strong reaction to something it perceives as a threat. Read more ..

Weve moved offices and as such the landline number has changed from 0121 356 1276 to 0121 580 8015. If you dial the old number though, there is a recorded message to advise you of this change. My mobile remains the same and is probably the quickest way to get in touch.

Regards

Duncan (Quinney)

The Anxiety page of this website has been updated to include lots more information click here. Included now is information on Panic Attacks, General Anxiety Disorder, OCD, Eating Disorders, Substance Misuse and Phobias. As always, should you require any further information, feel free to email or call me. Regards Duncan

The NHS and Government are in the midst of their initiative Improving Access to Psychological Therapies which is pretty much as it sounds. It was found that there are a number of barriers to people gaining the support and help they may benefit from such as lack of NHS counsellors, long waiting lists, lack of awareness of what is available and the perceived stigma attached with seeking psychological support. Read more ..

A new page has been added. Click here Life Coaching in Birmingham. Having trained as a Coach some years ago, I am now offering this for appointments in Great Barr, Birmingham and in Sutton Coldfield. The Birmingham therapy room is at the Scott Arms betweem Walsall and Birmingham City Centre and close to West Bromish too. The Sutton Coldfield therapy room is walking distance from the town centre. I also provide Counselling, Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT), Psychotherapy and Hypnotherapy at these locations too.

As always, feel free to contact me if you would like any further information or if youd like to set up an initial appointment.

Hypnotherapy can help alleviate the symptoms of anxiety. Anxiety is a human emotion experienced by everyone and if you imagine a scale of 1 to 100, where 1 is very low and 100 is very high, our anxiety levels are on that scale somewhere at all times. Sometimes we may be veering towards the upper end, other times we may move towards the lower end. For some people, anxiety can be particularly prevalent and they may feel that they are towards the top end of the scale for a lot of the time and are finding it hard to control this. Read more .

There are a number of reasons as to why exercise is good for us from the obvious physical effects but also from a psychological perspective. Exercise increases the release of natural opiates within the brain called endorphins which is chemically similar to morphine.

Read More

Counselling is a growing industry and the attendance of counselling and therapy is at last becoming more and more accepted. There has been, and to some extent, there still is a stigma attached with seeking psychological help as though those who engage with such therapies are perceived to be in need or are weak.

Read more.

Anxiety is a universal human emotion felt by everybody. We all sit on the scale between experiencing no anxiety to experiencing extreme anxiety and we can move up and down this scale daily, hourly or even by the minute. For some, their anxiety can be felt much more than others whether this be a temporary reaction to current stresses or pressures or whether its a long-term effect. Read more

Many large organisations now provide personal support to their employees which can bring many benefits to both employer and employee.

Read more .

The government have stated that they aim to cut the number of smokers by 50% over the next 10 years. Estimates show that currently approximately 21% of the population smokes with the aim to reduce this to 10%.

Please read more

Stress can be described as an imbalance between a persons demands and their ability to cope with those demands. The personal demands that cause this stress are ultimately imposed by the individual, therefore stress, to an extent can be indirectly self imposed.

Read more ..

Counselling is a talk therapy and many people gain great benefits from being able to openly and safely explore their inner world. Gaining a greater understanding and self awareness can often be the first steps towards making positive change or experiencing your world in a better way. Read more .

A panic attack is the bodys reaction to fear, however, it happens in normal situations when there is no need to feel fear. They are very common, occurring in about 5% of the population (1 in 20 people) . Read more .

It can be said that were all natural born non-smokers, and smoking is a temporary habit that will end at some point. Its the individuals choice whether this ends at the grave or in choosing to improve your life and free yourself.

Read more ..

With the festive season upon us, the subsequent New Years resolutions will sping into action and many people will seek to gain the freedom of being a Nonsmoker. Stopping smoking is the single best thing you can do to improve your health and increase your life expectancy. Read on Further .

I often wonder how the stigma once attached to seeking counselling has lessoned over the last decade. It maybe traditionally un-British to talk about ones feelings and the general belief has always been that there must be something wrong with a person if they needed counselling. Read on further ..

So, having made the decision to see a counsellor, having found one or been referred to one and booked an appointment, you now wait wondering what to expect in your first session. Making this step takes courage and strength as by this point youre likely to have acknowledged that theres an issue or set of issues, even if youre unsure of the exact details. Read on further .

Im pleased to announce I have launched my new website.

The new-look website is to enable users to navigate it easier to find out the information you want even quicker.

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Counselling and Hypnotherapy in … – Personal Empowerment

 Posted by at 8:44 am  Tagged with:

Liberty Auto Sales in Chesapeake, Virginia with Reviews …

 Liberty  Comments Off on Liberty Auto Sales in Chesapeake, Virginia with Reviews …
Mar 262016
 

Helpful ReviewsGreenbrier Dodge of ChesapeakeHenry S.rated

I brought in my car two weeks to the service department after my right rear tire took a nail. I arrived, explained the situation and the Service Advisor looked, took the car and had it fixed. I was in and out in 20 minutes. No appointment, no charge, not spending 3-4 hours…more waiting to be serviced since it was a Saturday and no excuse of not taking care of a potential situation where it could have blown or worse left me stranded or in a car accident. Well today, I noticed what I thought was gum on that tire that was fixed. To my surprise, the material to fix the nail hole had oozed out. So today I took it over to the Service department and again the same great service and even an apology for the need of the rework versus saying it was the material, wear and tear etc. The rep accepted and the problem fixed!!! Great job and highly recommend.view less

Hannah was by far the best sales person Ive ever dealt with in the auto business EVER!!!! She worked on my deal a day and half just to get me in a vehicle of my choice, even with in my budget. She was honest& kind from the time I met her until the long drawn out deal was do…morene! Ive been through some hell purchasing vehicles in my past ,but Hannah& Great Bridge Auto Sales made it happen! I would definitely recommend anyone I know to go see Hannah when hey are in the market for a vehicle, She WILL get it done no matter how long it takes!!! Thanks for keeping it real , a great quality to have in the auto buisnessview less

