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HOME – The Advocates for Self-Government

 Libertarian  Comments Off on HOME – The Advocates for Self-Government
Jun 212016
 

Communicating Liberty

Get tips, tools, and training that will empower you to successfully spread the ideas of liberty with confidence from Brett Bittner, Sharon Harris, Michael Cloud, The Libertarian Homeschooler, and Dr. Mary Ruwart.

The Worlds Smallest Political Quizis a fast, fun and accurate assessment of a persons overall political views. The Quiz presents a new political map that is far more accurate than the old Left versus Right line, based on ten questions on specific political issues to find your place.

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Driverless cars have the power to make us richer, less stressed, more independent, and safer. Unless fearful lawmakers and overly cautious regulators manage to screw everything up.

reason.com

Autopia is within our graspif government doesn’t screw it up.

Any country on earth is capable of creating starvation. You only need to follow the path of #Venezuela.

fee.org

Look around Venezuela and what you see is the end of everything we call civilization.One of the great achievements of the human mind is having produced a solution to the single greatest challenge of life on earth: getting enough to eat. Shelter and clothing are no brainers by comparison. You find a

Tyranny disguised as “equal rights.”

“For-profit colleges. Accreditors. Endowments. Loan servicers. Debit card companies. Federal policymakers have blamed just about everyone associated with higher education but themselves for the Ivory Towers myriad problems.”

cato.org

Washington gives out big sums of money to people to pay for college without meaningfully determining whether those people are prepared for higher education. That fuels rampant price, credential, and luxury inflation.

#Schooling and government #policy have stifled the spirit of enterprise among the young.

fee.org

Theres a popular trope right now that a ton of young people are founders and entrepreneurs. Thanks to a handful of young founders with a disproportionate impact (ala Mark Zuckerberg) and cultural figures like HBOs Silicon Valley, you can easily trick yourself into believing that entrepreneurship i…

“I consider myself a savvy patient. Yet I still dont know what my colonoscopy will cost me, and I still cannot find out what it means…Did I, out of fear and ignorance, submit to a procedure that was not only costly and uncomfortable, but unnecessary?”

cato.org

Is this a health care system, or a fog machine designed to ensure we do not see what is really happening?

The CDC’s own data belie its warnings that e-cigarettes are a gateway to the real thing.

reason.com

The CDC’s own data belie its warnings that e-cigarettes are a gateway to the real thing.

The prioritization of income tax withholding:

The Advocates for Self-Government shared Brett Bittner’s post.

Summer is upon us, and tabling will be back on campus shortly. Here’s how you can hold a successful outreach event by adding a follow-up shortly after:

Take a peek at something I wrote that will appear in tomorrow’s Liberator Online:

Interesting how that works.

Did you know that we live in the most peaceful time in human history? Premature deaths – whether by disease, war (despite Washington’s best efforts otherwise), violence, or at the workplace – are at all-time lows.

Division by hate and jealousy, breeds violence. What if we focus on what creates the most prosperity for the most people. Because this will not only lift people out of poverty, it will also reduce desperation and violence.

What if we tried freedom?

190

This may come as a bit of a surprise to you, but…

In case you need another reason to oppose the idea that a secret list that is absent due process and offers no route for exit should be used to deny the ability to defend one’s self:

nytimes.com

Since Michael Hicks was 2, he has been frisked and his family delayed at almost every airport they have entered.

Cronies…. ah ah ah ah ah ah

Forcing women to register for the draft = equality in slavery Ending the draft = equality in liberty

fee.org

“The United States Senate voted to pass a defense bill today that would require young women to sign up for a potential military draft for the first time in U.S. history.”

Anyone care to wager what “breaking news” will be the next thing that everyone is talking about?

Read the original here:

HOME – The Advocates for Self-Government

William Wilberforce: biography and bibliography

 Abolition Of Work  Comments Off on William Wilberforce: biography and bibliography
Jun 192016
 

Biography William Wilberforce is perhaps the best known of the abolitionists. He came from a prosperous merchant family of Kingston-upon-Hull, a North Sea port which saw little in the way of slave trading. (His birthplace is now preserved as the Wilberforce House Museum.) At twenty-one, the youngest age at which one could be so elected, he was returned to Parliament for his native town. Four years later he was again returned to Parliament, this time for the county seat of Yorkshire which was large and populous, and which therefore required an expensive election contest. The advantage was that the election, being genuinely democratic, conferred a greater legitimacy to the two Members which that county returned to Parliament. Wilberforce’s early years in Parliament were not untypical for a young back-bencher. He was noted for his eloquence and charm, attributes no doubt enhanced by his considerable wealth, but he did not involve himself at first with any great cause. A sudden conversion to evangelical Christianity in 1785 changed that and from then onwards he approached politics from a position of strict Christian morality. In 1786 he carried through the House of Commons a bill for amending criminal law which failed to pass the Lords, a pattern which was to be repeated during his abolitionist career. The following year he founded the Proclamation Society which had as its aim the suppression of vice and the reformation of public manners. Later in 1787 he became, at the suggestion of the Prime Minister, William Pitt the Younger, the parliamentary leader of the abolition movement, although he did not officially join the Abolition Society until 1794.

The story of Pitt’s conversation with Wilberforce under an old tree near Croydon has passed into the mythology of the anti-slavery movement. The result was that Wilberforce returned to London having promised to look over the evidence which Thomas Clarkson had amassed against the trade. As he did so he clearly become genuinely horrified and resolved to give the abolition movement his support. Working closely with Clarkson, he presented evidence to a committee of the Privy Council during 1788. This episode did not go as planned. Some of the key witnesses against the trade, apparently bribed or intimidated, changed their story and testified in favour. In the country at large abolitionist sentiment was growing rapidly. While the king’s illness and the Regency Bill crisis no doubt supplanted the slave trade as the chief topic of political conversation in the winter of 1788-9, by the spring the king had recovered and abolition was once more at the top of the agenda. It was under these circumstances that Wilberforce prepared to present his Abolition Bill before the House of Commons. This speech, the most important of Wilberforce’s life to that point, was praised in the newspapers as being one of the most eloquent ever to have been heard in the house. Indeed, The Star reported that ‘the gallery of the House of Commons on Tuesday was crowded with Liverpool Merchants; who hung their heads in sorrow – for the African occupation of bolts and chains is no more’.

The newspaper was premature in sounding the death knell of the slave trade. After the 1789 speech parliamentary delaying tactics came into play. Further evidence was requested and heard over the summer months and then, on 23 June 1789, the matter was adjourned until the next session. Wilberforce left town, holidaying at Buxton with Hannah More, confident that the next session would see a resolution of the debate and abolition of the trade. It did not and by January 1790 the question was deemed to be taking up so much parliamentary time that consideration of the evidence was moved upstairs (as parliamentary jargon has it) to a Select Committee. Evidence in favour of the trade was heard until April, followed by evidence against. In June Pitt called an early general election. Wilberforce was safely returned as a Member for Yorkshire, but parliamentary business was disrupted. Despite being behind schedule, Wilberforce continued to work for an abolition which it appeared the country wanted. News of the slave rebellion in Dominica reached Britain in February 1791 and hardened attitudes against abolition, but Wilberforce pressed on. After almost two years of delay the debate finally resumed and Wilberforce again addressed the Commons on 18 April 1791.

When, on the following night, the House divided on the question of abolition fewer than half of its Members remained to vote. Because of this or not, the Abolition Bill fell with a majority of 75 against abolishing the slave trade. Wilberforce and the other members of the Abolition Committee returned to the task of drumming up support for abolition both from Members of Parliament and from ordinary people. More petitions were collected, further meetings held, extra pamphlets published, and a boycott of sugar was organised. The campaign was not helped by news of the revolutions in France and Haiti. Perhaps sensing that a hardening of attitudes was becoming increasingly likely Wilberforce again brought the question of abolition before the House and, almost a year after the previous defeat, on 2 April 1792, once more found himself addressing the House of Commons. Every account we have of this speech shows that it was an intense and lengthy emotional harangue. Public feeling was outraged and, on this occasion, so was the feeling of the House. But not quite enough. Henry Dundas suggested an amendment to the Abolition Bill: the introduction of the word ‘gradual’. The bill passed as amended, by 230 votes to 85, and gradual abolition became law, the final date for slave trading to remain legal being later fixed at 1796. But this gave the ‘West India Interest’ – the slave traders’ lobby – room to manoeuvre. Once again parliamentary delaying tactics came into play, further evidence was demanded, and it became clear that gradual abolition was to mean no abolition.

This event marked a turning point in the fortunes of the abolition camapign. Partly because of a hardening of attitudes caused by the outbreak of war with France, and partly because of determined resistance from the West-India Interest there was a collapse in public enthusiasm for the cause. Some abolitionists withdrew from the campaign entirely. Wilberforce did not, but his speeches fell on ever deafer ears. Although Wilberforce reintroduced the Abolition Bill almost every year in the 1790s, little progress was made even though Wilberforce remained optimistic for the long-term success of the cause. He directed some of his efforts into other arenas, largely evangelical or philanthropic, and was instrumental in setting up organisations such as The Bible Society and The Society for Bettering the Condition of the Poor. In 1797 he published a book, A Practical view of the Prevailing Religious System of Professed Christians, a work of popular theology with a strong evangelical hue which sold well on publication and throughout the nineteenth century. On 30 May 1797, after a short romance, he married Barbara Ann Spooner.

If the first two years of the new century were particularly bleak ones for the abolition movement, the situation was rapidly reversed in 1804. The association of abolitionism with Jacobinism dispersed as Napoleon’s hostility to emancipation became known. Members of Parliament, especially the many new Irish members, increasingly tended toward abolition. The Abolition Society reformed with a mixture of experienced older members and new blood. Wilberforce assumed his old role of parliamentary leader, and introduced the Abolition Bill before parliament. The Bill fell in 1804 and 1805, but gave the abolitionists an opportunity to sound out support. In 1806, Wilberforce published an influential tract advocating abolition and, in June that year, resolutions supporting abolition were passed in parliament. A public campaign once again promoted the cause, and the new Whig government was in favour as well. In January 1807, the Abolition Bill was once again introduced, this time attracting very considerable support, and, on 23 February 1807, almost fifteen years after Dundas had effectively wrecked abolition with his gradualist amendment, Parliament voted overwhelmingly in favour of abolition of the slave trade. During the debate the then Solicitor-General, Sir Samuel Romilly, spoke against the trade. His speech concluded with a long and emotional tribute to Wilberforce in which he contrasted the peaceful happiness of Wilberforce in his bed with the tortured sleeplessness of the guilty Napoleon Bonaparte. In the words of Romilly’s biographer;

The Abolition Act received the Royal Assent (became law) on 25 March 1807 but, although the trade in slaves had become illegal in British ships, slavery remained a reality in British colonies. Wilberforce himself was privately convinced that the institution of slavery should be entirely abolished, but understood that there was little political will for emancipation. Already recognised as an elder statesman in his 50s, Wilberforce received a steady throng of visitors and supplicants, and he became involved in many of the political questions of the day. He supported Catholic Emancipation and the Corn Laws. His health was poor, however, and in 1812 he resigned the large and arduous seat of Yorkshire for the pocket borough of Bramber. In the same year he started work on the Slave Registration Bill, which he saw as necessary to ensure compliance with the Abolition Act. If slaves were registered, he argued, it could be proved whether or not they had been recently transported from Africa. The Prime Minister, Spencer Perceval, supported the Bill, but was assassinated shortly after. Thereafter, Wilberforce’s efforts met with increasing resistance from the government. In 1815, with the government again blocking progress, Wilberforce publically declared that as they would not support him, he felt himself no longer bound by their line on emancipation. From this time on, Wilberforce campaigned openly for an end to the institution of slavery.

