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dog-friendly beaches – Pet Friendly Travel

 Beaches  Comments Off on dog-friendly beaches – Pet Friendly Travel
Oct 092015

Click on the map below to find dog friendly beaches, including off-leash dog beaches, and dog swim areas in the U.S.

Please help keep these beaches and swimming areas open to dogs — Never leave your dog unattended; Always keep your dog on a leash or under voice control; Always clean up after your dog.

Dauphin Island Dauphin Island is a barrier island located three miles south of the mouth of Mobile Bay in the Gulf of Mexico. Dogs on a leash are allowed on the public beach year round. The public beach is located next to Dauphin Island Elementary School and is the largest area on Dauphin Island set aside for dogs and their owners. There are at least a couple of miles of beach there, and with Sand Island now connected to Dauphin Island, there is more area of undeveloped beach jutting out into the Gulf on that barrier island. Though dogs are allowed at Dauphin Island’s primary public beach and at the Dauphin Island Campground, dogs are not allowed at the West End Beach Park on the Island’s extreme west end.

Fort Morgan Fort Morgan is an unincorporated community west of Gulf Shores on Mobile Point. Mobile Point extends from Gulf Shores to the west, towards historic Fort Morgan at the tip of the peninsula. Dogs on a leash are allowed on beaches in the city of Fort Morgan, but are not permitted on Alabama state beaches or Fort Morgan State Historic Site property.

Gulf Shores: The Dog Pond, 20115 State Highway 135, Gulf Shores, AL 36542 The dog park is located on the West end of the parking lot, under the Gulf Adventure Center on Lake Shelby in Gulf State Park. The dog park area offers dogs access to the lake.

Glacier Bay National Park & Preserve Pets on a leash are allowed on the beach between the Bartlett Cove Public Use Dock and the National Park Service Administrative Dock.

Homer: Bishop’s Beach Bishop’s Beach is located two blocks from Old Town at the end of Bunnell Street. Dogs on a leash are allowed on the beach.

Sitka: Sitka National Historical Park Two miles of well-maintained, handicapped-accessible trails wind through the park’s 113 acres of rainforest environment, along the beach of Sitka Sound and the banks of the Indian River. Dogs on a leash are allowed on the beach and the trails.

Gilbert: Cosmo Dog Park Cosmo Dog Park is the first dog park in the Greater Phoenix area to offer a lake where dogs can swim. The dog beach features a dock from which dogs can jump into the water.

Lake Havasu: Lions Dog Park at London Bridge Beach, Beachcomber Blvd., Lake Havasu City, AZ 86403 Located along the famous Bridgewater Channel, London Bridge Beach features a buoyed-in swimming area, beach, two playgrounds, and a fully enclosed dog park. Lions Dog Park has a grassy expanse for the dogs to play in, drinking bowls with fresh water, and a hydrant-shaped fountain that sprays a cooling mist of water, plus covered benches and a walking path for human guests. Dogs are also welcome outside the dog area on the beach but must remain on a leash.

Parker: Buckskin Mountain State Park, Colorado River Buckskin Mountain State Park is located on Arizona Highway 95, about 12 miles north of Parker. The River Island unit is one mile north of Buckskin Mountain State Park. Dogs on a leash no longer than 6 feet are allowed on the north beach only (north of the boat ramp).


Arcata: Mad River County Park OFF-LEASH DOG BEACH. One of the Redwood Coast’s best beaches for picnics, beachcombing and fishing, Mad River County Park is located 5 miles north of Arcata. Dogs are allowed off-leash on the beach as long as they are under complete control and within voice range of the owner.

Caspar: Caspar Beach, Mendocino County Caspar Beach is located approximately 4 miles north of the town of Mendocino across from the Casper Beach RV Park. Dogs on a leash no longer than 6 feet are allowed on the beach.

Clearlake Oaks: Clearlake Oaks Boat Launch Dogs on a leash are allowed on the beach west of the breakwater.

Crescent City: Beach Front Park Crescent City is located on the Pacific coast about 20 miles from the Oregon border. Dogs on a leash are allowed on the beach and in the park located on Front St. in Crescent City.

Crescent City Area: Gold Bluffs Beach, Prairie Creek Redlands State Park Located 50 miles north of Eureka and 25 miles south of Crescent City on Newton B. Drury Scenic Parkway off of Highway 101. Dogs on a leash no longer than 6 feet are only allowed in the campground, on the beach and the main beach road. Dogs are not permitted on any of the park trails including Fern Canyon.

Ferndale: Centerville Beach County Park Centerville Beach is located 5 miles west of Ferndale. Dogs are allowed off-leash, if under complete control by owner, on the waveslope all year and on the entire beach from October 1st through February 28th. Dogs must be on leash March 1st to September 30th, except on the waveslope, where they can be unleashed if kept under complete control of the owner.

Fort Bragg: MacKerricher State Park MacKerricher State Park is located 3 miles north of Fort Bragg on Highway 1, near the town of Cleone. Dogs on a leash no longer than 6 feet are allowed on some beach areas, but are prohibited on Virgin Creek Beach, the northern half of Ten Mile Beach, the Seal Rocks harbor seal pup nursery area, and the Surfwood Walk-In campground.

Fort Bragg: Noyo Beach Off-Leash Dog Area OFF-LEASH DOG BEACH. The Noyo Beach Dog Area is located under the bridge at Noyo Harbor in Fort Bragg. Dogs are allowed off-leash on the beach year round.

Fort Bragg: Seaside Beach OFF-LEASH DOG BEACH. Seaside Beach is approximately 6 miles north of Fort Bragg on Highway 1. Dogs are allowed off-leash on the beach. The beach has vast towering rock formations some with hollowed out arches formed naturally by years of crashing waves. Seaside Beach is a great beach to bring a picnic too and sit and enjoy the majestic beauty of this northern California gem of a dog friendly beach. NO dog waste bags or trash receptacles are provided so all dog owners must carry disposable waste bags to pick up after their dogs. Thank you, Hairy Putter! Hairy Putter’s Review Blog

Gualala: Gualala Point Regional Park Gualala Point Regional Park is located 36 miles north of Jenner and one mile south of Gualala on Hwy 1. Dogs on a leash no longer than 6 feet are allowed on the beach. License required.

Gualala: Cook’s Beach OFF-LEASH DOG BEACH. A little north of town is Cooks Beach which is at 526 County Road, mile marker 3.14. Parking is limited and there is a slope to navigate to get to the beach, but is it worth it! Protected from the wind, this beautiful sandy cove is a great place to let off some steam. Please bring suitable waste bags; this is a carry in and carry out beach. Thank you, Hairy Putter! Hairy Putter’s Review Blog

Humboldt County, Humboldt Bay: South Spit Cooperative Management Area The South Spit is a 4.5-mile expanse of wave sculpted beaches, windswept dunes, and bayshore marshes, approximately 20 minutes from either Eureka or Fortuna. Dogs must be leashed on the ocean side of South Jetty Road during Snowy Plover nesting season, March 1-September 15. On the bay side of South Jetty Road, dogs are allowed off-leash but must be under voice control.

Humboldt County, Humboldt Bay, Manilla: Manilla Dunes Recreation Area The Manila Dunes Recreation Area is located at 1611 Peninsula Drive, Manila CA. Dogs are allowed on a leash or under voice control. Horse use is limited to designated trails.

Humboldt County Parks Where permitted, dogs must be on a leash no greater than 10 feet in the parking and camping areas and within 100′ of these areas. Dogs are permitted to be unleashed, if under complete control by owner, on the waveslope only at Clam Beach, Table Bluff, and Centerville all year and on the entire beach from October 1 through February 28. Dogs are permitted to be unleashed if under complete control by owner, on the beach at Big Lagoon, Moonstone, Luffenholtz and Mad River County Parks. Dogs are permitted only in vehicle in Freshwater County Park.

Lakeport: Lakeside County Park, 1985 Park Drive, Lakeport, CA 95453 Located west of Clear Lake State Park (towards Lakeport) and also off of Soda Bay Road. Dogs on a leash are allowed at the west end of the swim area.

Lucerne: Lucerne Harbor Park, 6319 E Hwy 20, Lucerne, CA 95458 Dogs on a leash are allowed on the beach.

McKinleyville: Clam Beach County Park Clam Beach is located 7.5 miles north of Arcata near McKinleyville. Dogs are allowed off-leash, if under complete control by owner, on the waveslope all year and on the entire beach from October 1st through February 28th. Dogs must be on leash March 1st to September 30th, except on the waveslope, where they can be unleashed if kept under complete control of the owner. Horses allowed.

Mendocino: Big River Beach, Mendocino Headlands State Park Big River Beach is on the south side of Mendocino. It is accessible by vehicle from Highway 1, or by trails down the bluffs. Dogs on a leash no longer than 6 feet are allowed on the beach.

Mendocino: Portuguese Beach, Mendocino Headlands State Park From downtown Mendocino, follow Main Street up-coast past the Mendocino Hotel to Heeser Street. The unsigned trail leads southwest through a fence and soon forks; the route down-coast to Big River Beach is described rst. Heading east, the trail delivers you to some blufftop benches and a coastal accessway leading down to Portuguese Beach, known as Point Beach by locals. Dogs on a leash no longer than 6 feet are allowed on the beach.

Mendocino: Van Damme State Park Van Damme State Park is located 3 miles south of Mendocino on Highway 1. Dogs on a leash no longer than 6 feet are allowed on the beach.

Nice: Keeling County Park Dogs on a leash are allowed on the beach south of the boat ramp.

Redwood National and State Parks Beaches In Redwood National and State Parks, pets on a leash no longer than 6 feet are allowed: on all road-accessible beaches (excluding dune habitat); within 100 feet of public roads and parking areas (but not on trails); at designated picnic areas; and within all road-accessible campgrounds.

Samoa: Samoa Dunes Recreation Area OFF-LEASH DOG BEACH. The Samoa Dunes Recreation Area is a 300-acre sand dune park located just west of Eureka on Humboldt Bay. Dogs are allowed off-leash if they are under voice control.

Trinidad: Big Lagoon County Park OFF-LEASH DOG BEACH. Big Lagoon County Park is located 7 miles north of Trinidad. Dogs are allowed off-leash on the beach if they are under complete control by owner.

Trinidad: Luffenholtz Beach & County Park OFF-LEASH DOG BEACH. Luffenholtz Beach & County Park is located 2 miles south of Trinidad on Scenic Drive. Dogs are allowed off-leash on the beach if they are under complete control by owner.

Trinidad: Moonstone Beach OFF-LEASH DOG BEACH. Moonstone Beach is located just south of Trinidad. Dogs are allowed off-leash on the beach if they are under complete control by owner.

Westport: Westport-Union Landing State Beach Westport-Union Landing State Beach is located 19 miles north of Fort Bragg and 2 miles north of Westport on Highway 1. Dogs on a leash no longer than 6 feet are allowed on the beach.


Bodega Bay – Area Beaches Dogs on a leash are allowed on the following beaches: Doran Beach, Marshall Gulch, Carmet Beach, Schoolhouse Beach, Portuguese Beach, Duncans Cove, Wright’s Beach, Furlong Gulch, Shell Beach, Blind Beach. Dogs are prohibited at Salmon Creek North, Salmon Creek South, Miwok Beach, Coleman Beach, Bodega Dunes Beach, Goat Rock Beach.

Bodega Bay: Doran Regional Park Located on Hwy 1, one mile south of Bodega Bay, Doran Park has a 2-mile stretch of sandy beach Dogs on a leash no longer than 6 feet are allowed on the beach. License required.

Jenner area: Stillwater Cove Regional Park Stillwater Cove Regional Park is located approximately 16 miles north of Jenner. Dogs on a leash no longer than 6 feet are allowed on the beach. License required.

Russsian River District Dog Guidelines The following are designated areas where dogs are permitted on beaches adjacent to bodies of water in State Park Systems or portions of units: Marshall Gulch, Carmet Beach, Schoolhouse Beach, Portuguese Beach, Duncan’s Cove, Wright’s Beach, Furlong Gulch, Shell Beach, Blind Beach, Russian Gulch.

Santa Rosa: Rincon Valley Community Park Dog Park, 5108 Badger Road, Santa Rosa, CA 95409 The dog park features small and large dog areas, and a swimming pond.

The Sea Ranch The Sea Ranch is a planned, private community located along the coast in Sonoma County, south of the town of Gualala and about 100 miles north of San Francisco. Sonoma County Regional Parks manages six public access trails within The Sea Ranch. Dogs on a leash are allowed on the following access trail and beaches: Black Point Beach, Pebble Beach, Stengel Beach, Shell Beach and Walk-On Beach.


Albany: Albany Bulb The Albany waterfront is located at the end of Buchanan Street, just west of Interstate 80. Dogs are allowed off-leash on the Albany Bulb, the west end of a landfill peninsula at the end of Buchanan Street.

Benicia: First Street Beach OFF-LEASH DOG BEACH. Benicia is a waterside city located in the San Francisco Bay area just east of Vallejo. It has two off-leash beaches at the foot of First Street in the downtown area – one at the Promenade and the other south of the turnaround. Thank you, Gretchen!

Berkeley: Tilden Regional Park, Lake Anza Road off of Central Park Drive, Berkeley, CA 94708 Tilden Park’s Lake Anza has a sandy beach open during swim season from May through September. Dogs are allowed off-leash on Lake Anzas beach in the undeveloped areas only. No dogs are allowed in the pool area, wetland or marsh.

Bolinas: Agate Beach Park Located near the town of Bolinas, Agate Beach provides access to almost two miles of ocean shoreline at low tide. Dogs on a leash are allowed on the beach, but are prohibited from entering tide pools, and must stay on trails for safety and habitat protection.

Dillon Beach OFF-LEASH DOG BEACH. Dillon Beach is located 45 min.-1 hr. north of San Francisco between Tomales Bay and Bodega Bay. Dogs are allowed off-leash on the beach if they are under voice control.

Fremont area: Shinn Pond, Niles Community Park Shinn Pond is located at Niles Community Park in the town of Niles along side the Alameda Creek Regional Trail. The off-leash area offers long trails, big grassy areas, and a large pond where dogs can swim.

Half Moon Bay Area: Mavericks Beach A popular surfing location, Mavericks is located at Pillar Point Harbor Shore just north of Half Moon Bay. Dogs on a leash are allowed on the beach.

Half Moon Bay Area: Montara State Beach Montara State Beach is located 8 miles north of Half Moon Bay on Highway One. Dogs on a leash no longer than 6 feet are allowed on the beach.

Half Moon Bay Area/Pescadero: Bean Hollow State Beach Bean Hollow State Beach is located 17.5 miles south of Half Moon Bay and 3 miles south of Pescadero on Highway One. Dogs on a leash no longer than 6 feet are allowed on the beach.

Livermore: Del Valle Regional Park, 7000 Del Valle Rd., Livermore, CA 94550 Located 10 miles south of Livermore, Del Valle offers swimming and all kinds of water-oriented recreation. The lake is five miles long, and dogs are free to swim in all but two designated areas: East and West Swim Beach.