Today was our second time coming to the dealership and the experience was outstanding once again. Ryan( sells man) was not pushy at all, he listen and pay attention to everything we said. Let us test drive the cars we were interested in and gave the us the news of us being n…moreew owners of our Jeep Commander. The manager Brian, also, exceptional service. Did all the paperwork accurately and was super friendly! He made us feel very welcome here. We are beyond happy with Great Bridge Auto Sales and we will suggested our friends and family to come here to buy a car.view less

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Liberty Auto Sales in Chesapeake, Virginia with Reviews …

Maryland SEO Company | Search Engine Optimization …

 SEO  Comments Off on Maryland SEO Company | Search Engine Optimization …
Mar 232016
 

SEO (search engine optimization) is one of the most important things that you can do to bring targeted, prospective buyers to your website. At Maryland Search, we provide excellent results that bring increased profits to all types of businesses. Whether you are specifically looking for Baltimore SEO or you are located anywhere else in the Maryland area, youve come to the right place.

Customer communication is the foundation of our service. We take the time to interview you to truly understand your short and long term goals. We conduct in-depth research about your market and use our cutting edge tool set to determine how to put you at the top of the search results in Google and other search engines while leapfrogging your competition. After working with you to understand your business, we analyze search patterns of millions of web users to develop a list of the best keywords (search terms) on which to focus. We then ensure that your site ranks very highly for these commonly searched for keywords. This, in turn, drives LARGE amounts of new, targeted traffic to your site.

When we take you on as a client, we will conduct a detailed assessment of your current website. After discussing these details with you, we will then provide any necessary design or code changes to your website (with your approval) and begin to work our SEO magic, sending your website up to the top of the search results in Google and other search engines. Some SEO companies will tell you that it might take 6 months or longer for you to see meaningful improvement in search engine rankings for your site when using their services. When we take on clients, we bring fresh, targeted visitors to your website in just WEEKS as you quickly climb the ranks of Googles search results.

Sound interesting? Apply now to tell us more about your needs so that we can get you the results youre looking for.

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Maryland SEO Company | Search Engine Optimization …

Search Engine Optimization (SEO) Best Practice Guide …

 SEO  Comments Off on Search Engine Optimization (SEO) Best Practice Guide …
Mar 092016
 

About this guide

At more than 400 pages long and almost 140,000 words in length, Econsultancy’s SEO Best Practice Guidecontains everything you need to know about search engine optimization, whether you work for an in-house client team, independently or for an agency.

Built on the foundations of our previous, highly-renowned report, this documentwill help you understand search marketing like never before.

The SEO Best Practice Guide is invaluable for anybody working in internet marketing, or looking to appoint an SEO agency, or simply trying to secure better search engine rankings.

It has been created with the help of globally-esteemed SEO practitioners, in order to provide front-line insight and give you the edge in your natural search marketing strategy.

Make no mistake: this guide contains lots of actionable, real world insight. It will help you immediately start to improve your performance across the search engines.

Inside the guide, you will find:

These sit across six main areas:

This guide has been put together and updated by James Gurd, an experienced digital marketing consultant and owner of Digital Juggler, with the assistance of leading agencies and practitioners working at the coal face of search engine optimization. They have kindly contributed their time and effort in producing this guide.

Contributors to the report include:

A free sample document is also available for download

Please enter your email address below and well send you an email right away, unlocking your free sample of this Econsultancy report.

If you haven’t received this email, please get in touch.

Already an Econsultancy subscriber? Log in to your account to download the full report now.

Thanks, the email is on its way…

If you haven’t received this email within a few minutes, please feel free to get in touch.

Sorry about this, but something went wrong our end.

Please feel free to try again or to get in touch.

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Search Engine Optimization (SEO) Best Practice Guide …

 Posted by at 12:42 pm  Tagged with:

Search Engine Optimization, SEO, Website Optimization

 SEO  Comments Off on Search Engine Optimization, SEO, Website Optimization
Mar 022016
 

Optimisizing your website for the search engines is the next step after successfully completing search engine submissions. Many websites are already indexed but still fail to appear within the top results due to a lack of proper optimization efforts.

It should be a given that your website appears when searching for your company name. However, these are people who obviously already know about you. The real benefit is when your website appears at the top for generic search terms that describe your products and services.

There are many different elements that should be considered when optimizing a website for greater search engine exposure, such elements are:

There are many SEO tools available. We recommend the following ones:

There can be a great deal of work involved when optimizing your website. You may want to consider outsourcing the SEO work if you don’t have the time or experience to do it on your own.

AddMe has partnered with a handful of respected global SEO firms. These companies are ready to help you with your search engine optimization campaign (big or small).

Receive a free SEO quote by filling out this short form.

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Search Engine Optimization, SEO, Website Optimization

Testimonials & Client Reviews | DEJAN

 SEO  Comments Off on Testimonials & Client Reviews | DEJAN
Mar 022016
 

At Dejan SEO we pride ourselves on the great service that we give to our clients. Here are some of the great things that our clients have said about us:

Richard Eastes VroomVroomVroom

Dejan SEO have been a fantastic asset to our online marketing strategy. Over a few years of poorly managed SEO, Dejan were able to come on-board and turn our website ranking around. Great reporting processes and contact from our campaign manager and outreach team. We will continue to use the services of Dejan for many years to come!

Andy Panes Director Paradise First Aid

Our traffic has increased by 64% since theyve worked on our site and they got multiple keywords we were ranking poorly for up to the first page. In fact, our keywords have improved by an average of 56 positions during our time with Dejan SEO. Some of the content they have created for us has amassed over 200 shares via social media. I highly recommend their SEO as they have made a great difference to our business and have been professional to communicate with too.

Ashik Ahmed Co-Founder and CTO DEPUTY

Im very pleased to write a few encouraging words about the service offered by DEJAN. When we came to DEJAN a year ago, we were desperate. Wed paid for four useless campaigns, spending $2000 per month with very little conversion and no growth. Once we approached DEJAN they assigned Sanja and then Selina who took the time out to understand our business. They completely rewrote all the ads and within a month you could see the results. DEJANs well-placed ads have been effective is bringing in a lot of business to our mechanical workshop and I can confidently recommend his services to any small or big business.