Wilberforce’s health, never good, was deteriorating. Although now free to speak his mind on emancipation, he was never able to campaign with the same vigour that he had done for abolition of the trade. However, he continued to attack slavery both at public meetings and in the House of Commons. In 1823, he published another pamphlet attacking slavery. This pamphlet was connected with the foundation of The Anti-Slavery Society which led the campaign to emancipate all slaves in British colonies. Leadership of the parliamentary campaign, however, was passed from Wilberforce to Thomas Fowell Buxton. In 1825, Wilberforce resigned from the House of Commons. He enjoyed a quiet retirement at Mill Hill, just north of London, although he suffered some financial difficulties. His last public appearance was at a meeting of the Anti-Slavery Society in 1830, at which, at Thomas Clarkson’s suggestion, he took the chair. In parliament, the Emancipation Bill gathered support and received its final commons reading on 26 July 1833. Slavery would be abolished, but the planters would be heavily compensated. ‘Thank God’, said Wilberforce, ‘that I have lived to witness a day in which England is willing to give twenty millions sterling for the Abolition of Slavery’. Three days later, on 29 July 1833, he died. He is buried in Westminster Abbey.

Brycchan Carey 2000-2002

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William Wilberforce: biography and bibliography

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Put in Bay, Put in Bay Hotel, Put in Bay Lodging, Put-in-Bay Ohio

 Islands  Comments Off on Put in Bay, Put in Bay Hotel, Put in Bay Lodging, Put-in-Bay Ohio
May 262016
 

Welcome to Put-in-Bay 2016 and your complete Put in Bay Ohio information source for hotels, lodging, ferryboats, golf carts, camping, boating and home rentals, all located at Put-in-Bay, South Bass Island, Ohio. We are your one-stop shop for Put-in-Bay Reservations and finding out what is on this year’s Calendar of Events.

There is no doubt that Put-in-Bay Ohio is one of the most unique places you will ever visit. Our tiny two by four mile island is dotted with historic homes, the nation’s third tallest monument, quaint restaurants and local pubs. Beautiful water surrounds Put in Bay where you will find the best walleye and perch fishing in the United States.

May 09, 2016 – Put-in-Bay, OH – The NFL Draft Day is now behind us and the Cleveland Browns are looking forward to a great rebuilding season with some top-notch draft picks… (click for details)

May 16, 2016 – Put-in-Bay, OH – It’s that time of year! Entries are now open for the 2016 “Best of the Bay” Awards. Each year, we let you, the island visitor, choose your favorite lodgins, foods, and attractions. (click for entry)

Over 2 million people annually discover the magic of the Bass Islands of Lake Erie. Put-in-Bay Ohio on South Bass Island is the crown jewel of the Lake Erie islands of Ohio. This website will provide you with all the information you need to plan that special Put in Bay getaway with your family or friends.

Putinbay.com now offers our summer vacation visitors the convenience of a mobile-enhanced website. We are the first and only Put-in-Bay mobile web presence! We have entertainment schedules, a Put-in-bay calendar of events, Jet Express ferry schedules, bars and dining info, shopping lists, and Put in Bay attractions locations. All of which is conveniently located here on our new PutInBay.com Mobile Website. Download the Official 2016 Put in Bay Island Visitor Guide & Vacation Planner before you visit!

Beginning in April of each year, visitors flock to Put-in-Bay Ohio for an island retreat. Shopping, boating, perch fishing, walleye fishing, great restaurants (and food reviews), The Roundhouse Bar, and a vibrant nightlife offer something for everyone. Family vacations can be a great learning experience for the kids starting with the ferry to Put in Bay and the many historical events that have taken place on the island.

While exploring Putinbay.com, you will learn about the many family activities Put-in-Bay has to offer as well as all the services you may need for your Lake Erie island getaway. We have all the information you need for a great family visit to Put in Bay.

Putinbay, Nicknamed the “Key West of the North” offers an exciting nightlife with live musical entertainment to satisfy all generations. Strolling Barbershop singers, bagpipers, steel drums and Ohio’s best entertainers (such as Pat Dailey and Mike “Mad Dog” Adams) are frequently seen on Put-in-Bay island.

Relax, you’re on island time, explore putinbay.com and be sure to register for our free Put-in-Bay weekend giveaway and monthly newsletter via e-mail where we keep you informed of Put-in-Bay island events.

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Put in Bay, Put in Bay Hotel, Put in Bay Lodging, Put-in-Bay Ohio

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North Carolina Beaches: Come as Guests. Leave as Family!

 Beaches  Comments Off on North Carolina Beaches: Come as Guests. Leave as Family!
May 262016
 

Whoever coined the term “antidote to civilization” must have visited the peaceful and tranquil shores of North Carolina. A warm sunny day, little traffic, a gourmet picnic lunch and a bottle of wine it just doesnt get any better. To help you plan your visit, we present you with information on where to stay, fine dining establishments and some ideas on what to do while you enjoy the coast of North Carolina.

There’s something about North Carolina’s legendary coast that attracts visitors from all over the globe. The commanding splendor of the ocean, sunny and temperate climate of the pristine beaches and the abundant marshes and wetlands are just some of the reasons that North Carolina beaches are one of the hottest attractions in the nation. Whether you are looking for a romantic getaway or a family vacation, NCBeaches.com helps you find the ideal spot for your next trip. With more than 300 miles of unspoiled coast, it’s easy to find the perfect beach for your getaway … whatever the occasion. Take a complete tour, beach-by-beach, of North Carolina’s peaceful shore.

The east coast boasts of the largest sand dunes in the United States, as well as more than 3,375 miles of shoreline (including the offshore barrier islands.) North Carolinians are also quite proud of the beaches as they provide not just a wealth peaceful beauty, but an abundance of history. The United States named Cape Hatteras, NC as the first national seashore in 1953; yet its discovery was well documented nearly four centuries earlier as Italian explorer Giovanni da Verrazano set out to find a westward passage to Asia and discovered the unspoiled land. North Carolina was also home to the first English settlement in North America. Roanoke Island, an island situated between the Albemarle and Pamlico sounds, first welcomed explorers in 1585. The second group came to the area in 1587 and from their mysterious disappearance the tale of the Lost Colony was born.

The shores of North Carolina became a huge commerce area for fishing, yet the maritime heritage stands apart from other coasts because of the many shipwrecks rather than the monetary gains. Graveyard of the Atlantic, as it is called, has been responsible for over 600 shipwrecks since the 16th century. The wrecks were due largely to the unique shape of the beaches, especially around the Outer Banks. The area is home to Diamond Shoals, where two great ocean currents meet: the cold Labrador and the warm Northbound Gulf Stream. As the currents meet, the difference in temperatures creates constantly-shifting sandbars that have aided in the numerous wrecks. Historian and author David Stick poetically describes the angular coast. In his book Graveyard of the Atlantic: Shipwrecks of the North Carolina Coast , Stick writes, “You can stand on Cape Point at Hatteras on a stormy day and watch two oceans come together in an awesome display of savage fury; for there at the Point the northbound Gulf Stream and the cold currents coming down from the Arctic run head-on into each other, tossing their spumy spray a hundred feet or better into the air and dropping sand and shells and sea life at the point of impact. Thus is formed the dreaded Diamond Shoals, its fang-like shifting sand bars pushing seaward to snare the unwary mariner. Seafaring men call it the Graveyard of the Atlantic.”

It is because of these wrecks that North Carolina constructed 10 lighthouses along the coast, seven of which stand today as reminders of the rich coastal culture. Perhaps the most famous of the lighthouses is the Cape Hatteras Lighthouse, completed in 1870. Two additions to add height were made 50 years later making it America’s tallest lighthouse at 208 feet high. Construction took roughly 1.25 million bricks and cost $155,000.00 in the eighteen hundreds. Today more than 175,000 visitors flock to climb the 257 steps to the top. Recently the lighthouse made quite a stir in the media as the enormous structure was moved nearly 3,000 feet in the summer of 1999 to ensure its preservation from the encroaching Atlantic Ocean.

From the Southern shores of Holden Beach and Wilmington to the narrow stretch of barrier islands known as the Outer Banks, visitors can choose the destination based on the different activities offered or atmosphere of the beach itself. Historians relish in the many museums, national seashores and legends surrounding the coast. Environmentalists enjoy the wildlife refuges, bird watching and nature trails scattered down the beaches. Adventurers enjoy the windsurfing, scuba diving, hang gliding and many more activities. The Southern beaches, such as Wilmington, Oak Island and Holden Beach, are well known for their plethora of nationally acclaimed golf courses. Known as “North Carolina’s Golf Coast,” the area between Wilmington and Calabash boasts of more than 35 champion golf courses. Famous golf pros such as Palmer, Couples and Dye designed some of the best courses in the area. Whether you’re looking to rent or own a fully equipped villa or beach front cottage, the southern beaches accommodate all styles.

The northern beaches of North Carolina, from Emerald Isle to the Outer Banks, offer many different sporting activities. Because of the great winds, kites are a favorite way to enjoy the beach and are found decorating many of the shops in the area. Families flock to the beach with brightly decorated kites to enjoy hours of fun. Kiteboarding, a sport unique to the Outer Banks and growing in popularity, has become one of the biggest activities of the area. Kitty Hawk Kites, a store that offers everything from toys to tours, has every kind of kite possible. Whether it’s single line kites for kids on the beach or Stunt kites that for those who want to perform tricks and advanced maneuvers, you will find everything you need to enjoy the Outer Banks wind.

One of the more popular activities with a long history, fishing brings in many travelers from around the nation. North Carolina beaches provide the perfect spot for fishing as the nearby The Gulf Stream warms the Atlantic. The collision of the warm The Gulf Stream and the cold Labrador currents create a hotspot for all types of fish, and fishermen catch anything from Wahoo to Sailfish, depending on the season. From deep sea fishing to pier and surf fishing, North Carolina beaches have everything you need.

Yet the beaches of North Carolina are more than just a vacation spot; they are a year-round beach community where people work and play. Come visit our spectacular sites and sandy beaches all along North Carolina’s shores. The NCBeaches.com comprehensive database of anything from restaurant coupons and menus to vacation rentals will help you plan your ideal trip to anywhere on the North Carolina coast.

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North Carolina Beaches: Come as Guests. Leave as Family!

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City of Eau Claire, Wisconsin : Public Beaches

 Beaches  Comments Off on City of Eau Claire, Wisconsin : Public Beaches
May 082016
 

To help protect the public from injury and reduce the risk if illness from using recreational waters, the Eau Claire City/County Health Department samples the water at six public beaches each week throughout the summer for bacteria levels. The six beaches are; Riverview, Big Falls, Half Moon, Lake Altoona, Lake Eau Claire and Coon Forks.

The ECCCHDclosed the following beach(es) to help protect the public and reduce the risk of illness.The beach(es) will remain closed until we can recheck bacteria levels. Please check back for updates.

Beaches fallunder the authority of State Statute 254.46 “Beaches. The department or a local health department shall close or restrict swimming, diving and recreational bathing if a human health hazard exists in any area used for those purposes on a body of water and on associated land and shall require the posting of the area.

Beaches are closed when:

The ECCCHD takes water samples weekly from public beaches during the summer to check bacteria levels. The department closes beaches when tests show that the level of harmful bacteria is too high or a beach receives 3 or more inches of rain in a 24-hour period.

