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Double Jeopardy Clause of the Fifth Amendment

 Fifth Amendment  Comments Off on Double Jeopardy Clause of the Fifth Amendment
Feb 052016

Fifth Amendment

The Fifth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution reads:

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

The Bill of Rights, which consists of the first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution, enumerates certain basic personal liberties. Laws passed by elected officials that infringe on these liberties are invalidated by the judiciary as unconstitutional. The Fifth Amendment to the Constitution, ratified in 1791, represents five distinct liberties the that Framers attempted to safeguard from majoritarian impulses: (1) the right to be indicted by an impartial Grand Jury before being tried for a federal criminal offense,(2) the right to be free from multiple prosecutions or punishments for a single criminal offense, (3) the right to remain silent when prosecuted for a criminal offense, (4) the right to have personal liberties protected by Due Process of Law, and (5) the right to receive just compensation when the government takes private property for public use.

The Framers of the Fifth Amendment intended that its provisions would apply only to the actions of the federal government. However, after the Fourteenth Amendment was ratified, most of the Fifth Amendment’s protections were made applicable to the states. Under the Incorporation Doctrine, most of the liberties set forth in the Bill of Rights were made applicable to state governments through the U.S. Supreme Court’s interpretation of the Due Process and Equal Protection Clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment. As a result, all states must provide protection against Double Jeopardy, Self-Incrimination, deprivation of due process, and government taking of private property without just compensation. The Grand Jury Clause of the Fifth Amendment has not been made applicable to state governments.

The Double Jeopardy Clause of the Fifth Amendment prohibits state and federal governments from reprosecuting for the same offense a defendant who has already been acquitted or convicted. It also prevents state and federal governments from imposing more than one punishment for the same offense.

For more than a century, courts have wrestled with the question of what constitutes an acquittal such that a person has already been placed in jeopardy for a particular offense. However, all courts agree that the Double Jeopardy Clause applies only to legal proceedings brought by state and federal governments in criminal court. It does not apply to legal proceedings instituted by purely private individuals in civil court.

The U.S. legal system has two primary divisions, criminal and civil. Criminal actions are designed to punish individuals for wrongdoing against the public order. Civil actions are designed to compensate victims with money damages for injuries suffered at the hands of another. An individual who has been acquitted in criminal court of murder can, without violating the Double Jeopardy Clause, be required in civil court to pay money damages to the family of a victim. Thus, the successive criminal and civil trials of O. J. Simpson, regarding the deaths of Nicole Brown Simpson and Ronald Goldman, did not constitute double jeopardy.

The Fifth Amendment’s prohibition against double jeopardy is rooted in Anglo-Saxon Jurisprudence. Yet, in England, the Crown sometimes ignored the right against double jeopardy. In certain important cases where an acquittal undermined royal interests, the defendant was tried again in a different manner or by a different court. The protection against double jeopardy was also extremely narrow under English Law. It applied only to capital crimes, in which the defendant would be subject to the death penalty if convicted. It did not apply to lesser offenses such as noncapital felonies and misdemeanors.

Massachusetts was the first colony that recognized a right against double jeopardy. Its colonial charter provided, “No man shall be twise [sic] sentenced by Civil Justice for one and the same Crime, offence, or Trespasse” (as quoted in United States v. Halper, 490 U.S. 435, 109 S. Ct. 1892, 104 L. Ed. 2d 487 [1989]). This charter, which served as a model for several other colonies, expanded the protection against double jeopardy to all crimes and offenses, not just capital felonies. Nonetheless, when the Bill of Rights was ratified in 1791, the constitutions of only two states expressly afforded double jeopardy protection. Thus, when James Madison submitted his proposal for the Fifth Amendment to Congress, he wanted to be sure that the right against double jeopardy would not be abused by the government, as it had been in England, or altogether forgotten, as it had been in the constitutions of eleven states.

Although Congress and the state ratifying conventions said very little about the Fifth Amendment’s Double Jeopardy Clause, the U.S. Supreme Court has identified several concerns that the Framers were trying to address when they drafted it: (1) preventing the government from employing its superior resources to wear down and erroneously convict innocent persons; (2) protecting individuals from the financial, emotional, and social consequences of successive prosecutions; (3) preserving the finality and integrity of criminal proceedings, which would be compromised were the state allowed to arbitrarily ignore unsatisfactory outcomes; (4) restricting prosecutorial discretion over the charging process; and (5) eliminating judicial discretion to impose cumulative punishments not authorized by the legislature.

The Fifth Amendment’s right against self-incrimination permits an individual to refuse to disclose information that could be used against him or her in a criminal prosecution. The purpose of this right is to inhibit the government from compelling a confession through force, coercion, or deception. The Self-Incrimination Clause applies to any state or federal legal proceeding, whether it is civil, criminal, administrative, or judicial in nature. This privilege is frequently invoked during the trial phase of legal proceedings, where individuals are placed under oath and asked questions on the witness stand.

The privilege is also asserted with some frequency during the pretrial phase of legal proceedings. In the pretrial phase of criminal cases, it is usually asserted in response to pointed questions asked by law enforcement agents, prosecutors, and other government officials who are seeking to determine the persons responsible for a particular crime. During the pretrial phase of civil cases, parties may assert the right against self-incrimination when potentially damaging questions are posed in depositions and interrogatories.

The right against self-incrimination largely took hold in English law with the seventeenth-century trial of John Lilburne. Lilburne was a Puritan agitator who opposed British attempts to impose Anglican religious uniformity across England. In 1637, Lilburne was prosecuted for attempting to smuggle several thousand Puritan pamphlets into England. Before the Star Chamber (an English court with jurisdiction to extinguish nonconformity in the realm), Lilburne refused to take an oath requiring him to answer truthfully any question asked of him. He said that he could see that the court was trying to ensnare him, and he claimed that the law of God and the law of the land supported his right against self-accusation. Lilburne was whipped and pilloried for refusing to take the oath. Parliament later declared his punishment illegal, abolished the Star Chamber, and ultimately recognized the right against self-incrimination.

The American colonists, particularly the Puritans in Massachusetts, were familiar with the plight of Lilburne. Nonetheless, the Massachusetts Body of Liberties, a collection of rules of conduct for the Puritan colonists taken nearly verbatim from the Bible, permitted the use of torture to extract confessions from defendants who were accused of capital crimes. Many other colonies subjected political and religious dissenters to inquisitorial judicial proceedings not unlike those employed in England. In many of these proceedings, the accused persons were not entitled to remain silent but were often asked to provide evidence of their innocence. Even after the Revolution, the constitutions of four states offered no protections against self-incrimination. As Madison drafted the original version of the Fifth Amendment, the lessons of English and colonial history were firmly in his mind.

The U.S. Supreme Court has interpreted the Self-Incrimination Clause more broadly than many of the Framers probably would have. miranda v. arizona, 384 U.S. 436, 86 S. Ct. 1602, 16 L. Ed. 2d 694 (1966), illustrates this point. In Miranda the Court held that any statements made by defendants while in police custody before trial will be inadmissible during prosecution unless the police first warn the defendants that they have (1) the right to remain silent, (2) the right to consult an attorney before being questioned by the police, (3) the right to have an attorney present during police questioning, (4) the right to a court-appointed attorney if they cannot afford one, and (5) the right to be informed that any statements they do make can and will be used in their prosecution. Although the Miranda warnings are not provided in the Fifth Amendment’s Self-Incrimination Clause, the Court has ruled that they constitute an essential part of a judicially created buffer zone that is necessary to protect rights that are specifically set forth in the Constitution.

In Dickerson v. United States 530 U.S. 428, 120 S. Ct. 2326, 147 L. Ed.2d 405 (2000), the U.S. Supreme Court concluded that the Miranda decision was based on Fifth Amendment principles and therefore that it could not be over-turned legislatively. Congressional anger at the Miranda decision had led to the passage in 1968 of a law, 18 U.S.C.A. 3501, that had restored voluntariness as the test for admitting confessions in federal court. However, the United States department of justice, under attorneys general of both major political parties, has refused to enforce the provision, believing the law to be unconstitutional. The law lay dormant until the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals ruled in 1999 that Congress had the constitutional authority to pass the law. Chief Justice william rehnquist, a frequent critic of the Miranda decision, joined the majority in rejecting the Fourth Circuit interpretation. Although members of the Court might not agree with the reasoning and the rule of Miranda, Rehnquist acknowledged the essential place that Miranda has in U.S. law and society. He pointed out the importance that the judicial system places on Stare Decisis, a concept that counsels courts to honor judicial precedents to ensure stability and predictability in decision-making. A court should only overrule its case precedents if there is, in Rehnquist’s words, “special justification.” The Court in Dickerson concluded there were no special justifications.

Despite this decision the controversy over Miranda has not abated. In 2002 the Supreme Court took up the matter again when it reviewed Martinez v. Chavez, 270 F.3d 852 (9th Cir. 2001). The Court must decide whether the Fifth Amendment conveys a constitutional right to be free of coercive interrogation, or merely a right not to have forced confessions used against them at trial.