Niazi Helou All Drive Subaru

Ben Cooper Club Coops

Within the first two months of taking on Dejan SEO we saw a 100% increase in our organic traffic and the single biggest increase in revenue. More importantly, Dejan SEO log all work through Basecamp where I can verify that no blackhat SEO activity is occurring. Being able to verify that the SEO work being undertaken meet the Google Quality Guidelines is essential for the sustained long term growth of organic traffic and avoiding the risk of being blacklisted as a result of blackhat SEO activity. This level of transparency and professionalism is something I have not found in many other SEO companies. We want to play by the Google rulebook, and Dejan SEO takes no shortcuts.

Ming Malaykham CIO Costume Collection

My company has had a very noticeable positive growth in organic traffic and rankings (2 keywords in the #2 spot) since they were brought on board. The team that has been assigned my site continues to demonstrate great communication and knowledge regarding not only link building, but also on and off-site SEO practices as well.

Overall I have had a great experience with Dejan, and would definitely recommend it to anyone looking to get good quality SEO work done.

Ricky Price High-Tech Battery Solutions

This is our second season working with Dejan SEO and must say we are very satisfied with their teams goals and efforts. Its noticeable how much our traffic has increased since we started the last project, as well as rankings in a few days we passed from a second page position to top 3. The teams very helpful and provides easy and fast communication for questions, suggestions and requests.Definitelyrecommend and look forward to keep working with Dejan on next projects.

Patricia Prates Ticketbis

Ive tried around 5 SEO Companies in the past and most have disappointed. DejanSEO did not. Although we are an Australian company who primarily compares and rents cars here, we hired Dejan to help improve the SEO of our USA and UK websites. They provided link building from car and travel related websites and provided advise to help us through the dreaded Google panda update. Not only did they help boost our international sister sites, but they inadvertently gave our Australian car hire rankings a boost as well. With a smart price point that is scalable, I would recommend Dejan SEO to both small start-ups and large organisations. If you arent sure about them just take a read of their industry leading blog or chat to me in person so I can convince you myself.

Richard Eastes VroomVroomVroom

In the short time we have worked with DEJAN SEO, the results that we have seen have been nothing short of outstanding. Extremely professional organisation to deal with and we will certainly be using their services on an ongoing basis. DEJAN SEO comes highly recommended by us.

Guy Harden Whimsical Cakehouse

We have worked with many so called industry experts before, but never achieved the results we were after. We heard about Dejan SEO and after realising they were located just down the road from our business, we decided to put our trust into them. Dan was very helpful in providing insightful advice on SEOmoz forums and after working with the company for a short time we were already seeing the results we were looking for. Dejan SEO has helped us increase rankings and traffic for Discovery Car Hire, Discovery Campervan Hire (Aus) and Discovery Campervan Hire (NZ). Thank you Dejan!

Scott Walton http://www.discovery-carhire.com.au http://www.discovery-campervans.com.au http://www.discovery-carhire.co.nz

We have worked with just about all the SEO companies that are on the front page of google for the search word SEO. Dejan is not only the most professional and accountable seo company we have dealt with but they delivers results. The other seo companies promise you the world and deliver nothing. Dejan sets the correct expectations and delivers each time. Thank you Dejan.

Dr Joseph AjakaCosmos Clinic provides leading edge cosmetic surgery, plastic surgery and Botox in Sydney. http://www.cosmosclinic.com.au

I am very impressed with the results you have achieved. Prior to becoming a client of Dejan SEO we were on page 17 of google for our main search term. Now we rank on 2nd on page 1. This is a great effort, especially considering 1st in wikipedia! I have found Jaaved and the Dejan team to very helpful and thorough in all our dealings. Thanks again.

Luke White BizVal

Weve only been using DejanSEO for around 4 weeks now. We are already noticing great results. Since we are a small business, we rely on cost effective marketing/advertising. And DejanSEO is definitely working out great for us. When we initially took up their services, we were worried that being a larger company, the communication wouldnt be good. Luckily we were wrong, because they are always prompt and punctual in all their communication, whether it be by email or telephone.I would definitely recommend them to friends and family (not competitors)

Borko Knezevic Director Home IT and Entertainment Home Theatre, TV Wall Mounting, Projector and Audio Visual Specialists in Melbourne

We cannot speak highly enough of Dejan SEO. They do an exceptional job in working with our site. They brief us on the status of the site on a regular basis. I have been dealing personally with Jaaved who has been very supportive and helpful with any concerns I may have. Six Star Limousines are currently ranked number 1 for the keyword Limo Hire Melbourne which has helped us tremendously in web traffic and also increased the number of enquiries we have been getting.

Bernie Menay CEOSix Star Limousines Australias No.1 Luxury Limousine Service

After somedisappointingexperiences with other SEO companies we were extremely lucky to find Dejan SEO they have transformed our onlinevisibilityquicker than we expected at a very reasonable cost a great return on investment.

Matt Dening Managing Director Hokkaido Tracks Management and Holidays

Zachary Rook Your Local Movers

On behalf of Trade and Investment Queensland, I write to congratulate you on the national and international expansion of your Queensland-based business. The healthy growth of your search engine optimisation and internet marketing services in a challenging business environment and economic climate is testimony to your organisational capabilities and business acumen.

Rob Whiddon Managing Director Trade and Investment Queensland Queensland Government

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Testimonials & Client Reviews | DEJAN

 Posted by at 5:41 am  Tagged with:

Geographia: Islands – Timeless Myths

 Islands  Comments Off on Geographia: Islands – Timeless Myths
Feb 292016
 

Crete was the largest island in the Aegean Sea, south of the Cyclades. There were many cities built at the time of Bronze Age civilisation, especially in Cnossus (Knossos, ), Phaestus (Phaistos, ), and Mallia, where great palaces were built. The civilisation in Crete was known as Minoan civilisation, named after the mythical ruler, Minos.