Hazardous blue-green algae is sometimes present in lakes, ponds, and slow-moving streams when the water is warm and enriched with nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorous (fertilizer run-off). At times it can produce a toxic compound that can make you or your pets ill if you drink or come in contact with the water. The recommendation of the Wisconsin DNR is that if a scum-layer or floating algae mat is present in water it should not be used for recreational purposes. For more information on blue-green algae please visit the Wisconsin DNR Web Site at:

Swimmers Itch is a rash caused by contact with waters that are frequented by birds, snails and small mammals. For information on swimmers itch please visit:

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City of Eau Claire, Wisconsin : Public Beaches

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Inland Beaches | Public Beach | Travel Wisconsin

 Beaches  Comments Off on Inland Beaches | Public Beach | Travel Wisconsin
May 062016
 

Wisconsinites know you dont have to be on one of the Great Lakes to find a great public beach. With literally thousands of lakes, Wisconsin is known far and wide for having some of the most pristine and beautiful inland beaches around. These inland beaches offer clean calm water, attractive atmospheres, and are truly great places to relax on sunny summer afternoons. Here are eight awesome options to explore with family and friends.

Naga-Waukee Park Beach Hartland

Located on picturesque Nagawicka Lake, Naga-Waukee Park offers 130 feet of sandy beach, a beach house with restrooms, and a great concession stand. The 414 acre park also features an 18-hole golf course, 8 miles of trails, and endless opportunities for fun. All just 25 miles west of Milwaukee!

Firemans Park and Swimming Beach Elkhart Lake

With a great sandy beach and crystal clear water, Firemans Beach is one of the best in the state. This fun park features a concession stand, picnic tables, grills, sand volleyball courts and shelters for rent. All for a bargain gate admission of $3 for adults and $1 for those under 12.

Friendship Lake Public Beach Friendship

Located in Adams County, Friendship Lake Public Beach is the perfect place to spend an afternoon. With an average depth of just 6 feet, Friendship Lake is great for family swimming.

Lions Beach Janesville

Who wouldve thought that there is a beautiful sandy beach just minutes from downtown Janesville? Lions Beach, located on a 5-acre spring fed pond next to the Rotary Botanical gardens, features a grassy picnic area and restrooms.

Memorial Park Shell Lake

Come play at the Memorial Park Beach on the 2,600 Shell Lake in Washburn County. The beach is located right downtown and offers a dock, swimming rafts, and lifeguards during the summer months. If the kids want to take a break from swimming, they can play on the playground equipment right within view of the water.

Hattie Sherwood Campground Green Lake

Hattie Sherwood is known for its beautiful scenery, sandy swimming beaches, and great fishing. When visitors arent enjoying the pristine waters of Green Lake, they can be found monkey-ing around on the jungle gym and exploring the many hiking and biking trails.

Keyes Lake Park Florence

With its crystal clear waters and world-class fishing, Keyes Lake Park is a true Northwoods treasure. The park itself features picnic facilities, a sandy beach, swimmers raft, and a water slide.

Shawano Lake County Park Shawano

Known far and wide as a great swimming beach, Shawano Lake County Park is just an hour drive from Green Bay, Appleton, and Wausau. Swim in the calm refreshing water, or rent a canoe and paddle boat to explore with a little more speed.

Read more:
Inland Beaches | Public Beach | Travel Wisconsin

Best Beaches in New Jersey – New Jersey Monthly

 Beaches  Comments Off on Best Beaches in New Jersey – New Jersey Monthly
Apr 092016
 

Best: Family Fun Beach Point Pleasant Beach Exit N-90/S-98 Fun House isnt just an attraction on the Point Pleasant Beach boardwalk; its an appropriate moniker for this seaside playground with its first-class aquarium, live entertainment, arcades, wide beaches and array of dining options. Rent bikes from the colorful fleet at Shore Riders Bike Rentals and cruise the boardwalk while the line winds down at Perks Caf, a popular breakfast spot featuring candied French toast and fresh fruit. Then hit the beach at Martells, where you can enjoy alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages from its Tiki Bar. Want to get the kids out of the sun? At Jenkinsons Aquarium, they can view sharks, penguins, alligators and sealseven sea stars and stingrays in the touch tank. For dinner, head over to Frankies Bar & Grill to feast on 10-ounce sirloin burgers. A $5.95 childrens menu offers six selections served with fries and a glass of milk or soda. End a great day at Hoffmans, where you can indulge in delicious homemade ice creamfrom strawberry bon bon to peanut butter nugget. AJC

Best: Family Quiet Beaches Stone Harbor Exit 10 With its small-town charm, laid-back shopping district and numerous restaurants, Stone Harbor offers fun for the whole familyat a slower pace than many of its Shore neighbors. The beaches are never overcrowded and are within walking distance of all points in the town (which for the most part is just two or three city blocks wide). Shoppers flock to 96th Street, but the town has plenty to keep the kids entertained as well. Peek through the windows at the Original Fudge Kitchen to see the sweet stuff being prepared; pop into Island Studio to paint your own pottery; or play a rooftop round of mini golf at one of Tee Times two locations. For fun on the water, you can rent a kayak or a surfboard from Harbor Outfitters for some flat-water paddling on the calm bay, or sign the family up for one of their guided ecotours. Satisfy the kids pizza cravings at Peace A Pizza, which serves offerings such as chicken parmesan and mac-n-cheese pizza. And cap it all off with a trip to Springers Homemade Ice Cream, a Stone Harbor staple since the 1920s. On summer Mondays, bring a blanket to the firehouse lot at 7 pm for family nights featuring magic shows, jugglers, puppets and songs.DAS

Recommended Reading: Girlfriend Getaways: Atlantic City

Bay Head Exit S-98/N-90 There are no public changing rooms in Bay Head, and food and beverages are prohibited on the beach. But the strand is never crowded, bathers are protected by lifeguards, and you can rent kayaks, surfboards and bikes right in town. For dinner, bring the family to Theresas South, a casual and creative offshoot of the popular Theresas in Westfield. Later, stop in for ice cream at Dorcas of Bay Head, a classic soda-fountain sidewalk caf. Dont miss the Summer Surf Movie Nights at the Beach House Classic Boardshop on select Fridays throughout the summer. DAS

Sea Girt Exit 98 With one mile of uncrowded beaches and an old-fashioned boardwalk, Sea Girt is perfect for a quiet family getaway. The boardwalk begins at the foot of the Sea Girt Lighthouse and runs to the south end of town. Hungry? Check out Rods Olde Irish Tavern, a turn-of-the-century saloon, for some traditional pub fare.DAS

Best: Secluded Beach Strathmere, Upper Township Exit N-13/S-17 Some folks in Upper Township are not happy with New Jersey Monthly. Why? Because in last years Shore Guide, we spilled the beans about their beloved gemStrathmere. (Seriously, they yelled at this reporter last summer.) Well, the secret is out, and yes, Strathmere is as unique as it sounds. Tucked between the busier Ocean City and Sea Isle City, this cozy 1.5-mile stretch is quiet, shoobie-free and requires no beach tags. Approach it from two-lane Commonwealth Avenue (where you can always find free street parking, even in the height of summer) and stake out a sandy spot for the day. Enjoy sunbathing at the shoreline, take a walk to the northern end of the island for views of OC, watch the dolphins commute, or try ocean kayaking, surfing, fishing, even kiteboardingall without kitschy shops and boardwalk hubbub. For a break from sun and sand, grab an ice cream at the Old Shack or a cold beer or two during happy hour at hole-in-the-wall Twisties or on the outdoor deck at the popular Deauville Inn. Just dont tell anyone you heard about it from me. The towns oval car decals even say Shhh. EMF

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Best Beaches in New Jersey – New Jersey Monthly

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Beaches Closest to Reading, Pennsylvania | USA Today

 Beaches  Comments Off on Beaches Closest to Reading, Pennsylvania | USA Today
Apr 032016
 

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Caitlin Duke, Demand Media

Oceanfront beaches in New Jersey are only a day trip away from Reading. (Photo: Comstock Images/Stockbyte/Getty Images )

Thoughts of Reading, Pennsylvania, are not likely to conjure up images of sunbathing on a windswept beach while the waves lap the sand a few feet away. Though this city of 88,000 is not on the water, a number of lake and river beaches are within the state. If you’re looking for something grander, a smattering of large and small beaches are on the coast, just a few hours away.

The beach at Blue Marsh Lake in Leesport, Pennsylvania, may be small, but it is certainly convenient. Just a 20-minute drive northwest of Reading, this man-made lake covers a good deal of ground — 1,147 acres of water area, to be precise. The lake allows swimming, fishing, boating, water skiing and scuba diving during the summer months, while winter adventurers can enjoy ice boating, ice fishing and ice skating. The park surrounding the lake has over 36 miles of trails, open to pedestrians, equestrians and bicyclists.

Mt. Gretna Lake and Beach, in Pennsylvania, provides a premium beach experience without a lengthy drive. Under an hour due west of Reading, the facility rests on the banks of the stream-fed Lake Conewago. An admission fee is charged to access Mt. Gretna’s 300-square-foot beach and groves, but the facilities are well worth it. Mt. Gretna has lifeguards on duty in protected swimming areas, canoe and kayak rentals, two diving boards and a water swing.

Within a two-hour drive to the east and north of Reading, the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area in Pennsylvania boasts two grassy beaches open to the public. Both Milford Beach, near the town of Milford, and Smithfield Beach, near Delaware Water Gap, charge entrance fees for cars, bicyclists and pedestrians. Visitors enjoy boat and canoe launches and picnic areas, and access is available to the Joseph M. McDade Recreational Trail for avid hikers.

Seven Presidents Oceanfront Park at Monmouth Beach, New Jersey, is just a couple of hours away, directly to the east of Reading on the New Jersey coast. The 38-acre park is open year-round, with parking and entrance fees during the summer months. Enjoy a round of beach volleyball on the court or venture into open water on a kayak or canoe. Lifeguards are on duty in protected areas of the beach, which is also open to surfers.

A graduate of Oberlin College, Caitlin Duke has written on travel and relationships for Time.com. She has crisscrossed the country several times, and relishes discovering new points on the map. As a credentialed teacher, she also has a strong background in issues facing families today.

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Lake Beaches in Eastern Pennsylvania | USA Today

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Apr 032016
 

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Michelle Hornaday, Demand Media

Swim at a designated lake beach in Pennsylvania. (Photo: Thinkstock/Comstock/Getty Images )

Visit one of 117 state parks or 2.1 million acres of forest land managed by the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources (dcnr.state.pa.us) for a day of recreation. County and city parks also offer Pennsylvania residents and visitors a place to bike, hike, walk or swim. In the eastern half of the state, several destinations invite visitors to wade in the water from a beach bordering lakes ranging in size from 1.7-acre Fuller Lake to 1,147-acre Blue Marsh Lake.

Located 21 miles south of the New York border and 52 miles north of Williamsport, 407-acre Hills Creek State Park (dcnr.state.pa.us) has a sandy beach bordering 137-acre Hills Creek Lake. A grassy area also welcomes visitors near the lake’s shore, and boats may be launched to spend the day fishing for bass, carp or catfish. At 2,158-acre Little Pine State Park, wade in the water from a sand beach with grass turf to swim in the 94-acre Little Pine Lake. Pack a picnic lunch to refuel at one of four designated areas after a day of swimming or explore more than 14 miles of hiking trails through the park.

Located near Leesport, Blue Marsh Lake (nap.usace.army.mil) spans 1,147 acres of water surface and has a designated swimming beach area. Launch a boat or spend time hiking on 36 miles of trails after time spent swimming on the lake. The privately owned Mt. Gretna Lake and Beach (mtgretnalake.com) is 46 miles west of Blue Marsh Lake near Lebanon and features 300 feet of sandy beaches adjacent to a roped swimming area as well as a diving board and water swing. A daily admission fee applies at Mt. Gretna Lake; beach chair rentals, changing areas and picnic tables are available to visitors.

