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New York SEO Company | NYC Search Engine Optimization

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May 042016
 

Master of Business Administration: University of Minnesota Carlson School of Management, Minneapolis, MN Bachelor of Science: Fashion Institute of Technology, New York, NY Bachelor of Business Administration: Houston Baptist University, Houston, Texas Bachelor of Entrepreneurship: Houston Baptist University, Houston, Texas Projects / Clients:

Best Buy http://www.bestbuy.com/ LOreal http://www.loreal.com/group Coty Inc. https://www.coty.com Givaudan https://www.givaudan.com/ General Mills http://www.generalmills.com/ Triox Natural Solutions http://trioxnatural.com/ Citizens league http://citizensleague.org/ Neal Richardson Datta Attorney at Law, P.C. http://www.usinslawyer.com/ Smildiger Photography http://www.smildigerphotography-nyc.com/portraiture/ Raw Media Network http://rawmedianetwork.com/ CitiZing! http://citizing.org/

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Food fortification – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 Food Supplements  Comments Off on Food fortification – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Mar 272016
 

Food fortification or enrichment is the process of adding micronutrients (essential trace elements and vitamins) to food. It may be a purely commercial choice to provide extra nutrients in a food, while other times it is a public health policy which aims to reduce the number of people with dietary deficiencies within a population.

Diets that lack variety can be deficient in certain nutrients. Sometimes the staple foods of a region can lack particular nutrients, due to the soil of the region or because of the inherent inadequacy of the normal diet. Addition of micronutrients to staples and condiments can prevent large-scale deficiency diseases in these cases.[citation needed]

While it is true that both fortification and enrichment refer to the addition of nutrients to food, the true definitions do slightly vary. As defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO), fortification refers to “the practice of deliberately increasing the content of an essential micronutrient, ie. vitamins and minerals (including trace elements) in a food irrespective of whether the nutrients were originally in the food before processing or not, so as to improve the nutritional quality of the food supply and to provide a public health benefit with minimal risk to health,” whereas enrichment is defined as “synonymous with fortification and refers to the addition of micronutrients to a food which are lost during processing.”[1]

Food fortification was identified as the second strategy of four by the WHO and FAO to begin decreasing the incidence of nutrient deficiencies at the global level.[1]

As outlined by the FAO, the most common fortified foods are:

The four main methods of food fortification (named as to indicate the procedure that is used in order to fortify the food):

The WHO and FAO, among many other nationally recognized organizations, have recognized that there are over 2 billion people worldwide who suffer from a variety of micronutrient deficiencies. In 1992, 159 countries pledged at the FAO/WHO International Conference on Nutrition to make efforts to help combat these issues of micronutrient deficiencies, highlighting the importance of decreasing the number of those with iodine, vitamin A, and iron deficiencies.[1] A significant statistic that led to these efforts was the discovery that approximately 1 in 3 people worldwide were at risk for either an iodine, vitamin A, or iron deficiency.[4] Although it is recognized that food fortification alone will not combat this deficiency, it is a step towards reducing the prevalence of these deficiencies and their associated health conditions.[5]

In Canada, The Food and Drug Regulations have outlined specific criterion which justifies food fortification:

There are also several advantages to approaching nutrient deficiencies among populations via food fortification as opposed to other methods. These may include, but are not limited to: treating a population without specific dietary interventions therefore not requiring a change in dietary patterns, continuous delivery of the nutrient, does not require individual compliance, and potential to maintain nutrient stores more efficiently if consumed on a regular basis.[3]

Several organizations such as the WHO, FAO, Health Canada, and the Nestl Research Center acknowledge that there are limitations to food fortification. Within the discussion of nutrient deficiencies the topic of nutrient toxicities can also be immediately questioned. Fortification of nutrients in foods may deliver toxic amounts of nutrients to an individual and also cause its associated side effects. As seen with the case of fluoride toxicity below, the result can be irreversible staining to the teeth. Although this may be a minor toxic effect to health, there are several that are more severe.[7]

The WHO states that limitations to food fortification may include: human rights issues indicating that consumers have the right to choose if they want fortified products or not, the potential for insufficient demand of the fortified product, increased production costs leading to increased retail costs, the potential that the fortified products will still not be a solution to nutrient deficiencies amongst low income populations who may not be able to afford the new product, and children who may not be able to consume adequate amounts thereof.[1]

Food safety worries led to legislation in Denmark in 2004 restricting foods fortified with extra vitamins or minerals. Products banned include: Rice Crispies, Shreddies, Horlicks, Ovaltine and Marmite.[8]

Danes said [Kelloggs] Corn Flakes, Rice Krispies and Special K wanted to include “toxic” doses which, if eaten regularly, could damage children’s livers and kidneys and harm fetuses in pregnant women.[9]

One factor that limits the benefits of food fortification is that isolated nutrients added back into a processed food that has had many of its nutrients removed, does not always result in the added nutrients being as bioavailable as they would be in the original, whole food. An example is skim milk that has had the fat removed, and then had vitamin A and vitamin D added back. Vitamins A and D are both fat-soluble and non-water-soluble, so a person consuming skim milk in the absence of fats may not be able to absorb as much of these vitamins as one would be able to absorb from drinking whole milk.

Phytochemicals such as polyphenols can also impact nutrient absorption.

Ecological studies have shown that increased B vitamin fortification is correlated with the prevalence of obesity and diabetes.[10] Daily consumption of iron per capita in the United States has dramatically surged since World War II and nearly doubled over the past century due to increases in iron fortification and increased consumption of meat.[11] Existing evidence suggests that excess iron intake may play a role in the development of obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer.[12]

Fortification of foods with folic acid has been mandated in many countries solely to improve the folate status of pregnant women to prevent Neural Tube Defectsa relatively rare birth defect which affected 0.5% of US births before fortification began.[13][14] However, when fortification is introduced, several hundred thousand people are exposed to an increased intake of folic acid for each neural tube defect pregnancy that is prevented.[15] In humans, increased folic acid intake leads to elevated blood concentrations of naturally occurring folates and of unmetabolized folic acid. High blood concentrations of folic acid may decrease natural killer cell cytotoxicity, and high folate status may reduce the response to drugs used to treat malaria, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and cancer.[15] A combination of high folate levels and low vitamin B-12 status may be associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment and anemia in the elderly and, in pregnant women, with an increased risk of insulin resistance and obesity in their children.[15] Folate has a dual effect on cancer, protecting against cancer initiation but facilitating progression and growth of preneoplastic cells and subclinical cancers.[15] Furthermore, intake of folic acid from fortification have turned out to be significantly greater than originally modeled in pre mandate predictions.[16] Therefore, a high folic acid intake due to fortification may be harmful for more people than the policy is designed to help.[14][15][17][18]

There is a concern that micronutrients are legally defined in such a way that does not distinguish between different forms, and that fortified foods often have nutrients in a balance that would not occur naturally. For example, in the U.S., food is fortified with folic acid, which is one of the many naturally-occurring forms of folate, and which only contributes a minor amount to the folates occurring in natural foods.[19] In many cases, such as with folate, it is an open question of whether or not there are any benefits or risks to consuming folic acid in this form.

In many cases, the micronutrients added to foods in fortification are synthetic.

In some cases, certain forms of micronutrients can be actively toxic in a sufficiently high dose, even if other forms are safe at the same or much higher doses. There are examples of such toxicity in both synthetic and naturally-occurring forms of vitamins. Retinol, the active form of Vitamin A, is toxic in a much lower dose than other forms, such as beta carotene. Menadione, a phased-out synthetic form of Vitamin K, is also known to be toxic.[20]

There are several main groups of food supplements like:

Many foods and beverages worldwide have been fortified, whether a voluntary action by the product developers or by law. Although some may view these additions as strategic marketing schemes to sell their product, there is a lot of work that must go into a product before simply fortifying it. In order to fortify a product, it must first be proven that the addition of this vitamin or mineral is beneficial to health, safe, and an effective method of delivery. The addition must also abide by all food and labeling regulations and support nutritional rationale. From a food developer’s point of view, they also need to consider the costs associated with this new product and whether or not there will be a market to support the change.[21]

Examples of foods and beverages that have been fortified and shown to have positive health effects:

“Iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) is the single greatest cause of preventable mental retardation. Severe deficiencies cause cretinism, stillbirth and miscarriage. But even mild deficiency can significantly affect the learning ability of populations…….. Today over 1 billion people in the world suffer from iodine deficiency, and 38 million babies born every year are not protected from brain damage due to IDD.”Kul Gautam, Deputy Executive Director, UNICEF, October 2007[22]

Iodised salt has been used in the United States since before World War II. It was discovered in 1821 that goiters could be treated by the use of iodized salts. However, it was not until 1916 that the use of iodized salts could be tested in a research trial as a preventative measure against goiters. By 1924, it became readily available in the US.[23]

Currently in Canada and the US, the RDA for iodine is as low as 90g/day for children (48 years) and as high as 290g/day for breast-feeding mothers.[24]

Diseases that are associated with an iodine deficiency include: mental retardation, hypothyroidism, and goiter. There is also a risk of various other growth and developmental abnormalities.[24]

Folic acid (also known as folate) functions in reducing blood homocysteine levels, forming red blood cells, proper growth and division of cells, and preventing neural tube defects (NTDs).[25]

In many industrialized countries, the addition of folic acid to flour has prevented a significant number of NTDs in infants. Two common types of NTDs, spina bifida and anencephaly, affect approximately 2500-3000 infants born in the US annually. Research trials have shown the ability to reduce the incidence of NTDs by supplementing pregnant mothers with folic acid by 72%.[26]

The RDA for folic acid ranges from as low as 150g/day for children aged 13 years old, to 400g/day for males and females over the age of 19, and 600g/day during pregnancy.[27]

Diseases associated with folic acid deficiency include: megaloblastic or macrocytic anemia, cardiovascular disease, certain types of cancer, and NTDs in infants.[28]

Niacin has been added to bread in the USA since 1938 (when voluntary addition started), a programme which substantially reduced the incidence of pellagra.[29] As early as 1755, pellagra was recognized by doctors as being a niacin deficiency disease. Although not officially receiving its name of pellagra until 1771.[30]Pellagra was seen amongst poor families who used corn as their main dietary staple. Although corn itself does contain niacin, it is not a bioavailable form unless it undergoes Nixtamalization (treatment with alkali, traditional in Native American cultures) and therefore was not contributing to the overall intake of niacin.[31] Although pellagra can still be seen in developing countries, fortification of food with niacin played a huge role in eliminating the prevalence of the disease.[30]

The RDA for niacin is 2mg NE(niacin equivalents)/day (AI) for infants aged 06 months, 16mg NE/day for males, and 14mg NE/day for females who are over the age of 19.[31]

Diseases associated with niacin deficiency include: Pellagra which consisted of signs and symptoms called the 3D’s-“Dermatitis, dementia, and diarrhea. Others may include vascular or gastrointestinal diseases.[30]

Common diseases which present a high frequency of niacin deficiency: alcoholism, anorexia nervosa, HIV infection, gastrectomy, malabsorptive disorders, certain cancers and their associated treatments.[30]

Since Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin, it cannot be added to a wide variety of foods. Foods that it is commonly added to are margarine, vegetable oils and dairy products.[32] During the late 1800s, after the discovery of curing conditions of scurvy and beriberi had occurred, researchers were aiming to see if the disease, later known as rickets, could also be cured by food. Their results showed that sunlight exposure and cod liver oil were the cure. It was not until the 1930s that vitamin D was actually linked to curing rickets.[33] This discovery led to the fortification of common foods such as milk, margarine, and breakfast cereals. This took the astonishing statistics of approximately 8090% of children showing varying degrees of bone deformations due to vitamin D deficiency to being a very rare condition.[34]

Risk factors for vitamin D deficiencies include:

The current RDA for infants aged 06 months is 10g (400 International Units (IU))/day and for adults over 19 years of age it is 15g (600 IU)/day.[35]

Diseases associated with a vitamin D deficiency include rickets, osteoporosis, and certain types of cancer (breast, prostate, colon and ovaries). It has also been associated with increased risks for fractures, heart disease, type 2 diabetes, autoimmune and infectious diseases, asthma and other wheezing disorders, myocardial infarction, hypertension, congestive heart failure, and peripheral vascular disease.[34]

Although fluoride is not considered an essential mineral, it is seen as crucial in prevention of tooth decay and maintaining adequate dental health.[36] In the mid-1900s it was discovered that towns with a high level of fluoride in their water supply was causing the residents’ teeth to have both brown spotting and a strange resistance to dental caries. This led to the fortification of water supplies with fluoride with safe amounts to retain the properties of resistance to dental caries but avoid the staining cause by fluorosis (a condition caused by a fluoride toxicity).[37]

The tolerable upper intake level (UL) set for fluoride ranges from 0.7mg/day for infants aged 06 months and 10mg/day for adults over the age of 19.

Conditions commonly associated with fluoride deficiency are dental caries and osteoporosis.[36]

Some other examples of fortified foods:

Despite having some scientific basis, but with controversial ethics, is the science of using foods and food supplements to achieve a defined health goal. A common example of this use of food supplements is the extent to which body builders will use amino acid mixtures, vitamins and phytochemicals to enhance natural hormone production, increase muscle and reduce fat. The literature is not concrete on an appropriate method for use of fortification for body builders and therefore may not be recommended due to safety concerns.[42]

There is interest in the use of food supplements in established medical conditions. This nutritional supplementation using foods as medicine (nutraceuticals) has been effectively used in treating disorders affecting the immune system up to and including cancers.[43] This goes beyond the definition of “food supplement”, but should be included for the sake of completeness.

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Singularitarianism | Prometheism.net

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Mar 262016
 

Singularitarianism is a movement[1] defined by the belief that a technological singularitythe creation of superintelligencewill likely happen in the medium future, and that deliberate action ought to be taken to ensure that the Singularity benefits humans.