The Fifth Amendment’s Due Process Clause has two aspects: procedural and substantive. Procedural due process is concerned with the process by which legal proceedings are conducted. It requires that all persons who will be materially affected by a legal proceeding receive notice of its time, place, and subject matter so that they will have an adequate opportunity to prepare. It also requires that legal proceedings be conducted in a fair manner by an impartial judge who will allow the interested parties to present fully their complaints, grievances, and defenses. The Due Process Clause governs civil, criminal, and administrative proceedings from the pretrial stage through final appeal, and proceedings that produce Arbitrary or capricious results will be overturned as unconstitutional.

Substantive Due Process is concerned with the content of particular laws that are applied during legal proceedings. Before World War II, the U.S. Supreme Court relied on substantive due process to overturn legislation that infringed on a variety of property interests, including the right of employers to determine the wages their employees would be paid and the number of hours they could work. Since World War II, the Court has relied on substantive due process to protect privacy and autonomy interests of adults, including the right to use contraception and the right to have an Abortion.

The line separating procedure from substance is not always clear. For example, procedural due process guarantees criminal defendants the right to a fair trial, and substantive due process specifies that 12 jurors must return a unanimous guilty verdict before the death penalty can be imposed. The concepts of substantive and procedural due process trace back to English law. The Magna Charta provided, “No free man shall be seized, or imprisoned, or disseised, or outlawed, or exiled, or injured in any way except by the lawful judgment of his peers, or by the law of the land” (art. 39). According to eminent English jurist Sir Edward Coke, law of the land and due process of law were interchangeable terms that possessed both procedural and substantive meaning.

The American colonists followed the English tradition of attributing substantive and procedural qualities to the concepts of due process and the law of the land. Maryland and Massachusetts, for example, equated the two concepts with colonial Common Law and legislation regardless of their procedural content. On the other hand, Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Vermont all passed constitutional provisions identifying the law of the land with specific procedural safeguards, including the right against self-incrimination. Thus, when the Due Process Clause was submitted to the state conventions for ratification, it was popularly understood to place procedural requirements on legal proceedings as well as substantive limitations on the law applied in those proceedings.

When the government takes Personal Property for public use, the law calls it a taking and protects it under the eminent domain clause of the Fifth Amendment. The Eminent Domain Clause permits the government to appropriate private property, both real estate and personal belongings, for a public purpose so long as the owner receives just compensation, which is normally equated with the fair market value of the property. The Fifth Amendment attempts to strike a balance between the needs of the public and the property rights of the owner.

The power of eminent domain was first recognized in England in 1215. Article 39 of the Magna Charta read,”no free man shall be disseised [deprived] of his freehold except by the lawful judgment of his peers, or by the law of the land.” No compensation was awarded to owners whose property was taken by the government for public use. Instead, English law merely required that the government obtain ownership of private property through existing legal channels, such as parliamentary legislation. This principle was followed in England for several centuries, and was later adopted by the American colonies.

Uncompensated takings of private property by colonial governments generally involved unimproved land (i.e., land that had not been built on). Colonial governments often appropriated private land to build roads and bridges in order to develop America’s frontiers. During the American Revolution, the power of eminent domain was used to seize the land of colonists who were loyal to Great Britain, and to obtain various goods for military consumption. Compensation was rarely given to individual owners who were deprived of their property by colonial governments because making personal sacrifices for the common good, including forfeiting personal property, was considered an essential duty of every colonist.

Not everyone in the colonies believed that personal property interests should always be sacrificed for the greater good of society. Many colonists expressed distress over legislatures that were abusing their power of eminent domain. New York, for example, regularly failed to recognize title to real estate in its colony that was held by residents of Vermont. Other colonies also discriminated in favor of their own residents, and against persons whose patriotism was questionable during the Revolution. It was in this context that the Eminent Domain Clause of the Fifth Amendment was drafted.

During the twentieth century, the U.S. Supreme Court has enlarged the protection against uncompensated takings of private property by state and federal governments. The Eminent Domain Clause has been interpreted to protect not only owners whose property is physically taken by the government, but also owners whose property value is diminished as a result of government activity. Thus, compensable takings under the Fifth Amendment result from Zoning ordinances that deny property owners an economically viable use of their land (Agins v. City of Tiburon, 447 U.S. 255, 100 S. Ct. 2138, 65 L. Ed. 2d 106 [1980]), environmental regulations that require the government to occupy an owner’s land in order to monitor groundwater wells (Hendler v. United States, 952 F.2d 1364 [Fed. Cir. 1991], land-use regulations that curtail mining operations (Pennsylvania Coal Co. v. Mahon, 260 U.S. 393, 43 S. Ct. 158, 67 L. Ed. 322[1992]), and government-owned airports that lower property values in adjacent neighborhoods (United States v. Causby, 328 U.S. 256, 66S. Ct. 1062, 90 L. Ed. 1206 [1946]).

The U.S. Supreme Court, in Palazzolo v. Rhode Island, 533 U.S. 606, 121 S. Ct. 2448, 150L. Ed.2d 592 (2001), declared that property owners may file lawsuits without filing additional permit applications. Most importantly, the Court overturned a ruling that barred property owners from filing suit if they took possession of the property after the environmental regulations had been enacted. It made no sense to allow a state to avoid suit simply because of a transfer of legal title to the property. Thus, the state “would be allowed, in effect, to put an expiration date on the Takings Clause. This ought not to be the rule. Future generations, too, have a right to challenge unreasonable limitations on the use and value of land.”

A grand jury is a group of citizens who are summoned to criminal court by the sheriff to consider accusations and complaints leveled against persons who are suspected of engaging in criminal conduct. Grand juries do not determine guilt or innocence. Instead, they determine whether Probable Cause exists to believe that the accused has committed a crime, and they return an indictment (i.e., a formal charge against the accused) if they do find probable cause. In common law, a grand jury consisted of not fewer than 12, and not more than 23, men. Today, grand juries impaneled before a federal district court must consist of not fewer than 16, and not more than 23, men and women.

Potential jurors are usually drawn from lists of qualified residents. Persons who are below the age of majority, who have been convicted of certain crimes, who or are biased toward the accused are ineligible to serve as grand jurors.

The grand jury originated in England during the reign of henry ii (115489). In 1166, a statute called the Assize of Clarendon was enacted. The assize provided that no person could be prosecuted unless four men from each township and 12 men from each hundred appeared before the county court to accuse the individual of a specific crime. This compulsory process, called a presenting jury, foreshadowed the grand jury as an accusatory body that identified individuals for prosecution but made no finding as to guilt or innocence.

As the grand jury system developed in England and colonial America, it protected innocent persons who faced unfounded charges initiated by political, religious, and personal adversaries. The impartiality of grand juries is essential. This is a significant reason why the proceedings are convened in secrecy; otherwise, public scrutiny and similar prejudicial influences could affect their decision-making process. Although grand juries must be impartial, accused persons have no constitutional right to present evidence on their behalf or to cross-examine witnesses, and Hearsay evidence may be introduced against them.

Helmholz, R.H. 1983. “The Early History of the Grand Jury and the Canon Law.” University of Chicago Law Review 50 (spring).

Hickok, Eugene W., Jr., ed. 1991. The Bill of Rights: Original Meaning and Current Understanding. Charlottesville: Univ. Press of Virginia.

Mermelstein, Mark, and Joel M. Athey. 2002. “In the Fifth Dimension: Problems Faced by Trial Lawyers When a Witness Invokes the Fifth Amendment.” Los Angeles Lawyer 25 (October).

Roxas, Angela. 2002. “Questions Unanswered: the Fifth Amendment and Innocent Witnesses.” Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 93 (fall).

Treanor, William M. 1995. “The Original Understanding of the Takings Clause and the Political Process.” Columbia Law Review 95 (May).

Criminal Law; Criminal Procedure; Custodial Interrogation.

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Double Jeopardy Clause of the Fifth Amendment

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Coffeeville, AL Homes for Sale –

 Beaches  Comments Off on Coffeeville, AL Homes for Sale –
Dec 252015

We’re sorry, no listings were found that match your criteria. real estate wants you to have all of the right information to help you make the best decision possible when searching for homes for sale in Coffeeville. We know that the search can be difficult and we strive to make it easier for you. Since we have thousands of homes for sale for you to browse through, there’s no need to go anywhere else.

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Whether you’re considering buying or selling property in Alabama or you’re looking for any other information about AL real estate in Coffeeville, you have come to the right place. can help you find Coffeeville real estate agencies & realtors or AL broker who will help you buy or sell a home, rent an apartment and get you useful information about schools in the area, real estate market conditions and more!

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Map of Chicago Beaches from

 Beaches  Comments Off on Map of Chicago Beaches from
Dec 162015

Find Chicago Beaches On Our Map

Map of Chicago Illinois

The beaches are easily one of the top Chicago attractions every summer. Use this map to locate some of the most popular of Chicago’s lake Michigan lakefront beaches. Click anywhere on the map to see a list of the Chicago beach locations and find contact information.