The Minoan civilisation was more advanced in technology, economy, art and culture than the society found in mainland Greece, between 3000 and 1500 BC. Crete also enjoyed foreign trades with Egypt, Phoenicians in Palestine and the Hittites in Asia Minor.

Crete was the sources of many myths, particularly about Zeus, his mistress Europa and his son Minos, as well as Daedalus, Minos’ inventor.

Before the war between the Titans and the Olympians, Zeus was brought up in Crete, to hide from his father Cronus. Rhea, Zeus’ mother, was angry that her husband was swallowing each of her children when the baby was born. Zeus was her baby, and to prevent Cronus from swallowing the infant, she hid Zeus in a cave at Mount Dicte. Rhea then presented Cronus with a stone wrapped in swaddling cloth, pretending it was her newborn son, which Cronus immediately swallowed. The infant Zeus was fed from the milk of the goat Amalthea. The Curetes were Cretan spirits or daimones, and were usually described and depicted as youths. The Curetes clashed their spears against their shields in their war dance, so that Zeus’ cries were drowned out by their noise. See the Creation.

When Zeus abducted Europa, the daughter of King Agenor of Sidon, the amorous god brought the maiden to Crete where she was seduced and she became the mother of Minos, Rhadamanthys and Sarpedon. Europa married Asterius (or Asterion), the king of Crete and the son of Tectamus and the unnamed daughter of Cretheus.

Tectamus was the son of Dorus and grandson of Hellen. Tectamus had migrated from Thessaly, and became king of Crete.

However much of the myths surrounding the island, they mostly involved with Minos. Minos had married Pasiphae, daughter of the sun god Helius, and he had many children. Minos became the father of four sons, Catreus, Deucalion, Androgeus and Glaucus (Glaucos); and of four daughters, Acacallis, Xenodice, Ariadne and Phaedra.

See the House of Minos for the genealogy of Crete.

But he had also offended the sea god Poseidon, for refusing to sacrifice the bull (Cretan Bull) that the god had sent to the king. Poseidon caused Pasiphae to fall in love with the Cretan Bull, so that she became the mother of monster that had the man’s body but with the head of bull; the monster was called the Minotaur (“Minos’ Bull”). Here, the myth of Theseus of Athens becomes entwined with that of Minos. Beneath the myth of Minos, another player is involved with the ruler of Crete: Daedalus, the great inventor.

Daedalus became involved with Pasiphae copulating with the Crete Bull that produced the offspring Minotaur; he was the one who constructed the maze-like Labyrinth, which only he could escape. Daedalus earned Minos’ displeasure when the inventor disclosed the secret on how to escape the Labyrinth to Theseus through Ariadne, daughter of Minos, resulting in his confinement in the Labyrinth. Daedalus had escaped when constructed a winged device. Minos tried to capture the fugitive inventor, but in Sicily, the daughter of Daedalus’ new patron killed the king while he was taking a bath.

With Minos’ death, Crete was divided between his two sons, Catreus and Deucalion. Idomeneus, son of Deucalion, was a former suitor of Helen, and he brought 80 ships to Troy. Though he was one of oldest men, he distinguished himself in the war. Idomeneus safely returned home after the war, he was banished by his wife Meda and her lover Leucus.

For more detail accounts of Europa, Minos and his descendants, I would suggest that you read the new Minoan Crete page.

Minos (founder of Cnossus).

Read the original here:
Geographia: Islands – Timeless Myths

SEO|Digital marketing Agency|Consultant|Company Kent

 SEO  Comments Off on SEO|Digital marketing Agency|Consultant|Company Kent
Feb 242016
 

Lets be honest on a few points. Search Engine Optimisation or SEO for short is vital for your business. All the time there are search engines, there will always be a need for SEO. Choosing an SEO company to work with could be one of the most important things you do for your business and it could have either a positive or negative impact on your business. The positive impact would be seeing your business rise up the SEO rankings and business profits increase. And the negative would be wasting money on a company that either creates weak and dangerous links to your siteor even does nothing for you.

That is why choosing an SEO consultant or company that has experience working with many clients, within different niches and knows how to improve your web presence, not damage it, is vital. SEO has changed a lot over the last few years, methods that were once effective, not only no longer work, but are now damaging to your website. Unfortunately, there are still a large number of SEO companies and consultants who either outsource their SEO service to cheap third parties, who dont know what they are doing, or they speak to you in a language that leaves you unclear as to what they are doing!

We go into the why you should use us as your SEO consultant / company in great detail on our About page, but the main factor that makes us different from a lot of other SEO agencies, is we are a small team who put emphasis on the personal touch. This means the people you talk to are the ones who do the work. We dont outsource or farm your work out to people with lesser experience, all your SEO work is done directly byone of our three man team. Also, a lot of agencies have a high turnover of SEO staffbecause the industry is changing a lot and agencies have to take on so many clients to meet overheads, they dont have time to develop and research what is still working. This means the quality of SEO is not always at its best. Because we purposely are small, we have very low overheads, which means we can pick and choose who we work with and thereby spend more than 40 hours a month researching and developing strategies thatget you results.

Firstly you should stay away from anyone guaranteeing first place spot on Google, even page one status, for keywords that will get you more business (and not just your business name). That is not to say it is not possible to get page one rankings, we have achieved this over and over again, but with Googles algorithm updating and changing on a regular basis, any sort of promise to get you page one or first spot is a false guarantee. What we do guarantee you is this. We will agree with you a result within a time frame that we are both happy with, if we dont achieve it, we will continue to do the work until we get the result, for free!

