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Blue Mesa Reservoir: Colorado Beach | Colorado.com

 Beaches  Comments Off on Blue Mesa Reservoir: Colorado Beach | Colorado.com
May 122016
 

Updated: 3/21/2016

True, Colorado is a landlocked state, but plenty of Rocky Mountain lakes and reservoirs offer miles of shoreline to swim in and sun yourself by each summer. Blue Mesa Reservoir part of Curecanti National Recreation Area is the state’s largest body of water, which means abundant recreation and lounge-worthy beaches.

As US Hwy. 50 winds through the pinyon-dotted, high-mountain desert between the rural community ofMontroseand the mountain college town ofGunnison, it opens up into a broad landscape of sparkling blue water and talus-sloped hills. Here is the Blue Mesa Reservoir, where the waters of the Gunnison River gather before carving through the steep walls of the Black Canyon of the Gunnison.

Boaters love the 29-mile-long reservoir, which has several arms that lead into secluded canyons. The fishing is legendary, as its stocked with millions of fish each year, and it is home to the largest cokanee salmon fishery in the US.

Colorado’s Blue Mesa Reservoir, near Montrose and Gunnison, CO

And, with camping, windsurfing, waterskiing, hiking, horseback riding and boat tours also vying for attention, it takes a few days to experience it all.

While much of the shoreline is rocky, youll find good swimming areas at the Bay of Chickens, Dry Creek and Old Highway 50 beach. The water is always cool, and theres nothing more refreshing on a hot day spent in the high-altitude sun.

All of these Colorado beaches have plenty of camping nearby so you never have to be too far from the water during the hot summer months.

-Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve:Enjoy the sandy expanses at the base of the tallest dunes in North America nearAlamosa. In springtime, splash away in the gently flowing Medano Creek.

-Boulder Reservoir:One of the larger beaches in Colorado, the swim area is 300 yards of clean sand with views of the famously picturesqueBoulderFlatirons.

-Chatfield State Park:Nestled at the base of the foothills, this reservoir offers a recreation haven just 30 minutes from downtown Denver inLittleton.

-Jackson Lake State Park:ThisFort Morgan-area oasis on the plains is quite shallow, allowing it to warm quickly during the summer.

-John Martin Reservoir State Park:This low-trafficLamarlake offers a peaceful escape perfect for picnicking, swimming, fishing and boating.

-Grand Lake:This massive, glassy lake on the western edge ofRocky Mountain National Parkhas something for everyone and is popular with boaters, waterskiers, anglers and sunbathers.

Plan a two-day itinerary around Gunnison and Crested Butte >>

Discover more great places to drop a fishing line in Colorado >>

Photo Courtesy of the National Park Service/Lisa Lynch.

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Wisconsin’s 12 best beaches

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May 062016
 

Wisconsin may never replace the Florida Keys or the blue-water beaches of the Caribbean as a vacation destination. Still, with two Great Lakes and more than 15,000 smaller ones, the Badger State has some real beach gemsfrom hard-to-find clear-water quarry ponds to hard-to-miss rough-water adventures with waves so big you can hear the surf thunder.

With more than 3,300 feet of beaches, Devils Lake is the most-visited state park in Wisconsin. Facilities: restrooms, changing facilities, picnic areas, concessions stands, grills. State fees. S5975 Park Rd., Baraboo; (608) 356-8301.

Six miles of soft, white sand along Lake Michigan make this an ideal beach for sunbathing and swimming. The beach also features the 113-foot Rawley Point lighthouse, which is not open for tours but can be photographed from outside. Facilities:restrooms, concessions, playground, volleyball courts. State fees. 9400 County Hwy. O, Two Rivers; (920) 794-7480. Note:Due to high water levels on Lake Michigan, the beach at this state forest is significantly smaller than in years past.

Named one of the 51 best beaches in the country by USAToday in 2012, North Beach stretches along 1.2 miles of Lake Michigan and has been designated a Blue Wave Beach, a certification for its commitment to responsible beach management practices. Facilities:restrooms, concessions, Kid’s Cove Playground. 89 Kewaunee St., Racine.

The 500-foot beach along the northwest shore of Madisons Lake Mendota has calm waters and a gradual slope, making it a great family beach. Theres even a dog beach. Facilities: restrooms, playground. State fees. 5140 County Hwy. M, Waunakee; (608) 831-3005.

The water off this 1.5-mile beach on Lake Superior stays brisk into July (though its often warmed up by September). Go for it if you have polar bear blood and love a rustic lifestyle. Facilities: pit toilets, picnic areas, drinking water. State fees. 141 S. Third St., Bayfield; (715) 747-6425.

This sandy beach on a clear-water lake in the middle of Hartman Creek State Park is near Waupacas Chain O Lakes. The calm, shallow water makes it family-friendly. Facilities: pit toilets, changing facilities, concessions stand. State fees. N2480 Hartman Creek Rd., Waupaca; (715) 258-2372.

Wind-swept and expansive with miles of sandy beaches and dunes this big-water beach on Lake Michigan can be a little dangerous for small children (but a favorite for surfers). Facilities: restrooms, changing facilities, picnic tables, concessions stands, grills. State fees. 1020 Beach Park Lane, Sheboygan; (920) 451-4080. Note:Due to high water levels on Lake Michigan, the beach at this state forest is significantly smaller than in years past.

Nicolet Beach on the Green Bay side of the Door peninsula has clear, calm waters and 800 feet of sand. Facilities: restrooms, showers, picnic area, playground, concessions stands, kayak rentals. State fees. 9462 Shore Rd., Fish Creek; (920) 868-3258.

Located down a short dirt road, this Lake Michigan beach is an unknown, uncrowded gem. Soft sand and a shallow slope make this a terrific family beach. Facilities: picnic area. No fees. Lake Forest Park Rd., Sturgeon Bay; (920) 743-4456.

This underutilized beach sits beside a 4,500-plus-acre recreation area where you can hike, camp and enjoy a full slate of scheduled activities. Facilities: handicapped access, restrooms, changing facilities, play equipment. State fees. 26313 Burlington Rd., Kansasville; (262) 878-5600.

This Lake Michigan beach, just south of Jacksonport, offers miles of terrific sand and dunes, though the water can be cold even in summer, and rip currents make swimming dangerous. Facilities: handicapped access, pit toilets. State fees. 3275 Clark Lake Rd. (County Hwy. WD), Sturgeon Bay; (920) 823-2400.

Ideal for families with small children, this Waukesha County Park beach is just 17 miles from downtown Milwaukee. Facilities: restrooms, picnic tables, state-of-the-art playground equipment, concessions stand with indoor seating. Fees: $4/car. Annual rates: $28 residents, $38 nonresidents. 2925 N. Barker Rd., Brookfield; (262) 548-7801.

John Ingrisano has written for Fodors Caribbean Guide. This article appeared in the July/August 2007 issue of Wisconsin Trails.

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Michigan Beaches – Best Beaches in Michigan

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Apr 192016
 

When you think of a beach vacation, you might start by looking at various beaches in Florida. But, you just might want to consider Michigan beaches for your next spot for fun in the sun. The Lake Michigan shoreline along western Michigan is often called the third coast. Consider that Michigan has more freshwater shoreline than any other state and you begin to understand why it is a good place to go for your next beach vacation. Numerous beach towns line the coast in Michigan, and their quality is found both in the scenery and bevy of attractions offered in an around them. Along the entire western coast of lower Michigan, you’ll find a number of hot spots for getting away from it all, and it is here that you’ll arguably find the best Michigan beaches. However, in a state almost surrounded entirely by water, who’s to say where the best beaches lay?

In the Upper Peninsula you’ll find Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore with its own beaches, however Lake Superior is the coldest of the Great Lakes, so the beaches found here probably don’t offer the best swimming possibilities. But throw on a wetsuit and you can enjoy kayaking, and the relative seclusion of the area makes it a welcome place to relax.

Among the most noted best Michigan beaches is Oval Beach in Saugatuck. Oval Beach was rated by Conde Nast as one of the top 25 beaches in the world, and National Geographic Traveler went on to name it one of the top two in the nation. That in and of itself should pique your interest in Lake Michigan beaches. Michigan Governor Granholm named Saugatuck among the 19 “coolest cities” in the state, and no doubt the city earns this distinction. In the area, there are top Michigan golf courses, its art community is renowned, and vacation rentals here vary from hotels and motels, to charming bed and breakfasts and vacation home rentals that will ensure your satisfaction. Its simply the perfect place for your next corporate event, family vacation, or romantic getaway.