Note: This map does not include all the beaches in Chicago, just the ones we have identified as most popular. Also, the beach locations on the map are approximate. Some have been adjusted to improve the readability of the map page. No liability is assumed for the locations presented here.

The Most Popular Beaches in Chicago include:

The Windy City is home to some of the best beaches in all of the Midwest

While you’re not likely to think of a beautiful beach shore when you picture Chicago, the Windy City is home to some of the best beaches in all of the Midwest. Located on scenic Lake Michigan – the country’s third-largest lake – Chicago beaches act as a pleasant oasis just steps from the urban jungle that is Downtown Chicago. Popular during the sweltering Summer months, the beaches of Chicago are a must-see for Chicago travelers visiting the Windy City from May – October.

For more information on where to find the best beaches Chicago, scroll below and use our helpful Chicago beach map.

*Terms & Conditions: Offers, promotions and rates subject to change and may vary based upon date, length of stay and other factors. Some offers do not include taxes and fees. All offers based on availability and are subject to change without notice.

The Chicago beaches map extends from north to south along the sandy shores of Lake Michigan. The northernmost Lake Michigan beaches include the Juneway Terrace Beach, which is connected to Rogers Avenue Beach – one of the smaller beaches on the Chicago beach map. Rogers and Juneway together make up just over one block of real estate, and offer recreational activities for Chicago travelers that include tennis courts.

Locate Chicago’s the most popular lakefront beaches

Located just south on the beaches of Chicago map is perhaps the most well-reviewed beach in Chicago, the Kathy Osterman Beach. Formerly called “Hollywood Beach”, this Near North Side Chicago beach is populated mostly by families on the north side, and the south side is a predominantly gay-friendly portion of the beach. Known for its smooth sand, clean shores and diverse crowd, this quiet Chicago beach is popular with tourists and locals of all different backgrounds.

A few miles south of the Kathy Osterman Chicago Beach is the Montrose Dog Beach. This pet friendly Chicago beach is regularly filled with furry friends hoping to cool off in the comfortable Lake Michigan water. A favorite with dog-owners and families alike, the Montrose Dog Beach is open year-round, and allows your dog to exercise in a clean and open environment.

The Chicago Beach Map in the Near North Side offers up two of the most popular Chicago IL beaches, North Avenue Beach and Oak Street Beach.

Located on the Gold Coast of Chicago close to prominent Chicago buildings and attractions – including the John Hancock Observatory Tower – Oak Street Beach attracts a slightly more mature crowd than that of North Avenue Chicago Beach. However, that’s not to say this favorite beach in Chicago doesn’t know how to have a good time. Oak Street Beach is clean and spacious, and there are volleyball courts set up throughout for Chicago travelers hoping to squeeze in some exercise on their day trip to the beach.

Northern Chicago and Beach in the Summer

North Avenue Beach is located just three miles north of Oak Street, and has a reputation for being Chicago’s “party beach” on the weekends. There are tons of volleyball courts, as well as a (usually crowded) biking and running path for active Chicago travelers. North Avenue Beach is where locals and tourists visit to “see and be seen”, and is particularly popular with 20-somethings and college students.

Some of the best Chicago IL beaches on the map are located in the South Side of Chicago, where the crowds are somewhat smaller but the scenery is just as beautiful.

A favorite Chicago beach with locals, and a hidden gem most Chicago tourists tend to overlook is Promontory Point. Located near Hyde Park, this man-made point jets out towards Lake Michigan, providing beach-goers with an isolated area to swim or lay out on their smooth rocks. One of the best Chicago sunset destinations, Promontory Point in Chicago is perhaps the most relaxing beach on the Chicago Beaches Map.

Other popular beaches in Chicago just south of Promontory Point include the 63rd Street Beach and Pier in Woodlawn, as well as the South Shore and Rainbow Beaches, respectively.

For more information on fun Chicago things to do in the Summer, browse our guide of the some best Chicago attractions and free Chicago activities perfect for first-time visitors in Chicago.

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Molecular nanotechnology – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 Nano Technology  Comments Off on Molecular nanotechnology – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Dec 152015

Molecular nanotechnology (MNT) is a technology based on the ability to build structures to complex, atomic specifications by means of mechanosynthesis.[1] This is distinct from nanoscale materials. Based on Richard Feynman’s vision of miniature factories using nanomachines to build complex products (including additional nanomachines), this advanced form of nanotechnology (or molecular manufacturing[2]) would make use of positionally-controlled mechanosynthesis guided by molecular machine systems. MNT would involve combining physical principles demonstrated by biophysics, chemistry, other nanotechnologies, and the molecular machinery of life with the systems engineering principles found in modern macroscale factories.

While conventional chemistry uses inexact processes obtaining inexact results, and biology exploits inexact processes to obtain definitive results, molecular nanotechnology would employ original definitive processes to obtain definitive results. The desire in molecular nanotechnology would be to balance molecular reactions in positionally-controlled locations and orientations to obtain desired chemical reactions, and then to build systems by further assembling the products of these reactions.

A roadmap for the development of MNT is an objective of a broadly based technology project led by Battelle (the manager of several U.S. National Laboratories) and the Foresight Institute.[3] The roadmap was originally scheduled for completion by late 2006, but was released in January 2008.[4] The Nanofactory Collaboration[5] is a more focused ongoing effort involving 23 researchers from 10 organizations and 4 countries that is developing a practical research agenda[6] specifically aimed at positionally-controlled diamond mechanosynthesis and diamondoid nanofactory development. In August 2005, a task force consisting of 50+ international experts from various fields was organized by the Center for Responsible Nanotechnology to study the societal implications of molecular nanotechnology.[7]

One proposed application of MNT is so-called smart materials. This term refers to any sort of material designed and engineered at the nanometer scale for a specific task. It encompasses a wide variety of possible commercial applications. One example would be materials designed to respond differently to various molecules; such a capability could lead, for example, to artificial drugs which would recognize and render inert specific viruses. Another is the idea of self-healing structures, which would repair small tears in a surface naturally in the same way as self-sealing tires or human skin.

A MNT nanosensor would resemble a smart material, involving a small component within a larger machine that would react to its environment and change in some fundamental, intentional way. A very simple example: a photosensor might passively measure the incident light and discharge its absorbed energy as electricity when the light passes above or below a specified threshold, sending a signal to a larger machine. Such a sensor would supposedly cost less and use less power than a conventional sensor, and yet function usefully in all the same applications for example, turning on parking lot lights when it gets dark.

While smart materials and nanosensors both exemplify useful applications of MNT, they pale in comparison with the complexity of the technology most popularly associated with the term: the replicating nanorobot.

MNT nanofacturing is popularly linked with the idea of swarms of coordinated nanoscale robots working together, a popularization of an early proposal by K. Eric Drexler in his 1986 discussions of MNT, but superseded in 1992. In this early proposal, sufficiently capable nanorobots would construct more nanorobots in an artificial environment containing special molecular building blocks.

Critics have doubted both the feasibility of self-replicating nanorobots and the feasibility of control if self-replicating nanorobots could be achieved: they cite the possibility of mutations removing any control and favoring reproduction of mutant pathogenic variations. Advocates address the first doubt by pointing out that the first macroscale autonomous machine replicator, made of Lego blocks, was built and operated experimentally in 2002.[8] While there are sensory advantages present at the macroscale compared to the limited sensorium available at the nanoscale, proposals for positionally controlled nanoscale mechanosynthetic fabrication systems employ dead reckoning of tooltips combined with reliable reaction sequence design to ensure reliable results, hence a limited sensorium is no handicap; similar considerations apply to the positional assembly of small nanoparts. Advocates address the second doubt by arguing that bacteria are (of necessity) evolved to evolve, while nanorobot mutation could be actively prevented by common error-correcting techniques. Similar ideas are advocated in the Foresight Guidelines on Molecular Nanotechnology,[9] and a map of the 137-dimensional replicator design space[10] recently published by Freitas and Merkle provides numerous proposed methods by which replicators could, in principle, be safely controlled by good design.

However, the concept of suppressing mutation raises the question: How can design evolution occur at the nanoscale without a process of random mutation and deterministic selection? Critics argue that MNT advocates have not provided a substitute for such a process of evolution in this nanoscale arena where conventional sensory-based selection processes are lacking. The limits of the sensorium available at the nanoscale could make it difficult or impossible to winnow successes from failures. Advocates argue that design evolution should occur deterministically and strictly under human control, using the conventional engineering paradigm of modeling, design, prototyping, testing, analysis, and redesign.