Originally posted here:
SEO|Digital marketing Agency|Consultant|Company Kent

 Posted by at 11:48 pm  Tagged with:

Second Amendment to the United States Constitution – Simple …

 Second Amendment  Comments Off on Second Amendment to the United States Constitution – Simple …
Feb 182016
 

Created on December 15, 1791, the Second Amendment in the United States Constitution is the part of the United States Bill of Rights that establishes the right of citizens to possess firearms for lawful purposes.[a] It says, “A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.”[2]

When America was being colonized by European countries, firearms were very important to colonists.[3] When Europeans came here they brought with them the idea of land ownership by an individual.[4] They received this right from their king through land grants.[4] This was completely foreign to Native Americans who considered a particular territory belonged to the tribe.[4] Colonists defended their claims against Native Americans and other Europeans whose king may have granted them the same lands.[3] They also needed firearms for hunting. In many towns and villages, men were required to own firearms for the defense of the community. Most colonists coming to America in the 17th century had no experience as soldiers.[5] The British kept few soldiers in the colonies and colonists soon found they needed to establish militias.[5]

Colonies had militia laws that required every able-bodied man to be available for militia duty and to provide his own arms.[5] In 1774 and 1775, the British government, which now had a larger presence, attempted to disarm American colonists. This caused the formation of private militias independent of any control by the governors appointed by the British government.[5] The Minutemen who opposed the British Army at the Battles of Lexington and Concord were an independent militia.[5] After the American Revolutionary War, the framers of the Constitution, like most Americans of the time, distrusted standing armies and trusted militias.[5] After the Revolutionary war, state militias were trusted to defend the country. The Articles of Confederation, the new nation’s first constitution, called for each state to maintain a well-armed militia. Congress could only form a standing army by approval of nine of the thirteen states. This was one of the weaknesses that led to the Constitutional Convention of 1787 and a new constitution. This gave Congress the power to call up the militias to defend the country against any foreign power. In the 18th century, the word “army” meant mercenaries.[5] Americans distrusted standing armies and were afraid they could be used to take over the country.[6]Oliver Cromwell and his military dictatorship of England was still well-remembered.[6]

Virginia was one of the first colonies to adopt a state constitution. They included the words: “a well regulated Militia, composed of the body of the people, trained to arms, is the proper, natural, and safe defence of a free State.”[3] Other states followed with similar wording in their own constitutions. Pennsylvania declared: the people have a right to bear arms for the defence of themselves and the state; and as standing armies in the time of peace are dangerous to liberty, they ought not to be kept up; And that the military should be kept under strict subordination to, and governed by, the civil power.”[3] In 1781 the Continental Congress approved the Articles of Confederation. This recognized the thirteen original states had the power to govern themselves. They acted collectively to have a congress, but did not provide any money to run it. There was no president and no court system. This confederation of states proved to be a very poor form of central government.

The Constitutional Convention met in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania from May 25 to September 17, 1787.[7] The purpose of the Convention was to revise the Articles of Confederation. But it became clear that the intention many of its members, including James Madison and Alexander Hamilton, was to create a new government rather than fix the existing one. The delegates elected George Washington to preside over the Convention. They eventually agreed on agreed on Madison’s Virginia Plan and began to make changes. The result was the Constitution of the United States and the present form of government.[7]

The constitution debate at Philadelphia caused two groups to form, the Federalists and the Anti-federalists. The federalists wanted a strong central government. The anti-federalists wanted the state governments to have the authority. The vote on the new Constitution was passed on a promise by federalists to support a Bill of Rights to be added to the Constitution.[8] Originally 12 amendments were considered. But in their final form, 10 amendments to the Constitution were agreed on. The Bill of Rights, as the first 10 amendments came to be called, originally applied to the national government rather than to states.[8] Many states already had their own Bill of Rights.[8] The Bill of Rights were ratified and went into effect in 1791.

The second amendment was a result of several proposals being combined together and simplified into just 27 words.[9] This simplification has caused many debates over gun ownership and individual rights. Historians, judges and others have repeatedly looked for the intended meaning by the 18th century writers of this amendment. [9] Different interpretations of the Second Amendment still cause public debates concerning firearm regulations and gun control.[9]

The case of District of Columbia v. Heller brought before the Supreme Court was based on the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit decision written by Judge Laurence H. Silberman.[10] The decision made the ban on guns by the District of Columbia invalid.[10] The decision was based on the second comma (after the word “state”) as proof that the Second Amendment allows individuals the right to carry a gun.[10] This is in addition to the right of states to maintain militias.[10]

The Second Amendment ratified by the States and approved by the Secretary of State, Thomas Jefferson, said:

The version passed by Congress and signed by President George Washington (but never ratified by the States) said:

More here:
Second Amendment to the United States Constitution – Simple …

 Posted by at 10:43 am  Tagged with:

Caribbean – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 Islands  Comments Off on Caribbean – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Feb 172016
 

Caribbean Area 2,754,000km2 (1,063,000sqmi) Land area 239,681km2 (92,541sqmi) Population (2009) 39,169,962[1] Density 151.5/km2 (392/sqmi) Ethnic groups Afro-Caribbean, White Caribbean, Indo-Caribbean, Chinese Caribbean,Middle Eastern-Caribbean,[2]Arawak (Kalinago, Tano) Demonym Caribbean, Caribbean person, West Indian Languages Spanish, English, French, Dutch, French Creole, English Creole, Caribbean Hindustani, among others Government 13 sovereign states 17 dependent territories Largest cities List of metropolitan areas in the West Indies Santo Domingo Havana Port-au-Prince Santiago de los Caballeros Kingston Santiago de Cuba San Juan Holgun Cap-Hatien Fort-de-France Port of Spain Internet TLD Multiple Calling code Multiple Time zone UTC-5 to UTC-4

The Caribbean ( or ; Spanish: Caribe; Dutch: Caraben(helpinfo); Caribbean Hindustani: (Kairibiyana); French: Carabe or more commonly Antilles) is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean), and the surrounding coasts. The region is southeast of the Gulf of Mexico and the North American mainland, east of Central America, and north of South America.

