Cyborg | Designer-Babies | Futurism | Futurist | Immortality | Longevity | Nanotechnology | Post-Human | Singularity | Transhuman

Second Amendment – lawbrain.com

 Second Amendment  Comments Off on Second Amendment – lawbrain.com
May 192016
 

The Second Amendment of the U.S. Constitution protects the right to keep and bear arms.

The Second Amendment, a provision of the U.S. Constitution, was ratified on December 15, 1791, forming what is known as the Bill of Rights. The Second Amendment to the U.S. Constitution[1] reads:

The subject matter and unusual phrasing of this amendment led to much controversy and analysis, especially in the last half of the twentieth century. Nevertheless, the meaning and scope of the amendment have long been decided by the Supreme Court.

Firearms played an important part in the colonization of America. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, European colonists relied heavily on firearms to take land away from Native Americans and repel attacks by Native Americans and Europeans. Around the time of the Revolutionary War, male citizens were required to own firearms for fighting against the British forces. Firearms were also used in hunting.

In June 1776, one month before the signing of the Declaration of Independence, Virginia became the first colony to adopt a state constitution. In this document, the state of Virginia pronounced that “a well regulated Militia, composed of the body of the people, trained to arms, is the proper, natural, and safe defence of a free State.” After the colonies declared their independence from England, other states began to include the right to bear arms in their constitution. Pennsylvania, for example, declared that

The wording of clauses about bearing arms in late-eighteenth-century state constitutions varied. Some states asserted that bearing arms was a “right” of the people, whereas others called it a “duty” of every able-bodied man in the defense of society.

Pennsylvania was not alone in its express discouragement of a standing (professional) army. Many of the Framers of the U.S. Constitution rejected standing armies, preferring instead the model of a citizen army, equipped with weapons and prepared for defense. According to Framers such as Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts and George Mason of Virginia a standing army was susceptible to tyrannical use by a power-hungry government.

At the first session of Congress in March 1789, the Second Amendment was submitted as a counterweight to the federal powers of Congress and the president. According to constitutional theorists, the Framers who feared a central government extracted the amendment as a compromise from those in favor of centralized authority over the states. The Revolutionary War had, after all, been fought in large part by a citizen army against the standing armies of England.

The precise wording of the amendment was changed two times before the U.S. Senate finally cast it in its present form. As with many of the amendments, the exact wording proved critical to its interpretation.

In 1791 a majority of states ratified the Bill of Rights, which included the Second Amendment. In its final form, the amendment presented a challenge to interpreters. It was the only amendment with an opening clause that appeared to state its purpose. The amendment even had defective punctuation; the comma before shall seemed grammatically unnecessary.

Legal scholars do not agree about this comma. Some have argued that it was intentional and that it was intended to make militia the subject of the sentence. According to these theorists, the operative words of the amendment are “[a] well regulated Militia shall not be infringed.” Others have argued that the comma was a mistake, and that the operative words of the sentence are “the right of the people to bear arms shall not be infringed.” Under this reading, the first part of the sentence is the rationale for the absolute, personal right of the people to own firearms. Indeed, the historical backdrophighlighted by a general disdain for professional armieswould seem to support this theory.

Some observers argue further that the Second Amendment grants the right of insurrection. According to these theorists, the Second Amendment was designed to allow citizens to rebel against the government. Thomas Jefferson is quoted as saying that “a little rebellion every now and then is a good thing.”

Prior to the courts ruling in Heller v. District of Columbia[2], 128 S. Ct. 2783 (2008)(see infra), the Supreme Court had made the ultimate determination of the Constitution’s meaning, and it defined the amendment as simply granting to the states the right to maintain a militia separate from federally controlled militias. This interpretation first came in United States v. Cruikshank,[3] 92 U.S. 542, 23 L. Ed. 588 (1875). In Cruikshank, approximately one hundred persons were tried jointly in a Louisiana federal court with felonies in connection with an April 13, 1873, assault on two AfricanAmerican men. One of the criminal counts charged that the mob intended to hinder the right of the two men to bear arms. The defendants were convicted by a jury, but the circuit court arrested the judgment, effectively overturning the verdict. In affirming that decision, the Supreme Court declared that “the second amendment means no more than that [the right to bear arms] shall not be infringed by Congress, and has no other effect than to restrict the powers of the national government.”

In Presser v. Illinois,[4] 116 U.S. 252, 6 S. Ct. 580, 29 L. Ed. 615 (1886), Herman Presser was charged in Illinois state court with parading and drilling an unauthorized militia in the streets of Chicago in December 1879, in violation of certain sections of the Illinois Military Code. One of the sections in question prohibited the organization, drilling, operation, and parading of militias other than U.S. troops or the regular organized volunteer militia of the state. Presser was tried by the judge, convicted, and ordered to pay a fine of $10.

On appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court, Presser argued, in part, that the charges violated his Second Amendment right to bear arms. The Court disagreed and upheld Presser’s conviction. The Court cited Cruikshank for the proposition that the Second Amendment means only that the federal government may not infringe on the right of states to form their own militias. This meant that the Illinois state law forbidding citizen militias was not unconstitutional. However, in its opinion, the Court in Presser delivered a reading of the Second Amendment that seemed to suggest an absolute right of persons to bear arms: “It is undoubtedly true that all citizens capable of bearing arms constitute the reserved military force or reserve militia of the United States,” and “states cannot prohibit the people from keeping and bearing arms.”

Despite this generous language, the Court refused to incorporate the Second Amendment into the Fourteenth Amendment. Under the first section of the Fourteenth Amendment, passed in 1868, states may not abridge the privileges and immunities of citizens of the United States. The privileges and immunities of citizens are listed in the Bill of Rights, of which the Second Amendment is part. Presser had argued that states may not, by virtue of the Fourteenth Amendment, abridge the right to bear arms. The Court refused to accept the argument that the right to bear arms is a personal right of the people. According to the Court, “The right to drill or parade with arms, without, and independent of, an act of congress or law of the state authorizing the same, is not an attribute of national citizenship.”

The Presser opinion is best understood in its historical context. The Northern states and the federal government had just fought the Civil War against Southern militias unauthorized by the federal government. After this ordeal, the Supreme Court was in no mood to accept an expansive right to bear arms. At the same time, the Court was sensitive to the subject of federal encroachment on states’ rights.

Several decades later, the Supreme Court ignored the contradictory language in Presser and cemented a limited reading of the Second Amendment. In United States v. Miller,[5] 307 U.S. 174, 59 S. Ct. 816, 83 L. Ed. 1206 (1939), defendants Jack Miller and Frank Layton were charged in federal court with unlawful transportation of firearms in violation of certain sections of the National Firearms Act of June 26, 1934 (ch. 757, 48 Stat. 12361240 [26 U.S.C.A. 1132 et seq.]). Specifically, Miller and Layton had transported shotguns with barrels less than 18 inches long, without the registration required under the act.

The district court dismissed the indictment, holding that the act violated the Second Amendment. The United States appealed. The Supreme Court reversed the decision and sent the case back to the trial court. The Supreme Court stated that the Second Amendment was fashioned “to assure the continuation and render possible the effectiveness of militia forces.”

The Miller opinion confirmed the restrictive language of Presser and solidified a narrow reading of the Second Amendment. According to the Court in Miller, the Second Amendment does not guarantee the right to own a firearm unless the possession or use of the firearm has “a reasonable relationship to the preservation or efficiency of a well regulated militia.”

However, in Heller v. District of Columbia, 128 S. Ct. 2783 (2008), the Supreme Court reviewed a case where D.C. residents challenged an ordinace which banned the possession of handguns. The Supreme Court held that the constitution protects the right of individuals to possess a firearm.

The legislative measures that inspire most Second Amendment discussions are gun control laws. Since the mid-nineteenth century, state legislatures have been passing laws that infringe a perceived right to bear arms. Congress has also asserted the power to regulate firearms. No law regulating firearms has ever been struck down by the Supreme Court as a violation of the Second Amendment.

Historically, the academic community has largely ignored the Second Amendment. However, gun control laws have turned many laypersons into scholars of the Second Amendment’s history. The arguments for a broader interpretation are many and varied. Most center on the original intent of the Framers. Some emphasize that the Second Amendment should be interpreted as granting an unconditional personal right to bear arms for defensive and sporting purposes. Others adhere to an insurrection theory, under which the Second Amendment not only grants the personal right to bear arms, it gives citizens the right to rebel against a government perceived as tyrannical.