Up the coast, the quality of Lake Michigan beaches continues. The naturally forming sand dunes have a lot to do with this. Sand dunes line most of the coast and form as the sweeping winds from the west move inland over the lake. They are stunning, and provide a picturesque backdrop to the beaches that has to be seen to be appreciated. Climbing them is a favorite activity for kids and adults the same, and the views are a reward for the work. At seaside retreats like Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore and Silver Lake, you’ll find camping and hiking to rival your best expectations. These parks are rich in scenery and you’ll want to check out Silver Lake Sand Dunes for the chance to take your 4×4 or dirt bike dune-riding, which is an experience you’ll be hard-pressed to find anywhere else. If you don’t have a 4×4 or dirt bike, you can take an organized dune-riding tour, an experience you won’t soon forget.

Towns like Muskegon, South Haven and Holland not only offer some of the best Michigan beaches, but also so much more. Summer festivals seem to always be going on and cultural attractions include historical sites and tours, great shopping and dining, kayak and jet-ski rentals, amusement parks and charming tours at some of the top Michigan wineries.

Michigan beaches are steadily getting the respect they deserve. A popular PBS series called Great Lakes Ports of Call is highlighting towns along the western coast of lower Michigan. These towns gain distinction in the “Michigan Beactowns” label and they are New Buffalo, St. Joseph, South Haven, Saugatuck-Douglas, Holland, Grand Haven, Muskegon, Silver Lake Sand Dunes, and Ludington. Lake Michigan beaches offer you and your family the next great spot for your summer vacation.

Although not as popular for its beaches, the Lake Huron shoreline of Michigan offers some nice retreats as well. Instead of the sunsets on the western side of the state, here you’ll be treated to some beautiful sunrises. Camping and kayaking along the Lake Huron shore is a great way to spend time away from the cares of the world. You also might be lucky enough to catch some Northern Lights depending on where you are.

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Eugenics in California: A Legacy of the Past? | Center for …

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Apr 162016
 

A free event open to the public, Eugenics in California: a Legacy of thePast?, will take place at the Berkeley Law School on the UC Berkeleycampus (105 Boalt Hall) on Tuesday, August 28, 2012 from 12:30 to 2 pm.

For much of the 20th century, California was at the forefront of eugenicideology and practices in the United States, and holds the dubiousdistinction of being the state with the highest number of eugenicsterilizations performed under the authority of law some 20,000procedures between 1909 and the mid-1950s. Coerced sterilizationscontinued in public hospitals into the 1970s, and it has recently come tolight that in very recent years, women prisoners in California have beensterilized without their consent or knowledge. Today, California is aleader in research and services related to human genomics and assistedreproductive technologies. Speakers at this public event will consider thelong history of eugenics in California and explore continuities anddiscontinuities in the uses and misuses of genetic ideas and practices.

Dean Christopher Edley, Berkeley School of Law, will give opening remarksto welcome attendees.

SPEAKERS:

“Eugenic Sterilization in California: Stories and Statistics” Miroslava Chvez-Garca, University of California at Davis, and AlexandraMinna Stern, University of Michigan

We provide an overview of the patterns of the 20,000 eugenic sterilizationsperformed in California state institutions from 1909 to 1979, with closeattention to race, gender, class, and diagnosis. We will also highlightstories of sterilization victims and the ways in which they attempted tochallenge the state’s authority to control and contain their reproductiverights. As we will demonstrate, the process had a devastating impact onthe victims.

Ms Bebs? (documentary film) Renee Tajima-Pea, University of California at Santa Cruz; Virginia Espino,University of California at Santa Cruz, and Kate Trumbull, documentaryfilmmaker

The feature-length documentary Ms Bebs? (working title) investigatesthe history of Mexican American women who allege they were coercivelysterilized at Los Angeles County-USC Medical Center during the 1960s and70s. Many spoke no English, and testified that they were prodded intotubal ligations during active labor. The sterilizations triggered the1978 class action lawsuit, Madrigal v. Quilligan, and a protest campaignthat galvanized the Chicana feminist movement.

Eugenics in California Womens Prisons Today Kimberly Jeffrey and Courtney Hooks, Justice Now

Since 2003, Justice Now has been working collaboratively with people inCalifornias womens prisons to document how prisons violate theinternational right to family and function as a tool of reproductiveoppression. Presenters will place a spotlight on personal experience withas well as the systemic pattern of destruction of reproductive capacity ofwomen of color and gender variant people in California womens prisonsthrough several state-sanctioned policies, including forced and coercedsterilizations (e.g. the illegal and routine sterilization of hundreds ofpeople in prison during labor and delivery), and other violations of safemotherhood and reproductive justice.

Should We Worry About a New Eugenics? Marcy Darnovsky, Center for Genetics and Society

Today’s fast-developing genetic and reproductive technologies offersignificant benefits, but can also be misused in ways that exacerbateexisting inequalities and create entirely new forms of injustice. California, a hotbed of eugenic advocacy in the last century, is today acenter of biotechnology research and commercial development and theassisted reproduction sector, as well as home to some troublingtechno-enthusiastic ideologies. Our efforts to confront California’seugenic history can help prevent these dynamics from veering toward a neweugenics.

CONTACTS: Susan Schweik, UC Berkeley, sschweik@berkeley.edu, MarcyDarnovsky, Center for Genetics and Society,darnovsky@geneticsandsociety.org

Co-sponsored by the Center for Genetics and Society and U.C. BerkeleysHaas Diversity Research Center, School of Law, Institute for the Study ofSocietal Issues, American Cultures Center, Disability Studies program,Center on Reproductive Rights and Justice, and Center for Race and Gender.

This event is wheelchair accessible. Captioning will be provided. Torequest an accommodation, please email disability@berkeley.edu.

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Libertarian History: A Reading List | Libertarianism.org

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Mar 232016
 

November 3, 2011 essays

A guide to books on the history of liberty and libertarianism.

The history of libertarianism is more than a series of scholarly statements on philosophy, economics, and the social sciences. It is the history of courageous men and women struggling to bring freedom to the lives of those living without it. The works on this list give important context to the ideas found on the others.

A History of Libertarianism by David Boaz

This essay, reprinted from Libertarianism: A Primer, covers the sweep of libertarian and pre-libertarian history, from Lao Tzu in the sixth century B.C. to the latest developments of the 21st century. Because its available for free on Libertarianism.org, the essay also includes numerous links to more information about major thinkers and their works. For a general sense of the rich history of the movement for liberty, this is easily the best place to start.

The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution by Bernard Bailyn

Bernard Bailyns Pulitzer Prize-winning history of the ideas that influenced the American Revolution had a profound influence on our understanding of the republics origin by exposing its deeply libertarian foundations. Bailyn studied the many political pamphlets published between 1750 and 1776 and identified patterns of language, argument, and references to figures such as the radical Whigs and Cato the Younger. Because these were notions which men often saw little need to explain because they were so obvious, their understanding was assumed by the Founders and thus not immediately obvious to modern readers. When the Revolution is reexamined with Bailyns findings in mind, theres no way to escape the conclusion that America was always steeped in libertarian principles.

Radicals for Capitalism: A Freewheeling History of the Modern American Libertarian Movement by Brian Doherty

The libertarian movement in America in the 20th century is the focus of this delightful history from Brian Dorhety. Radicals for Capitalism is more the story of the men and women who fought for freedom and limited government than it is an intellectual history of libertarian ideas. But it is an important story because it helps to place the contemporary debate about the place of libertarianism in American politics within the context of a major and long-lived social movement.

The Decline of American Liberalism by Arthur A. Ekirch Jr.

Ekirch traces the history of the liberal idea in the United States from the founding through World War II. He places the high point of true liberalism in the years immediately following the American Revolution, before the federal government began its long march of ever more centralized control over the country. And he shows how this shift has negatively impacted everything from global peace to the economy to individual autonomy.

Against the Tide: An Intellectual History of Free Trade by Douglas A. Irwin

Ever since Adam Smiths Wealth of Nations appeared in 1776, the case for free tradeboth its economic benefits and its moral footingseemed settled. Yet in the ensuing two centuries, many have attempted to restrict freedom of trade with claims about its deleterious effects. Irwins Against the Tide traces the intellectual history of free trade from the early mercantilists, through Smith and the neoclassical economists, and to the present. He shows how free trade has withstood theoretical assaults from protectionists of all stripesand how it remains the most effective means for bringing prosperity and peace to people throughout the world.