Marin Headlands: Rodeo Beach and South Rodeo Beach, Golden Gate National Recreation Area OFF-LEASH DOG BEACH. Located 3 miles northwest of the Golden Gate Bridge. Dogs are allowed off-leash under voice control from the shoreline to the crest of the dunes. Dog Walking in Golden Gate National Recreation Area

Mill Valley: Muir Beach, Golden Gate National Recreation Area OFF-LEASH DOG BEACH. Located 3 miles west of Muir Woods. Dogs are allowed off-leash if they are under voice control. Dog Walking in Golden Gate National Recreation Area

Pacifica: Esplanade Beach OFF-LEASH DOG BEACH. Dogs are allowed off-leash on Esplanade Beach, off of Esplanade Ave. and West Manor Drive, Pacifica CA 94044.

Pacifica: Linda Mar Beach (Pacifica State Beach) Linda Mar Beach offers a recreation trail along the ocean, surfing and surf camps, restrooms and showers. Dogs on a leash are allowed on the beach.

Point Reyes: Point Reyes National Seashore Dogs on a leash no longer than 6 feet are allowed on the following ocean-facing beaches year round: Kehoe Beach – north of the Kehoe Beach trail; Limantour Beach – southeast of the parking lot to the beach adjacent to Coast Camp; Point Reyes/Great Beach – from the North Beach parking lot to the south. Due to threatened snowy plover habitat, pets are not allowed on the beach south of the trail at Kehoe Beach or on the beach to the north of the North Beach parking lot. During the elephant seal pupping and mating season (December through April), pets and humans are not allowed on the beach south of the South Beach parking lot.

Point Reyes: Kehoe Beach, Point Reyes National Seashore A .6-mile walk alongside a marsh and over a sand dune takes you to the northern end of the Great Beach, called Kehoe Beach. Dogs on a leash no longer than 6 feet are allowed on this beach to the north of the trail. Dogs are not permitted south of the trailhead as this area is protected habitat for the endangered snow plover.

Point Reyes: Limantour Beach, Point Reyes National Seashore Limantour Beach is a long, narrow spit of sand, bound between Drakes Bay and an estuary. Dogs on a leash no longer than 6 feet are allowed on the southeast end of this beach. Dogs are not permitted to the northwest as this area is protected habitat for harbor seals and the endangered snowy plover.

Point Reyes: The Great Beach/Point Reyes Beach, Point Reyes National Seashore The Great Beach, also known as Point Reyes Beach, features over 11 miles of undeveloped ocean beach. Dogs on a leash no longer than 6 feet are allowed on this beach, but are not permitted north of the North Beach entrance as this area is protected habitat for the endangered snowy plover. And during the winter when elephant seals are present, both people and dogs are not permitted too far south of the South Beach access.

Richmond: Point Isabel Regional Shoreline This landscaped 23-acre park at the west end of Central Avenue in Richmond offers beautiful views of the Golden Gate and Marin County and is one of the largest public off-leash dog parks in the nation. Dogs may be off-leash at Point Isabel, although owners must have a leash with them (six-foot maximum) and have their dog under voice control and within sight at all times. Dogs must be on leash in parking lots and streets.

San Francisco: Baker Beach, Golden Gate National Recreation Area OFF-LEASH DOG BEACH. Dogs are allowed off-leash at the north end of the beach, north of Lobo Creek. Dog Walking in Golden Gate National Recreation Area

San Francisco: Crissy Field, Golden Gate National Recreation Area OFF-LEASH DOG BEACH. Dogs are allowed off-leash on the beach (excluding the Wildlife Protection Area at the west end of Crissy field beach where leashes are required all year except from May 15 to July 1). Dog Walking in Golden Gate National Recreation Area

San Francisco: Fort Funston/Burton Beach, Golden Gate National Recreation Area OFF-LEASH DOG BEACH. Dogs are allowed off-leash on the beach (excluding the 12-acre closure in northwest Ft. Funston and the northern end of the Coastal trail, closed due to erosion). Dog Walking in Golden Gate National Recreation Area

San Francisco: Lands End, Golden Gate National Recreational Area OFF-LEASH DOG BEACH. Dogs are allowed off-leash on the beach. Dog Walking in Golden Gate National Recreation Area

San Francisco: Ocean Beach, Golden Gate National Recreation Area OFF-LEASH DOG BEACH. Dogs are allowed off-leash (excluding the Plover Protection Area from Sloat Blvd. north to Stairwell 21 where leashes are required all year except from May 15 to July 1).The beach runs parallel to the Great Highway (north of Fort Funston). There are several access points including Sloat Blvd., Fulton Street or Lincoln Way. This beach has a mix of off-leash and leash required areas. Dogs must be on leash on Ocean Beach between Sloat Blvd and Stairwell No. 21 (roughly at Fulton). North of Fulton to the Cliff House and South of Sloat for several miles are still okay for off-leash dogs, however parts of these areas may be impassible at high tide. The GGNRA stricly enforces the on-leash area between Sloat and Fulton. Dog Walking in Golden Gate National Recreation Area

San Francisco: John McLaren Park, 100 John F Shelley Dr., San Francisco, CA 94134 Dogs are allowed off-leash in two big open dog areas, one behind the Jerry Garcia Amphitheater and one at the intersection of Mansell Street and John F. Shelley Drive. A stylishly landscaped reservoir just below the water tower provides irrigation for the park and serves as a swimming whole for dogs.

Stinson Beach: Upton Beach Dogs on a leash are allowed on Upton Beach (owned by the County of Marin) which is located north of the land administered by the National Park Service. Dogs are not allowed on the National Park section of Stinson Beach.

Tomales Bay: Point Reyes National Seashore, Tomales Bay Pets are permitted on boats in Tomales Bay and on National Seashore beaches on the west side of Tomales Bay from the northern boundary of Tomales Bay State Park to Elk Fence North Beach. These beaches include: Kilkenny Beach, Long Cove Beach, Fruit Tree Beach, Marshall Beach, No Name Beach, Tomales Beach, Elk Fence South Beach, Elk Fence North Beach. Pets are not permitted on beaches or anywhere else within the Tomales Point Elk Reserve. Pets are not permitted on Hog Island, Duck Island or Pelican Point. Pets are not permitted on beaches within Tomales Bay State Park. Please note: the only way to access the Tomales Bay beaches listed above if you are accompanied by a pet is by boat. Pets are not permitted on Marshall Beach Trail.

Tomales Bay: Chicken Ranch Beach (Sir Francis Drake Highway) Chicken Ranch Beach is located north of Inverness, adjacent to Sir Francis Drake Blvd. and nestled along the west shore of Tomales Bay. Dogs on a leash are allowed on the beach.


Lake Tahoe: Dogs at Lake Tahoe The Lake Tahoe Basin Management Unit (LTBMU) manages about 75% of the land within the Lake Tahoe Basin. Dogs on a leash are welcome almost anywhere within the LTBMU, with the notable exceptions of designated swimming beaches and areas that are restricted for wildlife protection. While your dog is not allowed on any designated swimming beaches, there are still plenty of places for both of you to enjoy the water. Dogs are allowed at the Tallac Historic Site from Valhalla Pier to Tallac Point (where the Lake of the Sky Trail meets the lakefront) in South Lake Tahoe, North Beach at Zephyr Cove Resort, Hidden and Chimney Beaches on the east shore, Coon Street Beach in Kings Beach, Ski Beach in Incline Village (from October to April only), and Echo Lakes. Also, the lakes and streams in Desolation Wilderness are another good option.

Mammoth Lakes: Horseshoe Lake The Horseshoe Lake Loop is a combination of dirt trail and paved multi-use path that circumnavigates Horseshoe Lake, located at the end of Lake Mary Road and the Lakes Basin Path. Dogs on a leash no longer than 6 feet are allowed on the trail and on the beach.

Nevada City: Kneebone Beach, South Yuba River State Park Dogs on leash are welcome in the park, including on trails and Kneebone Beach, a swimming area on the south side of the river. The family beach next to the visitor center is the only area where dogs are not allowed.

North Lake Tahoe, Kings Beach: Coon Street Boat Launch & Beach The Coon Street Boat Launch is located at the end of Coon Street in Kings Beach. The beach is (facing the lake) to the left of the boat launch ramp. Coon Street Beach features restrooms, picnic areas with grills and boat launch. Dogs are allowed only on the area marked as “dog beach” – the only public dog beach on the North Shore.

North Lake Tahoe, Carnelian Bay: Carnelian West Beach The California Tahoe Conservancys “Carnelian West” beach shares a free parking facility and day use buoy field with Gar Woods restaurant in Carnelian Bay. Dogs on a leash are allowed on the beach.

North Lake Tahoe, Carnelian Bay: Patton Beach Patton Beach in Carnelian Bay is a small rocky beach with picnic tables, restrooms and a nature walk. Dogs on a leash are allowed on the beach.

South Lake Tahoe: Echo Lakes Dogs on a leash are allowed on the beach. There is a water taxi that can take you and your dog across the lake. From the South Lake Tahoe Y, drive south on Highway 50 for 9.6 miles and turn right on Echo Lake Road. Park in the upper lot at The Echo Lakes Resort.

South Lake Tahoe: Kiva Beach Dogs on a leash no longer than 10 feet are allowed on the beach. From South Lake Tahoe Y, drive north on Highway 89 for 2.5 miles to Kiva Beach.

South Lake Tahoe: Regan Beach, 3199 Sacramento Avenue, South Lake Tahoe, CA 96150 Regan Beach is a city-owned beach located at Lakeview Avenue at Sacramento. A dog friendly portion of the shoreline is available at Regan Beach.

South Lake Tahoe: Tallac Historic Site The Tallac historic Site is open weekends only beginning Memorial Day weekend through mid-June and daily beginning mid-June through September. Dogs on a leash are allowed at the Tallac Historic Site from Valhalla Pier to Tallac Point (where the Lake of the Sky Trail meets the lakefront) in South Lake Tahoe. Dogs are not permitted in or near the Taylor Creek Marsh. From South Lake Tahoe Y, drive north on Hwy 50 for 3 miles and turn right at the sign for the Tallac Historic Site.

West Shore Lake Tahoe, Homewood: Dog Swim Area Next to Obexer’s Marina, 5300 West Lake Blvd., Homewood, CA 96141 there is a pebbly, shaded beach to the left of the boat launch where dogs can swim.


Aptos: Rio Del Mar State Beach Rio del Mar Beach has a wide strip of clean sand and a jetty. Dogs on a leash are allowed on the beach.

Aptos: Seascape Beach Seascape Park is a county park at the south end of Seascape Resort, located at 1 Seascape Resort Drive in Aptos. A path opens out onto Seascape (a privately-owned beach) is a small section of an 18-mile beach, running from New Brighton State Beach in Capitola to the Pajaro River near Moss Landing. Dogs on a leash are allowed on the beach.

Aptos: Hidden Beach Park, End of Cliff Drive, Aptos, CA This 1.5 acre neighborhood park include a children’s play area, lawn, picnic table, restrooms, and beach access. Dogs on a leash are allowed in the park.

Avila Beach: Avila Beach & Olde Port Beach Dogs on a leash are allowed on Avila Beach before 10 a.m. and after 5 p.m. Dogs are not allowed on Avila Beach between the hours of 10am 5pm. Dogs on a leash are allowed at any time of the day on the Olde Port beach, next to the Harford Pier.

Big Sur: Pfeiffer Beach Pfeiffer Beach is located in the heart of Big Sur. Dogs on a leash no longer than 6 feet are allowed on the beach. Day use only, no overnight camping.

Big Sur/Gorda: Kirk Creek Beach and Trailhead Kirk Creek Beach is part of the Los Padres National Forest and is located near the Kirk Creek Campground. Dogs on a leash are allowed on the beach, in the campground, and on the Kirk Creek Trailhead.

Big Sur/Gorda: Sand Dollar Beach Sand Dollar Beach is part of the Los Padres National Forest and is located just 3.8 miles north of Gorda. Dogs on a leash are allowed on the beach.

Big Sur/Gorda: Willow Creek Beach Willow Creek Beach is part of the Los Padres National Forest and is located 1.5 miles north of Gorda. Dogs on a leash are allowed on the day-use beach.

Capitola: New Brighton State Beach New Brighton State Beach is located in the town of Capitola, just south of Santa Cruz. Dogs on a leash no longer than 6 feet are allowed on the beach.

Carmel: Carmel River State Beach Carmel River State Beach is located on Highway 1 in Carmel, one mile south of Ocean Avenue. Dogs on a leash no longer than 6 feet are allowed on the beach.

Carmel: Garrapata State Beach Garrapata State Beach is located on Highway 1, 6.7 miles south of Rio Road in Carmel. Dogs on a leash no longer than 6 feet are only allowed on Garrapata Beach.

Carmel-by-the-Sea: City Beach OFF-LEASH DOG BEACH. The Carmel City Beach is located at the end of Ocean Avenue. Dogs are allowed off-leash on the beach. This is a very dog friendly beach!

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dog-friendly beaches – Pet Friendly Travel

Charlotte SEO Experts | #1 Experts in Digital Marketing

 SEO  Comments Off on Charlotte SEO Experts | #1 Experts in Digital Marketing
Oct 052015

Were an SEO company based in Charlotte, North Carolina (as if the name wasnt obvious enough, eh?)

We offer a range of services to our clients, including:

What is SEO?

We learned SEO from the Miami SEO gurus, Webris ( Yes, we like them so much that we even gave them a link on OUR HOMEPAGE!

Webris is owned by Ryan Stewart, a digital marketing whiz with over 10 years of experience working as one of the best SEO companies in Miami.

SEO is the process of improving your websites rankings in search engines. This is extremely important because of the amount of online traffic and searches that take place on a daily basis.

For example Charlotte SEO services gets typed into Google 1,000 times EACH MONTH! Imagine the power of ranking first for that search team because those are people that are seeking your exact services.

The process is difficult. We first need to do a thorough on page evaluation of your website. Then we need to check the HTML and coding to make sure that everything is OK.

After that we begin by creating social media signals on networks like Facebook, Twitter and Pinterest. These are extremely important and should NOT be overlooked because of the impact that social media has on our every day lives. Search engines are reading these signals with increasing importance and weight.

Next comes the most debated part link building. We offer white hat link building services that get the web taking note of your website. Some of these include Press releases, web 2.0s, directory submissions and a variety of other link building tactics. We also utilize partner websites to build high quality links on there as well.

After that we build up your website and make it look fancy so when actual visitors come to your website, they will convert from clicks to customers. At the end of the day, all we want is them to pick up the phone and call you and that is EXACTLY what we will do for you.

We like to keep our website short and to the point. If you have any questions, please browse our services page or contact us directly. Please give us up to 48 business hours to respond to your questions, as we are very busy.

Continued here:
Charlotte SEO Experts | #1 Experts in Digital Marketing

The Coming Defeat of NATO – Washington Free Beacon

 NATO  Comments Off on The Coming Defeat of NATO – Washington Free Beacon
Oct 032015

Screenshot from YouTube

BY: Matthew Continetti October 2, 2015 5:00 am

The North AtlanticTreaty Organization, established in 1949, has 28 members devoted to the idea of collective security. Prediction: By the time President Obama leaves office in 2017, the NATO pledge of mutual defense in response to aggression will have been exposed as worthless. Objectively the alliance will have ceased to exist. The culprits? Vladimir Putinand Barack Obama.