Singularitarians are distinguished from other futurists who speculate on a technological singularity by their belief that the Singularity is not only possible, but desirable if guided prudently. Accordingly, they might sometimes dedicate their lives to acting in ways they believe will contribute to its rapid yet safe realization.[2]

Time magazine describes the worldview of Singularitarians by saying that they think in terms of deep time, they believe in the power of technology to shape history, they have little interest in the conventional wisdom about anything, and they cannot believe youre walking around living your life and watching TV as if the artificial-intelligence revolution were not about to erupt and change absolutely everything.[1]

Inventor and futurist Ray Kurzweil, author of the 2005 book The Singularity Is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology, defines a Singularitarian as someone who understands the Singularity and who has reflected on its implications for his or her own life; he estimates the Singularity will occur around 2045.[2]

Singularitarianism coalesced into a coherent ideology in 2000 when artificial intelligence (AI) researcher Eliezer Yudkowsky wrote The Singularitarian Principles,[2][3] in which he stated that a Singularitarian believes that the singularity is a secular, non-mystical event which is possible and beneficial to the world and is worked towards by its adherents.[3]

In June 2000 Yudkowsky, with the support of Internet entrepreneurs Brian Atkins and Sabine Atkins, founded the Machine Intelligence Research Institute to work towards the creation of self-improving Friendly AI. MIRIs writings argue for the idea that an AI with the ability to improve upon its own design (Seed AI) would rapidly lead to superintelligence. These Singularitarians believe that reaching the Singularity swiftly and safely is the best possible way to minimize net existential risk.

Many people believe a technological singularity is possible without adopting Singularitarianism as a moral philosophy. Although the exact numbers are hard to quantify, Singularitarianism is a small movement, which includes transhumanist philosopher Nick Bostrom. Inventor and futurist Ray Kurzweil, who predicts that the Singularity will occur circa 2045, greatly contributed to popularizing Singularitarianism with his 2005 book The Singularity Is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology .[2]

What, then, is the Singularity? Its a future period during which the pace of technological change will be so rapid, its impact so deep, that human life will be irreversibly transformed. Although neither utopian or dystopian, this epoch will transform the concepts we rely on to give meaning to our lives, from our business models to the cycle of human life, including death itself. Understanding the Singularity will alter our perspective on the significance of our past and the ramifications for our future. To truly understand it inherently changes ones view of life in general and ones particular life. I regard someone who understands the Singularity and who has reflected on its implications for his or her own life as a singularitarian.[2]

With the support of NASA, Google and a broad range of technology forecasters and technocapitalists, the Singularity University opened in June 2009 at the NASA Research Park in Silicon Valley with the goal of preparing the next generation of leaders to address the challenges of accelerating change.

In July 2009, many prominent Singularitarians participated in a conference organized by the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) to discuss the potential impact of robots and computers and the impact of the hypothetical possibility that they could become self-sufficient and able to make their own decisions. They discussed the possibility and the extent to which computers and robots might be able to acquire any level of autonomy, and to what degree they could use such abilities to possibly pose any threat or hazard (i.e., cybernetic revolt). They noted that some machines have acquired various forms of semi-autonomy, including being able to find power sources on their own and being able to independently choose targets to attack with weapons. They warned that some computer viruses can evade elimination and have achieved cockroach intelligence. They asserted that self-awareness as depicted in science fiction is probably unlikely, but that there were other potential hazards and pitfalls.[4] Some experts and academics have questioned the use of robots for military combat, especially when such robots are given some degree of autonomous functions.[5] The President of the AAAI has commissioned a study to look at this issue.[6]

Science journalist John Horgan has likened singularitarianism to a religion:

Lets face it. The singularity is a religious rather than a scientific vision. The science-fiction writer Ken MacLeod has dubbed it the rapture for nerds, an allusion to the end-time, when Jesus whisks the faithful to heaven and leaves us sinners behind. Such yearning for transcendence, whether spiritual or technological, is all too understandable. Both as individuals and as a species, we face deadly serious problems, including terrorism, nuclear proliferation, overpopulation, poverty, famine, environmental degradation, climate change, resource depletion, and AIDS. Engineers and scientists should be helping us face the worlds problems and find solutions to them, rather than indulging in escapist, pseudoscientific fantasies like the singularity.[7]

Kurzweil rejects this categorization, stating that his predictions about the singularity are driven by the data that increases in computational technology have been exponential in the past.[8]

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Transhumanism | Bioethics.com

 Transhumanism  Comments Off on Transhumanism | Bioethics.com
Mar 252016
 

March 8, 2016

(Fortune) As the Baby Boomer generation heads toward retirement, the number of Americans over the age of 65 is expected to hit 69 million people by 2030. That represents 20% of the U.S. population, up from todays share of Read More

March 2, 2016

PLOS Medicine(vol.13, no. 2,2016) is available online by subscription only. Articles include: Transforming Living Kidney Donation with a Comprehensive Strategy by Matthew B. Allen and Peter P. Reese The Rise of Consumer Health Wearables: Promises and Barriers by Lukasz Piwek, Read More

March 1, 2016

Bioethics(vol. 30, no. 3,2016) is available online by subscription only. Articles include: The Ashley Treatment: Improving Quality of Life or Infringing Dignity and Rights? by Caroline Harnacke The Ethics of Continued Life-Sustaining Treatment for Those Diagnosed as Brain-Dead by Jessica Read More

February 16, 2016

The Journal of the American Medical Association(vol. 315, no. 6, 2016) is available online by subscription only. Articles include: Machine Learning and the Profession of Medicine by Alison M. Darcy, Alan K. Louie, and Laura Weiss Roberts Policy Solutions for Read More

February 4, 2016

Science and Engineering Ethics(vol. 22, no. 1, 2016) is available online by subscription only. Articles include: The Convergence of Virtual Reality and Social Networks: Threats to Privacy and Autonomy by Fiachra OBrolchain, et al. Robotic Nudges: The Ethics of Engineering Read More

January 28, 2016

(CBS News) Its a pursuit that seems more like the plot of a science fiction movie than an actual goal of serious researchers around the world. But a number of scientists are fiercely working toward what was once only Read More

January 27, 2016

Scientific American(vol. 314, no. 2, 2016) is available online by subscription only. Articles include: Beware Prenatal Gene Screens Even Genius Needs a Benefactor by Nathan Myhrvold Talk Therapy by Anne Pycha For Sale: Your Medical Records by Adam Tanner Bitter Read More

January 15, 2016

Nursing Philosophy(vol. 17, no. 1, 2016) is available online by subscription only. Articles include: Radical Nursing and the Emergence of Technique as Healthcare Technology by Alan Barnard Cyborgs, Biotechnologies, and Informatics in Health CareNew Paradigms in Nursing Sciences by Ana Read More

January 14, 2016

Journal of Bioethical Inquiry(vol. 12, no. 4, 2015) is available online by subscription only. Articles include: Vaccine Refusal and Trust: The Trouble with Coercion and Education and Suggestions for a Cure by Johan Christiaan Bester Intellectual Property in Genetic Material Read More

December 29, 2015

(The Washington Post) But the discussion reflects a broader truth: We live in an age in which machine intelligence has become a part of daily life. Computers fly planes and soon will drive cars. Computer algorithms anticipate our needs Read More

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BruceClay – Search Engine Optimization – SEO Tutorial

 SEO  Comments Off on BruceClay – Search Engine Optimization – SEO Tutorial
Mar 192016
 

Bruce Clay, Inc.’s search engine optimization tutorial is a step-by-step SEO guidethat will teach you how to optimize a website for search, complete with free SEO tools! Are you a website owner concerned that your site doesn’t show up in Google? Or are you planning a website and want to make it search-friendly from the ground up? Whatever your situation, this tutorial will teach you all the SEO basics and important SEO tips to help you optimize your web pages to be found in search engines.

Our SEO tutorial covers only “white hat” methodology that adheres to search engine guidelines. Our founder, Bruce Clay, set the standard for ethical web marketing by authoring the “SEO Code of Ethics,” now translated into 18 languages. A respected leader in the ever-changing search marketing industry since 1996, our company provides Internet marketing services, software tools, and SEO training. In fact, thousands of people have attended our classroom-style training courses throughout the U.S. and internationally. This combined expertise makes Bruce Clay, Inc. uniquely qualified to present an ethics-based, search engine-friendly SEO tutorial to teach you best practices that reflect the latest developments in search.

Search engine optimization (SEO) is the science/art of increasing traffic to a website by helping it rank higher in organic (non-paid) search results. SEO tips and strategies that are trustworthy aim to improve both internal and external factors that influence a website’s ranking (aka “on page” and “off page” elements) for SEO. Optimization involves some web programming expertise combined with business, writing, marketing, branding and even competitive puzzle solving skills. If you do all of this right (or at least the best among your competitors), you can achieve higher search engine rankings in the organic sections of search engine results pages. And you can have a website capable of maintaining your revenue goals.

Search engines want to show the “best” results possible the most relevant, most expert and highest quality web pages that will satisfy the searcher. To do this, the engines look at more than 200 factors to determine a site’s relevance to a search request. Some of these factors are woven into the fabric of the website (“on-page” factors). Others are trust signals based on links from reputable sites and (in some cases) social media engagement. No single web page, even with the best search engine optimization in the world, can be perfect in all 200+ ranking factors. Furthermore, no one knows precisely what the factors include or how they are weighted to determine the search results for a given keyword or query. So what’s an SEO to do? This SEO tutorial teaches you a “beat the leader” approach to search engine ranking. To see what Google or Bing thinks is best for any specific attribute, you can look at the sites they are currently rewarding the top-ranked results. Once you know what structural and content choices worked for the “leaders,” you can do even better by making your pages the “least imperfect”!

There are no search engine optimization secrets or tricks just ranking methodologies to follow in order to help a site that offers value to users beat the competition in search results. Today’s SEO must be committed not just to optimizing a website, but also to making it a quality site that attracts links naturally and is worthy of ranking. This bears repeating:

It is not the job of search engine optimization to make a pig fly. It is the job of SEO to genetically re-engineer the website so that it becomes an eagle.

Bruce Clay

Creating a website that can achieve high ranking involves more than just technical skills, or content writing, or links, or engagement objects or search engine submission alone; it requires an integrated effort. It is difficult to accomplish this type of project without a formal, proven SEO methodology and strong search engine optimization tools. This SEO tutorial is an entry-level how-to guide covering all of that and more. It’s like taking a free SEO training course!

Before you begin, you should understand that being among the top 3 rankings in search engine results can be achieved, but not without great effort. Your web pages must earn that high ranking with high-quality content and best-practice SEO optimization basics. Still, even for the best websites, maintaining a top organic SEO ranking requires constant keyword monitoring and content reworking. Search engine optimization never rests but neither does your competition.

This SEO how-to guide follows the proven keyword-placement methodology that Bruce Clay has taught thousands of students worldwide in our renowned SEO training courses. And we’ve also provided free SEO toolsand many bonus videosto help you every step of the way.

To make sure your education is well-grounded and effective, these pages cover a wide range of Internet marketing-related subjects. Here you’ll learn SEO tips for:

Ready to learn? Let’s get the Bruce Clay SEO Tutorial started! It begins with keyword research.

Please review our SEO Code of Ethics and SEO Standards pages before you edit your site pages.

Looking for a short SEO Optimization Checklist? Try ours!

We think it is important that you learn how the search engines relate to each other. View our Search Engine Relationship Chart. This is a Flash rendering of our famous FREE PDF that is suitable for color printing, and all the links are active! The Search Engine Relationship Chart has evolved quite a bit over the years; check out the Search Engine History – Chart Histogram to see how much it has changed.

Bruce Clay, Inc. was singled out as the Best Professional Services Interactive Application award winner for 2004 by the IAC Web Marketing Association for this Search Engine Relationship Chart.

There’s a hierarchy to be considered when developing any SEO strategy. To help businesses and marketers apply this strategy of prioritization, the SEO Hierarchy of Needs shows the relative place of search engine optimization tasks.

View the SEO Hierarchy of Needs in interactive Flash, or download the chart in PDF.

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BruceClay – Search Engine Optimization – SEO Tutorial

Eugenics | Define Eugenics at Dictionary.com

 Eugenics  Comments Off on Eugenics | Define Eugenics at Dictionary.com
Mar 172016
 

Historical Examples

eugenics is based to a very large extent upon the principles underlying sex hygiene.

I try so hard not to be afraid of men, for I know they are necessary to eugenics.

eugenics is the science of reproducing better humans by applying the established laws of genetics or heredity.

It is a sin of our race that the eugenics Office should have bred out–but they have failed.

eugenics deals with the even more vital subject of improving the inherent type and capacities of the individuals of the future.

It has been said that eugenics is futile because it cannot define its end.

British Dictionary definitions for eugenics Expand

(functioning as sing) the study of methods of improving the quality of the human race, esp by selective breeding

Derived Forms

eugenic, adjectiveeugenically, adverbeugenicist, nouneugenist (judnst) noun, adjective

Word Origin

C19: from Greek eugens well-born, from eu- + -gens born; see -gen

Word Origin and History for eugenics Expand

1883, coined (along with adjective eugenic) by English scientist Francis Galton (1822-1911) on analogy of ethics, physics, etc. from Greek eugenes “well-born, of good stock, of noble race,” from eu- “good” (see eu-) + genos “birth” (see genus).

eugenics in Medicine Expand

eugenics eugenics (y-jn’ks) n. The study of hereditary improvement of the human race by controlled selective breeding.

eugenics in Culture Expand

The idea that one can improve the human race by careful selection of those who mate and produce offspring.