Spend the day on one of 150 lakes in the Pocono Mountains (800poconos.com) region in northeastern Pennsylvania. Access Beltzville Lake from a 525-foot beach at 3,002-acre Beltzville State Park (dcnr.state.pa.us) during the summer months. Located 23 miles south of Scranton, Gouldsboro and Tobyhanna state parks also have sandy beaches open to visitors on 250-acre Gouldsboro Lake and 170-acre Tobyhanna Lake. Head to the beach at Mauch Chunk Lake Park (carboncounty.com) in Carbon County to swim in a designated area under a lifeguard’s supervision and near a family picnic area. More than 150,000 visitors annually head the to sandy beaches at Mauch Chunk Lake annually to swim, boat, fish or hike.

At 696-acre Pine Grove Furnace State Park (dcnr.state.pa.us), swim from sandy beaches at both 25-acre Laurel Lake and 1.7-acre Fuller Lake. Snack bars are open during the summer at both beaches; boating is permitted on Laurel Lake. A 3.5-acre lake swimming beach is also available at 273-acre Colonel Deming State Park, located near Landisburg and Newville. Claim a spot on the sandy beaches of 2,338-acre Gifford Pinchot State Park bordering 340-acre Pinchot Lake. Boat rentals, a children’s playground and picnic areas are adjacent to the beach. Overnight campsites are available for those planning a multiday stay.

Michelle Hornaday lives in Edmonds, Washington and holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in English from Washington State University and a Master of Education from Northern Arizona University. She is currently a freelance writer for various websites.

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Psychological Egoism – Philosophy Home Page

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Mar 232016
 

Abstract: Psychological egoism, the view that people act solely in their own interest, is defined and shown not to be a meaningful ethical philosophy.

I. The distinction between psychological egoism and ethical egoism reflects the contrast of “is” verses “ought,” “fact” verses “value,” or “descriptive” verses “prescriptive.”

II. By way of clarification of relevant terms, James Rachels, among others, points out common confusion concerning selfishness and self-interest.

III. The Refutation of Psychological Egoism: arguments to the conclusion that the generalization everyone acts from the motive of self-interest is false.

IV.Interestingly enough, the same objections can be raised against the view termed, “psychological altruism”: all persons act from the motive of helping others, and all actions are done from other-regarding motives. (Psychological altruism is a view advanced only from the position of a “devil’s advocate.”)

V. As a final note, it should be mentioned that psychological egoism can’t be saved by psychoanalytic theory. I.e., Freud’s notion of the unconscious raises the possibility that we have unconscious desires and can act against our conscious inclinations. If it is argued that we always unconsciously seek our self-interest, then this view is untestable and circular as well.

Consider the following passage from Freud’s Interpretations of Dreams*:

“A contradiction to my theory of dream produced by another of my women patients (the cleverest of all my dreamers) was resolved more simply, but upon the same pattern: namely that the nonfulfillment of one wish meant the fulfillment of another. One day I had been explaining to her that dreams are fulfillments of wishes. Next day she brought me a dream in which she was traveling down with her mother-in-law to the place in the country where they were to spend their holidays together. Now I knew that she had violently rebelled against the idea of spending the summer near her mother-in-law and that a few days earlier she had successfully avoided the propinquity she dreaded by engaging rooms in a far distant resort. And now her dream had undone the solution she had wished for; was not this the sharpest contradiction of my theory that in dreams wishes are fulfilled? No doubt; and it was only necessary to follow the dreams logical consequence in order to arrive at its interpretation. The dream showed that I was wrong. Thus it was her wish that I might be wrong, and her dream showed that wish fulfilled (italics original)”

*Sigmund Freud, The Interpretations of Dreams (New York: Avon, 1966), 185.

Recommended Sources

“We Are Not Always Selfish”: (this site) A classic discussion of the many facets of ethical egoism in notes on James Rachel’s work.

Altruism “in-built” in humans: BBC report of discovery of altruistic behavior in infants summarized from the journal Science.

“Studies Show Chimps to Be Collaborative.”: A summary of an article from Science News describing research indicating that chimpanzees cooperate without the expectation of reward.

“Egoism”: Explanation of egoism and altruism with a brief summary of refutations and defenses excerpted from Richard Kraut’s “Egoism” in the Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Ethical Egoism: (this site) The various forms of ethical egoism are defined. Standard objections to ethical egoism are evaluated, and the conclusion is drawn that ethical egoism is incomplete.

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Famous Beaches in Virginia | USA Today

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Mar 162016
 

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Virginia has over 3,300 miles of shoreline, including 112 miles of coasts. Its not surprising to find that the state also has several famous beaches that draw millions of tourists each year for swimming, fishing, boating, seashell collecting, bird watching, clamming and nature trails.

Assateague Island straddles two states, Maryland and Virginia, and was established in 1962 as the Assateague Island National Seashore to protect its natural environment as a vital resting and migratory spot for various bird species. All the 37 miles of dunes, wildlife and wetlands are protected, and therefore, there are no signs of commercial or residential development. Assateague is best known for the wild ponies that wander the pristine beaches, as well as the Assateague Lighthouse, which is open to public visitors. Toms Cove Visitor Center 8586 Beach Road Chincoteague Island, VA 23336 757-336-6577 nps.gov/asis

Chincoteague is home to the Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, listed as one of the top five U.S. shorebird migratory staging areas. Chincoteague is Virginias only resort island, and is world famous for oyster beds and clam shoals. Its also the gateway to Assateague, and the wild ponies there are herded to swim across the channel to Chincoteague Island each July for auction, a popular public event. In addition to the usual swimming, sun bathing and water sports, the Park Service and Wildlife Refuge both offer guided wildlife tours and exhibits throughout the year. Chincoteague Chamber of Commerce and Visitors Center 6733 Maddox Blvd. Chincoteague Island, VA 23336 757-336-6161 chincoteague.com

Colonial Beach is at the tip of the Northern Neck region, one of the few remaining small seaport towns on the Potomac River. It has sandy beaches and marinas on Monroe Bay ideal for swimming, boating and sailing. The area is also quite historic, containing George Washington’s birthplace; Stratford Hall, the boyhood home of Robert E. Lee; and neighboring Westmoreland County, the birthplace of James Monroe. Colonial Beach has been designated as one of the few Golf Cart Towns, where golf carts may be operated by licensed drivers on city streets, but the Town Trolley also makes sightseeing stops. Colonial Beach Chamber of Commerce 6 N Irving Ave. Colonial Beach, VA 22443 804-224-8145 info@colonialbeach.org colonialbeach.org

At the northern end of Norfolk on the Chesapeake Bay lies Ocean View Beach, with 7.5 miles of beaches, commercial piers, bait shops, rental paddle boats, Jet Skis and sailboats, and a park with a bathhouse and picnic tables. The Ocean View Beach Festival is held every summer with live music, dancing and family activities right on the beach. The boardwalk is a good spot for a stroll and occasional sightings of submarines from nearby Norfolk Naval Air Station. Ocean View Beach Park 100 W. Ocean View Ave. Norfolk, VA 757-441-1776 oceanviewscene.com

Virginia Beach is the states most famous beach and the third largest in the United States, with 35 miles of waterfront property. Chesapeake Bay Beach and Sandbridge are two distinct beaches within the city borders that are more tranquil and secluded. For those who want excitement, theres the Resort Beaches area, which include the 3-mile oceanfront boardwalk, with bikes and roller blades for rent, restaurants, shops and various festivals during the summer. There are plenty of options for additional entertainment, including 4,000 acres in parks and national refuges, the Virginia Aquarium & Marine Science Center and the Virginia Beach Oceanfront Waterpark. Virginia Beach Visitors Center 2100 Parks Ave. Virginia Beach, VA 23451 800-VA-BEACH (800-822-3224) vabvc@vbgov.com vbfun.com

Bonnie Singleton has been writing professionally since 1996. She has written for various newspapers and magazines including “The Washington Times” and “Woman’s World.” She also wrote for the BBC-TV news magazine “From Washington” and worked for Discovery Channel online for more than a decade. Singleton holds a master’s degree in musicology from Florida State University and is a member of the American Independent Writers.

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Channel Islands of California – Wikipedia, the free …

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Feb 122016
 

The Channel Islands of California are a chain of eight islands located in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of Southern California along the Santa Barbara Channel in the United States of America. Five of the islands are part of Channel Islands National Park, and the waters surrounding these islands make up Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary. The islands were first colonized by the Chumash and Tongva Native Americans 13,000 years ago, who were then displaced by European settlers who used the islands for fishing and agriculture. The U.S. military uses the islands as training grounds, weapons test sites, and as a strategic defensive location. The Channel Islands and the surrounding waters house a diverse ecosystem with many endemic species and subspecies.

The eight islands are split among the jurisdictions of three separate California counties: Santa Barbara County (four), Ventura County (two), and Los Angeles County (two). The islands are divided into two groupsthe Northern Channel Islands and the Southern Channel Islands. The four Northern Islands used to be a single landmass known as Santa Rosae.

The archipelago extends for 160 miles (257km) between San Miguel Island in the north and San Clemente Island in the south. Together, the islands land area totals 221,331 acres (89,569ha), or about 346 square miles (900km2).

Five of the islands (San Miguel, Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, Anacapa, and Santa Barbara) were made into the Channel Islands National Park in 1980. The Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary encompasses the waters six nautical miles (11 kilometers) off Anacapa, Santa Cruz, San Miguel, Santa Rosa, and Santa Barbara islands.

Santa Catalina Island is the only one of the eight islands with a significant permanent civilian settlementthe resort city of Avalon, California, and the unincorporated town of Two Harbors.

Natural seepage of oil occurs at several places in the Santa Barbara Channel.[1] Tar balls or pieces of tar in small numbers are found in the kelp and on the beaches. Native Americans used naturally occurring tar, bitumen, for a variety of purposes which include roofing, waterproofing, paving and some ceremonial purposes.[2]

The Channel Islands at low elevations are virtually frost-free and constitute one of the few such areas in the 48 contiguous US states. It snows only rarely, on higher mountain peaks.

Separated from the California mainland throughout recent geological history, the Channel Islands provide the earliest evidence for human seafaring in the Americas. It is also the site of the discovery of the earliest paleontological evidence of humans in North America.[3] The Northern Channel Islands are now known to have been settled by maritime Paleo Indian peoples at least 13,000 years ago. Archaeological sites on the island provide a unique and invaluable record of human interaction with Channel Island marine and terrestrial ecosystems from the late Pleistocene to historic times. Historically, the northern islands were occupied by the island Chumash, while the southern islands were occupied by the Tongva. Scott O’Dell has had a book written about the indigenous peoples living on the island, Island of the Blue Dolphins. Aleuts hunters visited the islands to hunt otters in the early 1800s. The Aleuts purportedly clashed with the native Chumash, killing many over trading disputes. Aleut interactions with the natives were also detailed in O’Dell’s book.[4]

The Chumash and Tongva were removed from the islands in the early 19th century, taken to Spanish missions and pueblos on the adjacent mainland. For a century, the Channel Islands were used primarily for ranching and fishing activities, which had significant impacts on island ecosystems, including the local extinction of sea otters, bald eagles, and other species. With most of the Channel Islands now managed by federal agencies or conservation groups, the restoration of the island ecosystems has made significant progress.Several of the islands were used by whalers in the 1930s to hunt for sperm whales.[5]

In 1972, the Brown Berets seized and claimed the islands for Mexico, citing the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, a treaty between Mexico and the USA by which Mexico lost more than half of its territory, and arguing that the treaty does not specifically mention the Channel Islands nor the Farallon Islands. Though the United States had occupied them since 1852, the group speculated that Mexico could claim the islands and seek their return through litigation before the International Court of Justice. However, a detailed analysis of its situation puts in doubt the likelihood of Mexico winning the case at the International Court of Justice.[6]The Channel Islands National Park’s mainland visitor center received 342,000 visitors in 2014. The Channel Islands itself attracts around 70,000 tourists a year, most during the summer.[7] Visitors can travel to the islands via public boat or airplane transportation. Camping grounds are available on Anacapa, Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, San Miguel, and Santa Barbara Islands in the Channel Islands National Park. Attractions include whale watching, hikes, snorkeling, kayaking and camping.[8]

The United States Navy controls San Nicolas Island and San Clemente Island, and has installations elsewhere in the chain. During World War II all of Southern Californias Channel Islands were put under military control, including the civilian-populated Santa Catalina where tourism was halted and established residents needed permits to travel to and from the mainland.[9] San Miguel Island was used as a bombing range[10] and Santa Barbara Island as an early warning outpost under the presumed threat of a Japanese attack on California.[11] San Clemente Island was used to train the Navy’s first amphibious force to prepare for Pacific combat against the Japanese in World War II.[12] San Nicolas Island has been used since 1957 as a launch pad for research rockets. San Nicolas was considered out of eight possible locations as the site of the Trinity nuclear test.[13] Santa Rosa Island was used in 1952 as a base for the USAF 669th AC&W Squadron and they operated two Distant Early Warning FPS-10 radars from the hilltops there. In 1955 another FPS-3 search radar was added, and in 1956, a GPS-3 search radar was installed. A new MPS-14 long-range height-finder radar was installed in 1958. The base was shut down in March 1963, when the 669th was moved to Vandenberg AFB In Lompoc, California. The islands still house US Navy SEALs training facilities and continues to use the Naval Auxiliary Landing Field located on San Clemente Island.[12]

The Channel Islands are part of one of the richest marine ecosystems of the world. Many unique species of plants and animals are endemic to the Channel Islands, including fauna such as the Channel Islands spotted skunk, ashy storm-petrel, Santa Cruz sheep, and flora including a unique subspecies of Torrey pine.