In response to these arguments, supporters of the prevailing Second Amendment interpretation maintain that any right to bear arms should be secondary to concerns for public safety. They also point out that other provisions in the Constitution grant power to Congress to quell insurrections, thus contradicting the insurrection theory. Lastly, they argue that the Constitution should be interpreted in accordance with a changing society and that the destructive capability of semiautomatic and automatic firearms was not envisioned by the Framers.

In response to the last argument, critics maintain that because such firearms exist, it should be legal to use them against violent criminals who are themselves wielding such weapons.

In the 2000s, federal courts continue to revisit the scope and detail of the Second Amendment right to bear arms. In particular federal courts have recast much of the debate as one over whether the Second Amendment protects a “collective” right or an “individual” right to bear arms. If the Second Amendment protects only a collective right, then only states would have the power to bring a legal action to enforce it and only for the purpose of maintaining a “well-regulated militia.” If the Second Amendment protects only an individual right to bear arms, then only individuals could bring suit to challenge gun-control laws that curb their liberty to buy, sell, own, or possess firearms and other guns.

Not surprisingly, courts are conflicted over how to resolve this debate. In United States v. Emerson,[6][7] 270 F.3d 203 (5th Cir. 2001), the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit found that the original intent of the Founding Fathers supported an individual-rights interpretation of the Second Amendment, while the Ninth Circuit came to the opposite conclusion in Nordyke v. King,[8] 319 F.3d 1185 (9th Cir. 2003). Although no court has concluded that the original intent underlying the Second Amendment supports a claim for both an individual- and a collective rights based interpretation of the right to bear arms, the compelling historical arguments marshaled on both sides of the debate would suggest that another court faced with the same debate may reach such a conclusion.

Becker, Edward R. 1997. “The Second Amendment and Other Federal Constitutional Rights of the Private Militia.” Montana Law Review 58 (winter).

Bogus, Carl T., ed. 2000. The Second Amendment in Law and History: Historians and Constitutional Scholars on the Right to Bear Arms. New York: New Press.

Dolan, Edward F., and Margaret M. Scariano. 1994. Guns in the United States. New York: Watts.

Dunlap, Charles J., Jr. 1995. “Revolt of the Masses: Armed Civilians and the Insurrectionary Theory of the Second Amendment.” Tennessee Law Review 62 (spring).

Hanson, Freya Ottem. 1998. The Second Amendment: The Right to Own Guns. Springfield, N.J.: Enslow.

Hook, Donald D. 1992. Gun Control: The Continuing Debate. Washington, D.C.: Second Amendment Foundation.

Hoppin, Jason. 2003. “Ninth Circuit Upholds Controversial Ruling on Second Amendment.” Legal Intelligencer (May 8).

. 2003. “Second Amendment Fight Steals Show in Gun Ban Case: Panel Enters Fray over Individual Rights.” San Francisco Recorder (February 19).

McAffee, Thomas B. 1997. “Constitutional Limits on Regulating Private Militia Groups.” Montana Law Review 58 (winter).

Failed to load RSS feed from http://search.yahooapis.com/WebSearchService/rss/webSearch.xml?appid=yahoosearchwebrss&query=second+amendment%20site:blogs.findlaw.com!

Read more here:
Second Amendment – lawbrain.com

Freedom, PA – Freedom, Pennsylvania Map & Directions – MapQuest

 Freedom  Comments Off on Freedom, PA – Freedom, Pennsylvania Map & Directions – MapQuest
Mar 212016
 

Freedom is a borough in Beaver County, Pennsylvania, United States, along the Ohio River 25 miles (40km) northwest of Pittsburgh. In the early years of the twentieth century, the chief industries were the production of oil, caskets, and monuments. In 1900, 1,783 people lived in Freedom; in 1910, 3,060 people lived there. The population was 1,763 at the 2000 census. In 1824, the Harmony Society returned to Pennsylvania, from Indiana. The society settled in what is now Ambridge, Pennsylvania, five miles (8km) up the Ohio River. One of the reasons the society left Indiana was because of harassment for their abolitionist activities. Their settlement was in Beaver County along the Ohio River. There they founded “konomie,” now better known as Old Economy Village. Here the Society gained worldwide recognition for its religious devotion and economic prosperity. The Harmonites were abolitionists, and began placing signs along the Ohio River with one word, “FREEDOM”. The Harmonites selected this location because the river curves at this point. The river is actually flowing North, so runaway slaves from the South would be traveling up the river. The FREEDOM sign on the river bank was to let runaway slaves know that they had reached freedom (and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania). If the runaway slaves were still in Illinois, Indiana, or Ohio, then slave hunters from Kentucky or Virginia could legally cross the river and capture them. Once in Pennsylvania, the slaves were free.

Continued here:
Freedom, PA – Freedom, Pennsylvania Map & Directions – MapQuest

Johnstown, PA – Johnstown, Pennsylvania Map & Directions …

 Beaches  Comments Off on Johnstown, PA – Johnstown, Pennsylvania Map & Directions …
Mar 032016
 

Johnstown is a city in Cambria County, Pennsylvania, United States, 41 miles (66km) west-southwest of Altoona, Pennsylvania and 70 miles (110km) east of Pittsburgh. The population was 20,978 at the 2010 census. It is the principal city of the Johnstown, Pennsylvania, Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes Cambria County. As of 2008, the Metropolitan Statistical Area had a population of 144,319 which makes it one of the top 10 in the state. Johnstown, settled in 1770, is perhaps most famous for its three major floods. The “Great Flood” of May 31, 1889 occurred after the South Fork Dam collapsed 14.1 miles (23km) upstream from the city during heavy rains. At least 2,209 people died as a result of the flood and subsequent fire that raged through the debris. Other major floods occurred in 1936 and 1977. Despite a pledge by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt to make the city flood free, and subsequent work to do so, another major flood occurred in 1977. The 1977 flood – in what was to have been a “flood free” city – may have contributed to Johnstown’s subsequent population decline and inability to attract new residents and businesses. Johnstown was formally organized as a town in 1800 by the Swiss German immigrant Joseph Johns (n Josef Schantz). The settlement was initially known as Schantzstadt, but was soon anglicized to Johnstown. From 1834 to 1854, the city was a port and key transfer point along the Pennsylvania Main Line Canal. Johnstown was at the head of the canal’s western branch, with canal boats having been transported over the mountains via the Allegheny Portage Railroad and refloated here, to continue the trip by water to Pittsburgh and the Ohio Valley. Perhaps the most famous passenger via the canal to visit Johnstown briefly was Charles Dickens in 1842. By 1854, canal transport became redundant with the completion of the Pennsylvania Railroad, which now spanned the state. With the coming of the railroads, the citys growth did not miss a beat; in fact, the tempo was stepped up. Johnstown became a stop on the main line of the Pennsylvania Railroad and was connected with the Baltimore & Ohio. The railroads provided large-scale development of the regions mineral wealth.

Originally posted here:
Johnstown, PA – Johnstown, Pennsylvania Map & Directions …

 Posted by at 11:41 am  Tagged with:

Top Ten Illuminati Symbols | Illuminati Rex

 Illuminati  Comments Off on Top Ten Illuminati Symbols | Illuminati Rex
Feb 242016
 

Top Ten Illuminati Symbols The Illuminati loves taunting the Profane by putting their symbols in plain sight for all to see. Only the Illuminati insiders are privy to the symbols true meaning. Symbols of the Illuminati are present on our currencies, and are plastered all over our television, movies and newspapers.

The All-Seeing Eye or the Eye of Providence is the preeminent symbol and most widely recognized symbol of the Illuminati.

The All-Seeing Eye as seen on the United States one dollar note.

The All-Seeing Eye was added to the original design of the Great Seal of the United States in 1776 by Pierre Eugne Du Simitire and remained on the Seal with the addition of an unfinished pyramid (see Illuminati symbol #2) when it was finally adopted in 1782. In 1935 the Great Seal was added to the $1 dollar note, the most widely circulated note on the planet, by President and Freemason Franklin D. Roosevelt.

Links to the Illuminati: To conspiracy theorists, the all-seeing eye represents the Eye of Lucifer. The Eye can see all and oversees its minions which are represented by the individual bricks of the pyramid. The 13 steps of the pyramid represent the 13 Illuminati Bloodlines which collectively rule over the planet. The year 1776 represent the founding of the Bavarian Illuminati by Adam Weishaupt.