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HobbySpace – Astronomy

 Astronomy  Comments Off on HobbySpace – Astronomy
Mar 152016
 

Astronomy is obviously the oldest and most popular of space hobbies. Even the occasional backyard skywatching by unaided eye or a small telescope can be a marvelous experience.

There are innumerable web sites already devoted to general astronomy and so we start below with just a guide to some introductory sites and a few of the major astronomy link lists.

We will focus here more on sites related to astronomy projects where amateurs can make significant contributions.

One of the most wonderful aspects of astronomy is that amateurs still make significant contributions. Comets, for example, are often discovered by non-professional astronomers.

We put many topics involving near-earth and solar system based phenomena, e.g. meteor show observation, aurora investigation, etc., into the Space Science section. (This is an arbitrary division but is consistent with the HobbySpace emphasis on our solar system.)

Note that the Satellite Watching section also includes astronomy related information and links such as tracking programs, utilities and references. In addition, the offline and online software sections include some star chart program links.

Astronomy related sections at HobbySpace

ASTRONET Carl Koppeschaar’s ASTRONET provides links to astronomy and space sites. Also, daily news reports available. Sections include

Astronomy Cafe Sten Odenwald’s cafe offers you some exploration with your coffee:

“Have you ever wondered what it might be like to be an astronomer? Do you have any questions that you would like an astronomer to answer? Would you like to hear the latest about hyperspace, black holes, time travel and quantum cosmology? Well, at the Astronomy Cafe you’ve come to the right place! Sit down, grab a cup of coffee, and have a far-out adventure at the outer frontier of space and time.” – web site.

Astronomical Society of the Pacific A very large and active organization with members worldwide. Their Mercury Magazine is a bi-monthly with articles accessible by a wide audience. A selection of the articles are online. There is also an online shop for posters, software, globes, etc.

Cloudy Nights Telescope Reviews Great site with lots of resources such as:

An astronomy addition to Google Earth.

Griffith Observatory This observatory & planetarium is dedicated to public education in astronomy and space exploration. Sky Information

Guide to the Universe Annemie Maertens takes you on trips through our galaxy and on out into the universe. Beautiful images and descriptions of the sights along the way. (In both Dutch and English)

Inconstant Moon Beautifully designed site that offers multimedia tours of the lunar surface. Includes “maps, photos, explanations, animations, selected links and even music”.

Que tal in the Current Skies An entertaining and readable monthly newsletter for the casual backyard astronomer. Gives the highlights of night skys for the coming month.

Rose Center for Earth & Space New York’s famous Hayden Planetarium at the American Museum of Natural History has been replaced with the $210 million Rose Center. The center includes a new Planetarium and much more. The web site describes the new facility and also offers many online activities and resources.

SEDS Galaxy The website for the Students for Exploration and Development of Space (SEDS) provides a broad array of astronomical related links. Also, see the astronomy images in their archive.

Stig’s Sky Calendar Stig Ottosen’s site is dedicated to his Java astronomy and space events calendar program that provides info on happenings both celestial and on the ground (e.g. upcoming conferences.)

“Use the Sky Calendar to keep yourself up to date on local and global sky events. It will display sunrise/sunset, twilight and lunar phase and visibility at a glance, and also includes a Planisphere, Planet Finder and Planet Round-up display. You can even customize your sky calendar setup with My Sky Calendar.”

There is both an online and offline version.

SkyLights Professor Jim Kaler provides this site for amateur astronomers. Includes weekly updates and astronomy news.

StarDate The University of Texas McDonald Observatory presents the popular StarDate radio show about skywatching. This web site provides lots of astronomy links and useful tips, especially for the backyard astronomer.

The Starpages An enormous searchable database for space and astronomy web resources. Called the “astronomy yellow pages”. Sections nclude:

The Telson Spur — The Snark Hunter’s Page Link list site with an enormous number of astronomy and space & astronautics links, arranged in an innovative classification scheme. See, for example, sections on Amateur Astronomy, Sky&Weather.

John Walker’s Fourmilab Programs John Walker offers several online and offline (freeware) astronomy programs, as well as interesting information. See, for example,

Microsoft will release this tool in the spring of 2008. It sounds like it will be a powerful competitor to Google Sky

Astronomy Magazines The websites for astronomy magazines typically provide lots of information and resources for astronomers ranging from the beginner to the pro.

Astronomy Day (April 16th) + Globe at Night April 16th each year is the time to celebrate our cosmos and the hobby of astronomy and to participate in astronomical observations.

They developed a very elaborate website with many resources that are still available.

to go outside, look skywards after dark, count the stars they see in certain constellations, and report what they see online. This Windows to the Universe Citizen Science Event is designed to encourage learning in astronomy!

It is part of the Citizen Science program at Windows to the Universe.

Dark Sky Preservation Light pollution has caused most of the cosmos to fade from view for people who live in urban/suburban areas. Extraneous night time illumination, e.g. streetlights that send wasted light upward rather than reflecting it downward, reduces the sensitivity of not only scientific telescopes but of our own eyes to see the dimmer stars and Milky Way from your back yard.

Here are resources that discuss the problem and efforts to combat it.

Organizations for amateurs and students

Astronomy Tourism – Eclipses, Northern Lights, Meteor Showers, etc. It is becoming more and more popular to travel to some exotic location to observe an astronomy related event. The most common such trips are to areas where eclipses will be visible, but now these also include expeditions to view aurora and meteor showers.

Orrery (Solar System Simulator) An Orrery shows the planets and their orbit around the sun. Mechanical Orreries have been around for centuries, typically as beautiful, clockwork-like devices in brass and wood.

Here’s a big orrey project meant to run for a long, long time: Long Now > Projects > Clock > Orrery

Now one can find them simulated in software but there are still mechanical versions around. The software versions offer a lot more options but a mechanical Orrery offer a more tangible, intuitive and esthetic experience.

Miscellaneous lunar info and resources:

Science Topics Here are some miscellaneous astronomy related science topics of interest

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HobbySpace – Astronomy

Search Engine Optimization, SEO Optimization – SEO company …

 SEO  Comments Off on Search Engine Optimization, SEO Optimization – SEO company …
Feb 142016
 

Its next to impossible to keep up with the ever-changing landscape of SEO. Since 1997, SEO Inc. has been dedicated to the science and art of Search Engine Optimization, staying on the forefront of SEO trends and changes in algorithms, among a variety of other things. When you let SEO Inc. take on your search engine optimization strategy, it frees you up to focus on your business/industry while leaving the search engine optimization tactics to us. Our longevity and commitment to excellence puts us as a leading SEO company in the SEO industry. When you hire us, you get more than just another SEO company; you get a new member of your team hell-bent on seeing you succeed. SEO optimization is one of the highest ROI online marketing strategies to-date. Your business needs search optimization with a strong seo strategy to move the needle. SEO Inc uses our own, in-house search engine optimization tools and website optimization techniques.

Professional SEO Services Customized to Your Needs SEO Inc. structures all SEO services to be tailored to the needs of your business.

With our full Search Engine Optimization Management service, you’re getting the entire package to help boost your site including:

You can’t develop a strong search engine optimization strategy without first establishing goals and problems. So we will do it for you. When you use SEO Inc as your search engine optimization company, we will conduct a thorough SEO analysis ofall aspects of your website, as well as market research and analysis of your competitors. Our SEO experts or a SEO consultant review the code and web analytics, identify any problems and find new opportunities.We then deliver you the findings and work together to develop the perfect campaign to meet your desired results. Our website optimization and search engine optimization services will drive revenue and build your business’ brand.

While we’re doing this, you will be chatting with our SEO analyst or a SEO consultant who will keep you updated on campaign progress and deliver to you a detailed benchmark report with existing keyword rankings and historical, organic search traffic. You will know exactly where you stand when we start, which will help track progress along the way.

Website Architecture Optimization

Code Optimization

Contextual Marketing – Link Popularity

Social Media Integration

Conversion Rate Optimization

We will tailor all Professional SEO services to your business.

Our basic offerings for you to choose from include the following:

Based in San Diego, California SEO Inc strives to connect to all business’ looking to build their brand and supply the masses with their innovative new products. We are always looking for local business’ to work with.

The main reason for search engine optimization is usually to increase traffic to your website. If no one can find you, no one can benefit from the services you offer. However, the benefits of an SEO marketing strategy that works, are so much more, including:

Ready for an SEO Campaign of your own? Contact our san diego seo company to get started on building a stronger online presence for your business.

“Search Engine Optimization(SEO) is the process of editing website code and content to build authority and relevancy for keywords for the purpose of increasing the amount of organic search engine traffic (Google, Bing, Yahoo!, etc.) to your website.”

SEO is what helps search engines find your site in the vast sea of the Internet. This is why SEO Inc, a seo marketing company, works closely with you to develop custom campaigns for businesses of all sizes. The Internet isn’t “one-size-fits-all,” which is why we will build you a well-conceived and custom SEO strategy, complete with proper implementation, and seo optimization services so your site will gradually climb towards the top of the search engine queries until eventually becoming a reliable source for the keywords you want to be known for. Off site SEO or (backlink enhancement) will help lessen the amount of links that could be hurting your brands authority. We work as an SEO analyzer that scans your competition and creates a long term SEO plan. If your business has an in-house team that needs to learn seo, please check into our SEO training courses and classes.

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Empiricism versus Rationalism – Mesa Community College

 Rationalism  Comments Off on Empiricism versus Rationalism – Mesa Community College
Feb 022016
 

Empiricism v. rationalism

THE EMPIRICISTS: Empiricists share the view that there is no such thing as innate knowledge, and that instead knowledge is derived from experience (either sensed via the five senses or reasoned via the brain or mind). Locke, Berkeley, and Hume are empiricists (though they have very different views about metaphysics).

The rationalists: Rationalists share the view that there is innate knowledge; they differ in that they choose different objects of innate knowledge. Plato is a rationalist because he thinks that we have innate knowledge of the Forms [mathematical objects and concepts (triangles, equality, largeness), moral concepts (goodness, beauty, virtue, piety), and possibly color he doesnt ever explicitly state that there are Forms of colors]; Descartes thinks that the idea of God, or perfection and infinity, and knowledge of my own existence is innate; G.W. Leibniz thinks that logical principles are innate; and Noam Chomsky thinks that the ability to use language (e.g., language rules) is innate.

Empiricism (In favor of Empiricism, against Rationalism):

1. Empiricism is Simpler: Compared to Empiricism, Rationalism has one more entity that exists: Innate knowledge. According to the Empiricist, the innate knowledge is unobservable and inefficacious; that is, it does not do anything. The knowledge may sit there, never being used. Using Ockhams Razor (= when deciding between competing theories that explain the same phenomena, the simpler theory is better),1 Empiricism is the better theory.

2. Colors: How would you know what the color blue looks like if you were born blind? The only way to come to have the idea of blue is to experience it with your senses. (This objection only works possibly against Plato; see the introduction above again to see why this objection would not faze Descartes, Leibniz, or Chomsky.)

3. Imagination and Experience: How can we get the idea of perfect triangularity? We can extrapolate from our experience with crooked, sensible triangles and use our imagination to straighten out what is crooked and see what perfect triangularity is.

4. Rationalists have been Wrong about Their Innate Knowledge: Some medieval rationalists claimed that the notion of a vacuum was rationally absurd and hence it was impossible for one to exist. However, we have shown that it is possible.2 Reason is not the only way to discover the truth about a matter.

5. The Advance of Science: Much of science is founded on empiricist principles, and would not have advanced without it. If we base our conclusions about the world on empiricism, we can change our theories and improve upon them and see our mistakes. A rationalist seems to have to say that weve discovered innate knowledge and then be embarrassed if he or she is ever wrong (see examples such as the vacuum, above).

6. All Rationalists do Not Agree about Innate Knowledge: Rationalists claim that there is innate knowledge that gives us fundamental truths about reality, but even among rationalists (e.g., Plato, who believes in reincarnation and Forms and Descartes, who does not believe in either but does believe in a soul), there is disagreement about the nature of reality, the self, etc. How can this be, if there is innate knowledge of these things?

Rationalism (In favor of Rationalism, against Empiricism):

1. Math and Logic are Innate: Doesnt it seem that mathematical and logical truths are true not because of our five senses, but because of reasons ability to connect ideas?

2. Morality is Innate: How do we get a sense of what right and wrong are with our five senses? Since we cannot experience things like justice, human rights, moral duties, moral good and evil with our five senses, what can the empiricists ethical theory like? Hume (an empiricist) says morality is based solely on emotions; Locke says experience can provide us with data to show what is morally right and wrong, but does it seem that way to you?

3. Verifying Empiricism: Locke (an empiricist) says that our experiences tell us about the nature of reality, but how can we ever check our experience with what reality really is, in order to know that? Rationalists do not think we can, so we have to rely on reason.

4. Poverty of Stimulus Problem: Three year olds use language in ways that they are not explicitly taught. For example, they form original sentences from words that they havent heard put together in precisely that way before. Also, they start to understand grammatical rules before they even know what a noun or a verb is. If we can only say what weve heard said by others, how can three year olds speak as well as they do? This is known as the poverty of stimulus problem. You may think that Rationalism is strange, but it does a better job of explaining this problem than Empiricism. One way of choosing which of two theories is better (in addition to or instead of Ockhams Razor see Empiricism point #1 above) is asking, Which theory explains the phenomena better?1

5. Empiricism Undermines Creativity? According to Empiricism, you can combine things, separate them, and nothing else. With Rationalism, we come to experience with ready-made tools for creativity. E.g., Plato would say that were in touch with abstract, immutable realities, which provide lots of material with which to create.

6. Controllable Humans? According to Empiricism, human beings can be controlled and manipulated exceptionally easily. If we are nothing other than what we experience, then we should be able to be made to do whatever were taught. Rationalism has it that there is an invariable core (call it human nature) that refuses to be manipulated, which is what makes us unique.