Flora on the Channel Islands include a unique subspecies of pine, oak, and the island tree mallow. Santa Rosa Island holds two groves of the Torrey pine subspecies Pinus torreyana var. insularis, which is endemic to the island. Torrey pines are the United States’ rarest pine species.[14] The islands also house many rare and endangered species of plants, including the island barberry, the island rushrose, and the Santa Cruz Island lace pod. Giant kelp forests surround the islands and act as a source of nutrition and protection for other animals.[15]

Invasive species, such as the Australian blue gum tree, olive tree, sweet fennel and Harding grass threaten native species through competition for light, nutrients, and water. The Australian blue gum, for example, releases toxins in its leaf litter which prevents other species of plants from growing in the soil surrounding it. The blue gum, as well as other species including the Harding grass, are much more flammable and better adapted to wildfires than native species.[16]

The Channel Islands and the waters surrounding hold many endemic species of animals, including fauna such as the Channel Islands spotted skunk, island scrub jay, ashy storm-petrel, Santa Cruz sheep, San Clemente loggerhead shrike, San Clemente sage sparrow. Many species of large marine mammals, including pacific gray whales, blue whales, humpback whales, and California sea lions breed or feed close to the Channel Islands. Current occurrences, if still happen, of the critically endangered North Pacific right whales, and historically abundant Steller’s sea lions in these areas are unknown. Seabirds, including the western gulls, bald eagles, pigeon guillemonts, and Scripps’s murrelets use the islands as well for shelter and breeding grounds. The endemic island fox is California’s smallest natural canine and has rebounded from its near extinction in the late 1990s. Several endemic reptile species including the island fence lizard, island night lizard, and Channel Islands slender salamander live on the islands.[17]

Conservation efforts are being made to maintain the islands’ endemic species. Feral livestock, including pigs, goats, and sheep, pose a threat to many of the species, including the San Clemente loggerhead shrike and Channel Islands spotted skunk. The National Park Service eradicated the feral pigs on Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz islands during the 1990s and on Santa Catalina Island in 2007.[4][18] Introduced pathogens have devastated island species due to isolation from the mainland. In 1998, an outbreak of canine distemper swept through Santa Catalina Island severely reducing the island skunk and fox populations. Rabies and distemper vaccination programs were initiated to protect the island’s wildlife. Canine distemper is thought to have been brought to the islands on a stowaway raccoon or a domestic dog.[19]

In the 1950s, bald eagles and peregrine falcons on the Channel Islands became locally extinct after widespread use of pesticides such as DDT.[20] The birds ingest contaminated fish and seabirds which poisons the adults and weakens their eggs. Golden eagles, which are natural competitors of other birds of prey, do not primarily feed on these animals and were able to colonize the islands in the early 1990s. In the early 2000s, golden eagles were live trapped and relocated.[21] In 2002 and 2006 breeding pairs of bald eagles were reintroduced to the northern islands.[22] Later in 2006, the introduced adult eagles hatched chicks on the islands for the first time since their extinction. The Channel Islands National Park established a bald eagle webcam on their website in 2007.[4]

Coordinates: 340058N 1194814W / 34.01611N 119.80389W / 34.01611; -119.80389

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Channel Islands of California – Wikipedia, the free …

Cupertino, CA – Travel and Things To Do – California Beaches

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Feb 022016
 

With a bustling technology business district, Cupertino, California is perhaps most well-known as the home of the corporate headquarters for Apple, Inc. But with many beautiful outdoor parks, miles and miles of great bicycle trails, some premier shopping centers, and special festivals being held throughout the year, there are plenty of non-technology related activities for anyone who is visiting Cupertinoto enjoy. The serene and peaceful atmosphere of the upscale city makes it a great place to visit for anyone just wanting to “escape” for a long weekend or mini-vacation.

Even though Cupertino, California is a relatively small city at just over 10 square miles, it has fourteen beautifully maintained parks that are open to the public throughout the year. Many of the parks have outdoor sports areas and picnic areas available, and children will find plenty of activites to keep them busy with top-of-the-line playground areas at almost every Cupertino park. The city is also extremely bicyclist and pedestrian friendly, with bike trails running throughout the entire town and the recently-opened Mary Avenue Bicycle Footbridge which connects the north and south sections of the bicycle trail. Fitness enthusiasts will love the moderate climate of Cupertino which permits outdoor activities during most of the year.

There are a variety of public festivals held in Cupertino throughout the year which provide great opportunities for inexpensive family fun. The Cherry Blossom Festival, held each year in April, is one of the most popular community events and is a celebration of Japanese arts & culture. In the summer, there are a series of free outdoor music concerts in the city parks, along with free outdoor movies in the month of August. December brings Cupertino’s annual Christmas tree lighting, featuring a community sing-a-long and the arrival of Santa. With a festival happening nearly every month, people travel from all around to attend these fun events.

If you like shopping or consider yourself a “foodie, ” you’ll love the shopping, restaurants, and nightlife in Cupertino, California. The city is home to more than a dozen retail shopping complexes, including many luxury fashion stores and high-end jewelry establishments like Ice Chalet. You’ll also find plenty of places to pick up necessities like Target and Wal-Mart. Restaurants in a wide-variety of price ranges are scattered throughout Cupertino, although CupertinoVillage on Wolfe Road has several of the area’s best restaurants and is a great place to meet for dinner with family & friends.

Getting to Cupertino, California is easy, as the city is conveniently located just 6 miles from the San Jose Muni-Midpoint airport and just 19 miles from the San Francisco International Airport. The city is also a short drive from Palo Alto, Santa Clara, and many other San Francisco suburbs. Visitors to Cupertino will find plenty of lodging available, from value-priced motels to high-end bed & breakfasts–and everything in between. The Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority also runs buses throughout the city, offering a convenient way to get around for travelers without a vehicle.

There is plenty to do in Cupertino, and travelers looking for some rest & relaxation should consider this beautiful, quiet city as a destination for their next vacation. Many people who visit end up falling in love with the city, and once you visit, you may just find that you do too!

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Rhode Island Beaches – Providence & Warwick Where to Visit

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Jan 252016
 

This recreation area offers views of scenic Narragansett Bay. The point is a sandy spit jutting out into Narragansett Bay toward Conimicut Lighthouse. On the south side of the point is a sandy beach ideal for sunbathing and swimming. The rotary at the point provides parking close to the beach and there is a ramp for handicap access to the paved walk around the rotary, the beach, and the grassy picnic area. Shellfishing on the point is prohibited due to pollution. Amenities: Picnic sites, playground, restrooms, boat access, wheelchair access. Season/Hours: Dawn dusk

This historic parks beach is family-friendly, surrounded by walking trails, and easy to access. The waves are generally calm. This is an excellent facility for the handicapped and those with bikes or strollers because there are benches and a boardwalk extending the length of the beach along Brush Neck Cove. Amenities: Sports facilities, playground, bicycle trails, dog park, picnic site, shelters, restrooms, snack bar, wheelchair access, trash receptacles. Season/Hours: Summer, dawn dusk Fees: Small admission fee in summer.

Oakland Beach Avenue Warwick, RI, 02889 Phone: 401-738-2000

Located at the southern end of Oakland Beach Avenue, off Route 117 East on Greenwich Bay. This wide, sandy beach extends 900 feet along the shore and provides a shallow swimming area. Lifeguards on duty during summer. The shoreline is designed to contain sand and prevent erosion. Visitors can walk the rocky shoreline, fish, or swim. Amenities: Picnic site, trash receptacles, wheelchair-accessible dock, boat ramps on Bay Avenue, ball field, snack bar, restrooms. Season/Hours: Summer, dawn dusk Fees: Small parking and admission fees.

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Rhode Island Beaches – Providence & Warwick Where to Visit

Nihilism – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Jan 202016
 

Nihilism ( or ; from the Latin nihil, nothing) is a philosophical doctrine that suggests the lack of belief in one or more reputedly meaningful aspects of life. Most commonly, nihilism is presented in the form of existential nihilism, which argues that life is without objective meaning, purpose, or intrinsic value.[1]Moral nihilists assert that morality does not inherently exist, and that any established moral values are abstractly contrived. Nihilism can also take epistemological or ontological/metaphysical forms, meaning respectively that, in some aspect, knowledge is not possible, or that reality does not actually exist.

The term is sometimes used in association with anomie to explain the general mood of despair at a perceived pointlessness of existence that one may develop upon realising there are no necessary norms, rules, or laws.[2] Movements such as Futurism and deconstruction,[3] among others, have been identified by commentators[who?] as “nihilistic”.

Nihilism is also a characteristic that has been ascribed to time periods: for example, Jean Baudrillard and others have called postmodernity a nihilistic epoch,[4] and some Christian theologians and figures of religious authority have asserted that postmodernity[5] and many aspects of modernity[3] represent a rejection of theism, and that such rejection of their theistic doctrine entails nihilism.

Nihilism has many definitions, and thus can describe philosophical positions that are arguably independent.

Metaphysical nihilism is the philosophical theory that concrete objects and physical constructs might not exist in the possible world, or that even if there exist possible worlds that contain some concrete objects, there is at least one that contains only abstract objects.

An extreme form of metaphysical nihilism is commonly defined as the belief that nothing exists as a correspondent component of the self-efficient world.[6] The American Heritage Medical Dictionary defines one form of nihilism as “an extreme form of skepticism that denies all existence.”[7] A similar position can be found in solipsism; however, the solipsist affirms whereas the nihilist would deny the self.[8] Both these positions are considered forms of anti-realism.[9]

Epistemological nihilism is a form of skepticism in which all knowledge is accepted as possibly untrue or unable to be known. Additionally, morality is seen as subjective or false.[10]

Mereological nihilism (also called compositional nihilism) is the position that objects with proper parts do not exist (not only objects in space, but also objects existing in time do not have any temporal parts), and only basic building blocks without parts exist, and thus the world we see and experience full of objects with parts is a product of human misperception (i.e., if we could see clearly, we would not perceive compositive objects).