Right now the world is focused on the Middle East: Russian jets and bombers, operating from an expanding air base in Syria, strike opponents of dictator and war criminal Bashar al-Assad. The Russians say they are going after Islamic Statebut theres no evidence they are doing so. Nor do they have reason to, considering the aimof Putins war is to preserve Assads rule and to expand, for the first time in decades, Russias sphere of influence into the Middle East.

Key to Putins strategy, write analysts Frederick W. Kagan and Kimberly Kagan, is the doctrine of reflexive control: establishing facts on the ground in such a way that the enemy chooses Russias preferred course of action voluntarily, because it is easiest and all the others appear much more difficult and risky, if not impossible.

Doesnt have to be this way. Moscows propaganda notwithstanding, Russia is a weak state with a deteriorating military capability, whose claim to great power status is based on its nuclear arsenal. But, by acting decisively and provocatively, Putin has found the means by which to reassert Russian sovereignty and preeminence and ward off challenges to his authoritarian regime.

Revisit Putins 2007 speech to the Munich security conference, where he said the unipolar model is not only unacceptable but also impossible in todays world. The expansion of NATO, he went on, represents a serious provocation that reduces the level of mutual trust. Then came the threat: Russia is a country with a history that spans more than 1,000 years and has practically always used the privilege to carry out an independent foreign policy. We are not going to change this tradition today.

The next year the governments of GermanyandFrance, frightened by Putins rhetoric and reliant on Russian energy and arms deals, scuttledthe U.S. attemptto offer NATO membership to the former Soviet republics of Georgia and Ukraine. Deprived of NATOs security guarantee, both of these small and poor and new democracies became open prey. Putin invaded Georgia in 2008. Hecontinues to exert influence there.

The techniques of reflexive control found their ultimate patsy in Barack Obama. When it became clear in 2013 that the president had no interest in enforcing his red line against chemical weapons use in Syria, Putin and his foreign minister Sergei Lavrov pounced. Lavrov suggested in public that Russia would assist the United States in destroying Assads WMD stockpile. Obama, whose greatest fear is a major deployment of U.S. ground forces in the Middle East, couldnt help sayingyes. Suddenly Americawas partnering with the governments of Russia and Syria (and by extension Iran) to inspect and remove the munitions. This decision not only averted U.S. interventionand gauranteedAssads survival. ItallowedAssad to gas his population in the future.

In 2014, when protests forced Ukrainian president Viktor Yanukovych to flee to his backers in Moscow, Putin saw an opportunity to reclaim Ukraine from the West. His military buildup on Ukraines eastern border deterred NATO from harsh reprisals when the Russian parliament annexed Crimea. The techniques of maskirovkadisinformation and deceitprovided cover for Russias arming and training and staffing of anti-Kiev rebels in the east.

Sanctions and nasty words have not exacted enough of a cost to stop Putin from instigating and perpetuating a civil war whosedeath toll is in the thousands. President Obama has overruled his advisers and refuses to provide lethal defensive arms for pro-Western Ukrainians, believing, amazingly, that helping Kiev defend itself would escalate the situation.The Ukraine conflict is now frozenPutin can switch it on and off at will. Hisgoals remain: to efface Western pretentions to ideological and military supremacy, and to replace President Petro Poroshenko with a Kremlin stooge.

Two weeks ago, in a phone call with itsprime minister, Vice President Biden signaledAmerica will support Montenegros application for NATO membership. Good for him. But we should recognize nonetheless that this move is a fig-leaf. Itobscures the fact that Obama would otherwise be the first president in a generation not to preside over an expansion of NATO. So the White House supports a strategically insignificant nation surrounded by member states. Woo-wee. Its a metaphor for this administrations lackadaisical commitment to the allianceand for Europes.

The Kremlin has noticed this ambivalence. Russian intervention in Syria is about more than propping up Assad. Russian leadership of a pro-Assad coalition that includes Iran and Iraq effectively displaces America as the most influentialexternal power in the region. Russian provocations have forced Washington to plead for de-confliction, handing Moscow freedom of action over Syrian, and possibly Iraqi, airspace. And the location of the Russian base opens an additional front in Putins war against NATO.

Less than 50 miles from the border of Turkeya NATO memberthe Bassel al-Assad airbase gives Putins air force the ability to buzz and overfly not only Turkey but also U.S. allies Israel, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia. It also would allow, write the Kagans, his aircraft to shadow the U.S. Sixth Fleet around the Eastern Mediterranean. He could force Turkey and its NATO allies to establish standing combat air patrols along the southern Turkish border. The chances of a deadly incident increase every day.

Putin is boxing in NATO. His next target is the Baltic States. Last Sunday on 60 Minutes, he explained that the reason he has called the collapse of the Soviet Union the worst thing to happen in the last century isthat, in an instant, 25 million people found themselves beyond the borders of the Russian state. His goal is to reclaim themto unify Russians living abroad in the Baltics, in Ukraine, and beyond.

Raimonds Vejonis, president of Latvia, tells the Wall Street Journal that Russian sorties over the Baltics nations are on the rise. In his full interview with Charlie Rose, Putin singled out Lithuania: More than half of the citizens have left the country, he lied. Can you imagine a situation where more than half of the Americans left the territory of the United States? It would be a catastrophe!

Try this scenario: Sometime in the next 16 months, civil unrest breaks out in one or more of the Baltic States. Its the Russian population, calling for independence from the central government and closer ties to Moscow. Fighting erupts as Russian tanks mass along the border and jets fly over Riga or Vilnius or Tallinn. They are all targets. Take Vilnius: While there are few ethnic Russians in Lithuania, it is the land bridge between Mother Russia and the Russian enclave of Kaliningrad. Supplying Kaliningrad wouldbe Putins casus belli.

The Baltic authorities call on NATO to respondinvoking Article Four of the charter, which requires consultations, and possibly Article Five, requiring force.But the West is distracted. Europe is overwhelmed by crises in Greece and Ukraine, by the U.K. referendum to leave the E.U., by ongoing Muslim migration to the north. The United States is occupied by its presidential election, by Syria and Iraq and Afghanistan, by economic shocks.

The cries for assistance go unheard. The Obama administration has refused even to try to secure permanent forward bases in the Balticswhich wouldprovide a credible deterrentapparently due to the belief that providing for a real defense is provocative. We are too busy, too self-absorbed, too confused to worry about promises made years ago. Obama wont arm the Ukrainians. What makes us think hed defendthe Lithuanians or Latvians or Estonians?

Before the White House recovers from its surprise at events in the Baltics, Putin will have achieved his strategic goals and established reflexive control over the situation. PresidentObama and Chancellor Merkel and Secretary of State Kerry are sure to proclaim that the arc of history will defeat Russia, even as they accommodate themselves to Putins reality. NATO will be exposed as a covenant without the sword. And millions of East Europeans will come under Vladimir Putins thumb. Victims of the Kremlins avarice. Victims of Obamas weakness.

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The Coming Defeat of NATO – Washington Free Beacon

California Beach List – Beaches List with Photos of …

 Beaches  Comments Off on California Beach List – Beaches List with Photos of …
Oct 022015

The five types of littoral cells along the California coast are each characterized by a different littoral process determined by the geographic features unique to the cell type.Guests who haven’t visited the 450 California beaches often ask what the water looks like and how is the sand. Is it anything like the clear blue water at the Bahamas where East Coast residents enjoy smooth sand beaches, lawn chairs and cocktails served? California beaches are not usually like that and we’ve yet to find one to fit that description. The beaches range in sand quality from coarse to fine sand, rocks to pebbles. The coastal waters near the beach in the Pacific Ocean seldom tops 75 degrees on the warmest summer day in Southern California. The color is not usually clear though in some locations you can see a few feet in depth. The color of the water ranges from aquamarine to a deep green and occasionally brownish-red during red tide. Most beaches do not allow alcoholic beverages; the beaches are mostly public and usually require guests to bring their own beach chairs and gear. In case you wonder why the beaches are so popular, they offer rugged, natural scenic beauty. With well over 15 million people living near the state’s beaches, the climate is a major factor in attracting so may people to this location. The Pacific Ocean’s affect keeps the air temperatures enjoyable throughout the year. Many people do not own air conditioning in their homes along the coast. Also, the ocean waves can provide a great surfing experience, something that’s contributed to California’s multi-billion dollar surfing industry. Heal the Bay’s Beach Summer Report Card was released with some real winners in water quality improvements and a few losers.

One type of cell is defined by a long stretch of coastline that begins at a headland and terminates in a submarine canyon, such as at Mugu Canyon in Ventura County and La Jolla Canyon in San Diego County; another cell type consists of a large river delta bounded on either side by rocky headlands, such as at Humboldt Bay; a third type of littoral cell is defined by a crescent-shaped by downcoast of a promontory, like Half Moon Bay in San Mateo County; and a fourth type of cell consists of a rocky headland downcoast of a beach where waves break in a line parallel to the shore, as at Ten Mile Beach in Mendocino County. Finally, lagoons and closed bays with restricted tidal flow create a fifth type of littoral cell, such as Bolinas Bay in Marin.

Characteristic differences between Northern and Southern California beaches depend upon the directions of prevailing wind and upon local coastal geology. Along California’s north coast, cove or pocket beaches are common where the granitic and basaltic rock that composes the sea cliffs has been sculpted by prevailing northwesterly winds and battered by high energy waves over millions of years. In Southern California, beaches often consist of long ribbons of sand interrupted by widely separated rocky points. The bluffs of easily eroded shales and sandstones that edge the coast here continuously crumble away, creating on even coastline over time.

Some beach types are found along both Northern and Southern California coasts. Narrow cove beaches like those at Laguna Beach in Orange County form where the coast is composed of conglomerate rock and hard sandstone; even when exposed to direct wave attack this rock type is highly resistant to erosion. The narrow beaches formed within there coves often lose all their sand during winter storms, exposing the underlying cobbles, as at Boomer Beach, south of Point La Jolla in San Diego County. Barrier beaches and sand spits are also present along the coast at river mouths, bays, and lagoons; examples are Silver Strand Beach in San Diego, Zuma Beach in Malibu, and beaches at the Smith, Salinas, Pajaro, and Santa Maria River mouths.

Beaches vary in color according to the mineral content of the sand, which is also a clue to the origin to the eroded sediments that make up the sand supply. Eroded shale cliffs create the charcoal gray beach sand at Shelter Cove in Humboldt County. North of Humboldt Bay, the coarse sands of Agate Beach are multicolored agates that have been ground and polished by the surf. Ground quartz and feldspar mineral make up the white beaches of Carmel, while a few miles to the north in Sand City, amber colored sand indicates the presence of iron mineral. Close inspection reveals that white sand beaches are mosaic of pale quartz grains, pink, green or white feldspar and flecks of black mica.Beaches are inhabited by a variety of invertebrates and insects. More

See more here:
California Beach List – Beaches List with Photos of …

Alabama Eugenics

 Eugenics  Comments Off on Alabama Eugenics
Sep 262015


Number of victims

There were 224 people who were sterilized, of whom approximately 58% were male. All of the sterilized were deemed mentally deficient. In terms of the total number of people sterilized, Alabama ranks 27th in the United States. Of the 32 states that had sterilization laws, Alabama is the state with the 5th lowest number of sterilizations.

Period during which sterilizations occurred

The period was 1919 to 1935 (Paul p. 246)

Temporal pattern of sterilizations and rate of sterilization

After the passage of the sterilization law in 1919, the number of sterilization appears to have been low. Gosney/Popenoe (p. 194; see data sources) report no sterilizations yet at the end of 1927, but the number for the end of 1929 was 44. After that year, the number of sterilizations increased. The last sterilizations occurred in June 1935 (Paul, p. 246). Between 1930 and 1935, the annual number of sterilization was about 30. The rate of sterilization per 100,000 residents per year was about 1.

Passage of law(s)

According to Edward Larson, Alabama began its long flirtation with eugenicsbefore any other state in the Deep South (Larson, p. 50). At the 1901 meeting of the Medical Association of the State of Alabama (MASA), Dr. William Glassell Sommerville, Trustee of the Alabama Insane Hospitals, declared it a proven fact that the moral disposition for good and evil, including criminal tendenciesare transmitted fromone generation to anotherand is as firmly believed by all scientific men as the fact that parents transmit physical qualities to their children (Dorr, Defective or Disabled?,pp. 383-4). At that same meeting, John E. Purdon stated that it was a proven fact that criminality, insanity, epilepsy, and other alleged manifestations of degraded nerve tissue were hereditary (Larson, 50). He emphasized that [i]t is essentially a state function to retrain the pro-creative powers of the unfit (Larson and Nelson, p. 407). He suggested that the use of sterilization would benefit the race by saying, [e]masculation is the simplest and most perfect plan that can be adapted to secure the perfection of the race (Larson, p. 50). Finally, Purdon explained his belief that the goodness, the greatness, and the happiness of all upon the earth, will be immeasurably advanced, in one or two generations, by the proposed methods (Larson and Nelson, p. 407), and, based on his belief thatweakness begets weaknessfeared that humanitarianism would assist the imperfect individual to escape the consequences of his physical and moral malformation (Dorr, “Honing Heredity,” p. 29).

Over the next decade, MASA was encouraged by many authorities such as physicians and Birminghams medical society to draft a bill to legalize the sterilization of the unfit. In 1911 at the annual MASA meeting, Walter H. Bell of Birmingham declared that any person who would produce children with an inherited tendency to crime, insanity, feeblemindedness, idiocy, or imbecility should be sterilized (Larson, p. 51). He believed that sterilization was an easy, safe and practical method of prevention with no restrictions or punishment attached (Larson and Nelson, p.410).

The MASA, however, continued to delay taking action until 1914 when it created a committee of physicians who would research needful data in regard to defective children, with a purpose to urge upon the state legislature the proper provision for the care of such defectives (Larson, , p. 60). During the 1915 MASA meeting, C.M. Rudolph suggested the formation of a home for mentally ill children. He stressed the importance of segregating the unfit youth because he believed it shrewd to [s]egregate the defectives of one generation to prevent the multiplication of their kind in the next (Larson, p. 60). In this same meeting it was decided that an Alabama Society for Mental Hygiene (ASMH) would be formed and led by William Partlow as a liaison with the National Committee for Mental Hygiene (NCMH) and to survey Alabamas defectives (Larson, p. 60). That year, MASA collectively agreed to support eugenic sterilization (Dorr, Defective or Disabled?, pp. 386-87).

In 1919, the MASA and the ASMH reached their goal. In the next regular session of the State legislator, a bill was passed to create the Alabama Home (Larson and Nelson, p. 413). Buried within the law was a clause granting permission to the superintendent of the Home for the Feeble-Minded in Tuscaloosa, to sterilize its patients. This was the first law passed in Alabama that supported sterilizations (Paul p. 239).