In any event, since 1992 technical proposals for MNT do not include self-replicating nanorobots, and recent ethical guidelines put forth by MNT advocates prohibit unconstrained self-replication.[9][11]

One of the most important applications of MNT would be medical nanorobotics or nanomedicine, an area pioneered by Robert Freitas in numerous books[12] and papers.[13] The ability to design, build, and deploy large numbers of medical nanorobots would, at a minimum, make possible the rapid elimination of disease and the reliable and relatively painless recovery from physical trauma. Medical nanorobots might also make possible the convenient correction of genetic defects, and help to ensure a greatly expanded lifespan. More controversially, medical nanorobots might be used to augment natural human capabilities.

Another proposed application of molecular nanotechnology is “utility fog”[14] in which a cloud of networked microscopic robots (simpler than assemblers) would change its shape and properties to form macroscopic objects and tools in accordance with software commands. Rather than modify the current practices of consuming material goods in different forms, utility fog would simply replace many physical objects.

Yet another proposed application of MNT would be phased-array optics (PAO).[15] However, this appears to be a problem addressable by ordinary nanoscale technology. PAO would use the principle of phased-array millimeter technology but at optical wavelengths. This would permit the duplication of any sort of optical effect but virtually. Users could request holograms, sunrises and sunsets, or floating lasers as the mood strikes. PAO systems were described in BC Crandall’s Nanotechnology: Molecular Speculations on Global Abundance in the Brian Wowk article “Phased-Array Optics.”[16]

Nanotechnology (or molecular nanotechnology to refer more specifically to the goals discussed here) will let us continue the historical trends in manufacturing right up to the fundamental limits imposed by physical law. It will let us make remarkably powerful molecular computers. It will let us make materials over fifty times lighter than steel or aluminium alloy but with the same strength. We’ll be able to make jets, rockets, cars or even chairs that, by today’s standards, would be remarkably light, strong, and inexpensive. Molecular surgical tools, guided by molecular computers and injected into the blood stream could find and destroy cancer cells or invading bacteria, unclog arteries, or provide oxygen when the circulation is impaired.

Nanotechnology will replace our entire manufacturing base with a new, radically more precise, radically less expensive, and radically more flexible way of making products. The aim is not simply to replace today’s computer chip making plants, but also to replace the assembly lines for cars, televisions, telephones, books, surgical tools, missiles, bookcases, airplanes, tractors, and all the rest. The objective is a pervasive change in manufacturing, a change that will leave virtually no product untouched. Economic progress and military readiness in the 21st Century will depend fundamentally on maintaining a competitive position in nanotechnology.


Despite the current early developmental status of nanotechnology and molecular nanotechnology, much concern surrounds MNT’s anticipated impact on economics[18][19] and on law. Whatever the exact effects, MNT, if achieved, would tend to reduce the scarcity of manufactured goods and make many more goods (such as food and health aids) manufacturable.

It is generally considered[by whom?] that future citizens of a molecular-nanotechnological society would still need money, in the form of unforgeable digital cash or physical specie[20] (in special circumstances). They might use such money to buy goods and services that are unique, or limited within the solar system. These might include: matter, energy, information, real estate, design services, entertainment services, legal services, fame, political power, or the attention of other people to one’s political/religious/philosophical message. Furthermore, futurists must consider war, even between prosperous states, and non-economic goals.

If MNT were realized, some resources would remain limited, because unique physical objects are limited (a plot of land in the real Jerusalem, mining rights to the larger near-earth asteroids) or because they depend on the goodwill of a particular person (the love of a famous person, a live audience in a musical concert). Demand will always exceed supply for some things, and a political economy may continue to exist in any case. Whether the interest in these limited resources would diminish with the advent of virtual reality, where they could be easily substituted, is yet unclear. One reason why it might not is a hypothetical preference for “the real thing”, although such an opinion could easily be mollified if virtual reality were to develop to a certain level of quality.

MNT should make possible nanomedical capabilities able to cure any medical condition not already cured by advances in other areas. Good health would be common, and poor health of any form would be as rare as smallpox and scurvy are today. Even cryonics would be feasible, as cryopreserved tissue could be fully repaired.

Molecular nanotechnology is one of the technologies that some analysts believe could lead to a Technological Singularity. Some feel that molecular nanotechnology would have daunting risks.[21] It conceivably could enable cheaper and more destructive conventional weapons. Also, molecular nanotechnology might permit weapons of mass destruction that could self-replicate, as viruses and cancer cells do when attacking the human body. Commentators generally agree that, in the event molecular nanotechnology were developed, its self-replication should be permitted only under very controlled or “inherently safe” conditions.

A fear exists that nanomechanical robots, if achieved, and if designed to self-replicate using naturally occurring materials (a difficult task), could consume the entire planet in their hunger for raw materials,[22] or simply crowd out natural life, out-competing it for energy (as happened historically when blue-green algae appeared and outcompeted earlier life forms). Some commentators have referred to this situation as the “grey goo” or “ecophagy” scenario. K. Eric Drexler considers an accidental “grey goo” scenario extremely unlikely and says so in later editions of Engines of Creation.

In light of this perception of potential danger, the Foresight Institute (founded by K. Eric Drexler to prepare for the arrival of future technologies) has drafted a set of guidelines[23] for the ethical development of nanotechnology. These include the banning of free-foraging self-replicating pseudo-organisms on the Earth’s surface, at least, and possibly in other places.

The feasibility of the basic technologies analyzed in Nanosystems has been the subject of a formal scientific review by U.S. National Academy of Sciences, and has also been the focus of extensive debate on the internet and in the popular press.

In 2006, U.S. National Academy of Sciences released the report of a study of molecular manufacturing as part of a longer report, A Matter of Size: Triennial Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative[24] The study committee reviewed the technical content of Nanosystems, and in its conclusion states that no current theoretical analysis can be considered definitive regarding several questions of potential system performance, and that optimal paths for implementing high-performance systems cannot be predicted with confidence. It recommends experimental research to advance knowledge in this area:

A section heading in Drexler’s Engines of Creation reads[25] “Universal Assemblers”, and the following text speaks of multiple types of assemblers which, collectively, could hypothetically “build almost anything that the laws of nature allow to exist.” Drexler’s colleague Ralph Merkle has noted that, contrary to widespread legend,[26] Drexler never claimed that assembler systems could build absolutely any molecular structure. The endnotes in Drexler’s book explain the qualification “almost”: “For example, a delicate structure might be designed that, like a stone arch, would self-destruct unless all its pieces were already in place. If there were no room in the design for the placement and removal of a scaffolding, then the structure might be impossible to build. Few structures of practical interest seem likely to exhibit such a problem, however.”

In 1992, Drexler published Nanosystems: Molecular Machinery, Manufacturing, and Computation,[27] a detailed proposal for synthesizing stiff covalent structures using a table-top factory. Diamondoid structures and other stiff covalent structures, if achieved, would have a wide range of possible applications, going far beyond current MEMS technology. An outline of a path was put forward in 1992 for building a table-top factory in the absence of an assembler. Other researchers have begun advancing tentative, alternative proposed paths [5] for this in the years since Nanosystems was published.

In 2004 Richard Jones wrote Soft Machines (nanotechnology and life), a book for lay audiences published by Oxford University. In this book he describes radical nanotechnology (as advocated by Drexler) as a deterministic/mechanistic idea of nano engineered machines that does not take into account the nanoscale challenges such as wetness, stickness, Brownian motion, and high viscosity. He also explains what is soft nanotechnology or more appropriatelly biomimetic nanotechnology which is the way forward, if not the best way, to design functional nanodevices that can cope with all the problems at a nanoscale. One can think of soft nanotechnology as the development of nanomachines that uses the lessons learned from biology on how things work, chemistry to precisely engineer such devices and stochastic physics to model the system and its natural processes in detail.

Several researchers, including Nobel Prize winner Dr. Richard Smalley (19432005),[28] attacked the notion of universal assemblers, leading to a rebuttal from Drexler and colleagues,[29] and eventually to an exchange of letters.[30] Smalley argued that chemistry is extremely complicated, reactions are hard to control, and that a universal assembler is science fiction. Drexler and colleagues, however, noted that Drexler never proposed universal assemblers able to make absolutely anything, but instead proposed more limited assemblers able to make a very wide variety of things. They challenged the relevance of Smalley’s arguments to the more specific proposals advanced in Nanosystems. Also, Smalley argued that nearly all of modern chemistry involves reactions that take place in a solvent (usually water), because the small molecules of a solvent contribute many things, such as lowering binding energies for transition states. Since nearly all known chemistry requires a solvent, Smalley felt that Drexler’s proposal to use a high vacuum environment was not feasible. However, Drexler addresses this in Nanosystems by showing mathematically that well designed catalysts can provide the effects of a solvent and can fundamentally be made even more efficient than a solvent/enzyme reaction could ever be. It is noteworthy that, contrary to Smalley’s opinion that enzymes require water, “Not only do enzymes work vigorously in anhydrous organic media, but in this unnatural milieu they acquire remarkable properties such as greatly enhanced stability, radically altered substrate and enantiomeric specificities, molecular memory, and the ability to catalyse unusual reactions.””Enzymatic catalysis in anhydrous organic solvents.”. April 1989.””Enzymatic catalysis in anhydrous organic solvents” (PDF). April 1989.