This interpretation of existence must be based on resolution. The resolution with which humans see and perceive the “improper parts” of the world is not an objective fact of reality, but is rather an implicit trait that can only be qualitatively explored and expressed. Therefore, there is no arguable way to surmise or measure the validity of mereological nihilism. Example: An ant can get lost on a large cylindrical object because the circumference of the object is so large with respect to the ant that the ant effectively feels as though the object has no curvature. Thus, the resolution with which the ant views the world it exists “within” is a very important determining factor in how the ant experiences this “within the world” feeling.

Existential nihilism is the belief that life has no intrinsic meaning or value. With respect to the universe, existential nihilism posits that a single human or even the entire human species is insignificant, without purpose and unlikely to change in the totality of existence. The meaninglessness of life is largely explored in the philosophical school of existentialism.

Moral nihilism, also known as ethical nihilism, is the meta-ethical view that morality does not exist as something inherent to objective reality; therefore no action is necessarily preferable to any other. For example, a moral nihilist would say that killing someone, for whatever reason, is not inherently right or wrong.

Other nihilists may argue not that there is no morality at all, but that if it does exist, it is a human construction and thus artificial, wherein any and all meaning is relative for different possible outcomes. As an example, if someone kills someone else, such a nihilist might argue that killing is not inherently a bad thing, or bad independently from our moral beliefs, because of the way morality is constructed as some rudimentary dichotomy. What is said to be a bad thing is given a higher negative weighting than what is called good: as a result, killing the individual was bad because it did not let the individual live, which was arbitrarily given a positive weighting. In this way a moral nihilist believes that all moral claims are void of any truth value. An alternative scholarly perspective is that moral nihilism is a morality in itself. Cooper writes, “In the widest sense of the word ‘morality’, moral nihilism is a morality.”[11]

Political nihilism, a branch of nihilism, follows the characteristic nihilist’s rejection of non-rationalized or non-proven assertions; in this case the necessity of the most fundamental social and political structures, such as government, family, and law. An influential analysis of political nihilism is presented by Leo Strauss.[12]

The Russian Nihilist movement was a Russian trend in the 1860s that rejected all authority.[13] Their name derives from the Latin nihil, meaning “nothing”. After the assassination of Tsar Alexander II in 1881, the Nihilists gained a reputation throughout Europe as proponents of the use of violence for political change.[citation needed] The Nihilists expressed anger at what they described as the abusive nature of the Eastern Orthodox Church and of the tsarist monarchy, and at the domination of the Russian economy by the aristocracy. Although the term Nihilist was first popularised by the German theologian Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi (17431818), its widespread usage began with the 1862 novel Fathers and Sons by the Russian author Ivan Turgenev. The main character of the novel, Eugene Bazarov, who describes himself as a Nihilist, wants to educate the people. The “go to the people be the people” campaign reached its height in the 1870s, during which underground groups such as the Circle of Tchaikovsky, the People’s Will, and Land and Liberty formed. It became known as the Narodnik movement, whose members believed that the newly freed serfs were merely being sold into wage slavery in the onset of the Industrial Revolution, and that the middle and upper classes had effectively replaced landowners. The Russian state attempted to suppress them[who?]. In actions described by the Nihilists as propaganda of the deed many government officials were assassinated. In 1881 Alexander II was killed on the very day he had approved a proposal to call a representative assembly to consider new reforms.

The term nihilism was first used by Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi (17431819). Jacobi used the term to characterize rationalism[14] and in particular Immanuel Kant’s “critical” philosophy to carry out a reductio ad absurdum according to which all rationalism (philosophy as criticism) reduces to nihilismand thus it should be avoided and replaced with a return to some type of faith and revelation. Bret W. Davis writes, for example, “The first philosophical development of the idea of nihilism is generally ascribed to Friedrich Jacobi, who in a famous letter criticized Fichte’s idealism as falling into nihilism. According to Jacobi, Fichtes absolutization of the ego (the ‘absolute I’ that posits the ‘not-I’) is an inflation of subjectivity that denies the absolute transcendence of God.”[15] A related but oppositional concept is fideism, which sees reason as hostile and inferior to faith.

With the popularizing of the word nihilism by Ivan Turgenev, a new Russian political movement called the Nihilist movement adopted the term. They supposedly called themselves nihilists because nothing “that then existed found favor in their eyes”.[16]

Sren Kierkegaard (18131855) posited an early form of nihilism, to which he referred as levelling.[17] He saw levelling as the process of suppressing individuality to a point where the individual’s uniqueness becomes non-existent and nothing meaningful in his existence can be affirmed:

Levelling at its maximum is like the stillness of death, where one can hear one’s own heartbeat, a stillness like death, into which nothing can penetrate, in which everything sinks, powerless. One person can head a rebellion, but one person cannot head this levelling process, for that would make him a leader and he would avoid being levelled. Each individual can in his little circle participate in this levelling, but it is an abstract process, and levelling is abstraction conquering individuality.

Kierkegaard, an advocate of a philosophy of life, generally argued against levelling and its nihilist consequence, although he believed it would be “genuinely educative to live in the age of levelling [because] people will be forced to face the judgement of [levelling] alone.”[18] George Cotkin asserts Kierkegaard was against “the standardization and levelling of belief, both spiritual and political, in the nineteenth century [and he] opposed tendencies in mass culture to reduce the individual to a cipher of conformity and deference to the dominant opinion.”[19] In his day, tabloids (like the Danish magazine Corsaren) and apostate Christianity were instruments of levelling and contributed to the “reflective apathetic age” of 19th century Europe.[20] Kierkegaard argues that individuals who can overcome the levelling process are stronger for it and that it represents a step in the right direction towards “becoming a true self.”[18][21] As we must overcome levelling,[22]Hubert Dreyfus and Jane Rubin argue that Kierkegaard’s interest, “in an increasingly nihilistic age, is in how we can recover the sense that our lives are meaningful”.[23]

Note however that Kierkegaard’s meaning of “nihilism” differs from the modern definition in the sense that, for Kierkegaard, levelling led to a life lacking meaning, purpose or value,[20] whereas the modern interpretation of nihilism posits that there was never any meaning, purpose or value to begin with.

Nihilism is often associated with the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, who provided a detailed diagnosis of nihilism as a widespread phenomenon of Western culture. Though the notion appears frequently throughout Nietzsche’s work, he uses the term in a variety of ways, with different meanings and connotations, all negative[citation needed]. Karen Carr describes Nietzsche’s characterization of nihilism “as a condition of tension, as a disproportion between what we want to value (or need) and how the world appears to operate.”[24] When we find out that the world does not possess the objective value or meaning that we want it to have or have long since believed it to have, we find ourselves in a crisis.[25] Nietzsche asserts that with the decline of Christianity and the rise of physiological decadence,[clarification needed] nihilism is in fact characteristic of the modern age,[26] though he implies that the rise of nihilism is still incomplete and that it has yet to be overcome.[27] Though the problem of nihilism becomes especially explicit in Nietzsche’s notebooks (published posthumously), it is mentioned repeatedly in his published works and is closely connected to many of the problems mentioned there.

Nietzsche characterized nihilism as emptying the world and especially human existence of meaning, purpose, comprehensible truth, or essential value. This observation stems in part from Nietzsche’s perspectivism, or his notion that “knowledge” is always by someone of some thing: it is always bound by perspective, and it is never mere fact.[28] Rather, there are interpretations through which we understand the world and give it meaning. Interpreting is something we can not go without; in fact, it is something we need. One way of interpreting the world is through morality, as one of the fundamental ways that people make sense of the world, especially in regard to their own thoughts and actions. Nietzsche distinguishes a morality that is strong or healthy, meaning that the person in question is aware that he constructs it himself, from weak morality, where the interpretation is projected on to something external. Regardless of its strength, morality presents us with meaning, whether this is created or ‘implanted,’ which helps us get through life.[29]

Nietzsche discusses Christianity, one of the major topics in his work, at length in the context of the problem of nihilism in his notebooks, in a chapter entitled “European Nihilism”.[30] Here he states that the Christian moral doctrine provides people with intrinsic value, belief in God (which justifies the evil in the world) and a basis for objective knowledge. In this sense, in constructing a world where objective knowledge is possible, Christianity is an antidote against a primal form of nihilism, against the despair of meaninglessness. However, it is exactly the element of truthfulness in Christian doctrine that is its undoing: in its drive towards truth, Christianity eventually finds itself to be a construct, which leads to its own dissolution. It is therefore that Nietzsche states that we have outgrown Christianity “not because we lived too far from it, rather because we lived too close”.[31] As such, the self-dissolution of Christianity constitutes yet another form of nihilism. Because Christianity was an interpretation that posited itself as the interpretation, Nietzsche states that this dissolution leads beyond skepticism to a distrust of all meaning.[32][33]

Stanley Rosen identifies Nietzsche’s concept of nihilism with a situation of meaninglessness, in which “everything is permitted.” According to him, the loss of higher metaphysical values that exist in contrast to the base reality of the world, or merely human ideas, gives rise to the idea that all human ideas are therefore valueless. Rejecting idealism thus results in nihilism, because only similarly transcendent ideals live up to the previous standards that the nihilist still implicitly holds.[34] The inability for Christianity to serve as a source of valuating the world is reflected in Nietzsche’s famous aphorism of the madman in The Gay Science.[35] The death of God, in particular the statement that “we killed him”, is similar to the self-dissolution of Christian doctrine: due to the advances of the sciences, which for Nietzsche show that man is the product of evolution, that Earth has no special place among the stars and that history is not progressive, the Christian notion of God can no longer serve as a basis for a morality.

One such reaction to the loss of meaning is what Nietzsche calls passive nihilism, which he recognises in the pessimistic philosophy of Schopenhauer. Schopenhauer’s doctrine, which Nietzsche also refers to as Western Buddhism, advocates a separating of oneself from will and desires in order to reduce suffering. Nietzsche characterises this ascetic attitude as a “will to nothingness”, whereby life turns away from itself, as there is nothing of value to be found in the world. This mowing away of all value in the world is characteristic of the nihilist, although in this, the nihilist appears inconsistent:[36]

A nihilist is a man who judges of the world as it is that it ought not to be, and of the world as it ought to be that it does not exist. According to this view, our existence (action, suffering, willing, feeling) has no meaning: the pathos of ‘in vain’ is the nihilists’ pathos at the same time, as pathos, an inconsistency on the part of the nihilists.

Nietzsche’s relation to the problem of nihilism is a complex one. He approaches the problem of nihilism as deeply personal, stating that this predicament of the modern world is a problem that has “become conscious” in him.[37] Furthermore, he emphasises both the danger of nihilism and the possibilities it offers, as seen in his statement that “I praise, I do not reproach, [nihilism’s] arrival. I believe it is one of the greatest crises, a moment of the deepest self-reflection of humanity. Whether man recovers from it, whether he becomes master of this crisis, is a question of his strength!”[38] According to Nietzsche, it is only when nihilism is overcome that a culture can have a true foundation upon which to thrive. He wished to hasten its coming only so that he could also hasten its ultimate departure.[26]

He states that there is at least the possibility of another type of nihilist in the wake of Christianity’s self-dissolution, one that does not stop after the destruction of all value and meaning and succumb to the following nothingness. This alternate, ‘active’ nihilism on the other hand destroys to level the field for constructing something new. This form of nihilism is characterized by Nietzsche as “a sign of strength,”[39] a wilful destruction of the old values to wipe the slate clean and lay down one’s own beliefs and interpretations, contrary to the passive nihilism that resigns itself with the decomposition of the old values. This wilful destruction of values and the overcoming of the condition of nihilism by the constructing of new meaning, this active nihilism, could be related to what Nietzsche elsewhere calls a ‘free spirit'[40] or the bermensch from Thus Spoke Zarathustra and The Antichrist, the model of the strong individual who posits his own values and lives his life as if it were his own work of art. It may be questioned, though, whether “active nihilism” is indeed the correct term for this stance, and some question whether Nietzsche takes the problems nihilism poses seriously enough.[41]

Martin Heidegger’s interpretation of Nietzsche influenced many postmodern thinkers who investigated the problem of nihilism as put forward by Nietzsche. Only recently has Heidegger’s influence on Nietzschean nihilism research faded.[42] As early as the 1930s, Heidegger was giving lectures on Nietzsches thought.[43] Given the importance of Nietzsches contribution to the topic of nihilism, Heidegger’s influential interpretation of Nietzsche is important for the historical development of the term nihilism.