In 1934, Partlow wanted permission to sterilize all discharged patients from the Home (a procedure he was already practicing as superintendent) (Dorr, “Eugenics in Alabama”). Partlow proposed a bill that gave the superintendent of any state hospital for the insane complete power to sterilize any or all patients upon their release. The bill also proposed the creation of a board with three doctors who would have the right to sterilize a larger group of people. Finally, the anticipated bill granted permission for county public health committees to sterilize anyone in a state or local custodial institution (Larson and Nelson, p. 418). Although Partlows bill was passed in both the House and the Senate, the bill was vetoed by Alabamas Governor, Bill Graves after consulting with the Alabama Supreme Court on the bills constitutionality (Larson and Nelson, p. 422). In 1935 the Alabama State Supreme Court viewed the bill and deemed it unconstitutional because it violated the Due Process Clauses of the state and federal constitutionsa sterilization victim would not have the right to appeal to a court against his or her sterilization (Larson and Nelson, p. 422). A second version of the bill was drafted and, similarly, passed in both houses but was vetoed by the Governor (Larson and Nelson, pp. 422-23). Soon after this second veto, Partlow discontinued the practice of sterilization (Larson and Nelson, p. 424).

Partlowsbill, however, was unsuccessfully reintroduced in 1939 and again in 1943. In 1945, legislation was created that asked for the right to sterilize every inmate or person eligible for entrance in the states insane asylums. This bill was passed by the senate but was rejected by the house (Larson and Nelson, p. 426).

Groups identified in the law

In the 1919 law, William Partlow included in his draft the permission for the superintendent of the Home for the Feeble-Minded to sterilize any inmate (Larson, p. 84). Inmates were any person confined in a poor house, jail, an orphanage, or a boarding school in the State (Larson, pp. 48-49). In the 1935 bill, it was proposed that any sexual pervert, Sadist, homosexualist, Masochist, Sodomist, or any other grave form of sexual perversion, or any prisoner who has twice been convicted of rape or imprisoned three times for any offense be sterilized. It was also suggested granting permission to county public health committees to sterilize anyone in a state or local custodial institution (Larson and Nelson, p. 418).An expansion of the law, proposed by Alabama State Health Officer Dr. James Norment Baker, called for the sterilization of anyone committed to state homes for the insane and feebleminded, reformatories, industrial schools, or training schools, , as well as any sexual pervert, Sadist, homosexual, Masochist, Sodomist (Dorr, “Protection,” p. 173) as well as anyone convicted of rape twice. The bill was considered unconstitutional and vetoed by Governor Bill Graves.

Process of the law

In the 1919 law, the superintendent of the Alabama Home for the Feeble-Minded was given the authority to sterilize any inmate (Larson, pp. 48-49). This law held only one limitation on sterilization in the Alabama Home. The superintendent of the Alabama Insane Hospitals had to agree upon the sterilization of the inmates from the Alabama Home for the Feeble-Minded (Larson, pp. 105-06). This absence of safeguards for inmates in the law made it possible for William Partlow to sterilize every inmate of the Home. This law was drafted by Partlow and was the only sterilization law passed in Alabama. Although this law passed, Partlow continued to try to strengthen the power to sterilize in Alabama through other bills. All of his attempts, however, failed.

Precipitating factors and processes

The entire Southern region in general was more hesitant to adopt eugenic ideals for many reasons. One of the most important Southern values was its traditional emphasis on family and parental rights, which eugenics challenged (Larson, p. 8). The Southern sense of family also encouraged relatives to take responsibility for individuals who might otherwise be subject to eugenic remedies in state institutions (Larson, p. 9). Most immigrants in the South came from the British Isles, the same area most Southerners originated from. Subsequently, a community existed in the South including many immigrants, unlike the North and West where Americans focused their eugenic ideas on ethnically diverse immigrants (Larson, p. 9). The strength of Southern religion also played a role in the overall rejection of eugenics in Alabama. Religion lent itself to conceptions of congregations as extended families and many people in the South accordingly apposed segregating the unfit (Larson, pp. 13-14). In comparison with the rest of the United States, Progressivism in the South was relatively weak due to the comparatively small size of its typical carriers, secular groups, urban professional middle classes, and the more educated (Larson, p. 17). Moreover, the Deep South was lagging other regions in biological research programs, as well as scientists and education, which shifted the advocacy of eugenics to state mental health officials and local physicians (Larson, pp. 40-44). The MASA and leaders such as William Partlow were extremely important to the eugenics movement in Alabama. Without the organizations and leaders that were produced from the MASA, Alabama may have never started eugenic practices.

Overall, Alabama was not in favor of sterilization, which is reflected in the comparatively low number of sterilization victims. In general, the people of Alabama were more in favor of segregation of the unfit than sterilization (Larson, pp. 60-63). However, inadequate funding of such facilities for segregating the feeble-minded as well as over-crowding seems to have facilitated a push toward sterilization (Larson, pp. 90-91). Even though mental health surveys placed Alabamas feeble-minded population at more than 7,000 persons, the new facility could accommodate only 160 residents, and was filled within two months of it opening (Larson, p. 90).

Groups targeted and victimized

Among those targeted were males, including some of the delinquent boys who[m] we fear might escape (Larson, p. 106),the poor, mental deficien[ts] and the feebleminded (Larson, p. 151). People who could be committed to the state mental health hospital included people in prison, a poor house, and orphanage, or a state boarding school (Larson, pp. 48-49).

While Alabama never established a facility for feebleminded blacks (see Dorr, Defective or Disabled?,p. 387), Gregory Dorr has argued that the absence of such a facilty should not lead observers to conclude that eugenics in Alabama lackedracist elements, for the limitation ofeugenicsto the sterilization of whites (in contrast to Virginia) reflected the belief that the “betterment” of theblack “race” could not be achieved by such measures. In fact, by the timethe wall of segregation had started to come to down in the 1970s and no longer assured second-class citizenship of Blacks, African Americans had become the targets of extra-institutional and extra-legal sterilizations, reflective of a more general southern racist view that it was necessary”to further protect the white race itself from black folks” (Dorr, “Defective or Disabled?,” p. 383; see also Dorr, Segregation’s Science).

The Relf case

The cause of forced sterilization in Alabama was not helped by the Relf case. By 1973, the focus had moved away from sterilization of the mentally deficient and those imprisoned, to the use of sterilization as birth control. The Relf family was on welfare, and living in a public housing project in Montgomery, Alabama. Two Relf sisters, Minnie Lee, age 14, and Mary Alice, age 12, had been receiving shot of Depo-Provera as a form of long term birth control (Rossoff, p. 6). When the use of the drug was no longer allowed, the mother was mislead into signing a consent form allowing the sterilization of her daughters. Mrs. Relf was unable to read or write, so she signed the form with an X, without any physicians explaining the conditions to her (Roberts, p. 93, Carpia, p.78, Caron, p. 211, Southern Poverty Law Center). She thought she was signing a form consenting to additional shots, when she was actually consenting to sterilizations (Tessler, p. 58). A third daughter, Katie Relf, also received the birth control shots, but refused to open the door to her room when the official came to get the three girls to be sterilized. Because she was 17, she could not be sterilized without her own consent. (Larson and Nelson, p. 440) Later, when Mrs. Relf realized that her daughters had been sterilized, she sued the surgeons and other associated groups for $1,000,000 (Rosoff, p. 6). As a result, a moratorium was placed on federally funded, coerced sterilizations until a decision was reached by the Department of Justice.

Other restrictions placed on those identified in the law or with disabilities in general

In 1919, Alabama passed legislation that made it the first state in the Deep South that made it illegal for people with venereal diseases to marry (Larson, p. 88).

Feeder institutions and institutions where sterilizations were performed

(Photo origin:

The Alabama Home for the Feeble-Minded opened in Tuscaloosa, Alabama in 1919 as a result of the law in favor of a home for the feeble-minded.Two months after the Alabama Home for the Feeble-Minded opening, the institution was completely full of people from poor houses, jails, orphanages, and boarding schools (Larson, pp. 48-49, 90). In 1927, this school was renamed the Partlo State School for Mental Deficients (Larson, p. 106). The school is now known as the Partlow State School and Hospital. Its closure has been announced in 2011 (“W.D. Partlow Developmental Center to close”).


Although the original bill went largely unnoticed by the population (Paul, pp. 239-40), the movement did meet considerable opposition in Alabama. Chief among these objectors were the Catholics, who were entirely against eugenics and any form of birth control in general. Alabama Catholicswrote legislators and spoke out at public hearings in response to their bishops plea to use every means at our disposal to help defeat this bill (Larson, p. 151). Protestants were similarly concerned. A Baptist claimed that he found in the Bible all the warrant he required to vote against the bill (Larson and Nelson, p. 420). Trade unions were also against expanding the sterilization law. As one laborer anxiously said, theres nothing in the bill to prevent a labor man from being railroaded into an institution where he could be sterilized on suspicion of insanity or feeble-mindedness (Larson, p. 141). Similarly, Alabamas Governor, Bill Graves was extremely important to the opposition of eugenics because of his decision to veto the 1935 bill and its revision. He claimed [t]he hoped for good results are not sure enough or great enough to compensate for the hazard to personal rights that would be involved in the execution of the provisions of the Bill (Larson and Nelson, p. 422).

Overall, however, the population in Alabama was perhaps not as supportive of eugenic sterilization laws as in other American states.


Carpia, Myla F. Thyrza. 1995. “Lost Generations: The Involuntary Sterilization of American Indian Women.” Master’s Thesis, Department of American Indian Studies, Arizona State University.

Dorr, Gregory M. 2006. Defective or Disabled?: Race, Medicine, and Eugenics in Progressive Era Virginia and Alabama. Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era 5, 4: 359-92.

——-. 2008. Segregation’s Science: Eugenics and Society in Virginia. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press.

Dorr, Gregory M. 2011. “Protection or Control: Women’s Health, Sterilization Abuse, and Relf v. Weinberger.” Pp. 161-90 in A Century of Eugenics in America, edited by Paul Lombardo. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Larson, Edward. 1995. Sex, Race, and Science: Eugenics in the Deep South. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Larson, Edward J., and Leonard J. Nelson.1992. Involuntary Sexual Sterilization of Incompetents in Alabama: Past, Present, and Future. Alabama Law Review 43: 399-444. Noll, Steven. 1995. Feeble-Minded in Our Midst: Institutions for the Mentally Retarded in the South, 1900-1940. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

——-.2005. The Public Face of Southern Institutions for the Feeble-Minded. The Public Historian 27, 2: 25-42. Paul, Julius. 1965. ‘Three Generations of Imbeciles Are Enough': State Eugenic Sterilization Laws in American Thought and Practice. Washington, D.C.: Walter Reed Army Institute of Research.

Relf Original Complaint. Available at

Roberts, Dorothy E. 1997. Killing the Black Body: Race, Reproduction, and the Meaning of Liberty. New York: Pantheon Books.

Rosoff, Jeannie I. 1973. The Montgomery Case. The Hastings Center Report 3, 4:6.

Southern Poverty Law Center. Relf v. Weinberger. Available at

Tarwater, James S. 1964. The Alabama State Hospitals and the Partlow State School and Hospitals. New York: Newcomer Society in North America.

Tessler, Suzanne. 1976. Compulsory Sterilization Practices. Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies 1, 2: 52-66.

“W.D. Partlow Developmental Center to close.” Tuscaloosa News 4 March 2001. Available at

Alabama Eugenics

Star Gazing in NJ: Where to find the best views …

 Astronomy  Comments Off on Star Gazing in NJ: Where to find the best views …
Sep 242015

Star light, star bright Mommy, I want to see the stars tonight! If you have a little Galileo on your hands, fear not. New Jersey is home to a myriad of majestic outdoor star gazing locations, as well as many public observatories and, yes, even astronomy clubs for the truly dedicated. With the proper equipment, information and planning, your family will get an up-close look at planets, star clusters and the Moon. Happy star-gazing, NJ!

The Great Outdoors For outdoor star gazing, youll want to choose an area in Northwest NJ, the shoreline or Southern NJ. To optimize your adventure, select a secluded location away from bright shopping mall lights, condo complexes or busy highways.

Here are some places to kick start your star gazing habit:

High Point State Park (Sussex, NJ) is open from 8:00 am to 8:00 pm, unless you visiting one of the campsites. Hike up to the High Point Monument for breathtaking views and an endless sky of stars.

New Jersey Pine Barrens National Reserve includes Allaire State Park (Farmingdale, NJ), Bass River State Forest (Tuckerton, NJ), Belleplain State Forest (Woodbine, NJ) Double Trouble State Park (Bayville, NJ)and Wharton State Forest (Hammonton, NJ). Each location offers a unique star gazing post, but check locations for hours of operation and special events.

Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area (Columbia, NJ) offers endless options for beautiful star gazing views and nearby Jenny Jump State Forest (Hope, NJ) hosts public programs on Saturday evenings from 8:00 pm to 10:00 pm.

The crest of Sunrise Mountain at Stokes State Forest (Branchville, NJ) not only offers breathtaking views, but its the ideal location for evening star gazing. Please call (973) 948-3820 with any questions.

Indoors Activities New Jersey has several public observatories to view the Milky Way or Orions Belt. Most are equipped with state of the art telescopes and will have staff on hand for assistance. Observatories are usually small spaces, dark and may require some stairs, so this may not be a good activity for young children.

Please call ahead for details, especially as many events are weather permitting. All of the observatories listed below are free to the public!

John Crowley Nature Center and Astronomical Observatory at Rifle Camp Park (Woodland Park, NJ) is open to the public on selected dates throughout the month. Click here for the current schedule. For questions, please call (973) 523-0024.

John W. H. Simpson Observatory at Washington Crossing State Park (Titusville, NJ) is open Friday nights April through October from 7:00 pm to 11:00 pm. For more information, please call (609) 737-2575.

Paul RobinsonObservatoryat Voorhees State Park (High Bridge, NJ) houses the largest public telescope in New Jersey. From Memorial Day to end of October, the observatory is open every Saturday evening from 8:30 pm to 10:30 pm, as well as every Sunday afternoon from 2:00 pm to 5:00 pm. Please call (908) 638-8500 with questions.

William Miller Sperry Observatory at Union County College (Cranford, NJ), better known as the Sperry Observatory, hosts public events every Friday evening throughout the year. For information on weekly talks or questions about facilities, please call (908) 276-STAR.

William D. McDowell Observatory at Richard W. DeKorte Park (Lyndhurst, NJ) hosts free public programming every Monday and Wednesday from 8:00 pm to 10:00 pm. Please call (201) 460-1700 with any questions.

Emil Buehler Trust Observatory at Bergen Community College (Paramus, NJ) is open to the public for free observations every Friday evening from 8:00 pm to 11:00 pm. Please call (201) 447-7100 with questions.

Ready for More? New Jersey is home to several astronomical societies and astronomy clubs, including Morris Museum Astronomical Society (Morristown, NJ), Willingboro Astronomical Society (Cherry Hill, NJ) Amateur Astronomers’ Association of Princeton (Princeton, NJ), North Jersey Astronomical Group (Montclair, NJ) Astronomical Society of the Toms River Area (Toms River, NJ), South Jersey Astronomy Club (Petersburg, NJ) and National Space Society NJ North (Teterboro, NJ). Call or email one of these groups for more information.

photo credit: Hajos Produce via

Originally published 2012

Original post:
Star Gazing in NJ: Where to find the best views …

The Book | Treasure Islands: Tax Havens and the men who …

 Tax Havens  Comments Off on The Book | Treasure Islands: Tax Havens and the men who …
Sep 212015

Millions of people have a queasy feeling that something is not right in the global economy but they struggle to put their fingers on what exactly the problem is. Treasure Islands at last tells the real story of where it all went wrong. This is the great untold story of globalisation.