The Triumph of Liberty: A 2,000 Year History Told Through the Lives of Freedoms Greatest Champions by Jim Powell

If Radicals for Capitalism is the tale of the men and women who fought for liberty in the 20th century, Jim Powells The Triumph of Liberty fills in the backstory. The book is an exhaustive collection of biographical articles on 65 major figures, from Marcus Tullius Cicero to Martin Luther King, Jr., summarizing their lives, thought, and impact. While not all of them were strictly libertarian, every one of the people Powell covers was instrumental in making the world a freer. For a grand sweep of libertys history through the lives of those who struggled in its name, theres no better source than The Triumph of Liberty.

How The West Grew Rich: The Economic Transformation Of The Industrial World by Nathan Rosenberg and L. E. Birdzell Jr.

The central question that How the West Grew Rich addresses is precisely what its title implies. For thousands of years, human beings lived in unrelieved misery: hunger, famine, illiteracy, superstition, ignorance, pestilence and worse have been their lot. How did things change? How did a relatively few peoplethose in what we call the Westescape from grinding poverty into sustained economic growth and material well-being when most other societies remained trapped in an endless cycle of birth, hardship, and death? This fascinating book tells that story. The explanations that many historians have offeredclaiming that it was all due to science, or luck, or natural resources, or exploitations or imperialismare refuted at the outset, in the books opening chapter. Rosenberg and Birdzell are then free to provide an explanation that makes much more sense.

The State by Franz Oppenheimer

Much political philosophy begins with a social concept theory of the state. Mankind originally existed in a state of nature, and the state only arose when people came together and agreed to give up some of their liberties in exchange for protection of others. Oppenheimer rejects this rosy picture and replaces it with his much more realistic conquest theory, which finds the genesis of states in roving bands of marauders who eventually settled down and turned to taxation when they realized it was easier than perpetual raiding. The State also features Oppenheimers influential distinction between the two means by which man can set about fulfilling his needs: I propose in the following discussion to call ones own labor and the equivalent exchange of ones own labor for the labor of others, the economic means for the satisfaction of needs, while the unrequited appropriation of the labor of others will be called the political means.

Bourgeois Dignity: Why Economics Cant Explain the Modern World by Deirdre McCloskey

In Bourgeois Dignity, McCloskey offers a different story of economic growth from the common one of capitalism and markets. The West grew rich, she argues, not simply because it embraced trade, but because its cultural ideas shifted, specifically in granting a sense of dignity to the bourgeoisie. It is that dignityand the rhetoric surrounding itthat sparked the Industrial Revolution and, in turn, lead to the modern world. Bourgeois Dignity traces the influence of these changing ideasand uses them to explain not just the rise of the West but also the recent, monumental growth of India and China. The book is the second in a four-volume series, The Bourgeois Era.

Aaron Ross Powell is a Cato Institute research fellow and founder and editor of Libertarianism.org, which presents introductory material as well as new scholarship related to libertarian philosophy, theory, and history. He is also co-host of Libertarianism.orgs popular podcast, Free Thoughts. His writing has appeared in Liberty and The Cato Journal. He earned a JD from the University of Denver.

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Seal of Delaware – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Mar 022016
 

The great seal of the state of Delaware was first adopted on January 17, 1777, with the current version being adopted April 29, 2004. It contains the state coat of arms surrounded by an inscription.

At the center of the coat of arms is a shield of horizontal red, blue and white stripes. On the red stripe is hay and a cob of corn. On the white stripe is an ox standing on grass. Above the shield is a sailing ship. Supporting the shield are a farmer on the left and a militiaman on the right. Underneath the shield is the state motto.

The surrounding inscription reads: “Great Seal of the State of Delaware” and the dates 1704, 1776 and 1787.

The seal was originally adopted in 1777 with minor changes made in 1793, 1847, and 1907. The current version was adopted in 2004.

The seal now used as the Great Seal of this State and bearing the arms of this State shall be the Great Seal of this State. It is emblazoned as follows: Party per fess, or and argent, the first charged with a garb (wheat sheaf) in bend dexter and an ear of maize (Indian Corn) in bend sinister, both proper; the second charged with an ox statant, ruminating, proper; fess, wavy azure, supporters on the dexter a husbandman with a hilling hoe, on the sinister a rifleman armed and accoutered at ease. Crest, on a wreath azure and argent, a ship under full sail, proper, with the words “Great Seal of the State of Delaware,” the dates “1704, 1776, and 1787,” and the words “Liberty and Independence” engraved thereon.

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Texas Beaches and Oceanside Attractions

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Feb 232016
 

Texas Beach. Rob Stinnett/rstinnett/flickr.com Creative Commons License

Updated November 04, 2015.

Texas is known for a lot of things. However, many people overlooked the excellent beaches that are located along the Texas coast. With over 600 miles of shoreline, there is no shortage of sand for beachgoers. Here is a list of some of the top spots to spend day at the beach in Texas.

Corpus Christi/Padre Island National Seashore The mainland portion of Corpus Christi is metropolitan. However, cross the causeway to Padre Island and the urban feel begins to fade.

As you head south on Park Road 22 down Padre Island National Seashore, the modern world disappears.

Galveston Island Galveston Island offers many beach-going options. Inside the city of Galveston, the seawall and adjacent sand strip is popular among visitors, as are Stewart Beach and East Beach. Further down the island, Galveston State Park and West Beach are favorite sandy hangouts.

After a day of surf, sand and sun, head to the Strand to shop or visit one of Galvestons many excellent eateries.

Mustang Island/Port Aransas This quaint, central coast beach is located at the northern-most end of Padre Island. The ferry ride across to Port Aransas is a great way to leave the real world behind and begin your vacation. Things only get better as you visit Port As many shops and restaurants or stake out a secluded stretch of sand on Mustang Island.

Sea Rim State Park A mix of marsh and beach, Sea Rim State Park isnt a typical beach destination. However, this state park, which is located just south of Beaumont/Port Arthur is a nature-lovers delight. Bird-watchers and beach-goers often co-exist on this stretch of sand, which is the northern-most beach in Texas.

South Padre Island The most pristine beach in Texas is also the most difficult to get to. Located scant miles above the Mexican border, the South Padre surf is often a Caribbean-like clear/green as it laps against the grainy white sand. Across the Brazos Santiago Pass is isolated Boca Chica Beach.

During your off-beach hours, try SPIs sizzling nightlife, excellent restaurants and variety of curio shops. Other options include heading across the bridge to historic Port Isabel or across the border to Matamoros, Mexico.

Keep in mind, these are but a few of the beaches available in Texas. They are listed above in alphabetical order, not by any sort of rating, since they each have such diverse characteristics. But rest assured, whatever type of beach you have in mind can be found in Texas. And, again, Texas beaches are open year around, meaning there is no end to beachy fun for dedicated beachgoers.

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Georgia Barrier Islands – Georgia Island Beaches

 Islands  Comments Off on Georgia Barrier Islands – Georgia Island Beaches
Feb 142016
 

The segment of the Georgia Barrier Islands runs along the east coast of the state, from the St Mary’s River bordering Florida and Georgia to Tybee Island where the Savannah River and Atlantic Ocean meet. Barrier Islands are found along most of the Eastern seaboard from Florida to Maine with the Georgia islands totaling fourteen.

The Georgia Islands begin with Cumberland Island and also include Little Cumberland, Jekyll, St. Simons, Sea Island, Little St Simons, Wolf, Sapelo, St. Catherine’s, Ossabaw Island, Wassaw, and Williamson Islands. The northernmost island in the chain is Tybee Island, one of the most popular beach destinations in the state.

Little St. Simons is also a premier vacation destination for vacationers wanting to get away from it all and enjoy a private vacation along Georgia island beaches. The privately owned island encompasses 10,000 acres and is home to a variety of trees and plant life, along with endangered and threatened species of birds. Dolphins, otters, and whales can sometimes be seen in the waters around the island.

A vacation to the Georgia Barrier Islands provides dramatic ocean views, luxury hotels, fine dining, spas, relaxation, and privacy. You can also spend time on the sugar-white Georgia Island beaches for quiet strolls, horseback riding, and romantic sunsets. Guests can arrange for a day trip to the island from the mainland for hiking, touring, or boating, and there are also options for overnight stays. Make plans ahead of time when traveling to Little St. Simon’s Island, however, as only a limited number of guests are allowed on the island at one time.

Cumberland Island, at the southern base of the Georgia Barrier Islands chain, is home to a diverse natural ecological setting with hardwood forests of oak trees and pine in the north, along with saltwater marshes supporting numerous species of fish and birds. There are seventeen miles of white Georgia Island beaches along this lovely island, making it a perennially popular destination in Georgia.