Heidegger’s method of researching and teaching Nietzsche is explicitly his own. He does not specifically try to present Nietzsche as Nietzsche. He rather tries to incorporate Nietzsche’s thoughts into his own philosophical system of Being, Time and Dasein.[44] In his Nihilism as Determined by the History of Being (194446),[45] Heidegger tries to understand Nietzsches nihilism as trying to achieve a victory through the devaluation of the, until then, highest values. The principle of this devaluation is, according to Heidegger, the Will to Power. The Will to Power is also the principle of every earlier valuation of values.[46] How does this devaluation occur and why is this nihilistic? One of Heidegger’s main critiques on philosophy is that philosophy, and more specifically metaphysics, has forgotten to discriminate between investigating the notion of a Being (Seiende) and Being (Sein). According to Heidegger, the history of Western thought can be seen as the history of metaphysics. And because metaphysics has forgotten to ask about the notion of Being (what Heidegger calls Seinsvergessenheit), it is a history about the destruction of Being. That is why Heidegger calls metaphysics nihilistic.[47] This makes Nietzsches metaphysics not a victory over nihilism, but a perfection of it.[48]

Heidegger, in his interpretation of Nietzsche, has been inspired by Ernst Jnger. Many references to Jnger can be found in Heidegger’s lectures on Nietzsche. For example, in a letter to the rector of Freiburg University of November 4, 1945, Heidegger, inspired by Jnger, tries to explain the notion of God is dead as the reality of the Will to Power. Heidegger also praises Jnger for defending Nietzsche against a too biological or anthropological reading during the Third Reich.[49]

Heidegger’s interpretation of Nietzsche influenced a number of important postmodernist thinkers. Gianni Vattimo points at a back-and-forth movement in European thought, between Nietzsche and Heidegger. During the 1960s, a Nietzschean ‘renaissance’ began, culminating in the work of Mazzino Montinari and Giorgio Colli. They began work on a new and complete edition of Nietzsche’s collected works, making Nietzsche more accessible for scholarly research. Vattimo explains that with this new edition of Colli and Montinari, a critical reception of Heidegger’s interpretation of Nietzsche began to take shape. Like other contemporary French and Italian philosophers, Vattimo does not want, or only partially wants, to rely on Heidegger for understanding Nietzsche. On the other hand, Vattimo judges Heidegger’s intentions authentic enough to keep pursuing them.[50] Philosophers who Vattimo exemplifies as a part of this back and forth movement are French philosophers Deleuze, Foucault and Derrida. Italian philosophers of this same movement are Cacciari, Severino and himself.[51]Habermas, Lyotard and Rorty are also philosophers who are influenced by Heidegger’s interpretation of Nietzsche.[52]

Postmodern and poststructuralist thought question the very grounds on which Western cultures have based their ‘truths’: absolute knowledge and meaning, a ‘decentralization’ of authorship, the accumulation of positive knowledge, historical progress, and certain ideals and practices of humanism and the Enlightenment.

Jacques Derrida, whose deconstruction is perhaps most commonly labeled nihilistic, did not himself make the nihilistic move that others have claimed. Derridean deconstructionists argue that this approach rather frees texts, individuals or organizations from a restrictive truth, and that deconstruction opens up the possibility of other ways of being.[53]Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, for example, uses deconstruction to create an ethics of opening up Western scholarship to the voice of the subaltern and to philosophies outside of the canon of western texts.[54] Derrida himself built a philosophy based upon a ‘responsibility to the other’.[55] Deconstruction can thus be seen not as a denial of truth, but as a denial of our ability to know truth (it makes an epistemological claim compared to nihilism’s ontological claim).

Lyotard argues that, rather than relying on an objective truth or method to prove their claims, philosophers legitimize their truths by reference to a story about the world that can’t be separated from the age and system the stories belong toreferred to by Lyotard as meta-narratives. He then goes on to define the postmodern condition as characterized by a rejection both of these meta-narratives and of the process of legitimation by meta-narratives. “In lieu of meta-narratives we have created new language-games in order to legitimize our claims which rely on changing relationships and mutable truths, none of which is privileged over the other to speak to ultimate truth.”[citation needed] This concept of the instability of truth and meaning leads in the direction of nihilism, though Lyotard stops short of embracing the latter.

Postmodern theorist Jean Baudrillard wrote briefly of nihilism from the postmodern viewpoint in Simulacra and Simulation. He stuck mainly to topics of interpretations of the real world over the simulations of which the real world is composed. The uses of meaning was an important subject in Baudrillard’s discussion of nihilism:

The apocalypse is finished, today it is the precession of the neutral, of forms of the neutral and of indifferenceall that remains, is the fascination for desertlike and indifferent forms, for the very operation of the system that annihilates us. Now, fascination (in contrast to seduction, which was attached to appearances, and to dialectical reason, which was attached to meaning) is a nihilistic passion par excellence, it is the passion proper to the mode of disappearance. We are fascinated by all forms of disappearance, of our disappearance. Melancholic and fascinated, such is our general situation in an era of involuntary transparency.

In Nihil Unbound: Extinction and Enlightenment, Ray Brassier maintains that philosophy has avoided the traumatic idea of extinction, instead attempting to find meaning in a world conditioned by the very idea of its own annihilation. Thus Brassier critiques both the phenomenological and hermeneutic strands of Continental philosophy as well as the vitality of thinkers like Gilles Deleuze, who work to ingrain meaning in the world and stave off the threat of nihilism. Instead, drawing on thinkers such as Alain Badiou, Franois Laruelle, Paul Churchland, and Thomas Metzinger, Brassier defends a view of the world as inherently devoid of meaning. That is, rather than avoiding nihilism, Brassier embraces it as the truth of reality. Brassier concludes from his readings of Badiou and Laruelle that the universe is founded on the nothing,[56] but also that philosophy is the “organon of extinction,” that it is only because life is conditioned by its own extinction that there is thought at all.[57] Brassier then defends a radically anti-correlationist philosophy proposing that Thought is conjoined not with Being, but with Non-Being.

The term Dada was first used by Richard Huelsenbeck and Tristan Tzara in 1916.[58] The movement, which lasted from approximately 1916 to 1922, arose during World War I, an event that influenced the artists.[59] The Dada Movement began in Zrich, Switzerland known as the “Niederdorf” or “Niederdrfli” in the Caf Voltaire.[60] The Dadaists claimed that Dada was not an art movement, but an anti-art movement, sometimes using found objects in a manner similar to found poetry. The “anti-art” drive is thought to have stemmed from a post-war emptiness. This tendency toward devaluation of art has led many to claim that Dada was an essentially nihilistic movement. Given that Dada created its own means for interpreting its products, it is difficult to classify alongside most other contemporary art expressions. Hence, due to its ambiguity, it is sometimes classified as a nihilistic modus vivendi.[59]

The term “nihilism” was actually popularized by Ivan Turgenev in his novel Fathers and Sons, whose hero, Bazarov, was a nihilist and recruited several followers to the philosophy. He found his nihilistic ways challenged upon falling in love.[61]

Anton Chekhov portrayed nihilism when writing Three Sisters. The phrase “what does it matter” or such variants is often spoken by several characters in response to events; the significance of some of these events suggests a subscription to nihilism by said characters as a type of coping strategy.

Ayn Rand vehemently denounced nihilism as an abdication of rationality and the pursuit of happiness which she regarded as life’s moral purpose. As such, most villains are depicted as moral nihilists including Ellsworth Monckton Toohey in The Fountainhead who is a self-aware nihilist and the corrupt government in Atlas Shrugged who are unconsciously driven by nihilism which has taken root in the books depiction of American society with the fictional slang phrase “Who is John Galt?” being used as a defeatist way of saying “Who knows?” or “What does it matter?” by characters in the book who have essentially given up on life.[citation needed]

The philosophical ideas of the French author, the Marquis de Sade, are often noted as early examples of nihilistic principles.[citation needed]

In Act III of Shostakovich’s opera “Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District”, a nihilist is tormented by the Russian police.[citation needed]

A 2007 article in The Guardian noted that “…in the summer of 1977, …punk’s nihilistic swagger was the most thrilling thing in England.”[62] The Sex Pistols’ God Save The Queen, with its chant-like refrain of “no future”, became a slogan for unemployed and disaffected youth during the late 1970s. Their song Pretty Vacant is also a prime example of the band’s nihilistic outlook. Other influential punk rock and proto-punk bands to adopt nihilistic themes include The Velvet Underground, The Stooges, Misfits, Ramones, Johnny Thunders and the Heartbreakers, Richard Hell and the Voidoids, Suicide and Black Flag.[63]

Industrial, black metal, death metal, and doom metal music often emphasize nihilistic themes. Explorers of nihilistic themes in heavy metal include Black Sabbath, Metallica, Marilyn Manson, Slayer, KMFDM, Opeth, Alice in Chains, Godflesh, Celtic Frost, Ministry, Autopsy, Dismember, Motrhead, Nine Inch Nails, Bathory, Darkthrone, Emperor, Tool, Meshuggah, Candlemass, Morbid Saint, Kreator, Morbid Angel, Sepultura, Exodus, Entombed, Death, Mayhem, Nevermore, Dark Angel, Dissection, Nihilist, Weakling, Obituary, Electric Wizard, Eyehategod, Pantera, Sleep, Xasthur, At the Gates and the band Turbonegro have a song called TNA (The Nihilistic Army), which is solely in reference to outlying principles of nihilism.[64][65][66]

In 2014 is composed the first opera (Demandolx) carrying the expression of “Nihilist Opera”, using classical, modern and electronic instruments and following some drastic different rules, musically and theoretically.

Three of the antagonists in the 1998 movie The Big Lebowski are explicitly described as “nihilists,” but are not shown exhibiting any explicitly nihilistic traits during the film. Regarding the nihilists, the character Walter Sobchak comments “Nihilists! Fuck me. I mean, say what you want about the tenets of National Socialism, Dude, at least it’s an ethos.” [67] The 1999 film The Matrix portrays the character Thomas A. Anderson with a hollowed out copy of Baudrillard’s treatise, Simulacra and Simulation, in which he stores contraband data files under the chapter “On Nihilism.” The main antagonist Agent Smith is also depicted frequently as a nihilist, with him ranting about how all of peace, justice and love were meaningless in The Matrix Revolutions.[68] The 1999 film Fight Club also features concepts relating to Nihilism by exploring the contrasts between the artificial values imposed by consumerism in relation to the more meaningful pursuit of spiritual happiness.

In keeping with his comic book depiction, The Joker is portrayed as a nihilist in The Dark Knight, describing himself as “an Agent of Chaos” and at one point burning a gigantic pile of money stating that crime is “not about money, it’s about sending a message: everything burns.” Alfred Pennyworth states, regarding the Joker, “Some men aren’t looking for anything logical, like moneythey can’t be bought, bullied, reasoned or negotiated withsome men just want to watch the world burn.”[69]

The character from Star Wars: Knights of the Old Republic II The Sith Lords, a dark lord named Darth Nihilus was a reference to the Nihilism ideology as he devoured entire planets and did not care for living things at all.[citation needed]

Although the character Barthandelus from Final Fantasy XIII is not referred to as nihilistic in the game itself, he is referred to as such in the Fighting Fate entry for Theatrhythm Final Fantasy.[70]

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Jan 182016
 

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7 Amazing Pennsylvania Beaches You Must Visit This Summer

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Jan 162016
 

PA

Pennsylvania may be landlocked, but that doesnt mean it isnt home to some awesome beaches. Our many lakes and reservoirs grant us access to the water in a special way, especially the 11 beaches along Lake Erie in Presque Isle State Park. Read on to discover the best sandy getaways in our state for this summer

1. Black Moshannon State Park, Rush Township

The quaint beach at Black Moshannon State Park is located within proximity of the largest bog in Pennsylvania.