Tax havens are not exotic, murky sideshows at the fringes of the world economy: they lie at its centre. Half of world trade flows, at least on paper, through tax havens. Every multinational corporation uses them routinely. The biggest users of tax havens by far are not terrorists, spivs, celebrities or Mafiosi but banks.

Tax havens are the ultimate source of strength for our global elites. Just as European nobles once consolidated their unaccountable powers in fortified castles, to better subjugate and extract tribute from the surrounding peasantry, so financial capital has coalesced in their modern equivalent today: the tax havens. In these fortified nodes of secret, unaccountable political and economic power, financial and criminal interests have come together to capture local political systems and turn the havens into their own private law-making factories, protected against outside interference by the worlds most powerful countries most especially Britain. Treasure Islands will, for the first time, show the blood and guts of just how they do it.

Tax havens arent just about tax. They are about escape escape from criminal laws, escape from creditors, escape from tax, escape from prudent financial regulation above all, escape from democratic scrutiny and accountability. Tax havens get rich by taking fees for providing these escape routes. This is their core line of business. It is what they do.

These escape routes transform the merely powerful into the untouchable. Dont tax or regulate us or we will flee offshore! the financiers cry, and elected politicians around the world crawl on their bellies and capitulate. And so tax havens lead a global race to the bottom to offer deeper secrecy, ever laxer financial regulations, and ever more sophisticated tax loopholes. They have become the silent battering rams of financial deregulation, forcing countries to remove financial regulations, to cut taxes and restraints on the wealthy, and to shift all the risks, costs and taxes onto the backs of the rest of us. In the process democracy unravels and the offshore system pushes ever further onshore. The worlds two most important tax havens today are United States and Britain.

Without understanding offshore, we will never understand the history of the modern world.

Poverty in Africa? Offshore is at the heart of the matter. Industrial-scale corruption and the wholesale subversion of governments by criminalised interests, across the developing world? Offshore is central to the story, every time. The systematic looting of the former Soviet Union and the merging of the nuclear-armed countrys intelligence apparatus with organized crime, is a story that unfolds substantially in London and its offshore satellites. Saddam Hussein used tax havens to buttress his power, as does North Koreas Kim Jong-Il today. Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconis strange hold over Italian politics is very much an offshore tale. The Elf Affair, Europes biggest ever corruption scandal, had secrecy jurisdictions at its core. Arms smuggling to terrorist organisations? The growth of mafia empires? Offshore. You can only fit about $1 million into a briefcase: without offshore, the illegal drugs trade would be a fraction of its size.

Private equity and hedge funds? Goldman Sachs? Citigroup? These are all creatures of offshore. The scandals of Enron, Parmalat, Long Term Capital Management, Lehman Brothers, AIG and many more? Tax havens lay behind them all. The rise of multinationals, the explosion of debt in advanced economies since the 1970s is substantially an offshore tale. Complex monopolies, frauds, insider trading rings these corruptions of free markets always have tax havens at their heart. As Treasure Islands explains in vivid, thrilling, horrifying detail, every big financial crisis since the 1970s including the great global crisis that erupted in 2007 has been a creature of the tax havens.

These problems all have other explanations too. Tax havens are never the only story, because offshore exists only in relation to elsewhere. That is why it is called offshore. Without understanding the tax havens, or the secrecy jurisdictions as I often prefer to call them, we cannot understand the world. Treasure Islands at last starts to fill this gigantic hole in modern history.

In short, it is the most important expos of tax havens ever published.

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The Book | Treasure Islands: Tax Havens and the men who …

SEO Miami Experts #1 in Search Engine Optimization

 SEO  Comments Off on SEO Miami Experts #1 in Search Engine Optimization
Sep 172015

Hello, Im David Saba and Amir Seliger , owners of, the premier search engine optimization and internet marketing advertising agency in Miami, FL.

In the past 3 years, I have ranked hundreds of web pages on the first page of Google and I can do the same for you. I have spend countless hours studying how Google works and training with the industry experts to learn and apply the secrets of the search engines. My background is in computer science, yes I am a programmer, not just some marketing newbie, so you ca rest assure I know what I am doing. My first job out of college was with Motorola, writing software for their police radios. Now I do internet marketing full time.

If you are tired of getting nowhere with SEOs that dont really know what they are doing and you are looking for quality SEO, youve come to the right place! Quality SEO is not cheap or easy, otherwise anyone could rank a website. But you are in luck. Youve found the best SEO company in Miami. Since we are not a huge agency, we have very low overheads and we intend to keep it that way. In fact, we have turned away offers from venture capitalists who aim to turn us into a big agency, but we rather work with a few exclusive clients and deliver real results than juggling too many clients taking them no-where.

Whether you are looking to increase your online exposure or you would like us to help you understand whay your website is not ranking, we can help.

Want Proof? Here is just one of our clients ranking for a highly competitive keyword:

This is a depersonalized search, meaning, we are logged out of Google. (Dont trust us? Try it out by yourself) Want more proof? Give us a call and we will be glad to show you.

We are a small team of highly driven and committed SEO consultants and overall web experts based in North Miami, FL. We provide very advanced SEO and web marketing services for local businesses across the nation. We have ranked many websites in the past for some very competitive keywords. Our service is highly personalized to your business needs.

David Saba is a software engineer and marketing specialist who is behind all the technical aspects of the SEO. He is in charge of setting up the website and optimize them for sales. He holds a Computer Science degree. He has worked for high profile companies including Motorola, Inc. David keeps current with all the latest developments around SEO and is one of the nations leading authorities on the topic.

Amir Seliger is a graphic designer and online marketer with more than 7 years in the field. Amir has serviced more than 100 clients has been a speaker at many local SEO events.

Search Engine Optimization is comprised of many different activities that if done well, (or at least better than your competition) will make you rank on top. Some of these tasks include:

When we build a website from the ground up, we will make sure it is lean and fast so it downloads super fast. We will structure your on-page content to easy Googles job in reading and understanding what your page is about. Structured micro-data is embedded where possible.

Gone are the days where any page would rank high on google by simply spamming the website with low quality links. We are very careful about the type of links we create, this differentiates us from most others SEOs out there.

For businesses who are just looking to get leads and are not particularly interested in ranking their site organically, we can provide local lead generation. Whether you are a locksmith, a plumber, a realtor or a lawyer, we can provide you with highly relevant and motivated leads. We offer only high quality exclusive leads.

We can give you all the insight you need on which keywords to target. Using a combination of market research, common sense and advanced tools we can find and suggest the top search terms you should go after. We look for keywords with low competition but huge search volumes. But it is not enough to have a highly seek keyword if people are only looking for inforamtion. Our keyword research is focused on finding keywords with high commercial intent. No tool can tell you this. Only experience and intuition are effective in identifying these types of profitable keywords.

We offer SEO consulting services to local businesses. We can either invite you over to our office or hold a virtual webinar. We will teach you actionable things you can do to increase your online exposure as well as some advanced techniques to help rank your site on the top of the search engines.

Though much more expensive than SEO, we can manage your PPC campaigns so you dont have to wait while we get you results. Organic SEO takes time, so in the meantime, we can use part of your budget on online advertising. PPC is also a great way to determine if there is an audience hungry for your product or service. All the keyword research in the world cannot replace the value we get from a well executed PPC campaign.

Although we cannot publicly disclose our clients website, what we can tell you the following companies we have ranked on the first page:

and the ranking go on an on When you decide to meet with us, we can show you proof!

In short: We get things done.

Unlike big web agencies that have huge costs, we can provide you better results at a fraction of the price the big agencies will charge you. Agencies usually utilize our services to rank their clients, marking up our work up to 200%. Quality SEO is not cheap, however, we can offer you more for your money when you give us a call.

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SEO Miami Experts #1 in Search Engine Optimization

Map of Liberty NC | Liberty North Carolina |

 Liberty  Comments Off on Map of Liberty NC | Liberty North Carolina |
Sep 112015

Liberty is a town in Randolph County, North Carolina, United States. Originally named Liberty Oak, the town was founded in 1809 near the plantation of John Leak (according to: The Town of Liberty). The first church within the town was the Liberty Christian Church (now the United Church of Christ) founded on October 11, 1884. The town’s first school, the Liberty Academy, was founded on May 6, 1885 as a charter school and helped to foster the town’s early reputation as a place of higher learning. Liberty is home to the mother church of the Southern Baptist Religion (Sandy Creek Baptist Church), World Skeet Shoot Champion Craig Kirkman, and is the birthplace of professional baseball player Joe Frazier. Liberty is also home to The Liberty Antiques Festival a world famous antiques’ show that draws such famous faces as Julia Roberts and other Hollywood celebrities. Also The Liberty Showcase who has had many famous Nashville recording stars such as Ronnie McDowell, Lorrie Morgan, Gene Watson, Exile, and many more. The movies “Killers Three” (1968) and “Children of the Corn II: The Final Sacrifice” (1992) were filmed in Liberty and the surrounding areas.

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Map of Liberty NC | Liberty North Carolina |

Eugenics in the United States – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 Eugenics  Comments Off on Eugenics in the United States – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Sep 072015

Early proponents

The American eugenics movement was rooted in the biological determinist ideas of Sir Francis Galton, which originated in the 1880s. Galton studied the upper classes of Britain, and arrived at the conclusion that their social positions were due to a superior genetic makeup.[8] Early proponents of eugenics believed that, through selective breeding, the human species should direct its own evolution. They tended to believe in the genetic superiority of Nordic, Germanic and Anglo-Saxon peoples; supported strict immigration and anti-miscegenation laws; and supported the forcible sterilization of the poor, disabled and “immoral”.[9] Eugenics was also supported by African Americans intellectuals such as W. E. B. Du Bois, Thomas Wyatt Turner, and many academics at Tuskegee University, Howard University, and Hampton University; however they believed the best blacks were as good as the best whites and “The Talented Tenth” of all races should mix.[10] W. E. B. Du Bois believed “only fit blacks should procreate to eradicate the race’s heritage of moral iniquity.”[10][11]

The American eugenics movement received extensive funding from various corporate foundations including the Carnegie Institution, Rockefeller Foundation, and the Harriman railroad fortune.[6] In 1906 J.H. Kellogg provided funding to help found the Race Betterment Foundation in Battle Creek, Michigan.[8] The Eugenics Record Office (ERO) was founded in Cold Spring Harbor, New York in 1911 by the renowned biologist Charles B. Davenport, using money from both the Harriman railroad fortune and the Carnegie Institution. As late as the 1920s, the ERO was one of the leading organizations in the American eugenics movement.[8][12] In years to come, the ERO collected a mass of family pedigrees and concluded that those who were unfit came from economically and socially poor backgrounds. Eugenicists such as Davenport, the psychologist Henry H. Goddard, Harry H. Laughlin, and the conservationist Madison Grant (all well respected in their time) began to lobby for various solutions to the problem of the “unfit”. Davenport favored immigration restriction and sterilization as primary methods; Goddard favored segregation in his The Kallikak Family; Grant favored all of the above and more, even entertaining the idea of extermination.[13] The Eugenics Record Office later became the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.

Eugenics was widely accepted in the U.S. academic community.[6] By 1928 there were 376 separate university courses in some of the United States’ leading schools, enrolling more than 20,000 students, which included eugenics in the curriculum.[14] It did, however, have scientific detractors (notably, Thomas Hunt Morgan, one of the few Mendelians to explicitly criticize eugenics), though most of these focused more on what they considered the crude methodology of eugenicists, and the characterization of almost every human characteristic as being hereditary, rather than the idea of eugenics itself.[15]

By 1910, there was a large and dynamic network of scientists, reformers and professionals engaged in national eugenics projects and actively promoting eugenic legislation. The American Breeder’s Association was the first eugenic body in the U.S., established in 1906 under the direction of biologist Charles B. Davenport. The ABA was formed specifically to “investigate and report on heredity in the human race, and emphasize the value of superior blood and the menace to society of inferior blood.” Membership included Alexander Graham Bell, Stanford president David Starr Jordan and Luther Burbank.[16][17] The American Association for the Study and Prevention of Infant Mortality was one of the first organizations to begin investigating infant mortality rates in terms of eugenics.[18] They promoted government intervention in attempts to promote the health of future citizens.[19][verification needed]

Several feminist reformers advocated an agenda of eugenic legal reform. The National Federation of Women’s Clubs, the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union, and the National League of Women Voters were among the variety of state and local feminist organization that at some point lobbied for eugenic reforms.[20]

One of the most prominent feminists to champion the eugenic agenda was Margaret Sanger, the leader of the American birth control movement. Margaret Sanger saw birth control as a means to prevent unwanted children from being born into a disadvantaged life, and incorporated the language of eugenics to advance the movement.[21][22] Sanger also sought to discourage the reproduction of persons who, it was believed, would pass on mental disease or serious physical defect. She advocated sterilization in cases where the subject was unable to use birth control.[21] Unlike other eugenicists, she rejected euthanasia.[23] For Sanger, it was individual women and not the state who should determine whether or not to have a child.[24][25]

In the Deep South, women’s associations played an important role in rallying support for eugenic legal reform. Eugenicists recognized the political and social influence of southern clubwomen in their communities, and used them to help implement eugenics across the region.[26] Between 1915 and 1920, federated women’s clubs in every state of the Deep South had a critical role in establishing public eugenic institutions that were segregated by sex.[27] For example, the Legislative Committee of the Florida State Federation of Women’s Clubs successfully lobbied to institute a eugenic institution for the mentally retarded that was segregated by sex.[28] Their aim was to separate mentally retarded men and women to prevent them from breeding more “feebleminded” individuals.