US Government: The Eye is a representation of God who favors the prosperity of the United States. It is positioned above an unfinished pyramid representing the future growth of the United States. The 13 steps of the pyramid represent the original thirteen states. The year 1776 represent the birth of the United States.

Links to the Bavarian Illuminati: There is no evidence that the Bavarian Illuminati used the eye in any of its rituals. However, they used the point within a circle, circled dot, circumpunct, or circle with a point at its centre a () to represent the Order.

Links to Freemasonry: The Master Mason learns that the All Seeing Eye represents the Great Architect of the Universe (GAOTU) who watches and sees everything and will judge us according to our works.

The Freemasons also use the symbol. In Arcana of Masonry (p. 188), Masonic Historian Albert Churchward writes:

The point in the centre of a Circle is equal to the point at the tip of the Triangle, and this Glyph is equivalent to the Eye; the two are synonymous.

Other secret societies: In the Order of the Golden Dawn the represents Kether.

Masonic Vice-President Henry A. Wallace and Masonic President FDR added the pyramid to the dollar bill in 1935

All-Seeing Eye on the CBS logo

Original design for the Great Seal of the United States

Masonic tracing board, Germany 1770

The Illuminati Elite is represented by the capstone of the pyramid and the Profane by the stones.

The pyramid represents the top-down command structure of the Illuminati with the Illuminati plutocrats at the top and the peons at the bottom.

Links to the Illuminati: In Illuminati conspiracy theories the presence of a pyramid usually represents the top-down command structure of the Illuminati rulers of the universe. The theory has become more mainstream following the rise of the Occupy Wall Street movement who refer to the rulers as the One Percent.

Links to the Bavarian Illuminati: The pyramid was featured prominently at Minerval Assemblies of the Bavarian Illuminati. A carpet was laid out on the rooms floor featuring a Pyramid flanked on either side by the letters D and P on each of its side. (Deo Proximo God is near) There are stones scattered at the pyramids base.

The unfinished pyramid signifies that the goals of the Most Serene Order of the Illuminati are still incomplete. By working together, the Illuminati is able to make great strides towards completing their task for the glory of the Grand Architect.

Links to Freemasonry: The George Washington Masonic National Memorial in Virginia is capped by a seven steps pyramid. The House of the Temple, the Headquarters for the Supreme Council of the southern jurisdiction of the Scottish Rite of Masonry is also capped by an unfinished pyramid.

Bavarian Illuminati pyramid vs. Great Seal pyramid

HW Bushs pet pyramid

Being There movie

Step pyramid surmounting George Washington Masonic National Memorial

DARPAs Information Awareness Office

Grave of Charles Taze Russell, Founder of the Jehovahs Witnesses

The owl was the symbol for Minerva, the goddess of wisdom. The Enlightened Ones see themselves as the wise rulers of the planet.

Owl at the Bohemian Grove

Links to the Illuminati: The Bohemian Grove, an exclusive elite 2,700-acre encampment situated in the Redwood forest of northern California features an owl on its logo. The planning meeting for the ultra-secret Manhattan Project is also rumored to have taken place at the Grove. It is also where Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan worked out a deal on who would run for President of the United States.

Owl on Dollar bill?

Bohemian Grove Napkin

Druid with Owl painting at the George Washington Masonic National Memorial

Justin Bieber Illuminati Minerval?

Illuminati Minerval Owl

Frost Bank Tower Austin, Texas

Links to the Bavarian Illuminati: The owl is an important symbol for Illuminati Minerval. The owl was a symbol of Pallas Athena and represented wisdom and vigilance. The owl was also included on the Illuminati Minerval and Illuminati Minor medallions.

The eternal flame is a powerful symbol of the Enlightenment.

The Statue of LIberty

Links to the Illuminati: Illuminati researcher Dr. Stan Monteith claims that the Statue of Liberty is the pagan goddess Semiramis, the whore of Babylon a homewrecker and a harlot. She represents the destruction of the Old World Order and the creation of the New World Order.

Illuminati researcher Mark Dice claims that the Statue of Liberty is an Illuminati symbol. The statues radiant crowns rays are a symbol of the sun or Enlightenment. The Enlightenment represents Lucifer, the torch bearer.

The Olympic Flame torch rally was first introduced by the Nazis for the 1936 Olympics. Prometheus gave fire (knowledge) to humans. For this transgression, the King of the Gods, Zeus punished Prometheus to have is liver eaten for eternity by an eagle.

Links to the Bavarian Illuminati: Weishaupt was aroused by Zoroastrianism and philosophies of the ancient Parsees. He planned to use fire allegories in the symbols and rituals of the higher degrees of the Illuminati. The color red is prominent in the higher degrees of Illuminati Priest and Illuminati Regent.

Links to Freemasonry: The Statue of Liberty was designed by Freemason Frederic Bartholdi.

The name Lucifer literally means bringer of light.

Statue of Liberty

Columbia Pictures logo

Olympic Torch

Rockefellers Standard Oil

Prometheus at Rockefeller Plaza

The Illuminati and the practice and promotion of black magic

The Pentagram with Baphomets head at its center

Aka: Sigil of Baphomet, (two points up)

The name Baphomet first appeared as a pagan idol in the trial transcripts of the Knights Templar by the Inquisition.

The pentagram was originally a protection charm against demons. The inverted pentagram came to have its own distinctive meaning as a sign of evil especially after the publication of famed French occultist Lvi liphas publication of Transcendental Magic, its Doctrine and Ritual in 1854:

A reversed pentagram, with two points projecting upwards, is a symbol of evil and attracts sinister forces because it overturns the proper order of things and demonstrates the triumph of matter over spirit. It is the goat of lust attacking the heavens with its horns, a sign execrated by initiates.

Links to the Illuminati: George Washington and Thomas Jefferson appointed French-born freemason Pierre Charles LEnfant to design Washington D.C. A pentagram is clearly visible in the street layout leading many to speculate whether or not LEnfant deliberately inserted Masonic symbols.

However, the pentagram is not complete. Rhode Island Avenue does not connect with Pennsylvania Avenue, leaving the pentagram incomplete. Freemasons often point to this as proof that the streets of Washington DC are not Masonic. If the masons are all powerful architects, why cant they get a pentagram right? The answer might be found in the wrings of Illuminatus Johann Goethe (nom de guerre: Abaris) and famous author of Faust:

Mephistopheles: I must confess, my stepping oer Thy threshold a slight hindrance doth impede; The wizard-foot doth me retain.

Faust: The pentagram thy peace doth mar? To me, thou son of hell, explain, How camest thou in, if this thine exit bar? Could such a spirit aught ensnare?

Mephistopheles: Observe it well, it is not drawn with care, One of the angles, that which points without, Is, as thou seest, not quite closed.

Links to the Bavarian Illuminati: The Illuminati did not use the pentagram in its ceremonies.

Links to Freemasonry: The Order of the Eastern Star a female Masonic organization for wives and family of Freemasons uses the pentagram with two points up as its emblem.

Order of the Eastern Star

Ke$ha Die Young

Streets of Washington, D.C.

Washington posing Baphomet-style (As above, so below)

The Illuminati, the number of the Beast and the Anti-Christ.

six hundred sixty-six

Let him who has understanding calculate the number of the beast, for it is the number of a man: His number is 666.

~ Revelation 13: 18 New King James Version (NKJV)

Links to the Illuminati: The number of the Beast is associated with the Anti-Christ who would eventually take helm of the Illuminati as he brings forth the New World Order. The music industry is a prime recruiting ground for the Illuminati. Illuminated musicians incorporate Illuminati symbolism in their work as a nudge to their Illuminati handlers.

The 666 numerals can also be found in corporate logos such as Taco Bell, Google Chrome and Vodafone. When AT&T changed the name of one of its subsidiaries to Lucent Technologies, Illuminati symbolism researcher Texe Marrs was quick to point out the new names similarity with Lucifer, and asked:

But, does AT&Ts new baby have horns? Does the name Lucent have any link to the name Lucifer? Could it be that, as one writer has suggested, Lucent stands for Lucifers Enterprise?

~ Texe Marrs, PROJECT L.U.C.I.D., 1996

Links to the Bavarian Illuminati: Only deists and atheists could hope to reach the higher mystery degrees of the Illuminati. As such, they would have regarded Satan as a mythological figure.