At nearby Crooked River State Park, the 500 acres provide hiking trails that will take you through areas filled with wildlife, including assorted birds, turtles, and alligators. Saltwater fishing, kayaking, boating, and miniature golf are available at the park, and RV and trailer camping is available along with individual rental cottages, making it an excellent fit for travelers who want to spend several days on the Barrier Islands.

The northernmost area of the Georgia Islands is Tybee Island, situated along the Savannah River. There are numerous things to do at Tybee for vacationers interested in outdoor excursions, due to the 100-acre Tybee National Wildlife Refuge providing birdwatchers and hikers with plenty of opportunities for sightseeing. The Tybee Island Pier & Pavilion is a great place for picnics and fishing, and at the Tybee Island Marine Science Center, you can take a one-hour guided walk along the beach to learn about the local environment. Those interested in history can also visit the Tybee Lighthouse, built in 1736 and still in use today.

At Jekyll Island, vacationers will have miles of Georgia island beaches and dunes to explore. In the nineteenth century, the island was a retreat for the rich and famous, and today visitors can tour the Jekyll Island Historic District. The district encompasses 240 acres of restored homes, chapels, cottages, and stables, displaying examples of Victorian and Gothic architecture, as well as Tiffany stained glass. In August, the island holds the annual Beach Music Festival, which lasts for three days and includes music, barbecue, dancing, wine tasting, and a golf tournament.

Whichever one you choose to visit, the Barrier Islands in Georgia are an excellent vacation destination for travelers who want to spend time outside and enjoy the beautiful beaches and coastline of this part of the US.

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Georgia Barrier Islands – Georgia Island Beaches

Eugenics in California – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Jan 312016
 

Eugenics in California is a notable part of eugenics in America.

As an early leading force in the field of eugenics, California became the third state in the United States to enact a sterilization law. By 1921, California had accounted for 80% of the sterilizations nationwide. This continued until World War II, after which the number of sterilizations began to decrease, largely due to the fallout of Hitler’s eugenics movement.[1] There were about 20,000 forced sterilizations in California between 1909 and 1963.[2]

Records of eugenics practices in California are held at the following agencies and institutions. The records are still protected for confidentiality reasons.

In California, [eugenics] was always linked to the use of land: to agriculture and plant hybridization.[3] Many of the powerful social workers, doctors, psychiatrists, and biologists, sought to hurt many of Californias Mexican, Indian, and Asian populations through the exclusionary laws that those scientists propose. In addition to the conquest to hurt the undesirables in the state, the California Eugenics plan also was a way to save the state money so they could eliminate the money the state spends on welfare and other programs that help the less fortunate.[3] Eugenics takes take three forms in California:

Dolores Madrigal entered the University of Southern Californias medical center on October 12, 1973, in order to give birth to her second child. During her time in labor, she was given a consent form and coerced by doctors into having a tubal ligation, effectively sterilizing her. Madrigal insisted that No one at the medical center informed me that a tubal ligation operation was going to performed on me. No one at the medical center informed me of what a tubal ligation operation consists nor of its permanent effects (Enoch, 5). Rebecca M. Kluchin found while researching the case that Physicians preferred to perform cesarean sections and tubal ligations in tandem to minimize risks associated with infection and anesthesia, as well as to reduce medical costs. It appears that at this hospital physicians who performed emergency cesarean sections sometimes used the opportunity to persuade a woman to accept permanent contraception.[10]

In July 1976 Madrigal sued the University of Southern California medical center, accompanied by Guadalupe Acosta, Estela Benavides, Consuelo Hermosillo, Georgina Hernandez, Maria Hurtado, Maria Figueroa, Rebecca Figueroa, Jovita Rivera, and Helena Orozco. Each of the nine other women who joined the class action lawsuit complained of similar proceedings. Together, these 10 chicanas decided to sue the USC medical center, contending that they had never given their informed consent to have the tubal ligation procedure performed. Karen Benker testified that poor minority women in L.A. County were having too many babies; that it was a strain on society; and that it was good that they be sterilized”.[11]

Despite Benkers testimony and other corroborating evidence, Judge Jesse Curtis ruled in favor of the defendants, stating that there had been nothing more than a breakdown in communication between the patients and the doctors (Stern 1135). He went on to say that it was appropriate for an obstetrician to believe that a tubal ligation could help diminish overpopulation as long as they did not attempt to overpower the will of his patients.[11]

In 1909 a eugenics law was passed in California allowing for state institutions to sterilize those deemed unfit or feeble-minded.[12] As one of the leading states in forced sterilization victims, Californias sterilization procedures primarily took place in state mental hospitals. Dr. Leo Stanley was one of the first people to bring the eugenics movement to Californias prisons.

Stanley was San Quentin penitentiarys chief surgeon and was particularly interested in eliminating those deemed unfit for society. His avid eugenic-based surgeries were the first of its kind to been seen in a prison. Taking place between 1930 and 1959, the peak of the eugenics movement, Stanley’s surgeries were driven by the idea of purifying criminals. Through testicular surgeries, he believed he could cultivate socially fit individuals by replacing a prisoners testicles with those of a deceased male previously deemed socially fit. His practices spawned early ideologies of white manhood,” which stemmed from his belief that he could “help a new, ideal man emerge”.[13]

Use of human and even animal testicles made Stanleys procedures highly unsuccessful and all around bizarre. His desire to restore social morality, along with his fascination with the endocrine system, fueled his research. Throughout the time of his procedures, criminals were believed to have something anatomically off that drove them to commit crimes. This belief inspired Stanley to explore the endocrine systems role in the criminology of a person. By persuading inmates that his testicular surgeries would produce favorable results in their sex lives he sterilized more than 600 prisoners by the end of his career.[13] Stanleys prison work concluded upon the start of World War II where he served overseas, only to retire as a eugenic pioneer.

The Human Betterment Foundation (HBF) was established in Pasadena, California in 1928. Led by E.S. Gosney it researched with an aim to foster and aid constructive and educational forces for the protection and betterment of the human family in body, mind, character, and citizenship. In 1929 E.S. Gosney set up the Human Betterment Foundation and gathered twenty-five of the leading scientists, philanthropists, and community leaders to carry out research on the effects of sterilization for thirteen years (Valone). Gosney also used the HBF to distribute the product of his research, Sterilization for Human Betterment which attracted attention from the nearby university, the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). Robert A. Millikan, a leading faculty member and proponent of Caltech, was looking for potential donors to the university and shared many of Gosneys views in his work decided to join the HBF board.

Lois Gosney Castle and the board of trustees eventually liquidated the foundation and turned the proceeds over to Caltech. Thirteen years after publishing the 1929 report entitled “Sterilization for Human Betterment, the HBF continued to carry out research on the effects of sterilization and undertook widespread distribution of the report to individuals, public libraries, and schools. After the liquidation files were found in 1968, but since they contained personal medical information, they were legally closed to researchers.[14]

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Swimming Beaches in Illinois | USA Today

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Jan 242016
 

See city views while swimming at a Chicago beach. (Photo: Thinkstock Images/Comstock/Getty Images )

Whether your travels take you to the city of Chicago or beyond, spend a warm summer day swimming at one of several destinations across Illinois. From the city beaches on the shores of Lake Michigan located within walking distance of many urban amenities to the 600-foot beach on Lake Le-Aqua-Na in rural northwest Illinois, swimming enthusiasts have many choices of places to make a splash.

In the city of Chicago (chicagoparkdistrict.com), swim for free at one of several beaches located along 26 miles of lakefront shoreline. With lifeguards on duty during the summer season, swimming is permitted in 15 designated areas. Parking is limited or requires a fee at most beaches, so city officials advise using public transportation whenever possible. North of the city, visit Leone Beach near Evanston or Montrose Beach near Chicago Lakeshore Hospital. Swim near the heart of downtown Chicago at North Beach at Lincoln Park or 12th Street Beach near Soldier Field. Other city swimming beaches include Fargo; Foster; Calumet; Howard Street; Jarvis Avenue; Oak Street; Rainbow; and South Shore Beach. Dogs are permitted at four beaches within the Chicago Park District.

With 39,600 feet of beach access, Illinois Beach State Park (dnr.state.il.us) has the longest public swimming area of any state park. The 4,160-acre park located on the shores of Lake Michigan has picnic areas for spreading out a meal after a day in the water and nearby hiking trails extending up to five miles. Lifeguards are not present at the park’s beaches, but parking is plentiful for visitors planning to spend the day swimming. Overnight camping at 241 sites is open to visitors of Illinois Beach State Park, and a resort also offers overnight accommodations for swimmers planning a multiday stay.