Public acceptance in the U.S. was the reason eugenic legislation was passed. Almost 19 million people attended the PanamaPacific International Exposition in San Francisco, open for 10 months from February 20 to December 4, 1915.[29][30][31] The PPIE was a fair devoted to extolling the virtues of a rapidly progressing nation, featuring new developments in science, agriculture, manufacturing and technology. A subject that received a large amount of time and space was that of the developments concerning health and disease, particularly the areas of tropical medicine and race betterment (tropical medicine being the combined study of bacteriology, parasitology and entomology while racial betterment being the promotion of eugenic studies). Having these areas so closely intertwined, it seemed that they were both categorized in the main theme of the fair, the advancement of civilization. Thus in the public eye, the seemingly contradictory[clarification needed] areas of study were both represented under progressive banners of improvement and were made to seem like plausible courses of action to better American society.[32][verification needed]

Beginning with Connecticut in 1896, many states enacted marriage laws with eugenic criteria, prohibiting anyone who was “epileptic, imbecile or feeble-minded”[33] from marrying.[citation needed]

The first state to introduce a compulsory sterilization bill was Michigan, in 1897 but the proposed law failed to garner enough votes by legislators to be adopted. Eight years later Pennsylvania’s state legislators passed a sterilization bill that was vetoed by the governor. Indiana became the first state to enact sterilization legislation in 1907,[34] followed closely by Washington and California in 1909. Sterilization rates across the country were relatively low (California being the sole exception) until the 1927 Supreme Court case Buck v. Bell which legitimized the forced sterilization of patients at a Virginia home for the mentally retarded. The number of sterilizations performed per year increased until another Supreme Court case, Skinner v. Oklahoma, 1942, complicated the legal situation by ruling against sterilization of criminals if the equal protection clause of the constitution was violated. That is, if sterilization was to be performed, then it could not exempt white-collar criminals.[35] The state of California was at the vanguard of the American eugenics movement, performing about 20,000 sterilizations or one third of the 60,000 nationwide from 1909 up until the 1960s.[36]

While California had the highest number of sterilizations, North Carolina’s eugenics program which operated from 1933 to 1977, was the most aggressive of the 32 states that had eugenics programs.[37] An IQ of 70 or lower meant sterilization was appropriate in North Carolina.[38] The North Carolina Eugenics Board almost always approved proposals brought before them by local welfare boards.[38] Of all states, only North Carolina gave social workers the power to designate people for sterilization.[37] “Here, at last, was a method of preventing unwanted pregnancies by an acceptable, practical, and inexpensive method,” wrote Wallace Kuralt in the March 1967 journal of the N.C. Board of Public Welfare. “The poor readily adopted the new techniques for birth control.”[38]

The Immigration Restriction League was the first American entity associated officially with eugenics. Founded in 1894 by three recent Harvard University graduates, the League sought to bar what it considered inferior races from entering America and diluting what it saw as the superior American racial stock (upper class Northerners of Anglo-Saxon heritage). They felt that social and sexual involvement with these less-evolved and less-civilized races would pose a biological threat to the American population. The League lobbied for a literacy test for immigrants, based on the belief that literacy rates were low among “inferior races”. Literacy test bills were vetoed by Presidents in 1897, 1913 and 1915; eventually, President Wilson’s second veto was overruled by Congress in 1917. Membership in the League included: A. Lawrence Lowell, president of Harvard, William DeWitt Hyde, president of Bowdoin College, James T. Young, director of Wharton School and David Starr Jordan, president of Stanford University.[39]

The League allied themselves with the American Breeder’s Association to gain influence and further its goals and in 1909 established a Committee on Eugenics chaired by David Starr Jordan with members Charles Davenport, Alexander Graham Bell, Vernon Kellogg, Luther Burbank, William Ernest Castle, Adolf Meyer, H. J. Webber and Friedrich Woods. The ABA’s immigration legislation committee, formed in 1911 and headed by League’s founder Prescott F. Hall, formalized the committee’s already strong relationship with the Immigration Restriction League. They also founded the Eugenics Record Office, which was headed by Harry H. Laughlin.[40] In their mission statement, they wrote:

Society must protect itself; as it claims the right to deprive the murderer of his life so it may also annihilate the hideous serpent of hopelessly vicious protoplasm. Here is where appropriate legislation will aid in eugenics and creating a healthier, saner society in the future.”[40]

Money from the Harriman railroad fortune was also given to local charities, in order to find immigrants from specific ethnic groups and deport, confine, or forcibly sterilize them.[6]

With the passage of the Immigration Act of 1924, eugenicists for the first time played an important role in the Congressional debate as expert advisers on the threat of “inferior stock” from eastern and southern Europe.[41][verification needed] The new act, inspired by the eugenic belief in the racial superiority of “old stock” white Americans as members of the “Nordic race” (a form of white supremacy), strengthened the position of existing laws prohibiting race-mixing.[42] Eugenic considerations also lay behind the adoption of incest laws in much of the U.S. and were used to justify many anti-miscegenation laws.[43]

Stephen Jay Gould asserted that restrictions on immigration passed in the United States during the 1920s (and overhauled in 1965 with the Immigration and Nationality Act) were motivated by the goals of eugenics. During the early 20th century, the United States and Canada began to receive far higher numbers of Southern and Eastern European immigrants. Influential eugenicists like Lothrop Stoddard and Harry Laughlin (who was appointed as an expert witness for the House Committee on Immigration and Naturalization in 1920) presented arguments they would pollute the national gene pool if their numbers went unrestricted.[44][45] It has been argued that this stirred both Canada and the United States into passing laws creating a hierarchy of nationalities, rating them from the most desirable Anglo-Saxon and Nordic peoples to the Chinese and Japanese immigrants, who were almost completely banned from entering the country.[42][46]

Both class and race factored into eugenic definitions of “fit” and “unfit.” By using intelligence testing, American eugenicists asserted that social mobility was indicative of one’s genetic fitness.[47] This reaffirmed the existing class and racial hierarchies and explained why the upper-to-middle class was predominately white. Middle-to-upper class status was a marker of “superior strains.”[28] In contrast, eugenicists believed poverty to be a characteristic of genetic inferiority, which meant that that those deemed “unfit” were predominately of the lower classes.[28]

Because class status designated some more fit than others, eugenicists treated upper and lower class women differently. Positive eugenicists, who promoted procreation among the fittest in society, encouraged middle class women to bear more children. Between 1900 and 1960, Eugenicists appealed to middle class white women to become more “family minded,” and to help better the race.[48] To this end, eugenicists often denied middle and upper class women sterilization and birth control.[49]

Since poverty was associated with prostitution and “mental idiocy,” women of the lower classes were the first to be deemed “unfit” and “promiscuous.”[28] These women, who were predominately immigrants or women of color[citation needed], were discouraged from bearing children, and were encouraged to use birth control.

In 1907, Indiana passed the first eugenics-based compulsory sterilization law in the world. Thirty U.S. states would soon follow their lead.[50][51] Although the law was overturned by the Indiana Supreme Court in 1921,[52] the U.S. Supreme Court, in Buck v. Bell, upheld the constitutionality of the Virginia Sterilization Act of 1924, allowing for the compulsory sterilization of patients of state mental institutions in 1927.[53]

Some states sterilized “imbeciles” for much of the 20th century. Although compulsory sterilization is now considered an abuse of human rights, Buck v. Bell was never overturned, and Virginia did not repeal its sterilization law until 1974.[54] The most significant era of eugenic sterilization was between 1907 and 1963, when over 64,000 individuals were forcibly sterilized under eugenic legislation in the United States.[55] Beginning around 1930, there was a steady increase in the percentage of women sterilized, and in a few states only young women were sterilized. From 1930 to the 1960s, sterilizations were performed on many more institutionalized women than men.[28] By 1961, 61 percent of the 62,162 total eugenic sterilizations in the United States were performed on women.[28] A favorable report on the results of sterilization in California, the state with the most sterilizations by far, was published in book form by the biologist Paul Popenoe and was widely cited by the Nazi government as evidence that wide-reaching sterilization programs were feasible and humane.[56][57]

Men and women were compulsorily sterilized for different reasons. Men were sterilized to treat their aggression and to eliminate their criminal behavior, while women were sterilized to control the results of their sexuality.[28] Since women bore children, eugenicists held women more accountable than men for the reproduction of the less “desirable” members of society.[28] Eugenicists therefore predominately targeted women in their efforts to regulate the birth rate, to “protect” white racial health, and weed out the “defectives” of society.[28]

A 1937 Fortune magazine poll found that 2/3 of respondents supported eugenic sterilization of “mental defectives”, 63% supported sterilization of criminals, and only 15% opposed both.[58]

In the 1970s, several activists and women’s rights groups discovered several physicians to be performing coerced sterilizations of specific ethnic groups of society. All were abuses of poor, nonwhite, or mentally retarded women, while no abuses against white or middle-class women were recorded.[59] Although the sterilizations were not explicitly motivated by eugenics, the sterilizations were similar to the eugenics movement[according to whom?] because they were done without the patients’ consent.

For example, in 1972, United States Senate committee testimony brought to light that at least 2,000 involuntary sterilizations had been performed on poor black women without their consent or knowledge. An investigation revealed that the surgeries were all performed in the South, and were all performed on black welfare mothers with multiple children. Testimony revealed that many of these women were threatened with an end to their welfare benefits until they consented to sterilization.[60] These surgeries were instances of sterilization abuse, a term applied to any sterilization performed without the consent or knowledge of the recipient, or in which the recipient is pressured into accepting the surgery. Because the funds used to carry out the surgeries came from the U.S. Office of Economic Opportunity, the sterilization abuse raised older suspicions, especially amongst the black community, that “federal programs were underwriting eugenicists who wanted to impose their views about population quality on minorities and poor women.”[28]

Native American women were also victims of sterilization abuse up into the 1970s.[61] The organization WARN (Women of All Red Nations) publicized that Native American women were threatened that, if they had more children, they would be denied welfare benefits. The Indian Health Service also repeatedly refused to deliver Native American babies until their mothers, in labor, consented to sterilization. Many Native American women unknowingly gave consent, since directions were not given in their native language. According to the General Accounting Office, an estimate of 3,406 Indian women were sterilized.[61] The General Accounting Office stated that the Indian Health Service had not followed the necessary regulations, and that the “informed consent forms did not adhere to the standards set by the United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW).”[62]

One of the methods that was commonly suggested to get rid of “inferior” populations was euthanasia. A 1911 Carnegie Institute report mentioned euthanasia as one of its recommended “solutions” to the problem of cleansing society of unfit genetic attributes. The most commonly suggested method was to set up local gas chambers. However, many in the eugenics movement did not believe that Americans were ready to implement a large-scale euthanasia program, so many doctors had to find clever ways of subtly implementing eugenic euthanasia in various medical institutions. For example, a mental institution in Lincoln, Illinois fed its incoming patients milk infected with tuberculosis (reasoning that genetically fit individuals would be resistant), resulting in 30-40% annual death rates. Other doctors practiced euthanasia through various forms of lethal neglect.[63]

In the 1930s, there was a wave of portrayals of eugenic “mercy killings” in American film, newspapers, and magazines. In 1931, the Illinois Homeopathic Medicine Association began lobbying for the right to euthanize “imbeciles” and other defectives. The Euthanasia Society of America was founded in 1938.[64]

Overall, however, euthanasia was marginalized in the U.S., motivating people to turn to forced segregation and sterilization programs as a means for keeping the “unfit” from reproducing.[65]

Mary deGormo, a former classroom teacher was the first person to combine ideas about health and intelligence standards with competitions at state fairs, in the form of “better baby” contests. She developed the first such contest, the “Scientific Baby Contest” for the Louisiana State Fair in Shreveport, in 1908. She saw these contests as a contribution to the “social efficiency” movement, which was advocating for the standardization of all aspects of American life as a means of increasing efficiency.[18] deGarmo was assisted by the pediatrician Dr. Jacob Bodenheimer, who helped her develop grading sheets for contestants, which combined physical measurements with standardized measurements of intelligence.[66] Scoring was based on a deduction system, in that every child started at 1000 points and then was docked points for having measurements that were below a designated average. The child with the most points (and the least defections) was ideal.[67][verification needed]

The topic of standardization through scientific judgment was a topic that was very serious in the eyes of the scientific community, but has often been downplayed as just a popular fad or trend. Nevertheless, a lot of time, effort, and money were put into these contests and their scientific backing, which would influence cultural ideas as well as local and state government practices.[68][verification needed]

The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People promoted eugenics by hosting “Better Baby” contests and the proceeds would go to its anti-lynching campaign.[10]

First appearing in 1920 at the Kansas Free Fair, Fitter Family competitions, continued all the way until WWII. Mary T. Watts and Florence Brown Sherbon, both initiators of the Better Baby Contests in Iowa, took the idea of positive eugenics for babies and combined it with a determinist concept of biology to come up with fitter family competitions.[69]

There were several different categories that families were judged in: Size of the family, overall attractiveness, and health of the family, all of which helped to determine the likelihood of having healthy children. These competitions were simply a continuation of the Better Baby contests that promoted certain physical and mental qualities.[70] At the time, it was believed that certain behavioral qualities were inherited from your parents. This led to the addition of several judging categories including: generosity, self-sacrificing, and quality of familial bonds. Additionally, there were negative features that were judged: selfishness, jealousy, suspiciousness, high temperedness, and cruelty. Feeblemindedness, alcoholism, and paralysis were few among other traits that were included as physical traits to be judged when looking at family lineage.[29]

Doctors and specialists from the community would offer their time to judge these competitions, which were originally sponsored by the Red Cross.[29] The winners of these competitions were given a Bronze Medal as well as champion cups called “Capper Medals.” The cups were named after then Governor and Senator, Arthur Capper and he would present them to “Grade A individuals”.[71]

The perks of entering into the contests were that the competitions provided a way for families to get a free health check up by a doctor as well as some of the pride and prestige that came from winning the competitions.[29]

By 1925 the Eugenics Records Office was distributing standardized forms for judging eugenically fit families, which were used in contests in several U.S. states.[72]

After the eugenics movement was well established in the United States, it spread to Germany. California eugenicists began producing literature promoting eugenics and sterilization and sending it overseas to German scientists and medical professionals.[65] By 1933, California had subjected more people to forceful sterilization than all other U.S. states combined. The forced sterilization program engineered by the Nazis was partly inspired by California’s.[7]

The Rockefeller Foundation helped develop and fund various German eugenics programs,[73] including the one that Josef Mengele worked in before he went to Auschwitz.[6][74]

Upon returning from Germany in 1934, where more than 5,000 people per month were being forcibly sterilized, the California eugenics leader C. M. Goethe bragged to a colleague:

“You will be interested to know that your work has played a powerful part in shaping the opinions of the group of intellectuals who are behind Hitler in this epoch-making program. Everywhere I sensed that their opinions have been tremendously stimulated by American thought . . . I want you, my dear friend, to carry this thought with you for the rest of your life, that you have really jolted into action a great government of 60 million people.”[75]

Eugenics researcher Harry H. Laughlin often bragged that his Model Eugenic Sterilization laws had been implemented in the 1935 Nuremberg racial hygiene laws.[76] In 1936, Laughlin was invited to an award ceremony at Heidelberg University in Germany (scheduled on the anniversary of Hitler’s 1934 purge of Jews from the Heidelberg faculty), to receive an honorary doctorate for his work on the “science of racial cleansing”. Due to financial limitations, Laughlin was unable to attend the ceremony and had to pick it up from the Rockefeller Institute. Afterwards, he proudly shared the award with his colleagues, remarking that he felt that it symbolized the “common understanding of German and American scientists of the nature of eugenics.”[77]

After 1945, however, historians began to attempt to portray the US eugenics movement as distinct and distant from Nazi eugenics.[78]Jon Entine wrote that eugenics simply means “good genes” and using it as synonym for genocide is an “all-too-common distortion of the social history of genetics policy in the United States.” According to Entine, eugenics developed out of the Progressive Era and not “Hitler’s twisted Final Solution.”[79]

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Eugenics in the United States – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

What Is NATO? Purpose, History, Members and Alliances

 NATO  Comments Off on What Is NATO? Purpose, History, Members and Alliances
Sep 032015

U.S. Infantry Troops Arrive In Poland For NATO Exercises. Photo: Sean Gallup/Getty Images

NATO stands for the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. It’s an alliance of 28 member countries roughly bordering the North Atlantic Ocean: Canada, U.S., Turkey and most members of the European Union. NATO’s purpose is to protect the freedom of its members. As famously defined in Article 5, “…an armed attack upon one…shall be considered an attack upon them all.”

In recent years, NATO’s purpose has expanded to include defense against weapons of mass destruction, terrorism, and cyber attacks.