Links to Freemasonry:

Lucifer, the Light-bearer! Strange and mysterious name to give to the Spirit of Darkness! Lucifer, the Son of the Morning! Is it he who bears the Light, and with its splendors intolerable, blinds feeble, sensual, or selfish souls? Doubt it not!

~ Albert Pike, Moral and Dogma

Note: Fear of the number 666 is called hexakosioihexekontahexaphobia. There will be a test.

Barcode/UPC 666

Monster Energy Drink 666

Vodafone 666 or KKK

Walt Disney 666

Google Chrome 666

A symbol of mortality and the Illuminatis mark on the Skulls and Bones

Skull reminds young initiates of their own mortality

Links to the Illuminati: The Skull and Bones is an elite fraternity at Yale University, a prestigious American university. Their headquarters is known as the Tomb. Theres a painting of skulls with the quote:

Who was the fool, who the wise man, beggar or king? Whether poor or rich, alls the same in death.

Wer war der Thor, wer Weiser, Bettler oder Kaiser? Ob Arm, ob Reich, im Tode gleich.

Links to the Bavarian Illuminati: The Illuminati Regent or Illuminati Prince initiation rituals consisted of three rooms which the initiate had to visit in succession. In the first room the candidate would find a skeleton with a sword and a crown at its feet. The candidate would then be asked if the bones were the bones of a king, a nobleman or a beggar. As in the Order of the Skull and Bones, the scene intended to make the candidate reflect on his own mortality.

Links to Freemasonry: The Master Mason carpet features a skull to remind the initiate of his own mortality, just as in the Illuminati and in the Skull and Bones.

Fools and Kings

Skull and Bones, 1948 The grandfather clock is always set at 8 oclock

Master Mason Tracingboard

Snakes, Dragons and Serpents and the lure of forbidden knowledge

Serpent from the Book of Genesis

The snake or serpent one of the most ancient symbols used in myths and was widely used throughout the world. They often act as guardians, such as the statue of Draco guarding the entrance of The City of London.

Snakes are identified with forbidden wisdom or knowledge as in the serpent in the Garden of Eden from Genesis.

Being poisonous, and generally dangerous to humans, the snake symbol is commonly used in western culture as a representation of evil.

Continued here:
Top Ten Illuminati Symbols | Illuminati Rex

Second Amendment to the United States Constitution – Simple …

 Second Amendment  Comments Off on Second Amendment to the United States Constitution – Simple …
Feb 182016
 

Created on December 15, 1791, the Second Amendment in the United States Constitution is the part of the United States Bill of Rights that establishes the right of citizens to possess firearms for lawful purposes.[a] It says, “A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.”[2]

When America was being colonized by European countries, firearms were very important to colonists.[3] When Europeans came here they brought with them the idea of land ownership by an individual.[4] They received this right from their king through land grants.[4] This was completely foreign to Native Americans who considered a particular territory belonged to the tribe.[4] Colonists defended their claims against Native Americans and other Europeans whose king may have granted them the same lands.[3] They also needed firearms for hunting. In many towns and villages, men were required to own firearms for the defense of the community. Most colonists coming to America in the 17th century had no experience as soldiers.[5] The British kept few soldiers in the colonies and colonists soon found they needed to establish militias.[5]

Colonies had militia laws that required every able-bodied man to be available for militia duty and to provide his own arms.[5] In 1774 and 1775, the British government, which now had a larger presence, attempted to disarm American colonists. This caused the formation of private militias independent of any control by the governors appointed by the British government.[5] The Minutemen who opposed the British Army at the Battles of Lexington and Concord were an independent militia.[5] After the American Revolutionary War, the framers of the Constitution, like most Americans of the time, distrusted standing armies and trusted militias.[5] After the Revolutionary war, state militias were trusted to defend the country. The Articles of Confederation, the new nation’s first constitution, called for each state to maintain a well-armed militia. Congress could only form a standing army by approval of nine of the thirteen states. This was one of the weaknesses that led to the Constitutional Convention of 1787 and a new constitution. This gave Congress the power to call up the militias to defend the country against any foreign power. In the 18th century, the word “army” meant mercenaries.[5] Americans distrusted standing armies and were afraid they could be used to take over the country.[6]Oliver Cromwell and his military dictatorship of England was still well-remembered.[6]

Virginia was one of the first colonies to adopt a state constitution. They included the words: “a well regulated Militia, composed of the body of the people, trained to arms, is the proper, natural, and safe defence of a free State.”[3] Other states followed with similar wording in their own constitutions. Pennsylvania declared: the people have a right to bear arms for the defence of themselves and the state; and as standing armies in the time of peace are dangerous to liberty, they ought not to be kept up; And that the military should be kept under strict subordination to, and governed by, the civil power.”[3] In 1781 the Continental Congress approved the Articles of Confederation. This recognized the thirteen original states had the power to govern themselves. They acted collectively to have a congress, but did not provide any money to run it. There was no president and no court system. This confederation of states proved to be a very poor form of central government.

The Constitutional Convention met in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania from May 25 to September 17, 1787.[7] The purpose of the Convention was to revise the Articles of Confederation. But it became clear that the intention many of its members, including James Madison and Alexander Hamilton, was to create a new government rather than fix the existing one. The delegates elected George Washington to preside over the Convention. They eventually agreed on agreed on Madison’s Virginia Plan and began to make changes. The result was the Constitution of the United States and the present form of government.[7]

The constitution debate at Philadelphia caused two groups to form, the Federalists and the Anti-federalists. The federalists wanted a strong central government. The anti-federalists wanted the state governments to have the authority. The vote on the new Constitution was passed on a promise by federalists to support a Bill of Rights to be added to the Constitution.[8] Originally 12 amendments were considered. But in their final form, 10 amendments to the Constitution were agreed on. The Bill of Rights, as the first 10 amendments came to be called, originally applied to the national government rather than to states.[8] Many states already had their own Bill of Rights.[8] The Bill of Rights were ratified and went into effect in 1791.

The second amendment was a result of several proposals being combined together and simplified into just 27 words.[9] This simplification has caused many debates over gun ownership and individual rights. Historians, judges and others have repeatedly looked for the intended meaning by the 18th century writers of this amendment. [9] Different interpretations of the Second Amendment still cause public debates concerning firearm regulations and gun control.[9]

The case of District of Columbia v. Heller brought before the Supreme Court was based on the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit decision written by Judge Laurence H. Silberman.[10] The decision made the ban on guns by the District of Columbia invalid.[10] The decision was based on the second comma (after the word “state”) as proof that the Second Amendment allows individuals the right to carry a gun.[10] This is in addition to the right of states to maintain militias.[10]

The Second Amendment ratified by the States and approved by the Secretary of State, Thomas Jefferson, said:

The version passed by Congress and signed by President George Washington (but never ratified by the States) said:

More here:
Second Amendment to the United States Constitution – Simple …

 Posted by at 10:43 am  Tagged with:

Liberty, TX – Liberty, Texas Map & Directions – MapQuest

 Liberty  Comments Off on Liberty, TX – Liberty, Texas Map & Directions – MapQuest
Feb 072016
 

Liberty is a city in and the county seat of Liberty County, Texas, United States and a part of the Houston-Sugar Land-Baytown metropolitan area. The population was 8,033 at the 2000 census. Liberty is the third oldest city in the stateestablished in 1831 on the banks of the Trinity River. The city also has an exact replica of the Liberty Bell from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Its area code is 936 and its ZIP code is 77575. Liberty, Texas is the county seat of Liberty County and the third oldest town in Texas. Texas heroes William B. Travis, Sam Houston, and David Burnet all practiced law in Liberty. Three brothers from Liberty died at the Alamo, while some 50 Liberty citizens fought in the Battle of San Jacinto in 1836 when Texas won its independence. Liberty is located on State Highway 146 and U.S. Highway 90 in the south central part of Liberty County and the Houston, Texas Metropolitan Area. The site is in a major oil and gas production area served primarily by the Union Pacific Railroad. Liberty once stood at the head of navigation, both steamboat and barge, on the Trinity River.

The rest is here:
Liberty, TX – Liberty, Texas Map & Directions – MapQuest

 Posted by at 1:41 am  Tagged with:

Pennsylvania Beaches, Lake Erie, Presque Isle, State Park Beaches

 Beaches  Comments Off on Pennsylvania Beaches, Lake Erie, Presque Isle, State Park Beaches
Jan 162016
 

MAIN Beaches US Pennsylvania Beaches

Beaches? In Pennsylvania?