2. Bald Eagle State Park, Centre County

The Joseph Foster Sayers Reservoir is a man-made lake located in Bald Eagle State Park. It has a beautiful beach where you can kick back and relax.

3. Presque Isle State Park, Erie

Presque Isle State Park, along Lake Erie, has not one, but 11 beautiful beaches for you to enjoy.

4. Poe Valley State Park, Penn

Poe Lake is a manmade lake that was created during the Great Depression.

5. Harveys Lake, Wilkes-Barre

Harvey’s Lake is the largest naturally occurring lake that is contained entirely in the state of Pennsylvania.

6. Beltzville State Park, Carbon County

Not pictured: the beach. I promise it exists, though, all glistening 525 feet of sandy beach, complete with showers and a snack bar.

7. Mt. Gretna Lake & Beach, Lebanon

Mt. Gretna is a gorgeous beach that often hosts events such as birthday parties and day camps. There is an admission fee.

Though these beaches all look fun, it is somewhat difficult to locate more beaches in our state. What other ones do you know of? Tell me about them in the comments below!

Christi is from Allentown and currently lives and goes to school in Pittsburgh.

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7 Amazing Pennsylvania Beaches You Must Visit This Summer

Pennsylvania Beaches, Lake Erie, Presque Isle, State Park Beaches

 Beaches  Comments Off on Pennsylvania Beaches, Lake Erie, Presque Isle, State Park Beaches
Jan 162016
 

MAIN Beaches US Pennsylvania Beaches

Beaches? In Pennsylvania?

Normally, Philadelphians will usually just head to Cape May and the Jersey Shore for the summer. Head west, however, and you’ll soon discover some of the East Coast’s best shorelines in Pennsylvania.

From Pocono Mountain beaches to the beautiful seven mile stretch of shoreline in Presque Isle State Park (pictured)…. the Keystone State has a lock on summer fun.

Near the state’s other big metro area, Pittsburgh, Raccoon Creek State Park is an hour away with a lakefront beach that’s open all summer long. Head north from Pittsburgh, and Moraine State Park encompasses one of the state’s best lake beaches, Lake Arthur, offering 42 miles of shoreline to help beat the heat.

Of course, these are only a couple of mentions to start your summer fling in the Keystone State. Just up ahead, find lots more information on where to cool down when temperatures begin to rise in Pennsylvania.

Have fun!

DID YOU KNOW? Pennsylvania beach fun facts:

The Pocono Mountains are home to 150 lakes, some with sandy beaches. Some of the most popular include Beltzville State Park in the southern foothills, Gouldsboro Lake and Tobyhanna Lake, and Mauch Chunk Lake Park.

Due to the gentle Lake Erie surf that washes the coast, the seven miles of beachfront on Presque Isle are often dubbed the state’s only natural “seashore”.

Camelback Mountain isn’t just for Pennsylvania skiing anymore. If you can’t get to the beach, Try the Camelbeach Mountain Water Park, the largest water park in the state.

also see -> Pennsylvania tourism | PA campgrounds

More about Pennsylvania beaches around the Web:

– Read this USA Today guide for a good overview of where to go in summer with information on places to cool off in the Poconos, Hills Creek State Park, and Pine Grove Furnace State Park.

Best Pennsylvania Beaches – The best beaches to head for at Presque Isle with great overviews of Budny Beach and Pine Tree Beach.

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Pennsylvania Beaches, Lake Erie, Presque Isle, State Park Beaches

Beach Information | Beaufort.com

 Beaches  Comments Off on Beach Information | Beaufort.com
Jan 112016
 

HUNTING ISLAND STATE PARK

Hunting Island is South Carolinas single most popular state park, attracting more than a million human visitors a year.

Also attracted to the semi-tropical barrier island is an array of wildlife, ranging from loggerhead sea turtles to painted buntings, barracudas to sea horses, alligators, pelicans, dolphins and deer, raccoons, Eastern diamondback rattlesnakes and even the rare coral snake.

What they all enjoy is five miles of beach, thousands of acres of marsh, tidal creeks and maritime forest, a saltwater lagoon and ocean inlet. Amenities include a fishing pier and some of the states most desirable campsites.

Adding to the natural history of the big park is a piece of man-made history: South Carolinas only publicly accessible historic lighthouse. Dating from the 1870s, the Hunting Island Lighthouse shoots 170 feet into the air, giving those who scale its heights a breathtaking view of the sweeping Lowcountry marshland and the Atlantic Ocean.

GENERAL:

Designation: Hunting Island State Park was developed by the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), a New Deal Program created by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The program was designed to provide employment during the Great Depression while addressing national needs in conservation and recreation.The CCC was instrumental in the development of many of South Carolinas state parks. A number of buildings built by the CCC in the 1930s are still in use at this park.The park is listed on the National Register. Counties: Beaufort Acreage: 5000 When & How PRT Acquired: Donated in 1938 from Beaufort County Pets: Pets are not allowed in the cabins or the cabin areas. Pets are allowed in most other outdoor areas provided they are kept under physical restraint or on a leash not longer than six feet. Tour and Programs Information: Barrier Island educational programs and tours of the historic lighthouse complex are held March through November. There is a $2/person charge to climb the lighthouse and you must be at least 44 tall to do so. For additional program information contact the nature center at 843-838-7437. Significant Natural Features: Hunting Island is always changing. Migrating creatures in air and sea come and go with the seasons, and the natural forces of erosion constantly re-shape the island.In addition to some 3,000 acres of salt marsh and more than four miles of beach, a large lagoon, created by sand dredging in 1968, has become a natural wonderland and home to such unexpected species as seahorses and barracuda.The parks upland areas contain one of the states best examples of semi-tropical maritime forest, ancient sand dunes now dominated by such vegetation as slash pines, cabbage palmetto (the state tree) and live oak. Animal visitors include loggerhead turtles, which nest on the island in the summer months. On dry land and in and around freshwater ponds can be found deer and alligators, raccoons and even eastern diamondback rattlesnakes. Hundreds of species of birds also are resident on or visit Hunting Island, including painted buntings, tanagers and orioles, along with pelicans, oystercatchers, skimmers and terns, herons, egrets and wood storks. Pay Phone on Site: Yes

HOURS:

Admissions: $5/adult; $3.25 SC seniors; $3/ child age 6-15; Free for children 5 and younger. Office Hours: M-Fri 9am-5pm Sat&Sun 11am-5pm Days and Hours of Operation: M-Su 6am-6pm (extended to 9pm during Daylight Savings Time)

LOCATION:

Driving Directions: From I-95: Take Hwy 21 E. toward Beaufort. Drive 42 mi. Hwy 21 ends at the park. Beach Location: Yes Miles to Nearest Hospital: 17 Miles to Nearest Town: 17 Miles to Nearest Grocery Store: 14

MILES TO:

Charleston, SC: 85 Columbia, SC: 150 Florence, SC: 168 Greenville, SC: 236 Charlotte, NC: 236 Raleigh, NC: 317 Atlanta, GA: 282 Augusta, GA: 135 Savannah, GA: 56

MONTHLY AVERAGE AIR & OCEAN TEMPERATURES:

January Air 59 Ocean 52 February Air 61 Ocean 54 March Air 67 Ocean 59 April Air 76 Ocean 67 May Air 82 Ocean 75 June Air 86 Ocean 82 July Air 89 Ocean 84 August Air 89 Ocean 84 September Air 84 Ocean 80 October Air 77 Ocean 73 November Air 69 Ocean 63 December Air 61 Ocean 54

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Beach Information | Beaufort.com

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Mississippi Vacation – Mississippi Travel

 Beaches  Comments Off on Mississippi Vacation – Mississippi Travel
Dec 252015
 

Each season in Mississippi has its pluses and minuses just as most destinations do. Your own interests and hopes for a vacation away from home will help to determine when to take your Mississippi vacation. Autumn is a really nice time for Mississippi travel and many areas along the river will boast wonderful colors, abundant wildlife and plenty of activities. When planning to travel during the Thanksgiving holiday or Labor Day it’s best to make travel arrangements ahead of time, especially for transportation and also hotel accommodation.

When To Go

Both Fall and spring in Natchez are especially fun as this is when the Natchez Pilgrimage Tours happen. The Fall Pilgrimage of Homes includes affluent mansions, historic plantations and beautiful southern belles which exemplify America’s deep south and Civil War era history. Most of the striking homes that take part in the tour are private homes that only open up to the public during the pilgrimages which begin in September and run for a month. Book Natchez hotels well ahead of time and consider a Mississippi tour along the river to round out a trip.

The winter months are the best time for a Mississippi fishing trip and Red Fish and Crappies are the best catches. Forget any ideas of ice fishing! The Mississippi winter months are a temperate time of year making a trip on the water extremely pleasant. When fishing in saltwater the Redfish swim along the shallow parts of the shoreline looking for a meal of shrimp, crabs and small minnows. A Mississippi River vacation is ideal for fishing as well. The low levels of water running down to the Gulf Coast create excellent opportunities for a good catch.

A popular Mississippi river vacation choice is a houseboat rental which can be had anytime of year. Catering to both anglers and non-anglers this type of holiday provides something for everyone including sightseeing, swimming, fishing and more. If your Mississippi River vacation destination is anywhere near Natchez don’t miss The Great Mississippi River Balloon Race which happens every year at the end of October and features colorful hot air balloon races.

A Mississippi fishing trip can be taken anywhere along the Mississippi River or in the south along the Gulf Coast for saltwater fishing. A saltwater trip can see you catching the likes of Shark, Red Snapper, Trout, King Mackerel and more. When discovering the Gulf Coast during the winter pair your Mississippi fishing trip with a tour of the coastal highway. Head to Biloxi and try your hand at gaming. Biloxi casinos are some of the best in the state and offer the most up-to-date machines and table games along with world-class accommodations and dining.

Spring is a beautiful time for Mississippi travel and sees less action from the masses. The temperatures are pleasant and the Gulf Coast normally sees higher temperatures than the rest of the state year-round. If your Mississippi vacation is during the spring one of the best places to head to is Tupelo. The annual festivals and events in Tupelo create a fun backdrop to any trip. Though small in size the town is big on excitement during this time of year where the small-town festivals offer excellent southern hospitality. For car-lovers the Big Suede Cruise kicks off at the beginning of May with plenty of exceptional classic cars, entertainment great southern fare.

Summer is the best time to enjoy the Gulf Islands National Seashore or any place along the Gulf Coast. This is the best time of year to explore the coastal Mississippi beaches or a trip to Ship Island. Temperatures get extremely hot and many opt for waterpark adventures to cool off during Mississippi travel in the summer. Both Geyser Falls Waterpark northeast of Jackson and Gulf Island Waterpark between Gulfport and Biloxi offer a huge amount of wild water fun for the entire family.

Mississippi’s climate is defined by warm months with the absence of any extreme cold temperatures. Summer months can be extremely hot yet it’s still the most popular time of year for a Mississippi vacation. A Mississippi River vacation is ideal in the summer and perfect for cooling off when away from the Gulf Coast waters. Be sure to find out about the many exciting events and festivals happening all over the state and head on over to experience local hospitality at its best.

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Mississippi Vacation – Mississippi Travel

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