For the future, some means have to be found for MNT design evolution at the nanoscale which mimics the process of biological evolution at the molecular scale. Biological evolution proceeds by random variation in ensemble averages of organisms combined with culling of the less-successful variants and reproduction of the more-successful variants, and macroscale engineering design also proceeds by a process of design evolution from simplicity to complexity as set forth somewhat satirically by John Gall: “A complex system that works is invariably found to have evolved from a simple system that worked. . . . A complex system designed from scratch never works and can not be patched up to make it work. You have to start over, beginning with a system that works.” [31] A breakthrough in MNT is needed which proceeds from the simple atomic ensembles which can be built with, e.g., an STM to complex MNT systems via a process of design evolution. A handicap in this process is the difficulty of seeing and manipulation at the nanoscale compared to the macroscale which makes deterministic selection of successful trials difficult; in contrast biological evolution proceeds via action of what Richard Dawkins has called the “blind watchmaker” [32] comprising random molecular variation and deterministic reproduction/extinction.

At present in 2007 the practice of nanotechnology embraces both stochastic approaches (in which, for example, supramolecular chemistry creates waterproof pants) and deterministic approaches wherein single molecules (created by stochastic chemistry) are manipulated on substrate surfaces (created by stochastic deposition methods) by deterministic methods comprising nudging them with STM or AFM probes and causing simple binding or cleavage reactions to occur. The dream of a complex, deterministic molecular nanotechnology remains elusive. Since the mid-1990s, thousands of surface scientists and thin film technocrats have latched on to the nanotechnology bandwagon and redefined their disciplines as nanotechnology. This has caused much confusion in the field and has spawned thousands of “nano”-papers on the peer reviewed literature. Most of these reports are extensions of the more ordinary research done in the parent fields.

The feasibility of Drexler’s proposals largely depends, therefore, on whether designs like those in Nanosystems could be built in the absence of a universal assembler to build them and would work as described. Supporters of molecular nanotechnology frequently claim that no significant errors have been discovered in Nanosystems since 1992. Even some critics concede[33] that “Drexler has carefully considered a number of physical principles underlying the ‘high level’ aspects of the nanosystems he proposes and, indeed, has thought in some detail” about some issues.

Other critics claim, however, that Nanosystems omits important chemical details about the low-level ‘machine language’ of molecular nanotechnology.[34][35][36][37] They also claim that much of the other low-level chemistry in Nanosystems requires extensive further work, and that Drexler’s higher-level designs therefore rest on speculative foundations. Recent such further work by Freitas and Merkle [38] is aimed at strengthening these foundations by filling the existing gaps in the low-level chemistry.

Drexler argues that we may need to wait until our conventional nanotechnology improves before solving these issues: “Molecular manufacturing will result from a series of advances in molecular machine systems, much as the first Moon landing resulted from a series of advances in liquid-fuel rocket systems. We are now in a position like that of the British Interplanetary Society of the 1930s which described how multistage liquid-fueled rockets could reach the Moon and pointed to early rockets as illustrations of the basic principle.”[39] However, Freitas and Merkle argue [40] that a focused effort to achieve diamond mechanosynthesis (DMS) can begin now, using existing technology, and might achieve success in less than a decade if their “direct-to-DMS approach is pursued rather than a more circuitous development approach that seeks to implement less efficacious nondiamondoid molecular manufacturing technologies before progressing to diamondoid”.

To summarize the arguments against feasibility: First, critics argue that a primary barrier to achieving molecular nanotechnology is the lack of an efficient way to create machines on a molecular/atomic scale, especially in the absence of a well-defined path toward a self-replicating assembler or diamondoid nanofactory. Advocates respond that a preliminary research path leading to a diamondoid nanofactory is being developed.[6]

A second difficulty in reaching molecular nanotechnology is design. Hand design of a gear or bearing at the level of atoms might take a few to several weeks. While Drexler, Merkle and others have created designs of simple parts, no comprehensive design effort for anything approaching the complexity of a Model T Ford has been attempted. Advocates respond that it is difficult to undertake a comprehensive design effort in the absence of significant funding for such efforts, and that despite this handicap much useful design-ahead has nevertheless been accomplished with new software tools that have been developed, e.g., at Nanorex.[41]

In the latest report A Matter of Size: Triennial Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative[24] put out by the National Academies Press in December 2006 (roughly twenty years after Engines of Creation was published), no clear way forward toward molecular nanotechnology could yet be seen, as per the conclusion on page 108 of that report: “Although theoretical calculations can be made today, the eventually attainable range of chemical reaction cycles, error rates, speed of operation, and thermodynamic efficiencies of such bottom-up manufacturing systems cannot be reliably predicted at this time. Thus, the eventually attainable perfection and complexity of manufactured products, while they can be calculated in theory, cannot be predicted with confidence. Finally, the optimum research paths that might lead to systems which greatly exceed the thermodynamic efficiencies and other capabilities of biological systems cannot be reliably predicted at this time. Research funding that is based on the ability of investigators to produce experimental demonstrations that link to abstract models and guide long-term vision is most appropriate to achieve this goal.” This call for research leading to demonstrations is welcomed by groups such as the Nanofactory Collaboration who are specifically seeking experimental successes in diamond mechanosynthesis.[42] The “Technology Roadmap for Productive Nanosystems”[43] aims to offer additional constructive insights.

It is perhaps interesting to ask whether or not most structures consistent with physical law can in fact be manufactured. Advocates assert that to achieve most of the vision of molecular manufacturing it is not necessary to be able to build “any structure that is compatible with natural law.” Rather, it is necessary to be able to build only a sufficient (possibly modest) subset of such structuresas is true, in fact, of any practical manufacturing process used in the world today, and is true even in biology. In any event, as Richard Feynman once said, “It is scientific only to say what’s more likely or less likely, and not to be proving all the time what’s possible or impossible.”[44]

There is a growing body of peer-reviewed theoretical work on synthesizing diamond by mechanically removing/adding hydrogen atoms [45] and depositing carbon atoms [46][47][48][49][50][51] (a process known as mechanosynthesis). This work is slowly permeating the broader nanoscience community and is being critiqued. For instance, Peng et al. (2006)[52] (in the continuing research effort by Freitas, Merkle and their collaborators) reports that the most-studied mechanosynthesis tooltip motif (DCB6Ge) successfully places a C2 carbon dimer on a C(110) diamond surface at both 300K (room temperature) and 80K (liquid nitrogen temperature), and that the silicon variant (DCB6Si) also works at 80K but not at 300K. Over 100,000 CPU hours were invested in this latest study. The DCB6 tooltip motif, initially described by Merkle and Freitas at a Foresight Conference in 2002, was the first complete tooltip ever proposed for diamond mechanosynthesis and remains the only tooltip motif that has been successfully simulated for its intended function on a full 200-atom diamond surface.

The tooltips modeled in this work are intended to be used only in carefully controlled environments (e.g., vacuum). Maximum acceptable limits for tooltip translational and rotational misplacement errors are reported in Peng et al. (2006) — tooltips must be positioned with great accuracy to avoid bonding the dimer incorrectly. Peng et al. (2006) reports that increasing the handle thickness from 4 support planes of C atoms above the tooltip to 5 planes decreases the resonance frequency of the entire structure from 2.0THz to 1.8THz. More importantly, the vibrational footprints of a DCB6Ge tooltip mounted on a 384-atom handle and of the same tooltip mounted on a similarly constrained but much larger 636-atom “crossbar” handle are virtually identical in the non-crossbar directions. Additional computational studies modeling still bigger handle structures are welcome, but the ability to precisely position SPM tips to the requisite atomic accuracy has been repeatedly demonstrated experimentally at low temperature,[53][54] or even at room temperature[55][56] constituting a basic existence proof for this capability.

Further research[57] to consider additional tooltips will require time-consuming computational chemistry and difficult laboratory work.

A working nanofactory would require a variety of well-designed tips for different reactions, and detailed analyses of placing atoms on more complicated surfaces. Although this appears a challenging problem given current resources, many tools will be available to help future researchers: Moore’s Law predicts further increases in computer power, semiconductor fabrication techniques continue to approach the nanoscale, and researchers grow ever more skilled at using proteins, ribosomes and DNA to perform novel chemistry.