Normally, Philadelphians will usually just head to Cape May and the Jersey Shore for the summer. Head west, however, and you’ll soon discover some of the East Coast’s best shorelines in Pennsylvania.

From Pocono Mountain beaches to the beautiful seven mile stretch of shoreline in Presque Isle State Park (pictured)…. the Keystone State has a lock on summer fun.

Near the state’s other big metro area, Pittsburgh, Raccoon Creek State Park is an hour away with a lakefront beach that’s open all summer long. Head north from Pittsburgh, and Moraine State Park encompasses one of the state’s best lake beaches, Lake Arthur, offering 42 miles of shoreline to help beat the heat.

Of course, these are only a couple of mentions to start your summer fling in the Keystone State. Just up ahead, find lots more information on where to cool down when temperatures begin to rise in Pennsylvania.

Have fun!

DID YOU KNOW? Pennsylvania beach fun facts:

The Pocono Mountains are home to 150 lakes, some with sandy beaches. Some of the most popular include Beltzville State Park in the southern foothills, Gouldsboro Lake and Tobyhanna Lake, and Mauch Chunk Lake Park.

Due to the gentle Lake Erie surf that washes the coast, the seven miles of beachfront on Presque Isle are often dubbed the state’s only natural “seashore”.

Camelback Mountain isn’t just for Pennsylvania skiing anymore. If you can’t get to the beach, Try the Camelbeach Mountain Water Park, the largest water park in the state.

also see -> Pennsylvania tourism | PA campgrounds

More about Pennsylvania beaches around the Web:

– Read this USA Today guide for a good overview of where to go in summer with information on places to cool off in the Poconos, Hills Creek State Park, and Pine Grove Furnace State Park.

Best Pennsylvania Beaches – The best beaches to head for at Presque Isle with great overviews of Budny Beach and Pine Tree Beach.

Go here to see the original:
Pennsylvania Beaches, Lake Erie, Presque Isle, State Park Beaches

Ocean Beaches Nearest to Pennsylvania | USA Today

 Beaches  Comments Off on Ocean Beaches Nearest to Pennsylvania | USA Today
Oct 162015
 

Skip to main content.

Meg Jernigan, Demand Media

Many of New Jersey’s ocean beaches have boardwalks. (Photo: Jupiterimages/Polka Dot/Getty Images )

It might seem unlikely to mention Pennsylvania and ocean beaches in the same breath, but residents of the eastern part of the state can reach the beach in an hour or two. Tiny Victorian towns, flashy boardwalks and serene state parks offer something for everyone. Some towns require permits for day use of their beaches, and others provide free access. A few close when they get too full, so plan an early start.

The Sandy Hook unit of Gateway National Recreation Area (nps.gov) about 95 miles east of Bethlehem includes an historic fort, lighthouse and beaches on Sandy Hook Bay and the Atlantic Ocean. Asbury Park, 13 miles south of Sandy Hook, famous as Bruce Springsteen’s stomping grounds, has a six-block-long boardwalk lined with amusement rides, arcades, eateries and bars, including the Stone Pony, made famous by Springsteen and other performers such as Bon Jovi. Avon-by-the-Sea, barely two miles south of Asbury Park, is a Victorian village with a quiet, non-commercial boardwalk and white, sandy beaches.

The Barnegat Peninsula stretches from Point Pleasant, about 10 miles south of Asbury Park, through Island Beach State Park to the Barnegat Inlet. Point Pleasant Beach’s boardwalk is home to an aquarium, arcades and restaurants. The village hosts an annual seafood festival in September. Eleven miles south, Seaside Beach has a mile-long boardwalk with amusements, boutiques and arcades. Island Beach State Park (islandbeachnj.org) offers 10 miles of Atlantic beaches, a hiking-trail system and views of the Barnegat Light across Barnegat Inlet. One mile of beach is lifeguarded, and portions of the southernmost end of the park are reserved for surfers and sailboarders.

Cape May, at the southern tip of New Jersey, is about 80 miles from Pennsylvania’s southern border with Delaware. The town, noted for its historic downtown filled with Victorian mansions, has numerous beaches, including the remote Higbee Wildlife Management Area and The Cove, a popular spot with surfers. Family friendly Ocean City, named “Least Angry and Least Depressed” city in the United States in a 2012 Gallup Poll, is about 30 miles north of Cape May. Eight miles of beach, much of it lifeguarded, stretch along the Atlantic, and coves on the bay side provide anglers and Sunfish sailboat enthusiasts a protected area to enjoy their sport.

Philadelphians need only hop on the Atlantic City Expressway to make the 60-mile drive to Atlantic City. An amusement pier, arcades and high-rise hotels join Las Vegas-style casinos along the four-mile-long wooden boardwalk, named first among the “Top 10 U.S. Boardwalks” by “National Geographic” magazine in 2012. Atlantic City beaches have no bathhouses, but there are restrooms at regular intervals and outdoor showers at lifeguard stations. Some hotels provide beach volleyball equipment, and grilling is allowed on the beach on Memorial Day, the Fourth of July and Labor Day. The Jackson Avenue beach is restricted to kayakers and windsurfers.

Meg Jernigan has been writing for more than 30 years. She specializes in travel, cooking and interior decorating. Her offline credits include copy editing full-length books and creating marketing copy for nonprofit organizations. Jernigan attended George Washington University, majoring in speech and drama.

Thank you for providing feedback to our Editorial staff on this article. Please fill in the following information so we can alert the Travel Tips editorial team about a factual or typographical error in this story. All Fields are required.

Link:
Ocean Beaches Nearest to Pennsylvania | USA Today

Ocean Beaches Near Pennsylvania | eHow

 Beaches  Comments Off on Ocean Beaches Near Pennsylvania | eHow
Oct 162015
 

Follow

Pennsylvania and ocean beaches might not seem to go together, but the Keystone State has had a long and happy association with the New Jersey Shore and its beaches. Throughout much of the last century special trains traveled from Philadelphia to the Jersey Shore, mainly to the Atlantic City area. Today, the Atlantic City Expressway and Highways 55 and 49 link Pennsylvania residents to south Jersey Shore beaches. Other beach going opportunities are in Maryland and Delaware.

Atlantic City, New Jersey, is the traditional beach destination for people from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The coast is easily accessible and has miles of beaches surrounding its famous Boardwalk. Brigantine, north of the city, offers six miles of beaches that are much less crowded. Ocean City and Margate, to the south, has both Atlantic and inlet beaches. Lifeguards are on hand at many beaches and some areas allow surfing. Fishing is permitted on all non-bathing beaches, either from the beach or from the many piers and jetties along the shore.

South of Atlantic City are miles and miles of beach, with relatively few towns along the way. Wildwood and Cape May, at the extreme southern tip of New Jersey, are the best-known communities, but Sea Isle City and Avalon are also nearby. Cape May is famous for its bird-watching. Beach-side motels and cabins are scattered throughout the area. This region is readily accessible from Pennsylvania, mainly from Highways 55 and 49.

The area north of Atlantic City offers miles of beaches reaching up to Asbury Park and Long Branch. This includes such places as Island Beach State Park, Long Beach Island and communities like Spring Lake and Belmar. The latter two locales have many luxurious homes. Asbury Park and nearby communities offer a noted beach and recreational area with many entertainment options beyond sand and sun.

Maryland and Delaware also offer ocean beach options for Pennsylvanians. Delaware beaches stretch from the mouth of Delaware Bay near Dover and south to the famous barrier islands like Chincoteague. The barrier islands south of Ocean City are government protected areas. They have no highways, communities or tourist facilities. Both Delaware and Maryland have beaches along Chesapeake Bay. The region north of Washington D.C. is densely populated but the southern extremes are less crowded.

Looking for a nude beach in Pennsylvania? Here are some helpful tips. Discover the expert in you. home; mom; style; food; tech…

How to Find a Nude Beach in Pennsylvania. Looking for a nude beach in Pennsylvania? Here are some helpful tips. Things to…

… Lake Erie borders the province of Ontario in Canada and the four states of New York, Pennsylvania, … at Virginia’s Beach…

Erie, Pa., offers natural beauty, historical significance and modern attractions. The region features a half-dozen wineries, … Beaches Nearest to Pennsylvania.