Since its inception following World War II, NATO has had to continually redefine its focus as a military and political alliance to keep up with the changing face of war.

What Is the Purpose of NATO Today?:

NATO protects the security of its members. However, it must also take into consideration aggression against non-members that threaten the stability of the region. That’s why its September 2014 summit focused onPresident Putin’s goal to create a “Little Russia” out of Ukraine’s eastern region. Although Ukraine is not a NATO member, other former USSR countries are, and they’re worried. President Obama vowed to defend countries such as Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia. The U.S. contributes three-quarters of NATO’s budget. (Source: WSJ, U.S. Vows NATO Defense of Baltics, Sep. 4, 2014)

On August 28,2014, NATO announcedit had photos proving that Russia was invading Ukraine. Although Ukraine is not a NATO member, it has been working closely with NATO over the years. Russia’s invasion of Ukraine threatens NATO members who are afraid they will be next because they were also former U.S.S.R.

satellite countries.

NATO expanded its role after the 9/11 attacks to include the war on terrorism. NATO is winding down its mission in Afghanistan, which deployed 84,000 troops at its peak from both NATO-member countries and at least a dozen non-members. By 2014, NATO expects to transition all security to the Afghan military.

NATO itself admits that “Peacekeeping has become at least as difficult as peacemaking.” As a result, NATO is strengthening alliances throughout the world. In the age of globalization, transatlantic peace has become a worldwide effort that extends beyond military might alone. (Source: NATO History)

What Is the History of NATO?:

NATO was established after World War II as part of the United Nations. Its primary purpose was to defend member nations against the large number of troops in pro-communist countries. The U.S. also wanted to maintain a presence in Europe, to prevent a resurgence of military nationalism and foster political union. In this way, NATO made the European Union possible.

NATO and the Cold War:

During the Cold War, NATO’s mission expanded to prevent nuclear war. After West Germany joined NATO, the communist countries formed the Warsaw Pact alliance, including the USSR, Bulgaria, Hungary, Rumania, Poland, Czechoslovakia and East Germany. In response, NATO adopted the “Massive Retaliation” policy, which promised to use nuclear weapons if the Pact attacked. This deterrence policy allowed Europe to focus on economic development instead of building large conventional armies.

The Soviet Union, on the other hand, continued to build its military presence. By the end of the Cold War, it was spending three times what the U.S. was with only one-third the economic power. When the Berlin Wall fell in 1989, it was due to economic as well as ideological reasons.After the USSR dissolved in the late 1980s, NATO’s relationship with Russia thawed. In 1997, the NATO-Russia Founding Act was signed to build bilateral cooperation. In 2002, the NATO-Russia Council was formed to allow NATO members and Russia to partner on common security issues.

The collapse of the USSR led to unrest in its former satellite states. NATO expanded its focus to address this instability when a civil war in the former Yugoslavia turned into ethnic cleansing and genocide. NATO’s initial support of a United Nations naval embargo led to the enforcement of a no-fly zone. Violations then led to a few airstrikes until September 1999, when NATO conducted a heavy nine-day air campaign that ended the war. By December of that year, NATO deployed a peace-keeping force of 60,000 soldiers that ended in 2004, when NATO transferred this function to the European Union.

NATO Member Countries:

NATO’s 28 members include: Albania, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Turkey, United Kingdom and the United States. Each member is represented by an ambassador, who is supported by officials that serve on the different NATO committees. From time to time, the President/Prime Minister, Foreign Affairs Minister or head of Defense will meet to discuss NATO business.

NATO Alliances:

NATO is involved with three alliances that expand its influence beyond its 28 member countries.

In addition, NATO cooperates with eight other countries in joint security issues. These countries include five in Asia (Australia, Japan, Republic of Korea, Mongolia and New Zealand) and two in the Middle East (Afghanistan and Pakistan). (Source: NATO, Partnerships)Article updated August 28, 2014

Continued here:
What Is NATO? Purpose, History, Members and Alliances

Hampton Roads – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 NATO  Comments Off on Hampton Roads – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Aug 312015

2013 Fortune 500 Corporations[53]

Hampton Roads has become known as the “world’s greatest natural harbor”. The port is located only 18 miles (29km) from open ocean on one of the world’s deepest, natural ice-free harbors. Since 1989, Hampton Roads has been the mid-Atlantic leader in U.S. waterborne foreign commerce and is ranked second nationally behind the Port of South Louisiana based on export tonnage. When import and export tonnage are combined, the Port of Hampton Roads ranks as the third largest port in the country (following the ports of New Orleans/South Louisiana and Houston). In 1996, Hampton Roads was ranked ninth among major U.S. ports in vessel port calls with approximately 2,700. In addition, this port is the U.S. leader in coal exports. The coal loading facilities in the Port of Hampton Roads are able to load in excess of 65 million tons annually, giving the port the largest, most efficient and modern coal loading facilities in the world.

It is little surprise therefore that the Hampton Roads region’s economic base is largely port-related, including shipbuilding, ship repair, naval installations, cargo transfer and storage, and manufacturing related to the processing of imports and exports. Associated with the ports’ military role are almost 50,000 federal civilian employees.

The harbor of Hampton Roads is an important highway of commerce, especially for the cities of Norfolk, Portsmouth, and Newport News.

Huntington Ingalls Industries (formerly Newport News Shipbuilding and Drydock Company), was created in 2008 as a spinoff of Northrop Grumman Newport News and is the world’s largest shipyard. It is located a short distance up the James River. In Portsmouth, a few miles up the Elizabeth River, the historic Norfolk Naval Shipyard is located. BAE Systems, formerly known as NORSHIPCO, operates from sites in the City of Norfolk. There are also several smaller shipyards, numerous docks and terminals.

Massive coal piers and loading facilities were established in the late 19th and early 20th century by the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway (C&O), Norfolk and Western Railway (N&W), and Virginian Railway (VGN). The latter two were predecessors of the Norfolk Southern Railway, a Class I railroad which has its headquarters in Norfolk, and continues to export coal from a large facility at Lambert’s Point on the Elizabeth River. CSX Transportation now serves the former C&O facility at Newport News. (The VGN’s former coal facility at Sewell’s Point has been gone since the 1960s, and the property is now part of the expansive Norfolk Navy Base).

Almost 80% of the region’s economy is derived from federal sources. This includes the large military presence, but also NASA and facilities of the Departments of Energy, Transportation, Commerce and Veterans Affairs. The region also receives a substantial impact in government student loans and grants, university research grants, and federal aid to cities.

The Hampton Roads area has the largest concentration of military bases and facilities of any metropolitan area in the world. Nearly one-fourth of the nations active-duty military personnel are stationed in Hampton Roads, and 45% of the region’s $81B gross regional output is Defense-related.[54][55] All five military services operating forces are there, as well as several major command headquarters: Hampton Roads is a chief rendezvous of the United States Navy, and the area is home to the Allied Command Transformation, which is the only major military command of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) on U.S. soil. Langley Air Force Base is home to Air Combat Command (ACC). The Norfolk Navy Base is located at Sewell’s Point near the mouth, on the site used for the tercentennial Jamestown Exposition in 1907. For a width of 500 feet (150m) the Federal government during 1902 through 1905 increased its minimum depth at low water from 25.5 to 30 feet (8 to 9m), and the channel has now been dredged to a depth of 55 feet (17m) in some places.

NASA’s Langley Research Center, located on the Peninsula adjacent to Langley Air Force Base in Hampton, is home to scientific and aerospace technology research. The Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (commonly known as Jefferson Labs) is located nearby in Newport News.

The area’s experiences with commercial and retail centers began early in 1918. Afton Square, located in the Cradock naval community of Portsmouth, was the first planned shopping center in the USA and has served as template for future developments throughout the nation.[56]

Hampton Roads experienced tremendous growth during and after World War II. In the 1950s, a trend in retail was the shopping center, a group of stores along a common sidewalk adjacent to off-street parking, usually in a suburban location.

In 1959, one of the largest on the east coast of the USA was opened at the northeast corner of Military Highway and Virginia Beach Boulevard on property which had formally been used as an airfield. The new JANAF Shopping Center, located in Norfolk, featured acres of free parking and dozens of stores. Backed by retired military personnel, the name JANAF was an acronym for Joint Army Navy Air Force.[57]

During the 1950s and early 1960s, other shopping centers in Hampton Roads were developed, such as Wards Corner Shopping Center, Downtown Plaza Shopping Center and Southern Shopping Center in Norfolk; Mid-City Shopping Center in Portsmouth; Hilltop Shopping Center (now known as The Shops at Hilltop) in Virginia Beach; Riverdale Shopping Center in Hampton and the Warwick-Denbigh Shopping Center in Newport News.

In the late-1960s, a new type of shopping center came to Hampton Roads: the Indoor Shopping Mall. In 1965, South Hampton Roads broke ground on its first shopping mall in Virginia Beach, known as Pembroke Mall. The mall opened in 1966, and became Hampton Road’s newest indoor shopping destination. The Virginia Peninsula had its first indoor shopping mall in 1973, with Coliseum Mall. Coliseum Mall drew so much traffic from Interstate 64, that a towering flyover was built at the Mercury Boulevard and Coliseum Drive intersection, to accommodate eastbound mall traffic, from the Mercury Boulevard interchange. Coliseum Mall was demolished to make way for the open air mixed-use development Peninsula Town Center. Also in the 1970s, Tower Mall was built in Portsmouth, but was torn down and turned into the Victory Crossing shopping development. In Norfolk, Military Circle Mall on Military Highway was built across Virginia Beach Boulevard from the large JANAF Shopping Center with its own high-rise hotel right in the center. In 1981, Greenbrier Mall gave Chesapeake a shopping mall of its own as well, and Virginia Beach got the massive Lynnhaven Mall the same year.

MacArthur Center opened in March 1999, which made downtown Norfolk a prime shoppers destination, with the region’s first Nordstrom department store anchor. MacArthur Center is compared to other downtown malls, such as Baltimore’s Harborplace, Indianapolis’ Circle Centre Mall, Atlanta’s Lenox Square Mall and most comparably to The Fashion Centre at Pentagon City near Washington, D.C., in Arlington, Virginia.

Currently, Virginia Beach’s Lynnhaven Mall is the region’s largest shopping center with nearly 180 stores, and is one of the region’s biggest tourist draws, with the Virginia Beach oceanfront, Colonial Williamsburg, Busch Gardens Williamsburg: The Old Country and MacArthur Center.

For a long time, the indoor shopping malls were seen as largely competitive with small shopping centers and traditional downtown type areas. However, in the 1990s and since, the “big-box stores” on the Peninsula and Southside, such as Wal-mart, Home Depot, and Target have been creating a new competitive atmosphere for the shopping malls of Hampton Roads.

Several older malls such as Pembroke and Military Circle have since their grand openings been renovated, and others have been closed and torn down. Newmarket North Mall is now NetCenter, a business center (the Sears store remains). Coliseum Mall, in Hampton, has been redeveloped as Peninsula Town Center in a new style, in step with the latest commercial real estate trend: the nationwide establishment of “lifestyle centers”. Additional malls which have closed include Mercury Mall in Hampton (converted to Mercury Plaza Shopping Center in the mid-1980s, then completely torn down in 2001), and Tower Mall in Portsmouth (Built in the early 1970s, then torn down in 2001).

In late 2006, the Hampton Roads Partnership, a non-profit organization representing 17 localities (ten cities, six counties, and one town), all local universities and major military commands as well as leading businesses in southeastern Virginia, commenced a campaign aimed at branding the land area of Hampton Roads as “America’s First Region”.

The new title is based on events in 1607 when English Captain Christopher Newport’s three ships the Susan Constant, Godspeed, and Discovery landed at Cape Henry along the Atlantic Coast in what is today Virginia Beach. After 18 days of exploring the area, the ships and their crews arrived at Jamestown Island where they established the first English speaking settlement to survive in the New World on May 14, 1607.

Because the region’s east-west boundaries (now the City of Virginia Beach and James City County) have not changed since 1607, the Partnership felt justified in labeling Hampton Roads “America’s First Region”. It unveiled the new brand before 800 people at the annual meeting of the Hampton Roads Chamber of Commerce on December 13, 2006. A video shown that afternoon included endorsements from mayors and county board of supervisors chairs representing Hampton, Norfolk, Virginia Beach, Williamsburg and James City County as well as the Governor of Virginia, Timothy Kaine.[58][citation needed]

The mission of Hampton Roads Economic Development Alliance (HREDA) is a non-profit organization dedicated to business attractionmarketing the Hampton Roads region as the preferred location for business investment and expansion. HREDA represents the cities of Chesapeake, Hampton, Newport News, Norfolk, Poquoson, Portsmouth, Suffolk, Virginia Beach, Williamsburg and Franklin, as well as the counties of Gloucester, James City, Isle of Wight, York, and Southampton.[59]

In 1998, a flag representing the Hampton Roads region was adopted. The design of the flag was created by a contest. The winner, sixteen-year-old Andrew J. Wall of Frank W. Cox High School in Virginia Beach, raised the new regional flag for the first time on the mast of a ship moored in the harbor.

As conceived by student Andrew Wall and embellished by the selection committee, his flag is highly symbolic:

The area is most often associated with the larger American South. People who have grown up in the Hampton Roads area have a unique Tidewater accent which sounds different from a stereotypical Southern accent. Vowels have a longer pronunciation than in a regular southern accent.[61]

There’s also a wealth of other points of history to explore in the Hampton Roads area. Led by the Historic Triangle area, Hampton Roads consistently rates among the top tourism destinations in the world.

Cultural attractions include museums, historical sites, and venues from tiny to massively large for such things as art and musical shows. The region hosts two week-long visits by the Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus each year with multiple performances at Norfolk Scope and the Hampton Coliseum, and even attracts a group of Circus Train Enthusiasts, railfans who watch, photograph and report on the blue or red unit trains as they make their move between the two sites, requiring a long inland trip through Petersburg and Richmond in order to avoid crossing the 10-mile (16km) geographical distance across the harbor (a trip impassable directly by modern trains; the two bridge-tunnel facilities operated by VDOT accommodate only highway traffic).

The Historic Triangle is located on the Virginia Peninsula and includes the colonial communities of Jamestown, Williamsburg, and Yorktown, with many restored attractions linked by the Colonial Parkway.

The National Park Service’s Colonial Parkway joins the three popular attractions of Colonial Virginia with a scenic and bucolic roadway carefully shielded from views of commercial development. This helps visitors mentally return to the past, and there are often views of wildlife and waterfowl. This two lane roadway is the best (but not quickest) way to move between the three points. Near the James River and York River ends of the parkway, there are several pull-offs, where some families allow their children to feed bread to the seagulls. Commercial vehicles, except for tour buses, are prohibited.

For an even better experience, approach the area from the south by water from Surry County with a ride aboard one of the Jamestown Ferrys, which include the Pocahontas and Williamsburg. As passengers cross, they can walk about the boat or go up to an enclosed viewing level with restrooms. Weather and daylight permitting, passengers usually see Jamestown Island much as the first colonists may have approached it. In fact, the replicas of Christopher Newport’s the three tiny ships, Susan Constant, Godspeed, and Discovery are docked near the northern ferry landing at Glass House Point. Both the Jamestown Ferry and Colonial Parkway are toll-free.