Notes:

1 I hasten to add that Ockham’s Razor is simply a rule of thumb, and that I would recommend that the reader track down an excellent paper by Elliot Sober, entitled, “Let’s Razor Ockham’s Razor,” wherein he demonstrates that if one uses Ockham’s razor in a certain case of evolutionary biology, one will choose the wrong theory to explain the phenomena, because the situation is more complex than it may seem. I am persuaded by this argument and think we should not use Ockham’s razor; I have it here because people seem to like using it, but hopefully they will be persuaded by Dr. Sober’s argument as I am. 2 I have recently seen an episode of “Through the Wormhole” with God, I mean, Morgan Freeman, and scientists have apparently discovered that, even in a vaccum, there are some sort of subatomic particles there, so there is no such thing as nothing, or that even nothing is something.

2013 by David J. Yount

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Empiricism versus Rationalism – Mesa Community College

Transhuman Singularity – webmac.com

 Transhuman  Comments Off on Transhuman Singularity – webmac.com
Jan 242016
 

A list of links to my science fiction short stories:

I am a Hummingbird After my body died the surgeons put me in a hummingbird. It took a while to get use to having my perspective darting around so quickly, but my mind had finally adapted to it.

Sneeze! A few days Mr. Anderson. Don’t worry, it’s a positive virus, I’m origin zero. Then you’ll be one of us, welcome to the new global hivemind, we-I always choose well. It will be unlike anything you have ever experienced or imagined. Expect a mental call, anything will be possible, said Kay, a future echo … Kay Noble replied, then collected the documents, velvet and all, and left the room without a further word.

Muffy the Time Traveling Chihuahua Muffy was a loyal pack dog on the locally collapsed time-day of his death, which varied in fractal quantum probability across a multitude of bifurcated futures or space-time universes.

Lunch 2032 Her IQ was probably skyrocket norm. It seems the gene engineers had given her both great brains and beauty. She wanted to be a Terraforming Research Scientist, but on Earth she would have to settle for other work. Her parents had lost most of their money in a wild Marsearth start-up investment, so she had to work her way through the university, no one would give a genmod scholarship. It was just plain and simple prejudice.

Virtuality Zane Pax hid behind a large bolder as the black alien warship flew overhead. NaHan had swarmed the cities of the world laying waste to human civilization. Humanity was on the endangered species list, on our way out for good.

The Alien Time-Traveler Historian Mathew answers, Variations of me exist in most all future branches. Thats really rare, and thats why Im allowed to speak to you. To help you understand. You see, those that are still basically human in the future have great compassion. They want to help reduce the suffering. Im here on their behalf to try and influence things.

The Galactic Culture Finally, in order to survive the approaching technological singularity and remove their aggressive and self-destructive evolved behaviors, pre-type 1 species sometimes begin an extensive program of self-initiated genetic re-engineering and intelligence amplification (usually proceeded by development of a global computing system -Internet). Sometimes this is successful, other times not.

Lunar CityOutward space exploration and expansion grew at a rapid pace, due to the privatization of all space exploration and its subsequent exploitation. Corporations headed by forward thinking executives now controlled access to space. Spaceports have sprouted up all over the world, giving average citizens access to affordable space travel. Now space stations, moon bases and asteroid factories, which provided most of the raw materials, have become independent space communities. Distant science outposts have been constructed on the outer planets and moons. The solar system has become the playground of humanity.

VR Prototype Jason Chen bent over in his subway seat to pick up a rarely seen plastic penny he spotted face-up on the train floor. A penny existed today only to make exact change for those who still stubbornly used physical money. He didnt understand why, but somehow its continued existence was comforting for some. Angling the lucky coin in his fingers to see the three-dimensional head of Abraham Lincoln, he noted the year on the coin was 2053, the year of his birth.

Dr. Xanoplatu Dr. Xanoplatu, an alien anthropologist, historian, and time traveler, materialized on stage wearing the body of his ancestors, a giant green Praying Mantis with large yellow eyes and small black pupils. He was speaking at a galactic cultural lecture, inside a de-localized spherical space station, somewhere and some when in a multi-versed space-time reality.

Virtuality Mind Marcus replies, Yes, you can assume Im crazy. But, Im just communicating to you through this mans body. For a short period of time, I can do this, without his knowing it. When I leave and his consciousness re-awakens, this memory will seem like a daydream to him.

Resurrection Birth Jason awoke to a static humming sound.It was so annoying, grating on his nerves more than a badly tuned alarm clock.He lifted his heavy eyelids to blinding light, and out of focus images.His vision slowly cleared and he realized he was inside a plastic coffin thing.

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Transhuman Singularity – webmac.com

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Big Bang Theory

 The Singularity  Comments Off on Big Bang Theory
Jan 142016
 

You are here: Science >> Big Bang Theory

Big Bang Theory – The Premise The Big Bang theory is an effort to explain what happened at the very beginning of our universe. Discoveries in astronomy and physics have shown beyond a reasonable doubt that our universe did in fact have a beginning. Prior to that moment there was nothing; during and after that moment there was something: our universe. The big bang theory is an effort to explain what happened during and after that moment.

According to the standard theory, our universe sprang into existence as “singularity” around 13.7 billion years ago. What is a “singularity” and where does it come from? Well, to be honest, we don’t know for sure. Singularities are zones which defy our current understanding of physics. They are thought to exist at the core of “black holes.” Black holes are areas of intense gravitational pressure. The pressure is thought to be so intense that finite matter is actually squished into infinite density (a mathematical concept which truly boggles the mind). These zones of infinite density are called “singularities.” Our universe is thought to have begun as an infinitesimally small, infinitely hot, infinitely dense, something – a singularity. Where did it come from? We don’t know. Why did it appear? We don’t know.

After its initial appearance, it apparently inflated (the “Big Bang”), expanded and cooled, going from very, very small and very, very hot, to the size and temperature of our current universe. It continues to expand and cool to this day and we are inside of it: incredible creatures living on a unique planet, circling a beautiful star clustered together with several hundred billion other stars in a galaxy soaring through the cosmos, all of which is inside of an expanding universe that began as an infinitesimal singularity which appeared out of nowhere for reasons unknown. This is the Big Bang theory.

Big Bang Theory – Common Misconceptions There are many misconceptions surrounding the Big Bang theory. For example, we tend to imagine a giant explosion. Experts however say that there was no explosion; there was (and continues to be) an expansion. Rather than imagining a balloon popping and releasing its contents, imagine a balloon expanding: an infinitesimally small balloon expanding to the size of our current universe.

Another misconception is that we tend to image the singularity as a little fireball appearing somewhere in space. According to the many experts however, space didn’t exist prior to the Big Bang. Back in the late ’60s and early ’70s, when men first walked upon the moon, “three British astrophysicists, Steven Hawking, George Ellis, and Roger Penrose turned their attention to the Theory of Relativity and its implications regarding our notions of time. In 1968 and 1970, they published papers in which they extended Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity to include measurements of time and space.1, 2 According to their calculations, time and space had a finite beginning that corresponded to the origin of matter and energy.”3 The singularity didn’t appear in space; rather, space began inside of the singularity. Prior to the singularity, nothing existed, not space, time, matter, or energy – nothing. So where and in what did the singularity appear if not in space? We don’t know. We don’t know where it came from, why it’s here, or even where it is. All we really know is that we are inside of it and at one time it didn’t exist and neither did we.

Big Bang Theory – Evidence for the Theory What are the major evidences which support the Big Bang theory?

Big Bang Theory – The Only Plausible Theory? Is the standard Big Bang theory the only model consistent with these evidences? No, it’s just the most popular one. Internationally renown Astrophysicist George F. R. Ellis explains: “People need to be aware that there is a range of models that could explain the observations.For instance, I can construct you a spherically symmetrical universe with Earth at its center, and you cannot disprove it based on observations.You can only exclude it on philosophical grounds. In my view there is absolutely nothing wrong in that. What I want to bring into the open is the fact that we are using philosophical criteria in choosing our models. A lot of cosmology tries to hide that.”4

In 2003, Physicist Robert Gentry proposed an attractive alternative to the standard theory, an alternative which also accounts for the evidences listed above.5 Dr. Gentry claims that the standard Big Bang model is founded upon a faulty paradigm (the Friedmann-lemaitre expanding-spacetime paradigm) which he claims is inconsistent with the empirical data. He chooses instead to base his model on Einstein’s static-spacetime paradigm which he claims is the “genuine cosmic Rosetta.” Gentry has published several papers outlining what he considers to be serious flaws in the standard Big Bang model.6 Other high-profile dissenters include Nobel laureate Dr. Hannes Alfvn, Professor Geoffrey Burbidge, Dr. Halton Arp, and the renowned British astronomer Sir Fred Hoyle, who is accredited with first coining the term “the Big Bang” during a BBC radio broadcast in 1950.

Big Bang Theory – What About God? Any discussion of the Big Bang theory would be incomplete without asking the question, what about God? This is because cosmogony (the study of the origin of the universe) is an area where science and theology meet. Creation was a supernatural event. That is, it took place outside of the natural realm. This fact begs the question: is there anything else which exists outside of the natural realm? Specifically, is there a master Architect out there? We know that this universe had a beginning. Was God the “First Cause”? We won’t attempt to answer that question in this short article. We just ask the question:

Does God Exist?

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Big Bang Theory

Posthuman Futures | abhominal | experimentations on the …

 Posthuman  Comments Off on Posthuman Futures | abhominal | experimentations on the …
Jan 022016
 

No longer a science fiction, we the human race are on the cusp of human genetic engineering.

Humans have altered the genomes of species for thousands of years through artificial selection. Over the past 40 years scientists have made amazing technological progress to improve natures crops and mammals through genetic modifications; recently science has mapped the entire human genome and begun to realise the potential for modifying us.

Abhominal, an archaic word meaning inhuman, is an exploratory weblog of the human form. The digital sculptures are a fusion of geometric, architectural and biological abstract forms a bleak evolutionary future where biotechnology has been used to make perfect posthuman beings.

To modify nature is our nature.

In April 2015 it was announced that the first human embryos had been modified by Chinese scientists. The team, led by Junjiu Huang at Sun Yat-sen University in Guangzhou, used a gene editing procedure called Crispr to correct a fault that causes beta-thalassaemia a life-threatening blood disorder. Prominent science journals Nature and Science refused to publish the research paper on ethical grounds. The work is outlined here: Protein and Cell Journal.

What does this all mean, why does it matter?

Simply that human genetic modification is no longer a science fiction but a reality. We are at the dawn of a new age, our future is now.

Limited edition prints available.

To be a model is the stuff young girls dreams, and to be size zero is to reach the height of fashion. With genetic tinkering we will no longer need to fuss over what we eat. This is a 6ft tall, super thin hexagonal lattice posthuman; with fifteen toes, two full breasts and four nipples.

Limited edition prints available.

Reconfigured human form. Bulbous and fleshy genetic mound elevated high on an integrated pedestal.

Modular biostructure for the growth of spare parts. Anodised aluminium supporting lattice with organic form.

Limited edition prints available.

Posthuman structure measuring 220cm cubed. Within its safe and self-supporting geometric boundaries the main body has plenty of room for further growth.

Some more free skin textures created in zbrush.

These are 800px files. I am selling seamless skin textures $5 for 10 4K maps.

Scroll down and share on social media to download for free: [sociallocker]

5ft 6in tall cylindrical hexagonal lattice structure of stainless steel, supporting modified flesh growth.

Posthuman form supported within a golden ratio structure.

Here are some skin textures taken from photos, I use them in conjunction with the skin textures I created.

I use them in ZBrush with alpha brushes to spray on colour and build up realistic skins textures for SSS Shaders such as VRay FastSSS.

Please like this website on social media if you find these useful:

Here are some of the skin textures created by me that I use for my monsters.

I use them in ZBrush to spray on colour to build up realistic skins textures for SSS Shaders such as VRay FastSSS.

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Posthuman Futures | abhominal | experimentations on the …

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Chicago Beaches | A Guide to Beaches in Chicago

 Beaches  Comments Off on Chicago Beaches | A Guide to Beaches in Chicago
Dec 162015
 

Chicago has some great beaches along its lakefront. These beaches are full of history and overflowing with beauty. Listed below are some of the more popular ones. They are listed starting with the northernmost location and then in order to the southernmost location. All but one of the beaches listed (Illinois Beach State Park) are located in the City of Chicago under the control of the Chicago Park District. The entire 28 miles of Chicago lakefront shoreline is man-made, and primarily used as parkland.

Aerial View of the Lakefront Beaches

Illinois Beach State Park – This beach is great for beach camping, hiking and biking with many nature trails along the shoreline. The area also includes dune area, wetlands, prairie and the southern end is a nature preserve, which in 1980 was named a National Natural Landmark.

Rogers Ave. Beach – A small beach, and barely a block long. Also has tennis courts.

Pratt Boulevard Beach – A little known jewel in Chicago with a great community feel. A long pier seperates two halves of the beach, and a very culturally diversed group gathers here, so people watching is always a pleasure.

Kathy Osterman Beach – This crescent-shaped beach is divided into two parts.Many consider this beach one of the best kept secrets in Chicago, with clean water, unlittered, white sands and one of the most spectacular views of Lake Michigan in all of Chicago. There’s a concession stand that serves alcohol and all kinds of foods (burger, hot dogs, chips, etc) and as every lady takes note of, lots of gorgeous men congregating to play volleyball. The north half of the beach is great for families, especially those with kids as the waters are shallow. The south half of the beach is very popular with the gay community. The best way to get to the Kathy Osterman Beach is by public transit, as parking around here is often very limited.