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NSA | Define NSA at AcronymFinder

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Oct 202015

NSA National Security Agency (US government) NSA National Speakers Association NSA No Strings Attached NSA Naval Support Activity NSA Network Security Appliance (Sonicwall) NSA Notary Signing Agent NSA National Security Advisor NSA Not Seasonally Adjusted NSA National Security Archive NSA National Security Act NSA National Society of Accountants NSA National Sheriffs’ Association (Alexandria, VA, USA) NSA National Security Affairs NSA No Sugar Added NSA National Stuttering Association NSA National Stroke Association NSA Network Spinal Analysis NSA National Spiritual Assembly (Institution of the Baha’i Faith) NSA Norwegian Shipowners Association NSA North Slope of Alaska NSA National Sheep Association (Malvern, Worcestershire, UK) NSA National Safety Associates NSA National Scrabble Association NSA Non-State Actor (international relations) NSA National Student Association NSA North Star Academy NSA New Saint Andrews College (Moscow, Idaho) NSA National Sunflower Association NSA National Stone Association (Washington, DC) NSA National Stereoscopic Association NSA Negative Security Assurances NSA National Steeplechase Association NSA National Sound Archive NSA National Security Area NSA NATO Standardization Agency NSA National Smokers Alliance NSA Nebraska Statewide Arboretum NSA Negotiated Service Agreement (US postal service) NSA National Security Agents (gaming clan) NSA Non-Standard Analysis NSA National Seniors Australia (est. 1976) NSA Nuclear Science Abstracts NSA Normalized Site Attenuation NSA Nashville School of the Arts (Tennessee) NSA National Storytelling Association NSA National Slag Association (Alexandria, VA) NSA Northern Study Area NSA Navy Support Activity NSA National Skateboard Association NSA Noise Sensitive Area NSA Nikkei Stock Average NSA National Shipping Authority NSA National School of Administration (China) NSA Non-surgical Sperm Aspiration NSA Nunavut Settlement Area NSA New Statistical Account (Reports on the conditions of Scotland, with reports on each parish, in the 1830s) NSA National Supers Agency (fictional from the movie The Incredibles) NSA National Safety Association NSA National Security Anarchists (hacker group) NSA National Sprint Association (UK) NSA Natuurwetenschappelijke Studievereniging Amsterdam (University of Amsterdam Physics Department student organization) NSA Nebraska Soybean Association NSA Naperville Soccer Association NSA No Smoking Area NSA National Softball Association, Inc. NSA Norcross Soccer Association (Georgia) NSA Naval Supervising Activity NSA National Singles Association (Atlanta, Georgia) NSA Navy Stock Account NSA Night Stalker Association NSA National Success Association NSA National Shuffleboard Association NSA National Software Alliance NSA No Significant Abnormalities (disease assessment) NSA Northern Slope of Alaska NSA National Service Alliance, LLC NSA Non Semi Auto (concealed handgun license; Texas) NSA Non Standard Area (of a database) NSA Nantucket Shellfish Association (Nantucket, MA) NSA National Scout Association NSA National Standard Application NSA Narrow-Slot Approximation NSA National Sentinel Audit NSA Node Switching Assembly NSA Net Sales Area NSA Network Search Algorithm NSA Nikkei Student Association NSA Nuclear Support Agency NSA Naval Systems Analysis NSA Nichiren Shosu of America NSA Net Sellable Area (real estate) NSA Network South Australia (Adelaide, Australia) NSA Neutron Source Assembly NSA Net Server Assistant NSA Norwegian Security Act NSA Nabelschnurarterie (German: Umbilical Cord Artery) NSA Narrow Slot Aperture NSA Nikkei Siam Aluminium Limited (Pathumtani, Thailand) NSA New Student Ambassadors (various schools) NSA Nippon Software Industry Association (Japan) NSA Nippon Steel Australia NSA Nippon Supporters Association (Japan) NSA Nippon Surfing Association (Japan) NSA No Secrets Association NSA Non-Self-Aligned NSA Non Standard Ammunition (munitions) NSA Neil Stewart Associates (UK) NSA Network Security Administrator NSA Network Security Agreement NSA Network Simplex Algorithm NSA New Settlement Apartments (New York, NY) NSA New Small Airplane (Boeing) NSA Network Storage Appliance (computing) NSA Network Supported Account (Cisco) NSA Network Systems Administrator (various organizations) NSA Nouvelle Substance Active (French: New Active Substance; Canada) NSA Nordic Securities Association (est. 2008) NSA Non-Standard Auto (insurance) NSA Naczelny Sad Administracyjny (Polish: Supreme Administrative Court) NSA National Scrapbooking Association NSA National Sex Authority NSA National Smokejumper Association NSA National Snow Analyses (US NOAA) NSA Need Special Assistance NSA Natural Systems Agriculture NSA National Supervisory Authority (EU) NSA National Survey of Adolescents NSA Native Speakers of Arabic NSA National Statistical Authorities (EU) NSA National Sports Academy (various locations) NSA National Space Agency

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NSA – What does NSA stand for? The Free Dictionary

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Sep 162015

Acronym Definition NSA National Security Agency (US government) NSA Naval Support Activity NSA National Speakers Association NSA No Strings Attached NSA Network Security Appliance (Sonicwall) NSA Notary Signing Agent NSA National Security Advisor NSA Not Seasonally Adjusted NSA National Security Archive NSA National Security Act NSA National Society of Accountants NSA National Sheriffs’ Association (Alexandria, VA, USA) NSA National Security Affairs NSA No Sugar Added NSA National Stuttering Association NSA National Stroke Association NSA Network Spinal Analysis NSA National Spiritual Assembly (Institution of the Baha’i Faith) NSA Norwegian Shipowners Association NSA North Slope of Alaska NSA National Sheep Association (Malvern, Worcestershire, UK) NSA National Safety Associates NSA Non-State Actor (international relations) NSA National Scrabble Association NSA National Student Association NSA North Star Academy NSA New Saint Andrews College (Moscow, Idaho) NSA National Sunflower Association NSA National Stone Association (Washington, DC) NSA National Stereoscopic Association NSA Negative Security Assurances NSA National Steeplechase Association NSA National Sound Archive NSA National Security Area NSA NATO Standardization Agency NSA National Smokers Alliance NSA Nebraska Statewide Arboretum NSA Negotiated Service Agreement (US postal service) NSA National Security Agents (gaming clan) NSA Non-Standard Analysis NSA National Seniors Australia (est. 1976) NSA Nuclear Science Abstracts NSA Normalized Site Attenuation NSA Nashville School of the Arts (Tennessee) NSA National Storytelling Association NSA National Slag Association (Alexandria, VA) NSA Northern Study Area NSA Navy Support Activity NSA National Skateboard Association NSA Noise Sensitive Area NSA Nikkei Stock Average NSA National Shipping Authority NSA National School of Administration (China) NSA Non-surgical Sperm Aspiration NSA New Statistical Account (Reports on the conditions of Scotland, with reports on each parish, in the 1830s) NSA Nunavut Settlement Area NSA National Supers Agency (fictional from the movie The Incredibles) NSA National Safety Association NSA National Security Anarchists (hacker group) NSA National Sprint Association (UK) NSA Natuurwetenschappelijke Studievereniging Amsterdam (University of Amsterdam Physics Department student organization) NSA Nebraska Soybean Association NSA Naperville Soccer Association NSA No Smoking Area NSA National Softball Association, Inc. NSA Norcross Soccer Association (Georgia) NSA Naval Supervising Activity NSA National Singles Association (Atlanta, Georgia) NSA Navy Stock Account NSA Night Stalker Association NSA National Success Association NSA National Shuffleboard Association NSA National Software Alliance NSA No Significant Abnormalities (disease assessment) NSA Northern Slope of Alaska NSA National Service Alliance, LLC NSA Non Semi Auto (concealed handgun license; Texas) NSA Non Standard Area (of a database) NSA Nantucket Shellfish Association (Nantucket, MA) NSA National Standard Application NSA National Scout Association NSA Narrow-Slot Approximation NSA National Sentinel Audit NSA Net Sales Area NSA Node Switching Assembly NSA Nuclear Support Agency NSA Network Search Algorithm NSA Naval Systems Analysis NSA Nikkei Student Association NSA Net Sellable Area (real estate) NSA Neutron Source Assembly NSA Network South Australia (Adelaide, Australia) NSA Nichiren Shosu of America NSA Net Server Assistant NSA Norwegian Security Act NSA Nabelschnurarterie (German: Umbilical Cord Artery) NSA Narrow Slot Aperture NSA Nikkei Siam Aluminium Limited (Pathumtani, Thailand) NSA Nordic Securities Association (est. 2008) NSA Network Supported Account (Cisco) NSA National Space Agency NSA Non-Standard Auto (insurance) NSA Non-Self-Aligned NSA Network Storage Appliance (computing) NSA Need Special Assistance NSA National Supervisory Authority (EU) NSA Naczelny Sad Administracyjny (Polish: Supreme Administrative Court)

NSA – What does NSA stand for? The Free Dictionary

Website And SEO And PPC For Marketing Success – Video

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Mar 312015

Website And SEO And PPC For Marketing Success
How website designing, search engine optimization and social media marketing actually comes all together to create the ultimate online real estate to generate you sales every single day. https://w…

By: Dawn

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SEO 101: Getting Started in Local SEO (From Scratch) by @SearchHighway

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Mar 312015

If you run a local business, thenyou need to be doing local SEO.This article will cover the basics and give you some quick action items that you can do, even if youre non-tech savvy.