Travel to Lake Le-Aqua-Na State Park (dnr.state.il.us) to swim on a 600-foot beach on the shores of the 40-acre lake in northwest Illinois. Olson Lake Beach is open to visitors to 3,092-acre Rock Cut State Park, with the 50-acre Olson Lake ideally suited for swimming. In central Illinois, head to 9,300-acre Clinton Lake State Recreation Area to spend the day swimming on a 1,000-foot white sandy beach bordering the lake. A designated swimming area is also open to visitors at 1,687-acre Moraine View State Recreation Area at the Black Locust picnic area on Dawson Lake. In southern Illinois, visit 1,302-acre Sam Dale Lake State Fish and Wildlife Area to swim on a large beach on the west side of the lake.

Swim at one of four public beaches on 11,100-acre Lake Shelbyville (lakeshelbyville.com) in central Illinois for a nominal daily fee. The Dam West Recreation Area, Sullivan Beach and Wilborn Creek Recreation Area all provide public swimming access to the lake, which is managed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (mvs.usace.army.mil/shelbyville). Wolf Creek State Park (dnr.state.il.us) also provides swimming access on the northeastern shores of the lake and has picnic tables and barbecues located nearby. An outdoor aquatic center is also open during the summer months in Forest Park near the lake’s southwestern shores.

Michelle Hornaday lives in Edmonds, Washington and holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in English from Washington State University and a Master of Education from Northern Arizona University. She is currently a freelance writer for various websites.

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Swimming Beaches in Illinois | USA Today

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Ohio Beaches, Lake Erie Coast, Summer Fun & Festivals

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Jan 232016
 

MAIN Beaches US Ohio Beaches

At left, Headlands Beach State Park and its mile-long natural sand beach, the largest in Ohio and often touted as the best beach in the state.

Meanwhile, more miles of sun-drenched beaches await throughout Ohio in such summer hotspots as Huntington Beach, located just 10 miles west of Cleveland.

Head east from downtown and you’ll find yourself at another Cleveland summer getaway at Fairport Harbor Lakefront Park Beach offering sand and sun together with a dog-friendly beach area.

Other popular beaches along Lake Erie’s southern shore include Maumee Bay State Park near Toledo with two places to laze the day away – the Lake Erie shore, and a calmer inland lake nearby to bring the kids.

Ohio’s most family-friendly beach? Check out East Harbor State Park near Sandusky where the water is low and slow, and perfect for toddlers.

Up ahead, check out a complete fun-in-the-sun guide to the Buckeye State featuring sites with comprehensive info on lake beaches throughout Ohio for swimming, fishing, sailing, sunbathing …… and surfing? In Cleveland? You bet!

DID YOU KNOW? Ohio beach fun facts:

Yes, you can surf Lake Erie. It all depends on the wind and weather. The surf is usually highest in the fall, when hardcore surfers take to the waves in places like Cleveland’s Edgewater Park Beach.

Accessible only by ferry, the 100-foot sandy beach on Kelleys Island is often considered the state’s most lovely and secluded.

The Marblehead Lighthouse, first lit in 1822, is the longest continuously operating and the most visited lighthouse on the Great Lakes.

also see -> Ohio tourist attractions | Ohio campgrounds

More about Ohio beaches around the Web:

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Ohio Beaches, Lake Erie Coast, Summer Fun & Festivals

Crestview, FL – Crestview, Florida Map & Directions – MapQuest

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Jan 222016
 

Crestview is a city in Okaloosa County, Florida, United States. Crestviews name was chosen because of its location on the peak of a long woodland range between the Yellow and Shoal rivers which flow almost parallel on the east and west side of the City. It is the county seat of Okaloosa County. With an elevation of 235 feet (72m) above sea level, it is one of the highest points in the state; it receives 65 inches (1,700mm) of rainfall annually, the second-most of any city in the state of Florida, next to Fort Walton Beach with 69inches. The town was once known as “the icebox of Florida”, due to it having the coldest winters in the state. Today it goes by a more popular nickname as the “Hub City” of Northwest Florida. According to the U.S Census estimates of 2010, the city had a population of 18,987. Crestview is one of Florida’s fastest growing cities, residential developments, shopping, and land area to grow. It has, as of July 2007, become the largest city in Okaloosa County. In 2007, George Whitehurst, who had been mayor for nearly 20 years, resigned, leading to the election of David Cadle. Cadle had recently retired as the long-time director of the Crestview High School band, The Big Red Machine. As part of the 2005 Base Realignment and Closure round, Crestview will experience further population growth as the U.S. Army’s 7th Special Forces Group relocates from Fort Bragg, North Carolina to a newly built cantonment facility on the northern end of the Eglin Air Force Base reservation, approximately six miles south of the city.

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Crestview, FL – Crestview, Florida Map & Directions – MapQuest

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Libertarianisme – Wikipedia, den frie encyklopdi

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Jan 192016
 

Libertarianisme er en betegnelse for et bredt spektrum af politiske filosofier, som prioriterer individuel frihed hjt og forsger at minimere eller endog fjerne statsmagten. Filosofien fremfres oftest som en teori om retfrdighed, om end der ikke er noget forenet princip eller st af principper, som alle libertarianere kan forenes omkring. Libertarianismen har imidlertid strke rdder i isr liberalistisk og anarkistisk filosofi. Sledes er mange libertarianere enten tilhngere af en minarkistisk statsform eller et markedsanarki.

Libertarianismen er traditionelt blevet forsvaret enten p grundlag af konsekventialistiske principper eller som en rent naturretlig doktrin. Stttere af den frstnvnte tilgang betegner ofte sig selv som klassisk liberale, medens tilhngere af sidstnvnte slet og ret holder sig til “libertarianere”.[Kilde mangler]

Termen “libertarianer” er meget udbredt i USA, hvor begrebet liberal er mere flertydigt end i visse andre dele af den vestlige verden. I Danmark er det sledes ikke unormalt for personer, som tilslutter sig denne gren af liberalismen, blot at kalde sig selv for liberale. En forgelse af tilgngeligheden af isr amerikansk litteratur om emnet synes dog at vidne om, at termen vinder strre indpas i dansk sprogbrug.[Kilde mangler]

Den frste registrerede brug af termen i en politisk sammenhng, var i 1857 i forbindelse med en oversttelse af det franske ord libertaire til libertarian p engelsk, af den franske anarko-kommunist Joseph Djacque[1]. Termen blev i 1890ernes Frankrig populr som et middel til at undg konsekvenserne af den anti-anarkistiske lovgivning (les lois sclrates).

P omtrent samme tid i USA, begyndte termen ligeledes at sl rod blandt anarkistiske kommunister, og politologen Peter Kropotkin skrev i sin artikel om anarkisme i Encyclopaedia Britannica 1911-udgave:

Det ville vre umuligt p denne plads til fulde at prsentere p den ene side de anarkistiske ideer i den moderne litteratur, og p den anden side den indflydelse, som de libertre ideer har haft, p nutidige forfatteres udvikling af anarkismen[2].

I dag beskriver anarkistiske kommunister, libertre socialister og venstre-libertarianere fortsat sig selv som libertarianere, der ganske vist er imod den private ejendomsret, men som samtidig vender sig imod statslig magtanvendelse for at afskaffe den.

Under Den Store Depression i frste halvdel af 1900-tallet havde en rkke konomer og filosoffer, heriblandt John Maynard Keynes og John Dewey, begyndt at overtage og omdefinere liberalismen. Igennem den skaldte socialliberalisme (ogs kaldet nyliberalisme, hvilket dog ikke m forveksles med det nutidige ord neoliberalisme) fremsatte de argumenter for, hvordan en konomisk krise kunne undgs eller formindskes, hvis blot statsmagten begyndte at intervenere i det konomiske liv. Denne konomiske opfattelse, kaldet keynesianisme, vandt indpas verden over og USA’s prsident Franklin D. Roosevelt planlagde sin New Deal p grundlag af dens principper.

Da omfanget af konomer og filosoffer, som kaldte sig selv liberale, men samtidig stttede en strk statslig indblanding i det konomiske liv steg kraftigt i disse r, blev ordet “liberalisme” i stadig hjere grad sammenkdet med etatisme, eller endog socialisme; hvilket stadig er tilfldet i nutidens USA og Storbritannien.