How to Find Sea Glass or Beach Glass. Look for beaches near where creeks, streams, … Pennsylvania is the state’s fourth largest…

At the Poconos Camel Beach Water Park in Camelback, PA, water park fun couldn’t be hotter! Pennsylvania’s Camel Beach, located in the…

Ocean Beaches Near Pennsylvania; Savannah, Georgia, Beach Campgrounds; Tourism in Atlanta, Georgia; ehow.com. About eHow; eHow Blog; How to by Topic; How…

Visit link:
Ocean Beaches Near Pennsylvania | eHow

 Posted by at 9:41 pm  Tagged with:

Liberty Township NJ Real Estate & Homes for Sale in …

 Liberty  Comments Off on Liberty Township NJ Real Estate & Homes for Sale in …
Sep 222015
 

11 Birch Dr

Liberty Township, NJ

Liberty Township, NJ

Courtesy of Weichert Realtors – Phillipsburg

Liberty Township, NJ

Liberty Township, NJ

Courtesy of Weichert Realtors – Randolph

Liberty is a township in Warren County, in the Allentown-Bethlehem metro area. It is part of the eastern region of the Lehigh Valley. The rural community of Liberty is ideal for those who prefer open space, rolling hills, rich woodlands, and a country lifestyle. Scattered retail shops provide daily conveniences, with larger malls nearby. In addition to picturesque farms and attractive residential development, this area features the nearby Panther Valley Country Club, breathtaking Saxton Falls, a portion of beautiful Jenny Jump Forest, and Allamuchy Mountain State Park. Interstate 80 combines with bus service to New York and Pennsylvania for convenient transportation links. Playgrounds, parks, athletic fields, tennis courts, sports leagues, supervised programs, 4-H Club, and community programs provide quality options for leisure hours.

28 listings in Liberty Township, NJ with an estimated median home price of $237,500

(Data as of 9/20/2015)

(2)

Each WEICHERT franchised office is independently owned and operated. 2015 Weichert, Realtors. All rights reserved.

Read more from the original source:
Liberty Township NJ Real Estate & Homes for Sale in …

Suffer The Little Children, Pennhurst State Home: Eugenics …

 Eugenics  Comments Off on Suffer The Little Children, Pennhurst State Home: Eugenics …
Aug 152015
 

Suffer The Little Children: A Peek into the History of Eugenics and Child Abuse by the State – Pennsylvania Pennhurst. (Full Documentary) The ground-breaking 1968 NBC10 Expose on Pennhurst State School by Bill Baldini. Haunting Similarities to current horrors of CPS Shelters + Group Homes (abuse, money benefits contractors, children worse off). Once called the shame of the nation, Pennhurst was the epicenter of a civil and human rights movement that changed the way the world saw people with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The atrocities of neglect at Pennhurst resulted in Supreme Court litigation that sounded the death knell for institutionalization worldwide. Pennhurst was the battleground in a monumental struggle to secure basic human rights for the last group of Americans to attain privileges assumed to be the natural freedoms of all persons. Pennhurst’s historic and beautiful campus is, like Valley Forge and Independence Mall to the east, hallowed ground in the struggle for dignity and self-determination, a western anchor to a freedom corridor, that, though stretching but a few miles, reaches all the way around the world. Pennhurst Memorial and Preservation Alliance seeks to ensure that those achievements won at Pennhurst are neither lost nor forgotten. http://www.preservepennhurst.com/defa…

PA & EUGENICS – In 1913, the legislature appointed a Commission for the Care of the Feeble-Minded which stated that the disabled were unfit for citizenship and posed a menace to the peace, and thus recommended a program of custodial care. The Commission desired to prevent the intermixing of the genes of those imprisoned w the general population. In the Biennial Report to the Legislature submitted by the Board of Trustees, Pennhurst’s Chief Physician quoted Henry H. Goddard, a leading eugenicist:- “Every feeble-minded person is a potential criminal. The general public, although more convinced today than ever before that it is a good thing to segregate the idiot or the distinct imbecile, they have not as yet been convinced as to the proper treatment of the defective delinquent, which is the brighter and more dangerous individual.”

More on Eugenics in Pennsylvania – — In 1857 the Supreme Court handed down the Dred Scott decision while it held session at Bedford Springs in Bedford, Pennsylvania. Dred Scott and his family walked into the Supreme Court as free people and walked out as slaves. Transferring authority from the parent to the state produced profound subservience and slavery into the entire culture. Millions of American families are now experiencing the very same fate as the Dred Scott family, as “family courts” and bureaucratic slave-makers are committing the very same atrocities in eugenics “kangaroo courts.” http://bedfordsprings.blogspot.com/ — Eugenics in America, Began in Bedford, Pennsylvania and Continues to Destroy through CPS Fraud, Abuse, False Accusations. http://robertscourt.blogspot.com/2009…

— Cases — PENNHURST STATE SCHOOL V. HALDERMAN, 465 U. S. 89 (1984). The Court of Appeals affirmed, holding that the MH/MR Act required the State to adopt the “least restrictive environment” approach for the care of the mentally retarded, and rejecting petitioners’ argument that the Eleventh Amendment barred a federal court from considering this pendent state law claim. The court reasoned that, since that Amendment did not bar a federal court from granting prospective injunctive relief against state officials on the basis of federal claims, citing Ex parte Young, 209 U. S. 123, the same result obtained with respect to a pendent state law claim. HELD: Eleventh Amendment prohibited the District Court from ordering state officials to conform their conduct to state law. Pp. 465 U. S. 97-124. (a) The principle of sovereign immunity is a constitutional limitation on the federal judicial power established in Art. III of the Constitution. The Eleventh Amendment bars a suit against state officials when the State is the real, substantial party in interest, regardless of whether the suit seeks damages or injunctive relief. The Court in Ex parte Young, supra, recognized an important exception to this general rule: a suit challenging the federal constitutionality of a state official’s action is not one against the State. Pp. 465 U. S. 97-103. http://supreme.justia.com/us/465/89/

EX PARTE YOUNG, 209 U.S. 123 (1908), Whether a state statute is unconstitutional because the penalties for its violation are so enormous that persons affected thereby are prevented from resorting to the courts for the purpose of determining the validity of the statute, and are thereby denied the equal protection of the law, and their property rendered liable to be taken without due process of law, is a Federal question and gives the Circuit Court jurisdiction. http://supreme.justia.com/us/209/123/…

Continued here:

Suffer The Little Children, Pennhurst State Home: Eugenics …

Portal:Libertarianism – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 Misc  Comments Off on Portal:Libertarianism – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Aug 082015
 

The Cato Institute is a libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. It was founded in 1977 by Edward H. Crane, who remained president and CEO for 35 years until 2012 when he was replaced by John A. Allison, and Charles Koch, chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the conglomerate Koch Industries, Inc., the second largest privately held company (after Cargill) by revenue in the United States.

The Institute’s stated mission is “to broaden the parameters of public policy debate to allow consideration of the traditional American principles of limited government, individual liberty, free markets, and peace” by striving “to achieve greater involvement of the intelligent, lay public in questions of policy and the proper role of government.” Cato scholars conduct policy research on a broad range of public policy issues, and produce books, studies, op-eds, and blog posts. They are also frequent guests in the media.

Cato scholars were critical of George W. Bush’s Republican administration (20012009) on several issues, including the Iraq War, civil liberties, education, agriculture, energy policy, and excessive government spending. On other issues, most notably health care, Social Security, global warming, tax policy, and immigration, Cato scholars praised Bush administration initiatives. During the 2008 U.S. presidential election, Cato scholars criticized both major-party candidates, John McCain and Barack Obama.

The Cato Institute was named the fifth-ranked think tank in the world for 2009 in a study of leading think tanks by James G. McGann, Ph.D. of the University of Pennsylvania, based on a criterion of excellence in “producing rigorous and relevant research, publications and programs in one or more substantive areas of research”. It has been called “Washingtons premier libertarian think tank.”

Ronald Ernest Paul (born August 20, 1935) is a Republican United States Congressman from Lake Jackson, Texas, a physician, a bestselling author, and the fourth-place finisher in the 2008 Republican presidential primaries.