Local SEO is the process of optimizing your business so it shows up in the search engines to people searching locally for your services.

Whether youre a dentist, restaurant, or yoga studio, the only customers that matter for your business are people searching within your city, and because of that, you need to focus your SEO locally where it matters.

Most search engines will have two sets of results when it comes to a local search the organic results and the Local 7-Pack.

Take a look at the image below to understand what I mean:

As you can see, the Local 7-Pack only features local businesses that have signed up with Google (well get into that later), whereas the organic results display the most relevant results across the web. This includes directories (i.e. Yellow Pages), review sites (i.e. Yelp) and of course, other local businesses.

Ideally, you want your website to be optimized for both the organic and Local 7-Pack so that you cover more real estate on the search page.

Sidenote: If youre clever, youll even take this one step further and make sure your business is one of the top listings on Yelp and the Yellow Pages (Yelp is 2nd in the organic results and Yellow Pagesis 4th using the example above).

There are hundreds of reasons why other businesses show up in the search results and yours dont. Below are some action items you can execute right away that will help increase your chances of showing up on the Local 7-Pack.

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How to sell your house, a video SEO social media, Albemarle County Virginia real estate – Video

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Mar 262015

How to sell your house, a video SEO social media, Albemarle County Virginia real estate
This just in, occlusive evidence that Bill May Realty is beyond committed to exceptional service, above and beyond the call of duty. With Bill May ERA realty, your home is “sold”. With over…

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Ocean Reef Islands – Video

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Mar 192015

Ocean Reef Islands
Ocean Reef sern las primeras islas residenciales construidas por el hombre en Latinoamrica. Una exclusiva comunidad de nicamente138 lotes residenciales que ser desarrollada en la cosmopoli.

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Estate agent accepting bitcoin

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Dec 212014

Sydney real estate agency Forsyth Real Estate has begun accepting virtual cryptocurrency bitcoin for house deposits and property advertising, through a partnership with Australian bitcoin payments provider CoinJar.

The 115-year-old real estate agency on Sydney’s north shore said that it took on bitcoin to offer another avenue for online payment to the influx of international investors and expats entering the prominent Sydney market.

Forsyth managing director James Snodgrass said the agency had become a strong supporter of the bitcoin economy recently, as it allowed overseas transactions with less fees and exchange rate fluctuations.

“Prior to launching, we had discussions with our financial division who outlined the risks and opportunities of bitcoin and we were happy with our findings,” he said.


But the director of Max Walls International Real Estate in Manly, Anthony Walls, said he was not convinced.

“I must tell you I’m very concerned about the bitcoin situation,” Mr Walls said.

“I just don’t need to deal with those [virtual currencies] and I don’t need the grief.”

Mr Walls was referring to the hacking of 850,000 bitcoins from the high-profile Mt Gox currency exchange worth about $US500 million ($548 million) earlier this month. The attack ruined Mt Gox, which was reportedly handling up to 70 per cent of the world’s bitcoin transactions.

“I would need to be convinced and I’d want a whole team of lawyers sitting at the table signing off on it,” Mr Walls said in response to whether he would ever accept bitcoin.

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Why There's Confusion Over Valuing Bitcoin

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Dec 172014

Bitcoin presents a new type of nontraditional, highly technical, experimental, and global digital instrument to our already complex world. That fact should not conjure fear. It should engender excitement.

When I caught wind of Bitcoin as a newly minted MBA in the summer of 2012, I immediately scoffed. At the time, one bitcoin was trading at around $10, with a total market cap of about $50 million, which I thought was outrageous. It was a new, unregulated, “imaginary” Internet currency. Even though I initially rejected the idea as utopian, it stuck with me for some time thereafter.

Fast forward to early 2013, when the European banking crisis was reaching a fever pitch and Cyprus was on the verge of the first modern bank “bail-in.” As the bitcoin price began to rise rapidly on a daily basis, and the situation in Europe continued to deteriorate, I decided to remove my “I know everything” MBA grad cap for an “I know nothing” crypto dunce cap. And, boy, am I glad I did.

The more I read, watched, and listened to bitcoin experts attempt to explain the most confusing and thought-provoking advancement since the Internet, the more fascinated I became, not only with the idea of frictionless transactions, but also by the idea of stateless currency.

Given the complexity of bitcoin (economic, financial, political, ideological), there are many topics of discussion that deserve specific attention in their own right. The Digital Currency Council does an excellent job of providing an overview of these issues in its free courses. In today’s piece, we will focus on one of my favorite, and most misunderstood, topics: bitcoin valuation.

Valuing bitcoin: A traditional perspective First, I think it is important to give readers an idea of just how difficult it is to categorize bitcoin for valuation purposes. Unlike equities, bonds, and real estate, bitcoins create no cashflow. Most traditional financial analysis is based on terminally valuing an asset’s or entity’s discounted cashflows in order to determine a fair present value price for those future cashflows. In the case of equities, the earnings of a particular company that are distributed as dividends can be theoretically extended in perpetuity and discounted at current “risk-free” interest rates, thus creating what is knows as a discounted cashflow (DCF) valuation. Since bitcoin has no cashflow, this method of valuation is not useful.

With regard to stocks, thousands of companies in hundreds of industries provide a pool of potential comparables to value companies from a comparative and/or historical perspective. Again, there is only one bitcoin (and it is the first of its kind), so there is no use for this methodology, either. There are “altcoins,” but they are not proper comps for bitcoin. (That is a topic for another day).

Moving to bonds or other interest-bearing instruments, they too provide steady and somewhat predictable cashflows due to the interest coupons that holders of the securities collect at set periods of time. Once again, we run into a problem with bitcoin due to the lack of regular cash payments, though this can be programmed into the blockchain as an added protocol layer. (Again, that is for another time.)

Lastly, real estate projects — at least those purposed for investor profit and not for proprietor dwelling — also produce steady cash revenue in the form of rents and homeowners’ fees that act just as dividends and interest payments. No surprise that bitcoin cannot fit into this category, either, given its currency/commodity-like properties.

So the obvious question is still “What is the value of a bitcoin, and how do we derive it?”

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Why There's Confusion Over Valuing Bitcoin

Receiver sought for O.C. Register

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Nov 072014

Two investors in Freedom Communications are asking a Delaware court to put the Santa Ana newspaper company into receivership, saying the owner of the Orange County Register is “insolvent” and beset by “mismanagement.”

The lawsuit by minority shareholders is the latest sign of strife at a company that this year has endured rounds of layoffs, lawsuits, leadership shake-ups and the launching and closing of a new daily paper in Los Angeles.

Abbey Financial and Old Colony 2012 Investment Fund said in their complaint, filed confidentially with the Delaware Chancery Court last week and disclosed this week, that Freedom needs independent oversight as soon as possible.

The investors said the operation faces an emergency “posed by an imminent sale of a significant real estate asset and the financial distress of the company due to mismanagement.”

The complaint alleges that Freedom co-owners Aaron Kushner and Eric Spitz allowed lender Silver Point Finance to have outsized influence over the media company’s financial decisions, including a planned sale of a 14.3-acre plot surrounding the Register’s Santa Ana headquarters.

Initial offers on the site were due on Oct. 22, said Justin Esayian of the Hoffman Co., the brokerage representing Freedom. Freedom didn’t set an asking price but received a substantial number of offers, which it is reviewing, Esayian said.

Abbey and Old Colony supported the land sale a year ago, said Freedom spokesman Eric Morgan. He called their complaint “meritless and unfounded” and said Freedom is not considering filing for bankruptcy.

Morgan said, the court rejected the investors’ motion Thursday to expedite the appointment of a receiver. Attorneys for the investors did not respond to requests for comment.

In alleging that Freedom is insolvent, the complaint said the company has spent at least the past nine months “placating” creditors that have been pressuring the firm “to the detriment of other creditors.”

Silver Point, a subsidiary of Silver Point Capital in Greenwich, Conn., holds the mortgages on all of Freedom’s real property as well as a first priority lien on the company’s other assets, according to the complaint.

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Receiver sought for O.C. Register

Malone Gained Double Tax Break in Liberty Address Shift

 Liberty  Comments Off on Malone Gained Double Tax Break in Liberty Address Shift
Nov 032014

Shifting the address of his Liberty Global Inc. from Colorado to London last year didnt just put billionaire John C. Malone in a position to reduce his companys tax bill.

He also took precautions to avoid the capital-gains hit that the so-called inversion would trigger for him and other investors. The day before the deal was announced, Malone — the companys chairman and controlling shareholder — transferred $600 million of his shares into a tax-exempt charitable trust. He avoided paying taxes on his remaining stake, worth about $260 million, by exploiting IRS regulations meant to block a different loophole.

All told, Malone escaped about $200 million in personal taxes, and Liberty Globals U.S. shareholders together likely saved more than a billion dollars, according to data compiled by Bloomberg.

Hes congenitally averse to paying taxes, said Robert Willens, an independent tax accounting analyst in New York City.