Situated largely on the Caribbean Plate, the region comprises more than 700 islands, islets, reefs, and cays. (See the list.) These islands generally form island arcs that delineate the eastern and northern edges of the Caribbean Sea.[3] The Caribbean islands, consisting of the Greater Antilles on the north and the Lesser Antilles on the south and east (including the Leeward Antilles), are part of the somewhat larger West Indies grouping, which also includes the Lucayan Archipelago (comprising The Bahamas and Turks and Caicos Islands) north of the Greater Antilles and Caribbean Sea. In a wider sense, the mainland countries of Belize, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana are also included.

Geopolitically, the Caribbean islands are usually regarded as a subregion of North America[4][5][6][7][8] and are organized into 30 territories including sovereign states, overseas departments, and dependencies. From December 15, 1954, to October 10, 2010 there was a country known as the Netherlands Antilles composed of five states, all of which were Dutch dependencies.[9] While from January 3, 1958, to May 31, 1962, there was also a short-lived country called the Federation of the West Indies composed of ten English-speaking Caribbean territories, all of which were then British dependencies. The West Indies cricket team continues to represent many of those nations.

The region takes its name from that of the Caribs, an ethnic group present in the Lesser Antilles and parts of adjacent South America at the time of the Spanish conquest.[10]

The two most prevalent pronunciations of “Caribbean” are KARR–BEE-n, with the primary accent on the third syllable, and k-RIB-ee-n, with the accent on the second. The former pronunciation is the older of the two, although the stressed-second-syllable variant has been established for over 75 years.[11] It has been suggested that speakers of British English prefer KARR–BEE-n while North American speakers more typically use k-RIB-ee-n,[12] although not all sources agree.[13] Usage is split within Caribbean English itself.[14]

The word “Caribbean” has multiple uses. Its principal ones are geographical and political. The Caribbean can also be expanded to include territories with strong cultural and historical connections to slavery, European colonisation, and the plantation system.

The geography and climate in the Caribbean region varies: Some islands in the region have relatively flat terrain of non-volcanic origin. These islands include Aruba (possessing only minor volcanic features), Barbados, Bonaire, the Cayman Islands, Saint Croix, the Bahamas, and Antigua. Others possess rugged towering mountain-ranges like the islands of Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, Dominica, Montserrat, Saba, Saint Kitts, Saint Lucia, Saint Thomas, Saint John, Tortola, Grenada, Saint Vincent, Guadeloupe, Martinique, and Trinidad & Tobago.

Definitions of the terms Greater Antilles and Lesser Antilles often vary. The Virgin Islands as part of the Puerto Rican bank are sometimes included with the Greater Antilles. The term Lesser Antilles is often used to define an island arc that includes Grenada but excludes Trinidad and Tobago and the Leeward Antilles.

The waters of the Caribbean Sea host large, migratory schools of fish, turtles, and coral reef formations. The Puerto Rico trench, located on the fringe of the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea just to the north of the island of Puerto Rico, is the deepest point in all of the Atlantic Ocean.[16]

The region sits in the line of several major shipping routes with the Panama Canal connecting the western Caribbean Sea with the Pacific Ocean.

The climate of the area is tropical to subtropical in Cuba, The Bahamas and Puerto Rico. Rainfall varies with elevation, size, and water currents (cool upwellings keep the ABC islands arid). Warm, moist tradewinds blow consistently from the east creating rainforest/semidesert divisions on mountainous islands. Occasional northwesterlies affect the northern islands in the winter. The region enjoys year-round sunshine, divided into ‘dry’ and ‘wet’ seasons, with the last six months of the year being wetter than the first half.

Hurricane Season is from June to November, but they occur more frequently in August and September and more common in the northern islands of the Caribbean.Hurricanes that sometimes batter the region usually strike northwards of Grenada and to the west of Barbados. The principal hurricane belt arcs to northwest of the island of Barbados in the Eastern Caribbean.

Water temperatures vary from 31C (88F) to 22C (72F) all around the year. The air temperature is warm, in the 20s and 30s C (70s, 80s, and 90s F) during the year, only varies from winter to summer about 25 degrees on the southern islands and about 1020 degrees difference can occur in the northern islands of the Caribbean. The northern islands, like the Bahamas, Cuba, Puerto Rico, and The Dominican Republic, may be influenced by continental masses during winter months, such as cold fronts.

Aruba: Latitude 12N

Puerto Rico: Latitude 18N

Cuba: at Latitude 22N

Greater Antilles

Lesser Antilles

All islands at some point were, and a few still are, colonies of European nations; a few are overseas or dependent territories:

The British West Indies were united by the United Kingdom into a West Indies Federation between 1958 and 1962. The independent countries formerly part of the B.W.I. still have a joint cricket team that competes in Test matches, One Day Internationals and Twenty20 Internationals. The West Indian cricket team includes the South American nation of Guyana, the only former British colony on the mainland of that continent.

In addition, these countries share the University of the West Indies as a regional entity. The university consists of three main campuses in Jamaica, Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago, a smaller campus in the Bahamas and Resident Tutors in other contributing territories such as Trinidad.

Islands in and near the Caribbean

Maritime boundaries between the Caribbean (island) nations

The Caribbean islands are remarkable for the diversity of their animals, fungi and plants, and have been classified as one of Conservation International’s biodiversity hotspots because of their exceptionally diverse terrestrial and marine ecosystems, ranging from montane cloud forests to cactus scrublands. The region also contains about 8% (by surface area) of the world’s coral reefs[22] along with extensive seagrass meadows,[23] both of which are frequently found in the shallow marine waters bordering island and continental coasts off the region.