Foster Avenue Beach – A great little man-made beach usually not crowded and with lots of free/cheap parking. There’s no view of Downtown Chicago from this beach, but when you want a quiet day at the beach without tons of tourists and blaring music, this is a great spot for a relaxing afternoon at the beach. Relaxing, that is, if you don’t mind the sounds of children playing.

Montrose Dog Beach – Chicago’s largest beach with one of only two dog beaches in Chicago at the north end (“Doggie Beach”). One of the few beaches you can launch non-motorized watercraft from, and the most parking of any beach in Chicago. The beach has recently been remodeled with a 3,000 square foot deck and a full service restaurant, The Dock at Montrose Beach.

Chicago Lakefront Trail

North Ave. Beach – Considered Chicago’s premier beach and definitely its most popular. It hosts the most developed beach house resembling an ocean liner, and contains bike and sports equipment rental, a bar and restaurant (Castaways), concession stand, a lifeguard station, and restrooms. North Ave. Beach also has many volleyball courts, a lakefront path, and it is the center stage for the Chicago Air & Water Show.

Oak Street Beach – About a mile and a half long, and is home to the largest area of deep water swimming in the city. It used to be the most popular beach due to its proximity to downtown. It is also home to Chicago’s only chess pavilion and an outdoor restaurant called the Oak Street Beachstro that is assembled every summer and then dismantled at the end of the season.

Olive Park Beach – Also known as Ohio Street Beach and is located in Streeterville. It is oriented in a fashion so that it faces north instead of east like all the other beaches. This makes it an ideal training sight for open water swimming. One can swim about a half mile to the Oak Street curve without being more that a few feet from the seawall and shallow water.

Aerial View of Chicago Lakefront Illinois

12th Street Beach – Sometimes called the 14th Street Beach, it is just south of the Adler Planetarium, and has restrooms and a concession stand. 12th Street Beach is also popular for open water swimming.

31st Street Beach – Located in Burnham Park. Every Year the 31st Street Beach hosts the Junior Lifeguard Chicago Area Tug-o-War. This beach is clean, rarely crowded, and great for picnics, families and enjoying a fabulous view of Chicago.

57th Street Beach – Located in the city’s Hyde Park neighborhood, the beach sits across the street from the Museum of Science and Industry. The beach provides an area for deep swimming. The bathrooms are clean, they have plenty of showers and the crowds are minimal. This stop is a must on the ride along Lake Shore Drive.

63rd Street Beach – Located in Jackson Park, it is home to the oldest beach house in the city. The beach used to be called Jackson Park Beach until 1914 when it was extended 10 acres to 63rd Street, thus changing its name. In 1919, the 63rd Street Pavilion was completed, and historically provided showers, medical rooms, and bathrooms. It was renovated in 2000, and is now used primarily by boaters, beach goers, and for special events.

Chicago Lakefront Skyline

South Shore Beach – It is located directly behind the South Shore Cultural Center (formerly the South Shore Country Club). The Country Club is a beautiful old building that houses a ballroom, restaurant, golf course, and tennis courts.

Rainbow Beach – Beginning with the 1919 Race Riot, Chicago suffered a history of race related disturbances regarding the use of public resources such as parks and beaches. Rainbow Beach was an area of controversy for black and white youth. Demographic shifts and racial climate changes of the 1960s led to a July 7 and 8, 1961 “freedom wade-in” at Rainbow Beach staged by an interracial coalition of demonstrators, including members of the NAACP Youth Council.

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Chicago Beaches | A Guide to Beaches in Chicago

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Scientists Open Letter on Cryonics | Evidence-Based Cryonics

 Cryonics  Comments Off on Scientists Open Letter on Cryonics | Evidence-Based Cryonics
Dec 142015
 

To whom it may concern,

Cryonics is a legitimate science-based endeavor that seeks to preserve human beings, especially the human brain, by the best technology available. Future technologies for resuscitation can be envisioned that involve molecular repair by nanomedicine, highly advanced computation, detailed control of cell growth, and tissue regeneration.

With a view toward these developments, there is a credible possibility that cryonics performed under the best conditions achievable today can preserve sufficient neurological information to permit eventual restoration of a person to full health.

The rights of people who choose cryonics are important, and should be respected.

Sincerely (67 Signatories)

Signatories encompass all disciplines relevant to cryonics, including Biology, Cryobiology, Neuroscience, Physical Science, Nanotechnology and Computing, Ethics and Theology.

[Signature datein brackets]

Gregory Benford, Ph.D. (Physics, UC San Diego) Professor of Physics; University of California; Irvine, CA [3/24/04]

Alex Bokov, Ph.D. (Physiology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio) [6/02/2014]

Alaxander Bolonkin, Ph.D. (Leningrad Politechnic University) Professor, Moscow Aviation Institute; Senior Research Associate NASA Dryden Flight Research Center; Lecturer, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ [3/24/04]

Nick Bostrom, Ph.D. Research Fellow; University of Oxford; Oxford, United Kingdom [3/25/04]

Kevin Q. Brown, Ph.D. (Computer Science, Carnegie-Mellon) Member of Technical Staff; Lucent Bell Laboratories (retired); Stanhope, NJ [3/23/04]

Professor Manfred Clynes, Ph.D. Lombardi Cancer Center; Department of Oncology and Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Georgetown University; Washington, DC [3/28/04]

L. Stephen Coles, M.D., PhD (RPI, Columbia, Carnegie Mellon University) Director, Supercentenarian Research Foundation Inglewood, California [10/7/06]

Daniel Crevier, Ph.D. (MIT) President, Ophthalmos Systems Inc., Longueuil, Qc, Canada; Professor of Electrical Engineering (ret.), McGill University & cole de Technologie Suprieure, Montreal, Canada. [4/7/05]

Antonei B. Csoka, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine Pittsburgh Development Center, Magee-Womens Research Institute [9/14/05]

Aubrey D.N.J. de Grey, Ph.D. Research Associate; University of Cambridge;Cambridge, United Kingdom [3/19/04]

Wesley M. Du Charme, Ph.D. (Experimental Psychology, University of Michigan) author of Becoming Immortal, Rathdrum, Idaho [11/23/05]

Joo Pedro de Magalhes, Ph.D. University of Namur; Namur, Belgium [3/22/04]

Thomas Donaldson, Ph.D. Editor, Periastron; Founder, Institute for Neural Cryobiology; Canberra, Australia [3/22/04]

Christopher J. Dougherty, Ph.D. Chief Scientist; Suspended Animation Inc; Boca Raton, FL [3/19/04]

K. Eric Drexler, Ph.D. Chairman of Foresight Institute; Palo Alto, CA [3/19/04]

Llus Estrada, MD., Ph.D.

Ex Head of the Clinical Neurophysiology Section (retired) at the University Hospital Joan XXIII of Tarragona, Spain. [11/21/2015]

Robert A. Freitas Jr., J.D. Author, Nanomedicine Vols. I & II; Research Fellow, Institute for Molecular Manufacturing, Palo Alto, CA [3/27/04]

Mark Galecki, Ph.D. (Mathematics, Univ of Tennessee), M.S. (Computer Science, Rutgers Univ), Senior System Software Engineer, SBS Technologies [11/23/05]

D. B. Ghare, Ph.D. Principal Research Scientist, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India [5/24/04]

Ben Goertzel, Ph.D. (Mathematics, Temple) Chief Scientific Officer, Biomind LLC; Columbia, MD [3/19/04]

Peter Gouras, M.D. Professor of Ophthalmology, Columbia University; New York City, NY [3/19/04]

Rodolfo G. Goya, PhDSenior Scientist, Institute for Biochemical Research (INIBIOLP), School of Medicine,, National University of La Plata, La Plata city, Argentina. [11/22/2015]

Amara L. Graps, Ph.D. Researcher, Astrophysics; Adjunct Professor of Astronomy; Institute of Physics of the Interplanetary Space; American University of Rome (Italy) [3/22/04]

Raphael Haftka, Ph.D. (UC San Diego) Distinguished Prof. U. ofFlorida; Dept. of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, Gainesville, FL [3/22/04]

David A. Hall, M.D. Dean of Education, World Health Medical School [11/23/05]

J. Storrs Hall, Ph.D. Research Fellow, Institute for Molecular Manufacturing, Los Altos, CA Fellow, Molecular Engineering Research Institute, Laporte, PA [3/26/04]

Robin Hanson, Ph.D. (Social Science, Caltech) Assistant Professor (of Economics); George Mason University; Fairfax, VA[3/19/04]

Steven B. Harris, M.D. President and Director of Research; Critical Care Research, Inc; Rancho Cucamonga, CA[3/19/04]

Michael D. Hartl, Ph.D.(Physics, Harvard & Caltech) Visitor in Theoretical Astrophysics; California Institute of Technology; Pasadena, CA [3/19/04]

Kenneth J. Hayworth, Ph.D. (Neuroscience, University of Southern California) Research Fellow; Harvard University; Cambridge, MA [10/22/10]

Henry R. Hirsch, Ph. D. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1960) Professor Emeritus, University of Kentucky College of Medicine [11/29/05]

Tad Hogg, Ph.D. (Physics, Caltech and Stanford) research staff, HP Labs, Palo Alto, CA [10/10/05]

James J. Hughes, Ph.D. Public Policy Studies Trinity College; Hartford, CT [3/25/04]

James R. Hughes, M.D., Ph.D. ER Director of Meadows Regoinal Medical Center; Director of Medical Research & Development, Hilton Head Longevity Center, Savanah, GA [4/05/04]

Ravin Jain, M.D. (Medicine, Baylor) Assistant Clinical Professor of Neurology, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA [3/31/04]

Subhash C. Kak, Ph.D. Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA [3/24/04]

Professor Bart Kosko, Ph.D. Electrical Engineering Department; University of Southern California [3/19/04]

Jaime Lagnez, PhDNGS and Systems biologist for INSP (National Institutes of Health of Mexico) and CONACYT (National Science and Technology Council). [11/21/2015]

James B. Lewis, Ph.D. (Chemistry, Harvard) Senior Research Investigator (retired); Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Research Institute; Seattle, WA [3/19/04]

Marc S. Lewis, Ph.D. Ph.D. from the University of Cincinnati in Clinical Psychology. Associate Professor at the University of Texas at Austin of Clinical Psychology. [6/12/05]

Brad F. Mellon, STM, Ph.D. Chair of the Ethics Committee; Frederick Mennonite Community; Frederick, PA [3/25/04]

Ralph C. Merkle, Ph.D. Distinguished Professor of Computing; Georgia Tech College of Computing; Director, GTISC (GA Tech Information Security Center); VP, Technology Assessment, Foresight Institute [3/19/04]

Marvin Minsky, Ph.D. (Mathematics, Harvard & Princeton) MIT Media Lab and MIT AI Lab; Toshiba Professor of Media Arts and Sciences; Professor of E.E. and C.S., M.I.T [3/19/04]

John Warwick Montgomery, Ph.D. (Chicago) D.Thol. (Strasbourg), LL.D. (Cardiff) Professor Emeritus of Law and Humanities, University of Luton, England [3/28/04]

Max More, Ph.D. Chairman, Extropy Institute,Austin, TX [3/31/04]

Steve Omohundro, Ph.D. (Physics, University of California at Berkeley) Computer science professor at the University of Illinois at Champaign/Urbana [6/08/04]

Mike ONeal, Ph.D. (Computer Science) Assoc. Professor and Computer Science Program Chair; Louisiana Tech Univ.; Ruston, LA [3/19/04]

R. Michael Perry, Ph.D. Computer Science Patient care and technical services, Alcor Life Extension Foundation [9/30/09]

Yuri Pichugin, Ph.D. Former Senior Researcher, Institute for Problems of Cryobiology and Cryomedicine; Kharkov, Ukraine [3/19/04]

Peter H. Proctor, M.D., Ph.D. Independent Physician & Pharmacologist; Houston, Texas [5/02/04]

Martine Rothblatt, Ph.D., J.D., M.B.A. Responsible for launching several satellite communications companies including Sirius and WorldSpace. Founder and CEO of United Therapeutics. [5/02/04]

Klaus H. Sames, M.D. University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Center of Experimental Medicine (CEM) Institute of Anatomy II: Experimental Morphology; Hamburg, Germany [3/25/04]

Anders Sandberg, Ph.D. (Computational Neuroscience) Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm University; Stockholm, Sweden [3/19/04]

Sergey V. Sheleg, M.D., Ph.D. Senior Research Scientist, Alcor Life Extension Foundation; Scottsdale, AZ [8/11/05]

Stanley Shostak, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Biological Sciences; University of Pittsburgh; Pittsburgh, PA [3/19/04]

Rafal Smigrodzki, M.D., Ph.D. Chief Clinical Officer, Gencia Company; Charlottesville VA [3/19/04]

David S. Stodolsky, Ph.D. (Univ. of Cal., Irvine) Senior Scientist, Institute for Social Informatics [11/24/05]

Gregory Stock, Ph.D. Director, Program on Medicine, Technology, and Society UCLA School of Public Health; Los Angeles, CA [3/24/04]

Charles Tandy, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Humanities and Director Center for Interdisciplinary Philosophic Studies Fooyin University (Kaohsiung, Taiwan) [5/25/05]

Peter Toma, Ph.D. President, Cosmolingua, Inc. Sioux Falls, South Dakota. Inventor and Founder of SYSTRAN. Director of International Relations, Alcor Life Extension Foundation. Residences in Argentina, Germany, New Zealand, Switzerland and USA [5/24/05]

Natasha Vita-More, PhD Professor, University of Advancing Technology, Tempe, Arizona, USA. [11/22/2015]

Mark A. Voelker, Ph.D. (Optical Sciences, U. Arizona) Director of Bioengineering; BioTime, Inc.; Berkeley, CA [3/19/04]

Roy L. Walford, M.D. Professor of Pathology, emeritus; UCLA School of Medicine; Los Angeles, CA [3/19/04]

Mark Walker, Ph.D. Research Associate, Philosophy; Trinity College; University of Toronto (Canada) [3/19/04]

Michael D. West, Ph.D. President, Chairman & Chief Executive Office; Advanced Cell Technology, Inc.; Worcester, MA [3/19/04]

Ronald F. White, Ph.D. Professor of Philosophy; College of Mount St. Joseph; Cincinnati, OH [3/19/04]

James Wilsdon, Ph.D. (Oxford University) Head of Strategy for Demos, an independent think-tank; London, England [5/04/04]

Brian Wowk, Ph.D. Senior Scientist 21st Century Medicine, Inc.; Rancho Cucamonga, CA [3/19/04]

Selected Journal Articles Supporting Cryonics:

First paper showing recovery of brain electrical activity after freezing to -20C. Suda I, Kito K, Adachi C, in: Nature (1966, vol. 212), Viability of long term frozen cat brain in vitro, pg. 268-270.