De personer, som stadig fastholdt tiltroen til oplysningstidens idealer om personlig frihed og privat ejendomsret stod sledes i et dilemma, da verden omkring dem havde defineret deres filosofiske grundlag p ny. Nogle begyndte derfor at kalde sig “klassisk liberale”, andre “konservative”.

Striden om hvad man skulle kalde sit filosofiske grundlag frte til en strre leksikal debat under og efter Den Store Depression blandt isr amerikanske og strigske liberalister.

I denne debat var den strigske konom og jurist Ludwig von Mises aktiv i sine bestrbelser p, at udrydde hvad han opfattede som intellektuel og praktisk forvirring. Iflge von Mises var det ikke blot et ord der var p spil, men en betydningsfuld forskel imellem den forholdsvist uforstyrrede markedskonomi og en statsstyret planlgningskonomi.

I sin bog Liberalismus fra 1927 gjorde von Mises op med de skaldte moderne liberale som mente, at politik alene handlede om et ml, f.eks. konomisk lighed. Heroverfor fremsatte von Mises den pstand, at politik slet ikke handlede om et ml i sig selv, men om de midler, hvormed et ml skal opns. Socialister og liberalister kunne sledes meget vel have samme ml, f.eks. menneskelig lykke, men midlet til at opn dette var vidt forskelligt.

For at understrege denne forskel, begyndte Leonard Read, der i 1937 havde grundlagt den liberale uddannelsesinstitution Foundation for Economic Education, i 1940erne, at omtale sin filosofiske opfattelse som “libertariansk” fordi han mente, folk ville misfortolke “klassisk”, i klassisk liberal, p en sdan mde, at de ville tro, der var tale om et antikt og utidssvarende filosofisk system[3]. I 1955 skrev Dean Russell en artikel, hvori han funderede over, hvad han skulle kalde sdan en som sig selv, der var tilhnger af den klassisk liberale filosofi. Han foreslog:

Lad os, som elsker frihed, tage patent p det gode navn “libertarianer”.[4]

Visse fremtrdende personligheder indenfor den libertarianske verden fortsatte dog med at betegne sig selv som klassisk liberale. Blandt disse var netop Ludwig von Mises og Friedrich Hayek, der begge i deres intellektuelle arbejde havde identificeret socialismen og fascismens kollektivistiske grundlag, som vrende i familie med totalitarismen.

Ayn Rands internationale bestsellere The Fountainhead (1943) og Atlas Shrugged (1957), samt hendes bger om den objektivistiske filosofi, affdte en fornyet interesse i de libertarianske ideer om frihed og kapitalisme[5] .

I 1958 udgav den britiske akademiker Isaiah Berlin sin essay Two Concepts of Liberty hvori han opstillede to forskellige definitioner af frihed: Positiv og negativ frihed. Hvor klassiske liberale arbejde for at sikre frihed i en negativ forstand, det vil sige frihed fra tvang, forsgte den skaldt moderne liberalisme og socialismen at opn frihed i sin positive betydning, ved at sikre mennesker en frihed til at opn en mulighed.

J. S. Mill’s Liberty, Spencer’s Individual versus the State, Marc Guyau’s Morality without Obligation or Sanction, and Fouille’s La Morale, I’art et la religion, the works of Multatuli (E. Douwes Dekker), Richard Wagner’s Art and Revolution, the works of Nietzsche, Emerson, W. Lloyd Garrison, Thoreau, Alexander Herzen, Edward Carpenter and so on; and in the domain of fiction, the dramas of Ibsen, the poetry of Walt Whitman, Tolstoy’s War and Peace, Zola’s Paris and Le Travail, the latest works of Merezhkovsky, and an infinity of works of less known authors, are full of ideas which show how closely anarchism is interwoven with the work that is going on in modern thought in the same direction of enfranchisement of man from the bonds of the state as well as from those of capitalism.

Many of us call ourselves “liberals,” And it is true that the word “liberal” once described persons who respected the individual and feared the use of mass compulsions. But the leftists have now corrupted that once-proud term to identify themselves and their program of more government ownership of property and more controls over persons. As a result, those of us who believe in freedom must explain that when we call ourselves liberals, we mean liberals in the uncorrupted classical sense. At best, this is awkward, subject to misunderstanding. Here is a suggestion: Let those of us who love liberty trademark and reserve for our own use the good and honorable word “libertarian.”

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Libertarianisme – Wikipedia, den frie encyklopdi

Pennsylvania Beaches, Lake Erie, Presque Isle, State Park Beaches

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Jan 162016
 

MAIN Beaches US Pennsylvania Beaches

Beaches? In Pennsylvania?

Normally, Philadelphians will usually just head to Cape May and the Jersey Shore for the summer. Head west, however, and you’ll soon discover some of the East Coast’s best shorelines in Pennsylvania.

From Pocono Mountain beaches to the beautiful seven mile stretch of shoreline in Presque Isle State Park (pictured)…. the Keystone State has a lock on summer fun.

Near the state’s other big metro area, Pittsburgh, Raccoon Creek State Park is an hour away with a lakefront beach that’s open all summer long. Head north from Pittsburgh, and Moraine State Park encompasses one of the state’s best lake beaches, Lake Arthur, offering 42 miles of shoreline to help beat the heat.

Of course, these are only a couple of mentions to start your summer fling in the Keystone State. Just up ahead, find lots more information on where to cool down when temperatures begin to rise in Pennsylvania.

Have fun!

DID YOU KNOW? Pennsylvania beach fun facts:

The Pocono Mountains are home to 150 lakes, some with sandy beaches. Some of the most popular include Beltzville State Park in the southern foothills, Gouldsboro Lake and Tobyhanna Lake, and Mauch Chunk Lake Park.

Due to the gentle Lake Erie surf that washes the coast, the seven miles of beachfront on Presque Isle are often dubbed the state’s only natural “seashore”.

Camelback Mountain isn’t just for Pennsylvania skiing anymore. If you can’t get to the beach, Try the Camelbeach Mountain Water Park, the largest water park in the state.

also see -> Pennsylvania tourism | PA campgrounds

More about Pennsylvania beaches around the Web:

– Read this USA Today guide for a good overview of where to go in summer with information on places to cool off in the Poconos, Hills Creek State Park, and Pine Grove Furnace State Park.

Best Pennsylvania Beaches – The best beaches to head for at Presque Isle with great overviews of Budny Beach and Pine Tree Beach.

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Pennsylvania Beaches, Lake Erie, Presque Isle, State Park Beaches

7 Amazing Pennsylvania Beaches You Must Visit This Summer

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Jan 162016
 

PA

Pennsylvania may be landlocked, but that doesnt mean it isnt home to some awesome beaches. Our many lakes and reservoirs grant us access to the water in a special way, especially the 11 beaches along Lake Erie in Presque Isle State Park. Read on to discover the best sandy getaways in our state for this summer

1. Black Moshannon State Park, Rush Township

The quaint beach at Black Moshannon State Park is located within proximity of the largest bog in Pennsylvania.

2. Bald Eagle State Park, Centre County

The Joseph Foster Sayers Reservoir is a man-made lake located in Bald Eagle State Park. It has a beautiful beach where you can kick back and relax.

3. Presque Isle State Park, Erie

Presque Isle State Park, along Lake Erie, has not one, but 11 beautiful beaches for you to enjoy.

4. Poe Valley State Park, Penn

Poe Lake is a manmade lake that was created during the Great Depression.

5. Harveys Lake, Wilkes-Barre

Harvey’s Lake is the largest naturally occurring lake that is contained entirely in the state of Pennsylvania.

6. Beltzville State Park, Carbon County

Not pictured: the beach. I promise it exists, though, all glistening 525 feet of sandy beach, complete with showers and a snack bar.

7. Mt. Gretna Lake & Beach, Lebanon

Mt. Gretna is a gorgeous beach that often hosts events such as birthday parties and day camps. There is an admission fee.

Though these beaches all look fun, it is somewhat difficult to locate more beaches in our state. What other ones do you know of? Tell me about them in the comments below!

Christi is from Allentown and currently lives and goes to school in Pittsburgh.

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7 Amazing Pennsylvania Beaches You Must Visit This Summer

Map of South Carolina Beaches – Beaches of South Carolina …

 Beaches  Comments Off on Map of South Carolina Beaches – Beaches of South Carolina …
Jan 112016
 

A great way to cool off in the Palmetto State is to go coastal and take a splash at one the beautiful beaches of South Carolina State Parks. You have four to choose from: Edisto Beach, Huntington Beach,Myrtle Beach andHunting Island state parks. These scenic coastal parks offer an ocean of summertime fun. Come on and dive into the excitement!