Originally from the Green Tree suburb of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, he graduated from Gettysburg College in 1957, then studied at Duke University School of Medicine; after his 1961 graduation and a residency in obstetrics and gynecology, he became a U.S. Air Force flight surgeon, serving outside the Vietnam War zone. He later represented Texas districts in the U.S. House of Representatives (19761977, 19791985, and 1997present). He entered the 1988 presidential election, running as the Libertarian nominee while remaining a registered Republican, and placed a distant third.

Read more here:
Portal:Libertarianism – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 Posted by at 7:16 pm  Tagged with:

Religious Liberty Becomes the Byword Among Iowas Social Conservatives

 Liberty  Comments Off on Religious Liberty Becomes the Byword Among Iowas Social Conservatives
Apr 112015
 

TIME Politics 2016 Election Andrea MoralesGetty Images Demonstrators protest during a press conference by the Human Rights Campaign on the steps of the Arkansas State Capital in Little Rock, Ark. on April 1, 2015.

Conservative activist Bob Vander Plaats had just one question for the four presidential hopefuls gathered in the chapel at Iowa Wesleyan University: How would they preserve religious liberty?

Its an idea as old as the country, but for the 600 people in the audience and social conservatives elsewhere in Iowa, religious liberty is fast becoming a new litmus test for Republican presidential candidates, thanks to a recent uproar over religious freedom legislation in Indiana and Arkansas.

Hosted by Vander Plaats Family Leader organization, the event Thursday was designed to make Iowa ground zero on the issue. For their part, the candidates responses showed broad agreement that religious freedom in general and Christianity in particular are under assault from the federal government.

It is wrong for our government to discriminate against Christians, Louisiana Gov. Bobby Jindal told the crowd at Iowa Wesleyan, listing off a litany of alleged sins, from requirements that employer healthcare plans include contraceptive coverage to anti-discrimination laws that dont allow businesses to reject work on same-sex weddings. It is wrong for our government to force these businesses to choose between going out of business or violating our sincere beliefs.

The event, which also featured former Texas Gov. Rick Perry, former Arkansas Gov. Mike Huckabee and former Pennsylvania Sen. Rick Santorum, capped a day of GOP candidates scurrying to drive up their support with evangelical voters. Earlier in the day theyalong with Texas Sen. Ted Cruzattended a homeschooler conference hosted by the Network of Iowa Christian Home Educators in the state capital.

The last few weeks have been heartbreaking with what weve seen in Indiana and Arkansas, Cruz told the roomful of about 1,000 homeschooling parents and children. Weve seen religious liberty under assault.

Religious liberty, Vander Plaats said, will be the key issue of the 2016 campaign in Iowa.

The gatherings drew little in the way of disagreement. I look at them not as opponents, but as colleagues, Huckabee said of his fellow contenders at the evening summit. Perry opened his speech at the Family Leader praising Santorum as a national leader of the pro-life movement and Jindal for his efforts on job promotion at home.

But beneath the agreement was the hard reality that all five hopefuls are depending on the same united social conservative bloc to bring them over the finish line, and right now it is split between all of them as well as Wisconsin Gov. Scott Walker.

Originally posted here:
Religious Liberty Becomes the Byword Among Iowas Social Conservatives

University of Maryland Wont Expel Student Who Sent Racist, Sexist Email

 Misc  Comments Off on University of Maryland Wont Expel Student Who Sent Racist, Sexist Email
Apr 032015
 

TIME U.S. Education University of Maryland Wont Expel Student Who Sent Racist, Sexist Email John GreimLightRocket via Getty Images McKeldin Library and fountain, University of Maryland. Concluded that email was protected by First Amendment, in contrast to other schools dealing with similar incidents

The University of Marylands president has decided not to expel a student for sending an email to his fraternity brothers filled with racist and misogynistic content.

The university learned of the explicit email, sent by a Kappa Sigma fraternity member, in March as it went viral online. The school launched an investigation through the universitys Office of Civil Rights and Sexual Misconduct and the campus and local police, but concluded Wednesday that this private email, while hateful and reprehensible, did not violate University policies and is protected by the First Amendment.

The response stands in contrast to how some other universities have handled recent, high profile incidents involving fraternity members and racist and sexist speech. The University of Oklahoma quickly expelled two students in March who were shown in a viral video of a group of SAE fraternity members singing a racist chant on a chartered bus. A few days later, a fraternity chapter at Pennsylvania State University was suspended after members allegedly operated a Facebook page collecting pictures of nude, unconscious women.

But the University of Maryland has taken a slightly different approach, focusing on rehabilitation and education in dealing with a somewhat similar situation. On Wednesday, university president Wallace D. Loh sent a note to the campus community explaining the results of the investigation and the decision not to expel. Quoting Martin Luther King and Mahatma Gandhi, he urged students who were harmed by the hateful speech to think in terms of restorative justice rather than legal justice.

When any one of us is harmed by the hateful speech of another, all of us are harmed, Loh wrote. We repair the harm to our community, in part, by restoring the wrongdoer as a responsible member of society. I appeal to the better angels of our nature and ask all members of our University community to join me in forgiving him in our hearts, not for his sake, but for our own.

The student will not return to campus this semester, and will perform community service as well as participate in individualized training in diversity and cultural competence. In an apology released by the university, the student wrote: Im committed to being a better person, a person that appreciates differences.

The University of Oklahoma came under fire from civil liberties advocates after its March expulsions, who said they had violated the free speech rights of the students. Federal law prohibits schools from failing to address behavior serious enough to create a hostile environment for a member of a protected class, such as a woman or a minority student.

Read more here:
University of Maryland Wont Expel Student Who Sent Racist, Sexist Email

Why Arkansas governor won't sign the Religious Freedom Restoration Act

 Freedom  Comments Off on Why Arkansas governor won't sign the Religious Freedom Restoration Act
Apr 022015
 

Responding to sharp criticism from local businesses and civic groups, Arkansas Gov. Asa Hutchinson (R) announced Wednesday that he would not sign his state’s new religious freedom bill, unless it is amended to reflect federal law.

The bill, which passed the GOP-controlled legislature on Tuesday,would have a negative impact on our states image,” Governor Hutchinson said.

“We wanted to have it [the bill] crafted similar to what is at the federal level,”he said.”To do that, though, changes need to be made. The bill that is on my desk at the present time does not precisely mirror the federal law.”

His decision comesas Indiana lawmakers face a backlash over their ownversion of the Religious Freedom Restoration Act (RFRA), which critics say permits discrimination against sexual minorities. The Arkansas measure is similar to the embattled Indiana law and, in some respects, affords even less protection against discrimination.

Prominent businesses and sports associations, such as Apple and the NCAA, put pressure on Indiana Gov. Mike Pence (R) to backtrack on the law. But in Arkansas, it was Wal-Mart, the states largest employer, applying most of the pressure. Its appeals appear to have paid off.

The bill “threatens to undermine the spirit of inclusion present throughout the state,” said Wal-Mart CEO Doug McMillon in a statement posted on Twitterurging the governor to veto the bill.

The intensity of the backlash against religious freedom laws stunned many politicians. While 20 US states have Religious Freedom Restoration Acts that are similar to the federal law, most of the criticism levied against the bills in Arkansas and Indiana focused on how they differed from the federal version.

Unlike the laws in mostother states, the Indiana law was specifically written to ensure that businesses can use it to defend themselves against civil rights lawsuits, critics say.

The Indiana law explicitly allows any for-profit business to assert a right to the free exercise of religion and to use that as a defense against a private lawsuit by another person, rather than simply against actions brought by the government. The only other RFRA that affords such protection to for-profit businesses is South Carolina. Louisiana and Pennsylvania, on the other hand, specifically exclude for-profit businesses from such protection.

Both Indiana’s law and the Arkansas bill allowlarge corporations to claim that their religious faith is violated by a ruling or mandate. In other states with RFRA legislation,only individuals or family businesses can make such a claim.

Read the original:
Why Arkansas governor won't sign the Religious Freedom Restoration Act

 Posted by at 12:45 pm  Tagged with:

Jury says Phila. district violated ex-official's right to free speech

 Free Speech  Comments Off on Jury says Phila. district violated ex-official's right to free speech
Mar 192015
 

After four hours of deliberation, a federal jury Tuesday night said a former Philadelphia School District official was wrongfully suspended and lost his job for exposing a $7.5 million no-bid surveillance camera contract.