First paper to propose cryonics by neuropreservation: Martin G, in: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine (1971, vol. 14), Brief proposal on immortality: an interim solution, pg. 339.

First paper showing recovery of a mammalian organ after cooling to -196C (liquid nitrogen temperature) and subsequent transplantation: Hamilton R, Holst HI, Lehr HB, in: Journal of Surgical Research (1973, vol 14), Successful preservation of canine small intestine by freezing, pg. 527-531.

First paper showing partial recovery of brain electrical activity after 7 years of frozen storage: Suda I, Kito K, Adachi C, in: Brain Research (1974, vol. 70), Bioelectric discharges of isolated cat brain after revival from years of frozen storage, pg. 527-531.

First paper suggesting that nanotechnology could reverse freezing injury: Drexler KE, in: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (1981, vol. 78), Molecular engineering: An approach to the development of general capabilities for molecular manipulation, pg. 5275-5278.

First paper showing that large organs can be cryopreserved without structural damage from ice: Fahy GM, MacFarlane DR, Angell CA, Meryman HT, in: Cryobiology (1984, vol. 21), Vitrification as an approach to cryopreservation, pg. 407-426.

First paper showing that dogs can be recovered after three hours of total circulatory arrest (clinical death) at 0C (32F). This supports the reversibility of the hypothermic phase of cryonics: Haneda K, Thomas R, Sands MP, Breazeale DG, Dillard DH, in: Cryobiology (1986, vol. 23), Whole body protection during three hours of total circulatory arrest: an experimental study, pg. 483-494.

First detailed discussion of the application of nanotechnology to reverse human cryopreservation: Merkle RC, in: Medical Hypotheses (1992, vol. 39), The technical feasibility of cryonics, pg. 6-16.

First successful application of vitrification to a relatively large tissue of medical interest: Song YC, Khirabadi BS, Lightfoot F, Brockbank KG, Taylor MJ, in: Nature Biotechnology (2000, vol. 18), Vitreous cryopreservation maintains the function of vascular grafts, pg. 296-299.

First report of the consistent survival of transplanted kidneys after cooling to and rewarming from -45C: Fahy GM, Wowk B, Wu J, Phan J, Rasch C, Chang A, Zendejas E, in: Cryobiology (2004 vol. 48),Cryopreservation of organs by vitrification: perspectives and recent advances, pg. 157-78. PDF here.

First paper showing good ultrastructure of vitrified/rewarmed mammalian brains and the reversibility of prolonged warm ischemic injury in dogs without subsequent neurological deficits, and setting forth the present scientific evidence in support of cryonics: Lemler J, Harris SB, Platt C, Huffman T, in: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, (2004 vol. 1019), The Arrest of Biological Time as a Bridge to Engineered Negligible Senescence, pg. 559-563. PDF here.

First discussion of cryonics in a major medical journal: Whetstine L, Streat S, Darwin M, Crippen D, in: Critical Care, (2005, vol. 9), Pro/con ethics debate: When is dead really dead?, pg. 538-542. PDF here.

First demonstration that both the viability and structure of complex neural networks can be well preserved by vitrification: Pichugin Y, Fahy GM, Morin R, in: Cryobiology, (2006, vol. 52), Cryopreservation of rat hippocampal slices by vitrification, pg. 228-240.PDF here.

Rigorous demonstration of memory retention following profound hypothermia, confirming theoretical expectation and clinical experience. Alam HB, Bowyer MW, Koustova E, Gushchin V, Anderson D, Stanton K, Kreishman P, Cryer CM, Hancock T, Rhee P, in: Surgery (2002, vol. 132), Learning and memory is preserved after induced asanguineous hyperkalemic hypothermic arrest in a swine model of traumatic exsanguination, pg. 278-88.

Review of scientific justifications of cryonics: Best BP, in: Rejuvenation Research (2008, vol. 11), Scientific justification of cryonics practice, pg. 493-503. PDF here.

First successful vitrification, transplantation, and long-term survival of a vital mammalian organ: Fahy GM, Wowk B, Pagotan R, Chang A, Phan J, Thomson B, Phan L, in: Organogensis (2009, vol. 5), Physical and biological aspects of renal vitrification pg. 167-175. PDF here.

First demonstration of memory retention in a cryopreserved and revived animal: Vita-More N, Barranco D, in:Rejuvenation Research, (2015, vol. 18), Persistence of Long-Term Memory in Vitrified and Revived Caenorhabditis elegans, pg. 458-463.PDF here.

Note: Signing of this letter does not imply endorsement of any particular cryonics organization or its practices. Opinions on how much cerebral ischemic injury (delay after clinical death) and preservation injury may be reversible in the future vary widely among signatories.

Contact: contact@evidencebasedcryonics.org

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Scientists Open Letter on Cryonics | Evidence-Based Cryonics

Dallas SEO Staff – Web Design – Garland, TX – Reviews …

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Nov 022015
 

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Free speech news, articles and information: – NaturalNews

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Nov 022015
 

Tell Congress to support the Free Speech about Science Act of 2011 4/13/2011 – Last year, the Alliance for Natural Health (ANH), a nonprofit organization that works very hard to promote and protect freedom of health speech, came up with a very important piece of legislation called the Free Speech about Science Act (FSAS) that is designed to lift the restrictions on health speech… Support the Free Speech About Science Act and restore freedom of health speech 5/27/2010 – The Alliance for Natural Health, a nonprofit organization committed to protecting access to natural and integrative medicine, has recently come up with a Congressional bill designed to stop government censorship of truthful, scientific health claims about natural foods and herbs, and restore free speech… NaturalNews to launch Free Speech video network 5/4/2010 – On the heels of increasing video censorship committed by YouTube against natural health videos, NaturalNews is announcing the upcoming launch of its worldwide, multilingual video network called NaturalNews.TV. The service goes live in late June and is designed to offer a Free Speech platform for videos… Ron Paul Introduces Three New Bills Designed to Restore Free Speech to Health 8/10/2009 – In recent years, numerous companies have been targeted, raided, and even shut down by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Federal Trade Commission (FTC) for making health claims about the products they sell. These federal agencies operate outside the realm of constitutional legitimacy and thus… FDA tyranny and the censorship of cherry health facts (opinion) 5/2/2006 – In the past, I jokingly said that broccoli might someday be banned as soon as the public begins to learn about the potent anti-cancer chemicals found in the vegetable. Thats because, as I jested, the FDA wouldnt want people treating their own cancer with the anti-cancer medicines found in cruciferous… Counterthink roundup: Free Speech, Google News, and Big Brother (satire) 1/31/2006 – New provisions in the Patriot Act, which are about to become law, will make it a felony crime for protestors to step foot outside official “protest zones” designated by the U.S. Secret Service. This is how President Bush expands the freedom of Americans — by giving them all the freedom they want, as… See all 56 free speech feature articles. Police: People: Bush: Speech: President: Free: The internet: Internet: Government: Information: Society: World: Media: California: Victory: Financial: Most Popular Stories TED aligns with Monsanto, halting any talks about GMOs, ‘food as medicine’ or natural healing 10 other companies that use the same Subway yoga mat chemical in their buns Warning: Enrolling in Obamacare allows government to link your IP address with your name, social security number, bank accounts and web surfing habits High-dose vitamin C injections shown to annihilate cancer USDA to allow U.S. to be overrun with contaminated chicken from China Vaccine fraud exposed: Measles and mumps making a huge comeback because vaccines are designed to fail, say Merck virologists New USDA rule allows hidden feces, pus, bacteria and bleach in conventional poultry Battle for humanity nearly lost: global food supply deliberately engineered to end life, not nourish it Harvard research links fluoridated water to ADHD, mental disorders 10 outrageous (but true) facts about vaccines the CDC and the vaccine industry don’t want you to know EBT card food stamp recipients ransack Wal-Mart stores, stealing carts full of food during federal computer glitch Cannabis kicks Lyme disease to the curb TV.NaturalNews.com is a free video website featuring thousands of videos on holistic health, nutrition, fitness, recipes, natural remedies and much more.

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Can You Cheat Death With Cryonics? – YouTube

 Cryonics  Comments Off on Can You Cheat Death With Cryonics? – YouTube
Oct 302015
 

How the process of cryonics works,does it work and the problem scientists are currently having with the process.

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The process of Cryonics, it’s a technique used to store a persons body at an extremely low temperature with the hope of one day reviving them. You may of seen this method used in many sci fi films for example the demolition man, But, the science behind this process isn’t just fictional, it actually does exist, and the technique is being performed today. However it is still in its very early infancy. The idea of being cryogenically suspended is that if you die from a disease or condition that is currently incurable, scientists freeze you. Then one day in the near or far future, when the technology has been created to revive your body and the cure for the disease or condition has been discovered, you will be brought back, cured and allowed to carry on your life, only in the future. So how does it work? Well first you would have to join a cryonics facility and pay an annual membership fee. Then, when you are confined legally dead, an emergency response team from the facility stabilises your body, supplying your brain with enough oxygen and blood to preserve minimal function until you can be transported to the suspension facility. You are then packed in ice and injected with an anticoagulant ready to be transported, once you are at the cryonics facilities the team remove the water from your cells and replace it with a type anti freeze called a cryoprotectant to prevent cells from freezing and shattering. Your body is then cooled on a bed of dry ice until it reaches -130 C and then you are inserted in to an individual container that is then placed into a large metal tank filled with liquid nitrogen at a temperature of around -196 degrees Celsius. This isn’t a cheap process however, currently it costs more than 100,000 to have your whole body preserved. The kind of price that Walt Disney would of been able to pay all those years ago. However the fact that everybody thinks they know about the famous Mr Disney being preserved though cryogenics after deaf, is actually incorrect. It is only an urban legend, Walt was cremated in 1966 after he passed away. In actual fact, James Bedford became the 1st human to be cryogenically preserved on 12 January 1967. Currently there is around 150 people that have had their whole body stored in liquid nitrogen in the United States, while around 80 have had just their heads or brains preserved. So does it actually work? Will science ever bring back James Bedford? Well, currently none of companies offering cryogenic suspension have successfully revived anyone, and dont expect to be able to anytime soon. One of the biggest problems with this process seems to be that if the scientists do not warm the body at exactly the right speed and temperature, the cells could form ice crystals and shatter. However there are studies in to some frogs that have a natural antifreeze in there cells which can protect them if theyre frozen completely solid. This may one day be adapted to the human body, potentially solving this problem. Another method that may be available in the future, is nanotechnology. These tiny little bots may make it possible to repair or build human cells and tissue if it becomes damaged during the cryogenic process. This may sound like a Sci Fi story as seen in many films, but some scientists have predicted that the first cryonic revival might occur as early as the year 2045 and there are more than 1,000 living people who have instructed companies to preserve their bodies after their death, on the hope that these scientists one day, will bring them back.

Attributes – Frozen Head – Self_(2011)_by_Marc_Quinn Black and white film – Cryonic Society at Phoenix, Arizona, January 31, 1967 Universal Newsreel- Public domain film from the US National Archives Cryogenic Scene-Demolition Man Futuristic User Interface -Nawaz Alamgir Killer T cell attacking cancer-Cambridge University Music – Night Music – YouTube Audio Library

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International Encyclopedia of Economic Sociology: Libertarianism

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Oct 262015
 

This essay first appeared in the International Encyclopedia of Economic Sociology, edited by Jens Beckert and Milan Zafirovski (London and New York: Routledge, 2006, pp. 403-407). It was posted as a Notablog entry on 5 January 2006. Comments welcome (post here).

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“LIBERTARIANISM”

By Chris Matthew Sciabarra

Libertarianism is the political ideology ofvoluntarism, a commitment to voluntary action in a social context, where no individual or group of individuals can initiate the use of force against others. It is not a monolithic ideological paradigm; rather, it signifies a variety of approaches that celebrate therule of law and the free exchange of goods, services, and ideas a laissez-faire attitude towards what philosopher Robert Nozick (1974) once called capitalist acts between consenting adults.

Modern libertarians draw inspiration from writings attributed to the Chinese sage Lao Tzu, as well as the works of Aristotle, among the ancients; [seventeenth-,] eighteenth- and nineteenth-century classicalliberalism (e.g. John Locke, the Scottish Enlightenment, the American founders, Carl Menger, andHerbert Spencer); individualist anarchism (e.g. Benjamin Tucker and Lysander Spooner); Old Right opponents of Franklin D. Roosevelts New Deal (e.g. Albert Jay Nock, John T. Flynn, Isabel Paterson andH. L. Mencken); modern Austrian economics (e.g. Ludwig von Mises, F. A. Hayek and Murray Rothbard), as well as the economics of the Chicago school(Milton Friedman) and Virginia school (James Buchanan); and the Objectivist philosopherAyn Rand.