Only one hour from Charleston, SC, Edisto Island is home to Edisto Beach State Park. Palmetto trees line the pristine beach-front park which also features a maritime forest and an educational center full of fun interactive exhibits that highlight the natural history of Edisto Island and the surrounding ACE Basin.

Spend time surf fishing South Carolina shores or reeling in flounder or whiting from the salt marsh. Visitors can also hike the four-mile nature trail that winds through the maritime forest with beautiful vistas overlooking the salt marsh. The parks oceanfront campground makes for a perfect stay on Edisto Island. The park also features another campground and cabins located in the maritime forest.

For many South Carolina park-goersMyrtle Beach State Parkis the first state park theyve visited, mainly because it was the first one to open to the public. Located along the Grand Strand, this 312-acre park has cabins just 200 yards from the beach. Comb the beach for seashells, fire up the grill near one of the picnic shelters or fish from the Myrtle Beach Pier. Stop by the nature center to learn about the variety of sea life that lives in the ocean.

Another Grand Strand state park, located in Murrells Inlet, is Huntington Beach State Park. One of the main attractions at Huntington is Atalaya, a Moorish-style winter home of sculptor and philanthropist Anna Hyatt and Archer Huntington. The park is adjacent to Brookgreen Gardens. Wildlife abounds at Huntington Beach State Park. Youre likely to see an alligator basking in the sun, loggerhead sea turtles making their way to or from the beach or a variety of bird species, such as egrets and herons, wading in the water.

You can be one of more than a million visitors who will come toHunting Island State Parkeach year. Its truly a hot spot to cool off. The park has five miles of beach, a saltwater lagoon and maritime forests. A lighthouse dating from the 1870s stands 170-feet tall on the park. Climb to the top to see beautiful views of the Atlantic Ocean and Lowcountry marshland. Its worth the effort. Of all the lighthouses in South Carolina, its the only one thats open to the public.

Wherever you decide to surf the waves during your next SC State Park vacation, we promise youll have a great time on the sandy beaches of South Carolina. Find more information about the beach park of your choice on the map of South Carolina beaches below. Check out our state park map to see the rest of the South Carolina State Parks.

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Map of South Carolina Beaches – Beaches of South Carolina …

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beach monitoring program – Iowa Department of Natural Resources

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Sep 302015
 

Routine water quality monitoring is conducted at all of the State Park beaches and many locally managed beaches in Iowa. In order to help protect the health of those wishing to recreate at the beaches, the Iowa Department of Natural Resources works with various public health and management agencies throughout the state to inform the public of the most current water quality conditions. Outdoor recreation at beaches in Iowa is typically limited to the time period between Memorial Day and Labor Day. Therefore, most beach monitoring is conducted and standard swimming advisories are issued during this time frame. Results for specific beaches are published as soon as they become available.

For up to date information, call the DNR Beach Monitoring Hotline at (515) 725-3434. If you have any questions or concerns, contact us by email.

o Beaches that have had two or fewer one-time standard (samples over 235 cfu/100 ml) exceedances of the state standard during a running five years will be monitored less frequently. These beaches will be monitored on a weekly basis from the week before Memorial Day through Labor Day. All other state-owned beaches will be monitored from April 15th through October 31st.

Posting of Signs/Advisories

Why monitor beaches?

Swimming in lakes or any other natural body of water involves risks. By far, the greatest risk is drowning caused in part by cloudy water, fast currents, submerged objects, or the lack of lifeguards. Water at Iowas state-owned swimming beaches is monitored to assess the public health risk from waterborne diseases that may result from immersion in the water.

What is the DNR monitoring?

Water samples from the beaches are analyzed for microorganisms, known as bacteria.These indicator bacteria are one-celled organisms visible only under a microscope.High levels of these bacteria indicate that the water has come into contact with fecal material. Indicator bacteria (Bacteria that normally are not pathogenic [disease causing] but serve as indicators of certain types of pollution such as sewage or gasoline spills) are commonly used by state environmental agencies and by the U.S. EPA to determine the suitability of beaches for swimming-type uses.

Can these bacteria make me sick?

The indicator bacteria for which we monitor do not themselves make you sick. These bacteria are easy to collect and analyze and are relatively safe to handle. They are very common in the environment, including lakes and rivers.High levels of these bacteria indicate that the water has come into contact with fecal material and that pathogens or disease-causing microorganisms may be present.

Why doesn’t the DNR monitor pathogens?

Disease-causing organisms, known as pathogens, exist as bacteria, viruses or parasites.Monitoring for these pathogens is expensive and difficult. Large volumes of water are needed to monitor for pathogens because they are present in such small numbers. Many different types of pathogens exist and testing for a single pathogen may not accurately assess the health risk present due to other pathogens. Because indicator bacteria occur in greater numbers than pathogens and are easier to isolate in a laboratory, monitoring for them is more cost-effective.

What are the sources of these bacteria and pathogens?

Fecal bacteria, and sometimes pathogens, are present in the intestines of warm-blooded animals, including humans. They are carried into the water with fecal material. Fecal contamination occurs due to improperly constructed and operated septic systems and sewage treatment plants, manure spills, storm water runoff from lands with wildlife and pet droppings, or direct contamination from waterfowl, livestock, or small children in the water.

Samples are collected weekly at 37 state owned beaches from April 15 through October 31.This period corresponds to the recreational season when the Iowa Water Quality Standards, designed to protect swimming-type uses, is in effect. Water samples are taken at three locations along the beach and at three water depths (ankle-, knee- and waist-deep).The water from these locations is mixed to form one sample, which is placed in a sterilized bottle and taken to a laboratory for analysis.

What levels of indicator bacteria are considered safe?

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has guidelines for the amount of bacteria acceptable in water bodies designated for primary body contact recreation, including swimming and water skiing. In Iowa, these waters are called “Class A waters”. The bacteria level in the water is acceptable if the geometric mean is not greater than 126 colonies per 100 milliliters of water for E. coli bacteria.According to U.S. EPA guidelines, the geometric mean is calculated using at least five consecutive samples collected during a 30-day period. Additionally, Iowa also has a “one-time” standart for E. coli bacteria of 235 colony forming units per 100 milliliters of water.

What factors cause high levels of bacteria?

Fecal contamination of beach water occurs due to improperly constructed and operated septic systems and sewage treatment plants, manure spills, storm water runoff from lands with wildlife and pet droppings, or direct contamination from waterfowl, livestock, or small children in the water. In Iowa, rain appears to be one of the most important factors in generating high levels of bacteria.Surface runoff after a heavy rainfall may transport high levels of fecal bacteria to the water at the beach. The rain also increases the sediment in the water causing it to be murky. Since bacteria are destroyed by sunlight, murky water aids in their survival.

What are the potential illnesses associated with swimming? Thousands of people swim at Iowa’s beaches every year and most of them do not get sick. However, children, the elderly and people with weakened immune systems have an increased risk of becoming ill when in contact with contaminated water.A variety of diarrheal diseases, and other infections such as skin, ear and respiratory infections, are associated with swimming in contaminated water. Diarrhea is one of the most common illnesses associated with swimming. Diarrhea is spread when disease- causing microorganisms from human or animal feces get into the water. You can get diarrhea by accidentally swallowing small amounts of water that contains these microorganisms. To date, the DNR has received no verified reports of illnesses caused by swimming or water skiing in Iowas waters. However, these illnesses could be under-reported because the symptoms are so common and people can be infected by these pathogenic microbes through other means, such as from contaminated meat, not washing their hands after using the bathroom or changing diapers.

How can I avoid getting sick?

Avoid swimming after a heavy rainfall when indicator bacteria levels are generally higher and the water is murky. Avoid swallowing the water. Young children swimming at the beach can leak fecal bacteria and associated pathogens from their diapers, so change your childs diapers often and visit bathrooms frequently. If you or your child has diarrhea, please stay out of the water because you may contaminate the water with fecal material. Although swimmers with diarrhea do not mean to contaminate the water, this is often how disease is spread.

Can I eat fish from waters with high levels of fecal contamination?

Yes, high levels of indicator bacteria or pathogens have no influence on the quality of fish for human consumption. While alive, the fish is protected from water-borne contaminants by the skin, scales and mucus covering its body. Proper fish cleaning, rinsing, refrigeration and cooking should always be used.