For the fungi, there is a modern checklist based on nearly 90,000 records derived from specimens in reference collections, published accounts and field observations.[24] That checklist includes more than 11250 species of fungi recorded from the region. As its authors note, the work is far from exhaustive, and it is likely that the true total number of fungal species already known from the Caribbean is higher. The true total number of fungal species occurring in the Caribbean, including species not yet recorded, is likely far higher given the generally accepted estimate that only about 7% of all fungi worldwide have been discovered.[25] Though the amount of available information is still small, a first effort has been made to estimate the number of fungal species endemic to some Caribbean islands. For Cuba, 2200 species of fungi have been tentatively identified as possible endemics of the island;[26] for Puerto Rico, the number is 789 species;[27] for the Dominican Republic, the number is 699 species;[28] for Trinidad and Tobago, the number is 407 species.[29]

Many of the ecosystems of the Caribbean islands have been devastated by deforestation, pollution, and human encroachment. The arrival of the first humans is correlated with extinction of giant owls and dwarf ground sloths.[30] The hotspot contains dozens of highly threatened animals (ranging from birds, to mammals and reptiles), fungi and plants. Examples of threatened animals include the Puerto Rican amazon, two species of solenodon (giant shrews) in Cuba and the Hispaniola island, and the Cuban crocodile.

The region’s coral reefs, which contain about 70 species of hard corals and between 500700 species of reef-associated fishes[31] have undergone rapid decline in ecosystem integrity in recent years, and are considered particularly vulnerable to global warming and ocean acidification.[32] According to a UNEP report, the caribbean coral reefs might get extinct in next 20 years due to population explosion along the coast lines, overfishing, the pollution of coastal areas and global warming.[33]

Some Caribbean islands have terrain that Europeans found suitable for cultivation for agriculture. Tobacco was an important early crop during the colonial era, but was eventually overtaken by sugarcane production as the region’s staple crop. Sugar was produced from sugarcane for export to Europe. Cuba and Barbados were historically the largest producers of sugar. The tropical plantation system thus came to dominate Caribbean settlement. Other islands were found to have terrain unsuited for agriculture, for example Dominica, which remains heavily forested. The islands in the southern Lesser Antilles, Aruba, Bonaire and Curaao, are extremely arid, making them unsuitable for agriculture. However, they have salt pans that were exploited by the Dutch. Sea water was pumped into shallow ponds, producing coarse salt when the water evaporated.[34]

The natural environmental diversity of the Caribbean islands has led to recent growth in eco-tourism. This type of tourism is growing on islands lacking sandy beaches and dense human populations.[35]

The Martinique amazon, Amazona martinicana, is an extinct species of parrot in the Psittacidae family.

At the time of European contact, the dominant ethnic groups in the Caribbean included the Tano of the Greater Antilles and northern Lesser Antilles, the Island Caribs of the southern Lesser Antilles, and smaller distinct groups such as the Guanajatabey of western Cuba and the Ciguayo of western Hispaniola. The population of the Caribbean is estimated to have been around 750,000 immediately before European contact, although lower and higher figures are given. After contact, social disruption and epidemic diseases such as smallpox and measles (to which they had no natural immunity)[36] led to a decline in the Amerindian population.[37] From 1500 to 1800 the population rose as slaves arrived from West Africa[38] such as the Kongo, Igbo, Akan, Fon and Yoruba as well as military prisoners and captured slaves from Ireland, who were deported during the Cromwellian reign in England.[39] Immigrants from Britain, Italy, France, Spain, the Netherlands, Portugal and Denmark also arrived, although the mortality rate was high for both groups.[40]

The population is estimated to have reached 2.2 million by 1800.[41] Immigrants from India, China, and other countries arrived in the 19th century.[42] After the ending of the Atlantic slave trade, the population increased naturally.[43] The total regional population was estimated at 37.5 million by 2000.[44]

The majority of the Caribbean has populations of mainly Africans in the French Caribbean, Anglophone Caribbean and Dutch Caribbean, there are minorities of mixed-race and European peoples of Dutch, English, French, Italian and Portuguese ancestry. Asians, especially those of Chinese and Indian descent, form a significant minority in the region and also contribute to multiracial communities. All of their ancestors arrived in the 19th century as indentured laborers.

The Spanish-speaking Caribbean have primarily mixed race, African, or European majorities. Puerto Rico has a European majority with a mixture of European-African (mulatto), and a large West African minority. One third of Cuba’s (largest Caribbean island) population is of African descent, with a sizable Mulatto (mixed AfricanEuropean) population, and European majority. The Dominican Republic has the largest mixed race population, primarily descended from Europeans, West Africans, and Amerindians.

Larger islands such as Jamaica, have a very large African majority, in addition to a significant mixed race, Chinese, Europeans, Indian, Lebanese, Latin American, and Syrian populations. This is a result of years of importation of slaves and indentured labourers, and migration. Most multi-racial Jamaicans refer to themselves as either mixed race or Brown. The situation is similar for the Caricom states of Belize, Guyana, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad and Tobago has a multi-racial cosmopolitan society due to the arrival of the Africans, Indians, Chinese, Syrians, Lebanese, Native Amerindians and Europeans. This multi-racial mix has created sub-ethnicities that often straddle the boundaries of major ethnicities and include Chindian, Mulatto and Dougla.

Spanish, English, French, Dutch, Haitian Creole, and Papiamento are the predominant official languages of various countries in the region, though a handful of unique creole languages or dialects can also be found from one country to another.

Christianity is the predominant religion in the Caribbean (84.7%).[45] Other religious groups in the region are Hinduism, Islam, Buddhist, Rastafari, and Afro-American religions such as Santera and Vodou.

Caribbean societies are very different from other Western societies in terms of size, culture, and degree of mobility of their citizens.[46] The current economic and political problems the states face individually are common to all Caribbean states. Regional development has contributed to attempts to subdue current problems and avoid projected problems. From a political and economic perspective, regionalism serves to make Caribbean states active participants in current international affairs through collective coalitions. In 1973, the first political regionalism in the Caribbean Basin was created by advances of the English-speaking Caribbean nations through the institution known as the Caribbean Common Market and Community (CARICOM)[47] which is located in Guyana.

Certain scholars have argued both for and against generalizing the political structures of the Caribbean. On the one hand the Caribbean states are politically diverse, ranging from communist systems such as Cuba toward more capitalist Westminster-style parliamentary systems as in the Commonwealth Caribbean. Other scholars argue that these differences are superficial, and that they tend to undermine commonalities in the various Caribbean states. Contemporary Caribbean systems seem to reflect a “blending of traditional and modern patterns, yielding hybrid systems that exhibit significant structural variations and divergent constitutional traditions yet ultimately appear to function in similar ways.”[48] The political systems of the Caribbean states share similar practices.