Tax Inversion

As the Obama administration attempts to implement anti-inversion rules announced in September, Libertys strategies illustrate how billionaires and their companies find their way around tax regulations, and take advantage of unintended consequences.

Malone — whose net worth is $7.5 billion, according to the Bloomberg Billionaires Index — has a history of creative tax-avoidance tactics. Over the years, many of the 73-year-old media billionaires biggest deals, such as buying the Atlanta Braves, have helped his companies to cut their tax bills.

Malone has at least four other charitable trusts, with more than $210 million in assets, IRS records show. Such trusts permit wealthy individuals to use the tax-exempt status of a charity to shelter income. In the past two years, he has also taken advantage of an Irish tax break to buy prime real estate in central Dublin.

Marcus Smith, a Liberty Global spokesman, declined to comment. He directed a request to interview Malone to Courtnee Ulrich, a spokeswoman at another of Malones companies, Liberty Media Corp. She declined to answer questions and said Malone would not comment.

A Connecticut native, Malone runs his growing media empire from his adopted state of Colorado. He recently surpassed Ted Turner — a predecessor as owner of the Braves — as the largest private landowner in the U.S., according to The Land Report magazine. He owns about 2.2 million acres, including more than 5 percent of Maines total land mass.

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Malone Gained Double Tax Break in Liberty Address Shift

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SEO: The Powerful Sales-Lead Source Most Realtors Have Yet to Tap

 SEO  Comments Off on SEO: The Powerful Sales-Lead Source Most Realtors Have Yet to Tap
Oct 242014

Toronto, Ontario (PRWEB) October 23, 2014

Theres sales-lead gold in website search-engine optimization, but most real estate agents have no effective way to mine it.

That was the most telling discovery from a recent survey that asked 342 North American real-estate agents and brokers if — and how — they used search engine optimization, also called SEO, to uncover sales prospects.

The survey was conducted in August by WebsiteBox, the technology firm that offers do-it-all real estate websites for a $99 one-time fee.

We already know that search is the number-one traffic driver to real-estate websites and that search is way more important than social media, said Peyman Aleagha, WebsiteBox CEO. So, if 90 percent of prospective home buyers search online, and three-quarters of those buyers never click past the first page of search results, then its crucial to make sure your website shows up at the top of those results.

Big Three: Keywords, Coding and Content

Survey respondents who were all WebsiteBox customers and real estate professionals indicated they have a basic understanding of what SEO means: encouraging search engines like Google and Bing to direct interested property buyers to their business websites and sales listings. In fact, 83 percent said they believed SEO to be the most important source of online sales-lead generation.

The WebsiteBox survey results suggested that most realtors are making an effort to comply with best SEO practices: relevant keywords, compelling content, and sound website coding. More than half of the respondents said they already use keyword research, and 35 percent said they employ website meta-tags and backlinks. A respectable 45 percent said they are blogging and posting content that buyers would find useful.

For all their effort, few respondents (4.9 percent) said they generated referrals through SEO. The problem may be that the agents are using the wrong tools. Indeed, 69 percent of the WebsiteBox survey respondents said the tools they have dont seem to get the SEO job done.

Agents Lack Time, Money, Expertise for SEO

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SEO: The Powerful Sales-Lead Source Most Realtors Have Yet to Tap

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Free Speech In Hong Kong, Then And Now

 Free Speech  Comments Off on Free Speech In Hong Kong, Then And Now
Oct 172014

Pro-democracy protesters shout slogans during a standoff with police outside the central government offices in the Admiralty district of Hong Kong on Wednesday. Ed Jones/AFP/Getty Images hide caption

Pro-democracy protesters shout slogans during a standoff with police outside the central government offices in the Admiralty district of Hong Kong on Wednesday.

I’ve been traveling to Hong Kong since 1997, when the former British colony returned to Chinese rule. Reporting on the pro-democracy protests in recent weeks, I’ve been struck by a change in the people here. Many are no longer willing to give their full names when talking about politics and the current protests.

A couple of nights ago I was interviewing a real estate agent in a pinstripe suit on an elevated walkway as police battled and pepper-sprayed demonstrators in the distance.

The man, 27, wasn’t a protester, but supported the pro-democracy movement and explained why. When I asked him for his name, he only offered his surname, Wu. I asked him why he didn’t want to be identified.

“The speech freedom is just fading out,” he said. “I was very confident in Hong Kong 10 years ago, but things change very quick. Everything is getting worse. I have to protect myself at this moment.”

Then I asked if I had interviewed him 10 years ago about politics, would he have given me his full name then?

“Maybe,” he said. “Maybe, yes.”

In the protest tent camp below, I ran across a man named Abe, who was helping to build desks from scrap wood. The main camp stretches across Harcourt Road amid the glass-and-steel towers of Hong Kong’s Admiralty district. Using the highway’s concrete divider, protesters have built an open-air study hall so students can keep up with their homework.

“I have no experience in carpentry,” said Abe, who is Hong Kong-Canadian. “A lot of this is just volunteerism. I see people picking up garbage and I just volunteer.”

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Free Speech In Hong Kong, Then And Now

Fiscal Policy Institute proposes tax on luxe pied–terres

 Tax Havens  Comments Off on Fiscal Policy Institute proposes tax on luxe pied–terres
Sep 242014

Left-wing allies of Mayor de Blasio have come up with a new way to tax the rich by going after nonresidents who buy expensive co-ops and condos that they seldom use.

The liberal Fiscal Policy Institute on Monday proposed a tax of up to 4 percent on 1,556 pied–terres worth more than $5 million each. The tax would generate $665 million a year, the group said.

The mayors office quickly said it was reviewing the proposal.

De Blasios previous attempt to increase taxes on the citys wealthiest residents was shot down in Albany, which would also have to approve the condo-tax plan.

But the new targets of the tax hikers include many foreigners who dont vote.

The graduated tax would start at 0.5 percent for properties valued at $5 million to $6 million, and max out at 4 percent for units valued at more than $25 million.

State Sen. Brad Hoylman (D-Manhattan) is introducing a bill to enact the tax Tuesday.

In his report, institute director James Parrott said absentee owners of expensive condos and co-ops should be targeted because they dont pay local income tax.

The owners bid up the price of New York City residential real estate, and since they dont spend much time in these use units, contribute little to the local economy compared to full-time residents, he said.

Brooklyn City Councilman Brand Lander, the deputy policy leader, embraced the tax on extremely wealthy foreigners, saying many use their properties as tax havens.

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Fiscal Policy Institute proposes tax on luxe pied–terres

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Bocas del Toro Islands Real Estate – Isla Cristobal Waterfront Living – Video

 Islands  Comments Off on Bocas del Toro Islands Real Estate – Isla Cristobal Waterfront Living – Video
Sep 182014

Bocas del Toro Islands Real Estate – Isla Cristobal Waterfront Living
For more information on Bocas del Toro real estate, contact Jason Will with Panama Source Real Estate at 011-507-6640-5560 or my U.S. line at 251-583-9728. You can also shoot me an email to…

By: Jason Will

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Bocas del Toro Islands Real Estate – Isla Cristobal Waterfront Living – Video

Underneath all the speech controversies, it's just business

 Free Speech  Comments Off on Underneath all the speech controversies, it's just business
May 102014


(CNN) — Free speech has consequences — especially when business interests are involved.

That’s a lesson most recently learned by real estate professionals David and Jason Benham, who lost the HGTV show they were scheduled to host after a recording of David Benham’s anti-homosexuality views emerged.

Should the Benham brothers have lost their HGTV show?

After the site Right Wing Watch published a post about the pair and posted a recording of Benham talking to a talk show host about “homosexuality and its agenda that is attacking the nation,” HGTV dropped their planned show, called “Flip It Forward.”

“HGTV has decided not to move forward with the Benham Brothers’ series,” the network tweeted after the post went public.

The Benhams aren’t the first ones to lose work over their words. Los Angeles Clippers owner Donald Sterling was banned for life from the team’s day-to-day operations and facilities — and fined $2.5 million — for racist comments that were recorded and posted online. Paula Deen became an ex-Food Network host after she admitted to using a racial slur. “Duck Dynasty’s” Phil Robertson was suspended after his controversial comments on homosexuals were published, though the A&E show has stayed on the air.

Opinion: What happened to Sterling was morally wrong

Regardless of the platform, the personal, political and corporate have ways of getting entangled with one another these days — particularly when corporations try to maintain very public reputations of welcoming diversity and inclusiveness, says crisis management consultant Eric Dezenhall.

“I defy you to go to a corporate meeting and not hear words incanted over and over again: ‘diversity,’ ‘inclusiveness,’ ‘transparency,’ ‘corporate social responsibility,’ ‘sustainability,’ et cetera,” he says. “If you step out of the narrow margins on some of these issues, there’s going to be a problem.”

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Underneath all the speech controversies, it's just business

Pierre Teilhard De Chardin | Designer Children | Prometheism | Euvolution | Transhumanism