Classical liberalism is the most immediatepredecessor of contemporary libertarianism. Locke and the American founders had an impact on those libertarians, such as Rothbard and Rand, who stress individual rights, while the Scottish Enlightenment and Spencer had a major impact on thinkerssuch as Hayek, who stress the evolutionary wisdom of customs and traditions in contradistinctionto the constructivist rationalism of state planners.

Among evolutionists, Spencer in particularmade important contributions to what would become known as general systems theory; some consider him to be the founder of modern sociology. Indeed, he authored Principles of Sociology and TheStudy of Sociology, which was the textbook used for the first sociology course offered in the United States, at Yale University. A contemporary of Charles Darwin, he focused on social evolution the development of societies and organizational structuresfrom simple to compound forms. In such works as The Man Versus the State, he presented a conception of society as a spontaneous, integrated growth and not amanufacture, an organically evolving context for the development of heterogeneity and differentiation among the individuals who compose it. Just as Spencer emphasized organic social evolution, so too did he focus on the organic evolution of the state with its mutually reinforcing reliance onbureaucracy and militarism, and how it might be overcome.

The Austrian-born Carl Menger, a founder along with W. S. Jevons and Lon Walras of the marginalist revolution in economics, held a similar view of social life as a dynamic, spontaneous, evolving process. Influenced by Aristotle in his methodological individualism, Menger wasfervently opposed to the historical relativism of the German historicists of the Methodenstreit. Menger focused on the purposeful actions of individuals in generating unintended sociologicalconsequences a host of institutions, such as language, religion, law, the state, markets, competition and money.

In the twentieth century, the Nobel laureate Austrian economist F. A. Hayek carried on Mengers evolutionist discussion and praised it for providing outstanding guidelines for general sociology. For Hayek (1991), Menger was among the Darwinians before Darwin those evolutionists,such as the conservative Edmund Burke and the liberals of the Scottish Enlightenment, who stressed the evolution of institutions as the product of unintended consequences, rather than deliberate design. Hayek drew a direct parallel between hisown concept of spontaneous order and Adam Smiths notion of the invisible hand. Hayek argued that, over time, there is a competition among various emergent traditions, each of which embodies rivalrules of action and perception. Through a process of natural selection, those rules and institutions that are more durable than others will tend to flourish, resulting in a relative increase in population and wealth. Though he didnt argue for a theory of inevitable progress, as Spencer had, heclearly assumed that liberalism was the social system most conducive to such flourishing.

Like Karl Marx, Hayek criticized utopiansfor their desire to construct social institutions as if from an Archimedean standpoint, external to history and culture. But Hayek turned this analysis on Marx; he developed a full-fledged critique of socialism and central planning as utopian requiring an unattainable synoptic knowledge of all the articulated and tacit dimensions of social life. Hayek argued that market prices were indispensable to rational entrepreneurial calculation. He also focused on the sociological and psychological ramifications of the movement away from markets. He maintains in The Road to Serfdom (1944), for example, that there is a structural connection between social psychology and politics: to the extent that the stateimposes collectivist arrangements on individuals, it is destructive of individualchoice, morals and responsibility, and this destruction of individualism reinforces the spread of statism. And the more the state comes to dominate social life, says Hayek, the more state power will be the only power worth having which is why theworst get on top.

The Austrian economist Ludwig von Mises was similarly opposed to statism and collectivism, and presented, in [1922], an influential book entitled Socialism, which was an economic and sociological analysis of all forms of state intervention from fascism to communism. Mises used the tools of praxeology, the science of humanaction, to demonstrate the calculational problems that all non-market systems face, due to their elimination of private property, entrepreneurialism and the price system. More important, perhaps, is Misess development of a non-Marxist, libertarian theoryof class. Like Charles Dunoyer, Charles Comte, James Mill and other classical liberals, Mises argued that traders on the market share a mutuality of benefit that is destroyed by political intervention. For Mises, the long-term interests of marketparticipants are not in fundamental conflict. It is only with government action that such conflict becomes possible, Mises claims,because it is only government that can create a caste system based on the bestowal of special privileges.

Mises located the central caste conflictin the financial sector of the economy. In such books as The Theory of Money and Credit, he contends that government control over money and banking led to the cycle of boom and bust. A systematicincrease in the money supply creates differentialeffects over time, redistributing wealth to those social groups, especially banks and debtor industries, which are the first beneficiaries of the inflation.

Mises student, Murray Rothbard, developed this theory of caste conflict into a full-fledged libertarian class analysis. Rothbard views central banking as a cartelizing device that has created a powerful structure of class privilege in modern political economy. These privileges growexponentially as government restricts market competition and free entry, thereby creating monopoly through various coercive means (e.g. compulsory cartelization, price controls, output quotas, licensing, tariffs, immigration restrictions, labourlaws, conscription, patents, franchises, etc.).

Rothbards view of the relationship between big business and government in the rise of American statism draws additionally from the work of New Left historical revisionists, such as Gabriel Kolko andJames Weinstein. These historians held that big business was at the forefront of the movement towards government regulation of the market. That movement, according to Rothbard, had both a domestic and foreigncomponent, since it often entailed both domestic regulation and foreign imperialism to secure global markets. The creation of a welfare-warfare state leads necessarily to economic inefficiencies and deep distortions in the structure of production. Like Marx, Rothbard views these internal contradictions as potentially fatal to the economic system; unlike Marx, Rothbard blames these contradictions not on the free market, but on the growth of statism.

Drawing inspiration from Franz Oppenheimers and Albert Jay Nocks distinction between state power and social power, or state and market, and from John C. Calhouns class theory, as presented in Disquisition on Government, Rothbard sawsociety fragmenting, ultimately, into two opposing classes: taxpayers and tax-consumers. In his book Power and Market, Rothbard identifies bureaucrats, politicians and the net beneficiaries of government privilege as among the tax-consumers. Unlike his Austrian predecessors Hayek andMises, however, Rothbard argues that it is only with the elimination of the state that a fully just and productive society can emerge. His anarcho-capitalist ideal society would end the states monopoly on the coercive use of force, as well as taxation and conscription, and allow for the emergence of contractual agencies for the protectionof fully delineated private property rights (thereby resolving the problems of externalities and public goods) and the adjudication of disputes. His scenario had a major impact on Nozick, whose Anarchy,State, and Utopia was written in response to the Rothbardian anarchist challenge.

Ayn Rand, the Russian-born novelist and philosopher, author of best-selling novels TheFountainhead and Atlas Shrugged, was one of those who eschewed the libertarian label, partially because of its association with anarchism. An epistemological realist, ethical egoist and advocate of laissez-faire capitalism, Rand maintained that libertarians had focused too much attention on politics to the exclusion of the philosophical and cultural factors upon which it depended. But even though she saw politics as hierarchically dependent on these factors, she often stressed the reciprocal relationships among disparate elements, from politicsand pedagogy to sex, economics and psychology. She sought to transcend the dualities of mind and body, reason and emotion, theory and practice, fact and value, morality and prudence, and theconventional philosophic dichotomies of materialism and idealism, rationalism and empiricism, subjectivism and classical objectivism (which she called intrinsicism). Yet, despite her protestations, Rand can be placed in the libertarian tradition, given her adherence to its voluntarist political credo.

From the perspective of social theory, Rand proposed a multi-level sociological analysis of human relations under statism. Echoing the Austrian critique of state intervention in her analysis of politics and economics, Rand extended her critique toencompass epistemology, psychology, ethics and culture. She argued that statism both nourished and depended upon an irrational altruist and collectivist ethos that demanded the sacrifice of the individual to the group. It required and perpetuated a psychology of dependence and a groupmentality that was destructive of individual authenticity, integrity, honesty and responsibility. Rand also focused on the cultural preconditions and effects of statism since coercive social relations required fundamental alterations in the nature of language, education, pedagogy, aesthetics and ideology. Just as relations of power operatethrough ethical, psychological, cultural, political and economic dimensions, so too, for Rand, the struggle for freedom and individualism depends upon a certain constellation of moral, psychological, cultural and structural factors that support it. Randadvocated capitalism, the unknown ideal, as the only system capable of generating just social conditions, conducive to the individuals survival and flourishing.

See also: inflation; laissez faire; monopolyand oligopoly.

References and further reading

Calhoun, John C. ([1853]1953) A Disquisition onGovernment and Selections from the Discourse on the Constitution and Government of the United States, Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill.

Hayek, F. A. (1944) The Road to Serfdom, Chicago:University of Chicago Press.

(1991) The Collected Works of F. A. Hayek,Volume 3: The Trend of Economic Thinking: Essays on Political Economists and Economic History, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Mises, Ludwig von ([1912]1981) The Theory ofMoney and Credit, Indianapolis, IN: Liberty Classics.

(1936) Socialism: An Economic and SociologicalAnalysis, London: Jonathan Cape.

Nozick, Robert (1974) Anarchy, State, and Utopia,New York: Basic Books.

Rand, Ayn (1967) Capitalism: The UnknownIdeal, New York: New American Library.

Rothbard, Murray ([1970]1977) Power and Market:Government and the Economy, Kansas City, MO: Sheed Andrews and McMeel.

(1978) For a New Liberty: The LibertarianManifesto, revised edition, New York: Collier Books.

Sciabarra, Chris Matthew (1995) Ayn Rand: TheRussian Radical, University Park, PA: PennsylvaniaState University Press.

(1995) Marx, Hayek, and Utopia, Albany,NY: State University of New York Press.

(2000) Total Freedom: Toward a DialecticalLibertarianism, University Park, PA: PennsylvaniaState University Press.

Spencer, Herbert (1873) The Study of Sociology,New York: D. Appleton.

(188298) The Principles of Sociology, threevolumes, London: Williams and Norgate.

([1940]1981) The Man Versus the State, withSix Essays on Government, Society, and Freedom, Indianapolis, IN: Liberty Classics.

CHRIS MATTHEW SCIABARRA

______ Note: [bracketed words] above are corrections to online version

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Home – Liberty Elementary School District

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Sep 242015
 

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Liberty Elementary School District is located roughly 30 miles west of Phoenix, Arizona. The district covers approximately 285 square miles of both rural and suburban communities. Libertys boundaries span county land as well as the cities of Buckeye and Goodyear. Founded in 1887, Liberty is one of the oldest school districts in Arizona. The building currently being used for music class at one of our schools was built in 1910 and is the oldest still in use school building in the state. The Liberty District consists of four K-8 schools and one PreK-8 school.

In the Liberty District our mission is to build world-class schools in our neighborhoods. Our goal is to provide every one of our students with a world class education and our programs, foci and instruction are tailored to achieve that goal. One way that Liberty is working toward this goal is by offering an extensive array of education options for parents and students. For example, in recent years our schools have been innovating and maximizing their strengths by implementing a unique school focus. These foci include S.T.E.M.(Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics), IB (International Baccalaureate), Leadership, Agricultural Sciences, Visual and Performing Arts and Dual Language Immersion. Liberty District also offers open enrollment opportunities for students. Open enrollment gives parents and students that might go to another school in the district, or go to a school in a neighboring district, the option to choose which school and focus is right for them. All of our schools offer the usual programs that you would expect to find in most schools like art, music, PE and sports. However, the schools also have some more unique programs like Graphics Arts, Foreign Language, Choir, Concert Band, Drama Club, Science Club, Lego Robotics Club and Math Counts.

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The Horrifying American Roots of Nazi Eugenics

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Sep 022015
 

Hitler and his henchmen victimized an entire continent and exterminated millions in his quest for a co-called “Master Race.”

But the concept of a white, blond-haired, blue-eyed master Nordic race didn’t originate with Hitler. The idea was created in the United States, and cultivated in California, decades before Hitler came to power. California eugenicists played an important, although little known, role in the American eugenics movement’s campaign for ethnic cleansing.

Eugenics was the racist pseudoscience determined to wipe away all human beings deemed “unfit,” preserving only those who conformed to a Nordic stereotype. Elements of the philosophy were enshrined as national policy by forced sterilization and segregation laws, as well as marriage restrictions, enacted in twenty-seven states. In 1909, California became the third state to adopt such laws. Ultimately, eugenics practitioners coercively sterilized some 60,000 Americans, barred the marriage of thousands, forcibly segregated thousands in “colonies,” and persecuted untold numbers in ways we are just learning. Before World War II, nearly half of coercive sterilizations were done in California, and even after the war, the state accounted for a third of all such surgeries.

California was considered an epicenter of the American eugenics movement. During the Twentieth Century’s first decades, California’s eugenicists included potent but little known race scientists, such as Army venereal disease specialist Dr. Paul Popenoe, citrus magnate and Polytechnic benefactor Paul Gosney, Sacramento banker Charles M. Goethe, as well as members of the California State Board of Charities and Corrections and the University of California Board of Regents.

Eugenics would have been so much bizarre parlor talk had it not been for extensive financing by corporate philanthropies, specifically the Carnegie Institution, the Rockefeller Foundation and the Harriman railroad fortune. They were all in league with some of America’s most respected scientists hailing from such prestigious universities as Stamford, Yale, Harvard, and Princeton. These academicians espoused race theory and race science, and then faked and twisted data to serve eugenics’ racist aims.

Stanford president David Starr Jordan originated the notion of “race and blood” in his 1902 racial epistle “Blood of a Nation,” in which the university scholar declared that human qualities and conditions such as talent and poverty were passed through the blood.

In 1904, the Carnegie Institution established a laboratory complex at Cold Spring Harbor on Long Island that stockpiled millions of index cards on ordinary Americans, as researchers carefully plotted the removal of families, bloodlines and whole peoples. From Cold Spring Harbor, eugenics advocates agitated in the legislatures of America, as well as the nation’s social service agencies and associations.