The influence of regionalism in the Caribbean is often marginalized. Some scholars believe that regionalism cannot exist in the Caribbean because each small state is unique. On the other hand, scholars also suggest that there are commonalities amongst the Caribbean nations that suggest regionalism exists. “Proximity as well as historical ties among the Caribbean nations has led to cooperation as well as a desire for collective action.”[49] These attempts at regionalization reflect the nations’ desires to compete in the international economic system.[49]

Furthermore, a lack of interest from other major states promoted regionalism in the region. In recent years the Caribbean has suffered from a lack of U.S. interest. “With the end of the Cold War, U.S. security and economic interests have been focused on other areas. As a result there has been a significant reduction in U.S. aid and investment to the Caribbean.”[50] The lack of international support for these small, relatively poor states, helped regionalism prosper.

Following the Cold War another issue of importance in the Caribbean has been the reduced economic growth of some Caribbean States due to the United States and European Union’s allegations of special treatment toward the region by each other. [clarification needed]

The United States under President Bill Clinton launched a challenge in the World Trade Organization against the EU over Europe’s preferential program, known as the Lom Convention, which allowed banana exports from the former colonies of the Group of African, Caribbean and Pacific states (ACP) to enter Europe cheaply.[51] The World Trade Organization sided in the United States’ favour and the beneficial elements of the convention to African, Caribbean and Pacific states has been partially dismantled and replaced by the Cotonou Agreement.[52]

During the US/EU dispute, the United States imposed large tariffs on European Union goods (up to 100%) to pressure Europe to change the agreement with the Caribbean nations in favour of the Cotonou Agreement.[53]

Farmers in the Caribbean have complained of falling profits and rising costs as the Lom Convention weakens. Some farmers have faced increased pressure to turn towards the cultivation of illegal drugs, which has a higher profit margin and fills the sizable demand for these illegal drugs in North America and Europe.[54][55]

The European Union has also taken issue with US based taxation extended to US companies via the Caribbean countries.[when?] The United States has not been in favor of shutting off the practice yet, mainly due to the higher costs that would be passed on to US companies via taxation.[citation needed] Caribbean countries have largely countered the allegations by the OECD by signing more bilateral information sharing deals with OECD members, thus reducing the dangerous aspects of secrecy, and they have strengthened their legislation against money laundering and on conditions under which companies can be based in their nations.[citation needed] The Caribbean nations have also started to more closely cooperate in the Caribbean Financial Action Task Force and other instruments to add oversight of the offshore industry.

One of the most important associations that deal with regionalism amongst the nations of the Caribbean Basin has been the Association of Caribbean States (ACS). Proposed by CARICOM in 1992, the ACS soon won the support of the other countries of the region. It was founded in July 1994. The ACS maintains regionalism within the Caribbean on issues unique to the Caribbean Basin. Through coalition building, like the ACS and CARICOM, regionalism has become an undeniable part of the politics and economics of the Caribbean. The successes of region-building initiatives are still debated by scholars, yet regionalism remains prevalent throughout the Caribbean.

The President of Venezuela, Hugo Chavez launched an economic group called the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas (ALBA), which several eastern Caribbean islands joined. In 2012, the nation of Haiti, with 9 million people, became the largest CARICOM nation that sought to join the union.[56]

Here are some of the bodies that several islands share in collaboration:

Coordinates: 143132N 754906W / 14.52556N 75.81833W / 14.52556; -75.81833

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Caribbean – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Phoenix SEO Company | Get on the First Page!

 SEO  Comments Off on Phoenix SEO Company | Get on the First Page!
Feb 112016
 

Want to be on the first page of Google? Wecan get you there.

If you are looking to be on the first page of the search results, search engine optimization is how to make that possible. Google, as well as the other search engines, want you to optimize your website in such a way that they know what each page is about. This in turn helps the search engines return results that are relevant to what the searcher is looking for. The websites that are best optimized have a higher chance of getting to #1 position. As anSEO Company we provide seo services to help you get as close to the #1 position as possible. We do this by staying up to date with the algorithm changes of the search engines and implementing white hat SEO strategies that are Google friendly.

Southwest Sod is a sod farm located in Arizona and they have been around since 1985. However, there were several companies outranking them in the search engines. By using proper SEO techniques we were able to get them to #1 for their desired keyword Sod in Arizona (see our case studiespage for more examples).

If you are a business or an entrepreneur that wants to learn SEO, we also offer SEO Coachingby one of our SEO experts to help you and your staff learn how to implement a SEO strategy in-house. You can also check out our blog to find out more about search engine optimization and what white-hat techniques we use to get to the top of the search engines.

Testimonials:

Deacon is a great partner to have that you can trust to do what he says hes going to do in a timely and effective way. The top-line growth that Southwest Sod has achieved since weve been doing business with him can, in large measure, be directly related to the SEO and website development he has performed for us. Our Q1 retail sales alone have jumped by 200% from 2013. Josh P. at Southwest Sod

Wow, Phoenix SEO Company exceeded my expectations. When Deacon and I started working together at the beginning of October, my site was not even ranking (showing up in Google searches). However, by the end of October, I was showing up in the top two spots for my search of mobile website design in Phoenix. I will definitely continue to work with Deacon moving forward as I expand my services and grow my company. Jesse Clark at uShine technologies

Deacon Hayes, President

Thank you for taking the time to check us out. As a business owner, I know first-hand the importance of search engine optimization since it drivesbusiness through our doors. If you would like a free consultation or more information about our SEO services, please feel free call us at 480-567-2637 or visit our contact us page. Although we are located in Arizona, we do servenational clients as well. We look forward to helping you achieve your digital marketing goals.

Deacon Hayes

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Phoenix SEO Company | Get on the First Page!




Pierre Teilhard De Chardin | Designer Children | Prometheism | Euvolution | Transhumanism