The jury found that the district, former Superintendent Arlene C. Ackerman, and a former top lieutenant had retaliated against Francis X. Dougherty because he told The Inquirer and federal and state authorities that Ackerman steered the no-bid contract to a small minority firm, IBS Communications Inc., that had not been approved for emergency work.

The panel, which heard five days of testimony, said the district, Ackerman, and Estelle G. Matthews, a former top human resources official, had violated Dougherty’s First Amendment right to free speech by placing him on leave in December 2010, then recommending his firing.

The School Reform Commission voted in April 2011 to fire Dougherty as acting chief of operations.

The jury concluded that while Dougherty’s right to free speech had been violated, the district had not broken Pennsylvania’s whistle-blower law, which bars employers from retaliating against employees who allege wrongdoing.

For the First Amendment violation, the jury awarded Dougherty $1 from each of the defendants who had wronged him: the district, Ackerman, and Matthews. The trial judge will rule this month on additional damages.

Throughout the trial, Dougherty’s attorneys argued that Ackerman and her administration embarked on a mission to find out who was leaking information after The Inquirer published an article on Nov. 28, 2010, that said she had pushed aside Security & Data Technologies Inc. (SDT), a Bucks County firm that had begun preliminary work on a rush contract to install surveillance cameras in 19 schools the state had deemed “persistently dangerous.”

The defense maintained Dougherty lost his job after outside attorneys who conducted an investigation for the district said he had sent an e-mail about the camera project to an unknown third party and improperly sent 50 e-mails from his work account to his personal account.

The defense said that the recommendation to fire Dougherty was not tied to anything he might have told anyone about the camera project and contended that the district would have moved to fire him regardless.

Here is the original post:
Jury says Phila. district violated ex-official's right to free speech

 Posted by at 1:41 am  Tagged with:

West Chester vs. West Liberty in NCAA 1st round game. – Video

 Liberty  Comments Off on West Chester vs. West Liberty in NCAA 1st round game. – Video
Mar 152015
 



West Chester vs. West Liberty in NCAA 1st round game.
West Chester vs. West Liberty in NCAA 1st round game. By: Daily Local Sports – We cover all the high school and college sports in Chester County, Pennsylvania Published on: March 13, 2015…

By: Daily Local

Read this article:
West Chester vs. West Liberty in NCAA 1st round game. – Video

Santorum advocates fight for religious freedom

 Freedom  Comments Off on Santorum advocates fight for religious freedom
Mar 122015
 

WEST CHESTER TWP.

An increasingly aggressive war on religious freedom is something American Christians must proactively battle back against and not leave to the nations political and religious leaders, according to possible presidential candidate Rick Santorum, who spoke Tuesday evening at a religious freedom rally hosted by Imago Dei Christian Fellowship in West Chester Twp.

Santorum, a former two-term U.S. senator representing Pennsylvania and presidential candidate, told the Journal-News prior to the speech that he expects to decide on a 2016 presidential bid by sometime late spring, early summer say June, give or take a month.

In the meantime, he plans to tour the nation to gauge reaction on his message of religious freedom, including in Ohio, which he said is very important to the presidential race.

We wouldnt have the (2016 Republican National) convention here if we didnt think it was important, Santorum said.

During his 45-minute speech punctuated by Amens and applause, Santorum pressed a crowd of approximately 400 to react to a direct assault on people of faith for living their faith out in the public square.

Were battling and theres only two institutions in America to battle back, said Santorum, a 56-year-old social conservative, practicing Catholic and father of seven. One is the church and the other is the family. Thats why if you look at everything the left is trying to do in America, everything the secular society is trying to do, theyre trying to tear those two institutions down and they are coming after you.

Santorum, who in 2012 scored what he described then as a huge upset in the Iowa Republican caucuses before eventually finishing as runner-up to former Massachusetts governor Mitt Romney on the national level, urged audience members to be more proactive in defense of their faith.

We have to understand that unless we are out there forming and informing, the other side is going to win the battle, he said. You cannot win an argument you dont make.

America, he said, is a product of the American Revolution, which was founded on the Declaration of Independences principle ofWe hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights.

See the original post:
Santorum advocates fight for religious freedom

 Posted by at 7:46 am  Tagged with:

Federal Criminal Defense Attorney Hope Lefeber Discusses Recent Third Circuit Expansion of Exclusionary Rule

 Fourth Amendment  Comments Off on Federal Criminal Defense Attorney Hope Lefeber Discusses Recent Third Circuit Expansion of Exclusionary Rule
Feb 252015
 

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (PRWEB) February 25, 2015

In its recent decision in U.S. v. Michael Wright, 2015 WL 507169 (3d Cir., Feb. 2015), the Third Circuit extended its recent holding in U.S. v. Franz, 772 F. 3d. 134 (3d Cir. 2014), thereby further diluting the protection of the Fourth Amendment, says federal criminal defense attorney Ms. Hope Lefeber.

According to court documents, as part of their investigation,DEA agents obtained a search warrant, signed by a magistrate judge, for Defendant Michael Wrights apartment. An affidavitsummarizing the Governments knowledge of the conspiracy and containing a list of items the DEA expected to findwas also attached and signed. Subsequently, the Government sealed the affidavit (to preserve details relating to an ongoing investigation). When the DEA executed the search, they were unable to provide Defendant with a list of items to be seized, in violation of the Fourth Amendment.

Ms. Lefeber explains that the lower court initially suppressed the search, ruling that the good-faith exception to the exclusionary rule could not excuse a facially invalid warrant under U.S. v. Leon, 468 U.S. 897 (1984). The Third Circuit vacated the lower court’s decision and remanded based on Herring v. U.S., 555 U.S. 135 (2009). On remand, the District Court denied the motion to suppress, concluding that the DEAs mistake was simple and did not benefit the Government. Accordingly, Defendant was convicted of conspiracy to distribute marijuana.

Defendant Wright appealed his conviction, arguing that denying his motion to suppress reduced the Governments incentive to carefully scrutinize the contents of each warrant before execution. The Third Circuit disagreed and noted that the DEA agents negligence fell below the grossly negligent exception to the good-faith rule, articulated in Herring. Similar to its recent ruling in Franzwhere an officer mistakenly read a sealing orderthe DEAs conduct was held not to be grossly negligent, since the omission of the list was inadvertent, observes Ms. Lefeber. Therefore, though the search violated the Fourth Amendment, the officers could rely on the good-faith exception to the exclusionary rule because deterring isolated negligence is not with the social cost of excluded evidence.

Ms. Lefeber believes that this case further erodes the protections of the Fourth Amendment and renders meaningless the requirement to specify the items to be seized. Officers can now “search and seek” and later legitimize the search by listing the items later.

About Hope Lefeber:

In practice since 1979, Lefeber is an experienced and aggressive criminal defense attorney in Philadelphia. As a former Enforcement Attorney for the U.S. Securities & Exchange Commission, Lefeber uses the knowledge she gained while working for the government to best defend her clients facing serious state and federal charges related to drug offenses and white collar crime, including business and corporate fraud, mail and wire fraud, money laundering, financial and securities fraud, and tax fraud. A member of the invitation-only National Trial Lawyers Top 100, Lefeber has been recognized by Thomson Reuters as a 2014 Super Lawyer. She has also been recognized by the National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers as one of the Top Ten Criminal Defense Attorneys. She has represented high-profile clients, published numerous articles, lectured on federal criminal law issues, taught Continuing Legal Education classes to other Philadelphia criminal defense attorneys and has been quoted by various media outlets, from TV news to print publications.

Learn more at http://www.hopelefeber.com/

Visit link:
Federal Criminal Defense Attorney Hope Lefeber Discusses Recent Third Circuit Expansion of Exclusionary Rule

 Posted by at 9:48 am  Tagged with:

City of Pittsburgh Liberty Avenue-Strip SINC Project PM Peak Time Eastbound – Video

 Liberty  Comments Off on City of Pittsburgh Liberty Avenue-Strip SINC Project PM Peak Time Eastbound – Video
Feb 222015
 



City of Pittsburgh Liberty Avenue-Strip SINC Project PM Peak Time Eastbound
Cycle 1 Signal Re-Timing Project of the Southwestern Pennsylvania Commission.

By: Southwestern Pennsylvania Commission

See the article here:
City of Pittsburgh Liberty Avenue-Strip SINC Project PM Peak Time Eastbound – Video




Pierre Teilhard De Chardin | Designer Children | Prometheism | Euvolution