Additional information can be found atHawkeye Area WQ Initiative

More:
beach monitoring program – Iowa Department of Natural Resources

Washington Beaches – Chiff.com

 Beaches  Comments Off on Washington Beaches – Chiff.com
Aug 202015
 

MAIN Beaches US Washington State Beaches

Although the changeable climate of the Northwest doesn’t give coastal areas the reputation it deserves, the summer can be like a day at the beach in the state of Washington.

When the weather’s fine, sandy beaches on Puget Sound and swimming lakes in the Cascades and the Pacific coast offer visitors a chance to enjoy the beach and water sports of all kinds.

And there’s so much to do along the Northern Pacific coast besides swimming. Try beachcombing, clamming, prime Washington State whale watching, and more. It’s all right here — including the top Seattle summer extravaganza at Seafair in July.

Oh, and did we mention the wilderness beaches of Olympic National Park?

Have fun!

DID YOU KNOW? Washington State beach fun facts:

Stretching 28-miles long, Long Beach, WA is the largest and longest sandy beach in the Northwest.

After missing the entrance to what was later named the Columbia River, English explorer John Meares dubbed the headland jutting out into the Pacific Ocean “Cape Disappointment.” Today, Cape Disappointment State Park happily features 27 miles of ocean beach, two lighthouses, camping and spectacularly scenic hiking trails.

Deception Pass State Park (Whidbey Island) was named by early explorers who mistakenly assumed Whidbey Island was a peninsula. Today, the island encompasses one of the most popular state parks in Washington, and its miles of sandy beaches is considered some of the most beautiful in the Puget Sound area.

The area around Alki Beach was named by the Chinook tribe meaning “eventually” or “by and by.” Today, Alki Beach is considered one of Seattle’s hippest, laid-back beach scenes.

More about Washington State beaches around the Web:

– This is the official city Parks and Recreation site with locations, beach hours and amenities, maps and directions for Green Lake Park, Matthews Beach, Seward Beach, Pritchard Island and more.

Welcome to Ocean Shores Washington – Find places for surfing, clamming, swimming, boating and sailing, and other diversions for landlubbers, as well.

The Best Washington State Beaches to Collect Beach Glass – Want to add to your beachcombing collection? You’ll find plenty to explore in this review of top locations for beach treasure at Alki Beach, Port Townsend, Deception Pass, and more.

Read more from the original source:
Washington Beaches – Chiff.com

Essay: John Rawls and Robert Nozick: liberalism vs …

 Misc  Comments Off on Essay: John Rawls and Robert Nozick: liberalism vs …
Aug 152015
 

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These days , in the occasional university philosophy classroom, the differences between Robert Nozicks Anarchy, State, and Utopia (libertarianism) and John Rawls A Theory of Justice (social liberalism) are still discussed vigorously. In order to demonstrate a broad spectrum of possible political philosophies it is necessary to define the outer boundaries, these two treatises stand like sentries at opposite gatesof the polis

John Rawls, A Theory of Justice. Rawls presents an account of justice in the form of two principles: (1) liberty principle= peoples equal basic liberties such as freedom of speech, freedom of conscience (religion), and the right to vote should be maximized, and (2) difference principle= inequalities in social and economic goods are acceptable only if they promote the welfare of the least advantaged members of society. Rawls writes in the social contract tradition. He seeks to define equilibrium points that, when accumulated, form a civil system characterized by what he calls justice as fairness. To get there he deploys an argument whereby people in an original position (state of nature), make decisions (legislate laws) behind a veil of ignorance (of their place in the society rich or poor) using a reasoning technique he calls reflective equilibrium. It goes something like: behind the veil of ignorance, with no knowledge of their own places in civil society, Rawls posits that reasonable people will default to social and economic positions that maximize the prospects for the worst off feed and house the poor in case you happen to become one. Its much like the prisoners dilemma in game theory. By his own words Rawls = left-liberalism.

Robert Nozick, Anarchy, State, and Utopia, libertarian response to Rawls which argues that only a minimal state devoted to the enforcement of contracts and protecting people against crimes like assault, robbery, fraud can be morally justified. Nozick suggests that the fundamental question of political philosophy is not how government should be organized but whether there should be any state at all, he is close to John Locke in that government is legitimate only to the degree that it promotes greater security for life, liberty, and property than would exist in a chaotic, pre-political state of nature. Nozick concludes, however, that the need for security justifies only a minimal, or night-watchman, state, since it cannot be demonstrated that citizens will attain any more security through extensive governmental intervention. (Nozick p.25-27)

the state may not use its coercive apparatus for the purpose of getting some citizens to aid others, or in order to prohibit activities to people for their own good or protection. (Nozick Preface p.ix)

Differences:

Similarities:

Some Practical Questions for Rawls:

Some Practical Questions for Nozick:

Read The Liberal Imagination of Frederick Douglass for an excellent discussion on the state of liberalism in America today.

Citations:

Anarchy, State, and Utopia. Robert Nozick. Basic Books. 1974

A Theory of Justice. John Rawls. Harvard University Press. 1971

Disclaimer: This is a forum for me to capture in digital type my understanding of various philosophies and philosophers. I cannot vouch for the accuracy of the interpretations.

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Essay: John Rawls and Robert Nozick: liberalism vs …

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Racial Integrity Act of 1924 – Wikipedia, the free …

 Eugenics  Comments Off on Racial Integrity Act of 1924 – Wikipedia, the free …
Aug 042015
 

On March 20, 1924 the Virginia General Assembly passed two laws that had arisen out of contemporary concerns about eugenics and race: SB 219, titled “The Racial Integrity Act[1]” and SB 281, “An ACT to provide for the sexual sterilization of inmates of State institutions in certain cases”, henceforth referred to as “The Sterilization Act”. The Racial Integrity Act of 1924 was one of a series of laws designed to prevent inter racial relationships.

The Racial Integrity Act required that a racial description of every person be recorded at birth and divided society into only two classifications: white and colored (essentially all other, which included numerous American Indians). It defined race by the “one-drop rule”, defining as “colored” persons with any African or Native American ancestry. It also expanded the scope of Virginia’s ban on interracial marriage (anti-miscegenation law) by criminalizing all marriages between white persons and non-white persons. In 1967 the law was overturned by the United States Supreme Court in its ruling on Loving v. Virginia.

The Sterilization Act provided for compulsory sterilization of persons deemed to be “feebleminded,” including the “insane, idiotic, imbecile, or epileptic.”[2]

These two laws were Virginia’s implementation of Harry Laughlin’s “Model Eugenical Sterilization Law”,[3] published two years earlier in 1922. The Sterilization Act was upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court in the case Buck v. Bell 274 U.S. 200 (1927). This had appealed the order for compulsory sterilization of Carrie Buck, who was an inmate in the Virginia State Colony for Epileptics and Feebleminded, and her daughter and mother.

Together these laws implemented the practice of “scientific eugenics” in Virginia.

In the 1920s, Virginia’s registrar of statistics, Dr. Walter Ashby Plecker, was allied with the newly founded Anglo-Saxon Club of America in persuading the Virginia General Assembly to pass the Racial Integrity Law of 1924.[4] The club was founded in Virginia by John Powell of Richmond in the fall of 1922; within a year the club for white males had more than 400 members and 31 posts in the state.[5]

In 1923, the Anglo-Saxon Club founded two posts in Charlottesville, one for the town and one for students at the University of Virginia. It sought (and was successful in gaining) passage of legislation to classify all persons as belonging either to the “white” or “Negro” races. A major goal was to end “amalgamation” by racial intermarriage. Members claimed also to support Anglo-Saxon ideas of fair play. Later that fall, a state convention of club members was to be held in Richmond.[6]

The Virginia assembly’s 21st-century explanation for the laws summarizes their development:

The now-discredited pseudo-science of eugenics was based on theories first propounded in England by Francis Galton, the cousin and disciple of famed biologist Charles Darwin. The goal of the “science” of eugenics was to improve the human race by eliminating what the movement’s supporters considered hereditary disorders or flaws through selective breeding and social engineering. The eugenics movement proved popular in the United States, with Indiana enacting the nation’s first eugenics-based sterilization law in 1907.[7]

In the following five decades, other states followed Indiana’s example by implementing the eugenic laws. Wisconsin was the first State to enact legislation that required the medical certification of persons who applied for marriage licenses. The law that was enacted in 1913 generated attempts at similar legislation in other states.

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Racial Integrity Act of 1924 – Wikipedia, the free …

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Pierre Teilhard De Chardin | Designer Children | Prometheism | Euvolution