The Harriman railroad fortune paid local charities, such as the New York Bureau of Industries and Immigration, to seek out Jewish, Italian and other immigrants in New York and other crowded cities and subject them to deportation, trumped up confinement or forced sterilization.

The Rockefeller Foundation helped found the German eugenics program and even funded the program that Josef Mengele worked in before he went to Auschwitz.

Much of the spiritual guidance and political agitation for the American eugenics movement came from California’s quasi-autonomous eugenic societies, such as the Pasadena-based Human Betterment Foundation and the California branch of the American Eugenics Society, which coordinated much of their activity with the Eugenics Research Society in Long Island. These organizations–which functioned as part of a closely-knit network–published racist eugenic newsletters and pseudoscientific journals, such as Eugenical News and Eugenics, and propagandized for the Nazis.

Eugenics was born as a scientific curiosity in the Victorian age. In 1863, Sir Francis Galton, a cousin of Charles Darwin, theorized that if talented people only married other talented people, the result would be measurably better offspring. At the turn of the last century, Galton’s ideas were imported into the United States just as Gregor Mendel’s principles of heredity were rediscovered. American eugenic advocates believed with religious fervor that the same Mendelian concepts determining the color and size of peas, corn and cattle also governed the social and intellectual character of man.

In an America demographically reeling from immigration upheaval and torn by post-Reconstruction chaos, race conflict was everywhere in the early twentieth century. Elitists, utopians and so-called “progressives” fused their smoldering race fears and class bias with their desire to make a better world. They reinvented Galton’s eugenics into a repressive and racist ideology. The intent: populate the earth with vastly more of their own socio-economic and biological kind–and less or none of everyone else.

The superior species the eugenics movement sought was populated not merely by tall, strong, talented people. Eugenicists craved blond, blue-eyed Nordic types. This group alone, they believed, was fit to inherit the earth. In the process, the movement intended to subtract emancipated Negroes, immigrant Asian laborers, Indians, Hispanics, East Europeans, Jews, dark-haired hill folk, poor people, the infirm and really anyone classified outside the gentrified genetic lines drawn up by American raceologists.

How? By identifying so-called “defective” family trees and subjecting them to lifelong segregation and sterilization programs to kill their bloodlines. The grand plan was to literally wipe away the reproductive capability of those deemed weak and inferior–the so-called “unfit.” The eugenicists hoped to neutralize the viability of 10 percent of the population at a sweep, until none were left except themselves.

Eighteen solutions were explored in a Carnegie-supported 1911 “Preliminary Report of the Committee of the Eugenic Section of the American Breeder’s Association to Study and to Report on the Best Practical Means for Cutting Off the Defective Germ-Plasm in the Human Population.” Point eight was euthanasia.

The most commonly suggested method of eugenicide in America was a “lethal chamber” or public locally operated gas chambers. In 1918, Popenoe, the Army venereal disease specialist during World War I, co-wrote the widely used textbook, Applied Eugenics, which argued, “From an historical point of view, the first method which presents itself is execution Its value in keeping up the standard of the race should not be underestimated.” Applied Eugenics also devoted a chapter to “Lethal Selection,” which operated “through the destruction of the individual by some adverse feature of the environment, such as excessive cold, or bacteria, or by bodily deficiency.”

Eugenic breeders believed American society was not ready to implement an organized lethal solution. But many mental institutions and doctors practiced improvised medical lethality and passive euthanasia on their own. One institution in Lincoln, Illinois fed its incoming patients milk from tubercular cows believing a eugenically strong individual would be immune. Thirty to forty percent annual death rates resulted at Lincoln. Some doctors practiced passive eugenicide one newborn infant at a time. Others doctors at mental institutions engaged in lethal neglect.

Nonetheless, with eugenicide marginalized, the main solution for eugenicists was the rapid expansion of forced segregation and sterilization, as well as more marriage restrictions. California led the nation, performing nearly all sterilization procedures with little or no due process. In its first twenty-five years of eugenic legislation, California sterilized 9,782 individuals, mostly women. Many were classified as “bad girls,” diagnosed as “passionate,” “oversexed” or “sexually wayward.” At Sonoma, some women were sterilized because of what was deemed an abnormally large clitoris or labia.

In 1933 alone, at least 1,278 coercive sterilizations were performed, 700 of which were on women. The state’s two leading sterilization mills in 1933 were Sonoma State Home with 388 operations and Patton State Hospital with 363 operations. Other sterilization centers included Agnews, Mendocino, Napa, Norwalk, Stockton and Pacific Colony state hospitals.

Even the United States Supreme Court endorsed aspects of eugenics. In its infamous 1927 decision, Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes wrote, “It is better for all the world, if instead of waiting to execute degenerate offspring for crime, or to let them starve for their imbecility, society can prevent those who are manifestly unfit from continuing their kind. Three generations of imbeciles are enough.” This decision opened the floodgates for thousands to be coercively sterilized or otherwise persecuted as subhuman. Years later, the Nazis at the Nuremberg trials quoted Holmes’s words in their own defense.

Only after eugenics became entrenched in the United States was the campaign transplanted into Germany, in no small measure through the efforts of California eugenicists, who published booklets idealizing sterilization and circulated them to German officials and scientists.

Hitler studied American eugenics laws. He tried to legitimize his anti-Semitism by medicalizing it, and wrapping it in the more palatable pseudoscientific facade of eugenics. Hitler was able to recruit more followers among reasonable Germans by claiming that science was on his side. While Hitler’s race hatred sprung from his own mind, the intellectual outlines of the eugenics Hitler adopted in 1924 were made in America.

During the ’20s, Carnegie Institution eugenic scientists cultivated deep personal and professional relationships with Germany’s fascist eugenicists. In Mein Kampf, published in 1924, Hitler quoted American eugenic ideology and openly displayed a thorough knowledge of American eugenics. “There is today one state,” wrote Hitler, “in which at least weak beginnings toward a better conception [of immigration] are noticeable. Of course, it is not our model German Republic, but the United States.”

Hitler proudly told his comrades just how closely he followed the progress of the American eugenics movement. “I have studied with great interest,” he told a fellow Nazi, “the laws of several American states concerning prevention of reproduction by people whose progeny would, in all probability, be of no value or be injurious to the racial stock.”

Hitler even wrote a fan letter to American eugenic leader Madison Grant calling his race-based eugenics book, The Passing of the Great Race his “bible.”

Hitler’s struggle for a superior race would be a mad crusade for a Master Race. Now, the American term “Nordic” was freely exchanged with “Germanic” or “Aryan.” Race science, racial purity and racial dominance became the driving force behind Hitler’s Nazism. Nazi eugenics would ultimately dictate who would be persecuted in a Reich-dominated Europe, how people would live, and how they would die. Nazi doctors would become the unseen generals in Hitler’s war against the Jews and other Europeans deemed inferior. Doctors would create the science, devise the eugenic formulas, and even hand-select the victims for sterilization, euthanasia and mass extermination.

During the Reich’s early years, eugenicists across America welcomed Hitler’s plans as the logical fulfillment of their own decades of research and effort. California eugenicists republished Nazi propaganda for American consumption. They also arranged for Nazi scientific exhibits, such as an August 1934 display at the L.A. County Museum, for the annual meeting of the American Public Health Association.

In 1934, as Germany’s sterilizations were accelerating beyond 5,000 per month, the California eugenics leader C. M. Goethe upon returning from Germany ebulliently bragged to a key colleague, “You will be interested to know, that your work has played a powerful part in shaping the opinions of the group of intellectuals who are behind Hitler in this epoch-making program. Everywhere I sensed that their opinions have been tremendously stimulated by American thought.I want you, my dear friend, to carry this thought with you for the rest of your life, that you have really jolted into action a great government of 60 million people.”

That same year, ten years after Virginia passed its sterilization act, Joseph DeJarnette, superintendent of Virginia’s Western State Hospital, observed in the Richmond Times-Dispatch, “The Germans are beating us at our own game.”

More than just providing the scientific roadmap, America funded Germany’s eugenic institutions. By 1926, Rockefeller had donated some $410,000 — almost $4 million in 21st-Century money — to hundreds of German researchers. In May 1926, Rockefeller awarded $250,000 to the German Psychiatric Institute of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute, later to become the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Psychiatry. Among the leading psychiatrists at the German Psychiatric Institute was Ernst Rdin, who became director and eventually an architect of Hitler’s systematic medical repression.

Another in the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute’s eugenic complex of institutions was the Institute for Brain Research. Since 1915, it had operated out of a single room. Everything changed when Rockefeller money arrived in 1929. A grant of $317,000 allowed the Institute to construct a major building and take center stage in German race biology. The Institute received additional grants from the Rockefeller Foundation during the next several years. Leading the Institute, once again, was Hitler’s medical henchman Ernst Rdin. Rdin’s organization became a prime director and recipient of the murderous experimentation and research conducted on Jews, Gypsies and others.

Beginning in 1940, thousands of Germans taken from old age homes, mental institutions and other custodial facilities were systematically gassed. Between 50,000 and 100,000 were eventually killed.

Leon Whitney, executive secretary of the American Eugenics Society declared of Nazism, “While we were pussy-footing aroundthe Germans were calling a spade a spade.”

A special recipient of Rockefeller funding was the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics in Berlin. For decades, American eugenicists had craved twins to advance their research into heredity. The Institute was now prepared to undertake such research on an unprecedented level. On May 13, 1932, the Rockefeller Foundation in New York dispatched a radiogram to its Paris office: JUNE MEETING EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE NINE THOUSAND DOLLARS OVER THREE YEAR PERIOD TO KWG INSTITUTE ANTHROPOLOGY FOR RESEARCH ON TWINS AND EFFECTS ON LATER GENERATIONS OF SUBSTANCES TOXIC FOR GERM PLASM.

At the time of Rockefeller’s endowment, Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer, a hero in American eugenics circles, functioned as a head of the Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics. Rockefeller funding of that Institute continued both directly and through other research conduits during Verschuer’s early tenure. In 1935, Verschuer left the Institute to form a rival eugenics facility in Frankfurt that was much heralded in the American eugenic press. Research on twins in the Third Reich exploded, backed up by government decrees. Verschuer wrote in Der Erbarzt, a eugenic doctor’s journal he edited, that Germany’s war would yield a “total solution to the Jewish problem.”

Verschuer had a long-time assistant. His name was Josef Mengele. On May 30, 1943, Mengele arrived at Auschwitz. Verschuer notified the German Research Society, “My assistant, Dr. Josef Mengele (M.D., Ph.D.) joined me in this branch of research. He is presently employed as Hauptsturmfhrer [captain] and camp physician in the Auschwitz concentration camp. Anthropological testing of the most diverse racial groups in this concentration camp is being carried out with permission of the SS Reichsfhrer [Himmler].”

Mengele began searching the boxcar arrivals for twins. When he found them, he performed beastly experiments, scrupulously wrote up the reports and sent the paperwork back to Verschuer’s institute for evaluation. Often, cadavers, eyes and other body parts were also dispatched to Berlin’s eugenic institutes.

Rockefeller executives never knew of Mengele. With few exceptions, the foundation had ceased all eugenic studies in Nazi-occupied Europe before the war erupted in 1939. But by that time the die had been cast. The talented men Rockefeller and Carnegie financed, the institutions they helped found, and the science it helped create took on a scientific momentum of their own.

After the war, eugenics was declared a crime against humanity–an act of genocide. Germans were tried and they cited the California statutes in their defense. To no avail. They were found guilty.

However, Mengele’s boss Verschuer escaped prosecution. Verschuer re-established his connections with California eugenicists who had gone underground and renamed their crusade “human genetics.” Typical was an exchange July 25, 1946 when Popenoe wrote Verschuer, “It was indeed a pleasure to hear from you again. I have been very anxious about my colleagues in Germany. I suppose sterilization has been discontinued in Germany?” Popenoe offered tidbits about various American eugenic luminaries and then sent various eugenic publications. In a separate package, Popenoe sent some cocoa, coffee and other goodies.

Verschuer wrote back, “Your very friendly letter of 7/25 gave me a great deal of pleasure and you have my heartfelt thanks for it. The letter builds another bridge between your and my scientific work; I hope that this bridge will never again collapse but rather make possible valuable mutual enrichment and stimulation.”

Soon, Verschuer once again became a respected scientist in Germany and around the world. In 1949, he became a corresponding member of the newly formed American Society of Human Genetics, organized by American eugenicists and geneticists.

In the fall of 1950, the University of Mnster offered Verschuer a position at its new Institute of Human Genetics, where he later became a dean. In the early and mid-1950s, Verschuer became an honorary member of numerous prestigious societies, including the Italian Society of Genetics, the Anthropological Society of Vienna, and the Japanese Society for Human Genetics.

Human genetics’ genocidal roots in eugenics were ignored by a victorious generation that refused to link itself to the crimes of Nazism and by succeeding generations that never knew the truth of the years leading up to war. Now governors of five states, including California have issued public apologies to their citizens, past and present, for sterilization and other abuses spawned by the eugenics movement.

Human genetics became an enlightened endeavor in the late twentieth century. Hard-working, devoted scientists finally cracked the human code through the Human Genome Project. Now, every individual can be biologically identified and classified by trait and ancestry. Yet even now, some leading voices in the genetic world are calling for a cleansing of the unwanted among us, and even a master human species.

There is understandable wariness about more ordinary forms of abuse, for example, in denying insurance or employment based on genetic tests. On October 14, America’s first genetic anti-discrimination legislation passed the Senate by unanimous vote. Yet because genetics research is global, no single nation’s law can stop the threats.

This article was first published in the San Francisco Chronicle and is reprinted with permission of the author.

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The Horrifying American Roots of Nazi Eugenics




Pierre Teilhard De Chardin | Designer Children | Prometheism | Euvolution | Transhumanism