The first permanent English settlement in the New World which was established at Jamestown in 1607. The 350th anniversary celebration at Jamestown Festival Park in 1957 was so popular, tourism has been continuously increasing ever since. The 400th anniversary was celebrated with an 18-month-long celebration called Jamestown 2007.

Today, at Jamestown, you can visit recreations of an American Indian village and colonial fort, and archaeological sites where current work is underway by archaeologistss from the Jamestown Rediscovery project, with recently recovered archaeological artifacts in a new display building. Replicas of the three ships, Susan Constant, Godspeed, and Discovery are docked nearby.

The two major attractions, which are complementary to each other, are the state-sponsored Jamestown Settlement near the entrance to Jamestown Island, and the National Park Service’s Historic Jamestowne, on Jamestown Island itself.

In 1699, the first capital of Virginia was moved to Middle Plantation at the suggestion of students from the College of William & Mary (established 1693). It was soon renamed to Williamsburg, but became a largely forgotten little town after the capital was moved to Richmond in 1780. Largely due to the 20th-century preservation efforts of the Reverend Dr. W.A.R. Goodwin, rector of Bruton Parish Church and the generosity of Standard Oil heir John D. Rockefeller Jr., today Colonial Williamsburg is a large living museum of early American life. It has dozens of restored and recreated buildings and reenactors. It is one of the most popular tourist destinations in the world. The Visitor’s Center (right off the Colonial Parkway) features a short movie and is an excellent place to start (and leave automobiles, which are restricted from the restored area, where wheelchair-accessible shuttle bus service is provided).

Bassett Hall, an 18th-century farmhouse, is located in Williamsburg just southeast of the Historic Area, was the Williamsburg home for over 25 years of the family of John D. Rockefeller Jr and his family from the mid-1930s until 1960, following over 7 years of restoration and expansions. The Rockefeller family bequeathed Bassett Hall to Colonial Williamsburg in 1979.[62] The home is now open to the public and appears much as it did in the 1930s and 1940s when the Rockefellers made it their home.[63]

The third point of the Historic Triangle of Colonial Virginia is Yorktown where General Cornwallis surrendered to George Washington in 1781, ending the American Revolution. There are two large visitor centers, battlefield drives, and a waterfront area.

Notwithstanding the amazingly successful efforts to provide a non-commercial atmosphere at the three Historic Triangle areas (and on the Colonial Parkway between them), there are many hotels, motels, campgrounds, restaurants, shops and stores, gasoline stations, and amusements close by.

The Mariners’ Museum, founded in 1930 by Archer and Anna Huntington, is an institution dedicated to bringing maritime history to the world. It is currently home to the USS Monitor Center where 210 tons of artifacts recovered from the USS Monitor are held, including the gun turret. The museum also consists of a 550-acre park and Lake Maury, through which is the five-mile Noland Trail. The permanent collection at the museum totals about 32,000 objects, equally divided between works of art and three-dimensional objects. The Mariners’ Museum Library and Archive, now located in the Trible Library at Christopher Newport University, consists of over 78,000 books, 800,000 photographs, films and negatives, and over one million archival pieces, making it the largest maritime library in the Western hemisphere.[64]

The Virginia War Museum covers American military history. The Museum’s collection includes, weapons, vehicles, artifacts, uniforms and posters from various periods of American history. Highlights of the Museum’s collection include a section of the Berlin Wall and the outer wall from Dachau Concentration Camp.[65]

The Virginia Living Museum, first established in 1966, combines the elements of a native wildlife park, science museum, aquarium, botanical preserve, and planetarium. The exhibits are themed on the geographic regions of Virginia, from the Appalachian Mountains to the offshore waters of the Atlantic Ocean, and includes more than 245 different animal species.[66]

The Peninsula Fine Arts Center in Newport News contains a rotating gallery of art exhibits. The Center also contains a Studio Art School of private and group instruction for all ages. It maintains a permanent “Hands On For Kids” gallery designed for children and families to interact in what the Center describes as “a fun, educational environment that encourages participation with art materials and concepts.”[67]

The Hampton University museum was established in 1868 in the heart of the historic Hampton University campus. The Museum is the oldest African American museum in the United States and one of the oldest museums in the State of Virginia. It contains over 9,000 objects, including African American fine arts, traditional African, Native American, Native Hawaiian, Pacific Island, and Asian art.[68]

The Charles H. Taylor Arts Center is Hampton’s public access arts center. It offers a series of changing visual art exhibitions as well as a quarterly schedule of classes, workshops and educational programs.[69]

The Downing-Gross Cultural Arts Center in SE Newport News contains a community-based art gallery, as well as arts classrooms and the Ella Fitzgerald Theater.[70]

The Casemate Museum (where former Confederate President Jefferson Davis was imprisoned) is at Fort Monroe in the historic Phoebus area at Old Point Comfort in Hampton.[71]

NASA Langley Research Center is in Hampton, the original training ground for the Mercury Seven, Gemini, and Apollo Astronauts. Visitors are able to learn about the region’s aviation history at the Virginia Air and Space Center in Hampton.[72]

Air Power Park is an outdoor on-site display of various aircraft and a space capsule. It is located on Mercury Boulevard at the intersection of LaSalle Blvd, near the AF Base.

The Biblical Art Gallery at Ivy Farms Baptist Church is Virginia’s largest collection of pre-1900s religious art.

The Chrysler Museum of Art, located in the Ghent district of Norfolk, is the region’s foremost art museum and is considered by the New York Times to be the finest in the state.[74] Of particular note is the extensive glass collection and American neoclassical marble sculptures.

Nauticus, the National Maritime Center, opened on the downtown waterfront in 1994. It features hands-on exhibits, interactive theaters, aquaria, digital high-definition films and an extensive variety of educational programs. Since 2000, Nauticus has been home to the battleship USS Wisconsin, one of the last battleships to be built in the United States. It served briefly in World War II and later in the Korean and Gulf Wars.[75] The General Douglas MacArthur Memorial, located in the 19th-century Norfolk court house and city hall in downtown, contains the tombs of the late General and his wife, a museum and a vast research library, personal belongings (including his famous corncob pipe) and a short film that chronicles the life of the famous General of the Army.[76]

Also in downtown Norfolk and inside Nauticus is the Hampton Roads Naval Museum, an official U.S. Navy museum that focuses on the 220 plus year history of the Navy within the region.

The Children’s Museum of Virginia in Portsmouth has one of the largest collection of model electric trains and other toys.

The Norfolk Naval Shipyard in Portsmouth is one of the oldest shipyards and has the first dry dock on display.

The Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge (in Suffolk and Chesapeake) is accessed from U.S. Route 17 in Chesapeake.

The Suffolk-Nansemond Museum is in the restored Seaboard and Virginian Railway passenger train station in Suffolk.

The Isle of Wight Museum is in Smithfield.

The Contemporary Art Center of Virginia located in Virginia Beach features the significant art of our time.

The Hampton Roads region has a thriving music scene, with a heavy concentration thereof in the Virginia Beach, Chesapeake, and Norfolk areas. Many clubs, venues, and festivals exist within the region, all playing host to a wide variety of musical styles. There are a few hundred bands that play routinely in the region, spanning multiple genres. There are also twenty to thirty musical acts based in the region that perform throughout Hampton Roads and its surrounding areas on a “full-time” basis.

In addition, plenty of well known acts have come from the area. Some of the major rock/pop artists include Bruce Hornsby, Gary “U.S.” Bonds, Juice Newton, Mae, Seven Mary Three, Gene Vincent, Keller Williams, and Steve Earle. Ella Fitzgerald is the most recognizable jazz musician from the area. Robert Cray and Ruth Brown are both prominent blues and R&B artists. Tommy Newsom is another famous jazz musician. Many prominent rap and hip hop artists come from the area including Chad Hugo, Clipse, Magoo, Missy Elliott, Nicole Wray, Pharrell Williams, Quan, Teddy Riley, and Timbaland.

The region has a number of venues hosting live music and performances. Several of the larger (in order of maximum seating capacity) are:

Dozens of much smaller commercial establishments offer live music and other entertainment such as comedy shows and mystery dinner-theater throughout the region.

The Norfolk Botanical Garden, opened in 1939, is a 155-acre (0.6km2) botanical garden and arboretum located near the Norfolk International Airport. It is open year round.[77]

The Virginia Zoological Park, opened in 1900, is a 65-acre (260,000m2) zoo with hundreds of animals on display, including the critically endangered Siberian Tiger and threatened White Rhino.[78]

First Landing State Park and False Cape State Park are both located in coastal areas in Virginia Beach. Both offer camping facilities, cabins, and outdoor recreation activities in addition to nature and history tours. First Landing is the site of Cape Henry while False Cape is located at the southeastern end of Virginia Beach.[79][80]

Newport News Park is located in the northern part of the city of Newport News. The city’s golf course also lies within the Park along with camping and outdoor activities. There are over 30 miles (48km) of trails in the Newport News Park complex. The park has a 5.3-mile (8.5-km) multi-use bike path. The park offers bicycle and helmet rental, and requires helmet use by children under 14. Newport News Park also offers an archery range, disc golf course, and an “aeromodel flying field” for remote-controlled aircraft, complete with a 400ft (120m) runway.[81]

The region also has amusement parks which attract tourists and locals alike. Ocean Breeze Waterpark, Shipwreck Golf, and Motor World are Virginia Beach’s amusement parks, which were formerly called Ocean Breeze Fun Park. As separate parks, they provide miniature golf, go-karts, water slides, pools, climbing wall, paintball area, and kiddie rides.[82][83]Busch Gardens Williamsburg and Water Country USA are the major theme parks in Williamsburg.

normal seating capacity in parentheses

Hampton Roads has a number of public and private golf courses.[85]

Three daily newspapers serve Hampton Roads: The Virginian-Pilot in the Southside, the The Daily Press on the Peninsula, and the six days a week Suffolk News-Herald that serves Suffolk and Franklin.[90] Smaller publications include the Williamsburg-James City County area’s twice-weekly Virginia Gazette (the state’s oldest newspaper[91]), the New Journal and Guide, and Inside Business, the area’s only business newspaper.

Newspapers serving the Hampton Roads area include:

Coastal Virginia Magazine is one of the region’s city and lifestyle magazine. The publication is published eight times a year and covers all of Hampton Roads and the Eastern Shore of Virginia.[92]Coastal Virginia Magazine was formerly known as Hampton Roads Magazine.

Hampton Roads Times (web site) serves as an online magazine for the region.

Suffolk Living Magazine is another of the region’s city and lifestyle magazines. The publication is published four times a year and covers the City of Suffolk. Suffolk Publications also produces Virginia-Carolina Boomers, a regional guide for Boomers in the area, which comes out twice a year.[93]

The Hampton Roads designated market area (DMA) is the 42nd largest in the U.S. with 712,790 homes (0.64% of the total U.S.).[94] The major network television affiliates are WTKR-TV 3 (CBS), WAVY 10 (NBC), WVEC-TV 13 (ABC), WGNT 27 (CW), WTVZ 33 (MyNetworkTV), WVBT 43 (Fox), and WPXV 49 (ION Television). The Public Broadcasting Service station is WHRO-TV 15. WUND 2(UNC-TV/PBS member station), broadcasting out of Edenton, NC, serves as another PBS affiliate for the area. Area residents also can receive independent stations, such as WSKY broadcasting on channel 4 from the Outer Banks of North Carolina, WGBS-LD broadcasting on channel 11 from Hampton, and WTPC 21, a TBN affiliate out of Virginia Beach. Most Hampton Roads localities are served by Cox Cable which provides LNC 5, a local 24-hour cable news television network. Suffolk, Franklin, Isle of Wight, and Southampton are served by Charter Communications.[95]Verizon FiOS service is currently available in parts of the region and continues to expand, offering a non-satellite alternative to Cox. DirecTV and Dish Network are also popular as an alternative to cable television.

Norfolk is served by a variety of radio stations on the FM and AM dials, with towers located around the Hampton Roads area. These cater to many different interests, including news, talk radio, and sports, as well as an eclectic mix of musical interests.[96]

Norfolk serves as home to two professional franchises, the Norfolk Tides of the International League and the Norfolk Admirals of the American Hockey League.[97][98] The Tides play at Harbor Park, seating 12,067 and opened in 1993. The Admirals play at Norfolk Scope Arena, seating 8,725 or 13,800 festival seating, which opened in 1971.

The Peninsula Pilots play in the Coastal Plain League, a summer baseball league. The Pilots play in Hampton at War Memorial Stadium seating 5,125 and opened in 1948.[99]

On the collegiate level, four Division I programstwo on the Southside and two on the Peninsulafield teams in many sports, including football, basketball, and baseball; three currently play football in the second-tier FCS, while ODU recently moved up to the FBS football. The Southside boasts the Old Dominion Monarchs and the Norfolk State Spartans, both in Norfolk, while the Peninsula features the William & Mary Tribe in Williamsburg and Hampton Pirates in Hampton. W&M is a member of the Colonial Athletic Association. Norfolk State and Hampton, both historically black institutions, compete in the Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference.[100][101][102][103] ODU joined Conference USA, an FBS football conference, as a full FBS member in 2015. The area also has two Division III programs, one in each subregionthe Virginia Wesleyan Marlins on the border of Virginia Beach and Norfolk,[104] and the Christopher Newport University Captains in Newport News. The Captains sponsor fourteen sports and currently compete in the USA South Athletic Conference,[105] but will move to the Capital Athletic Conference in July 2013.

The Hampton Coliseum, seating 10,761 to 13,800 festival seating, hosts the annual Virginia Duals wrestling events, and the annual Hampton Jazz Festival. The arena opened in 1970 and has previously hosted Hampton University basketball along with NBA and NHL preseason exhibition games.

Virginia Beach serves as home to two soccer teams, the Hampton Roads Piranhas, a men’s team in the USL Premier Development League, and a women’s team by the same name in the W-League. The Piranhas play at the Virginia Beach Sportsplex. The Virginia Beach Sportsplex, seating 11,541 and opened in 1999, contains the central training site for the U.S. women’s national field hockey team.[106] The Sportsplex will be expanded to accommodate the Virginia Destroyers, an expansion franchise in the United Football League for the 2011 UFL season. The North American Sand Soccer Championships, a beach soccer tournament, is held annually on the beach in Virginia Beach.

Virginia Beach is also home to the East Coast Surfing Championships, an annual contest of more than 100 of the world’s top professional surfers and an estimated 400 amateur surfers. This is North America’s oldest surfing contest, and features combined cash prizes of $40,000.[107]

Langley Speedway in Hampton, seating 6,500, hosts stock car races every weekend during Spring, Summer, and early Fall.[108]

The Kingsmill Championship, an event on the LPGA Tour, is contested annually on Mother’s Day weekend at Kingsmill Resort near Williamsburg.

The Norfolk Nighthawks were a charter member of the Arena Football League’s minor league, af2. They ceased operations in 2003 after their fourth season. Also, the Virginia Beach Mariners of soccer’s USL First Division were active from 1994 until 2006.

Hampton Roads has hosted many professional wrestling events throughout the years. The Norfolk Scope has served as the site of these events, including Total Nonstop Action Wrestling’s Destination X, World Championship Wrestling’s Starrcade and World War 3, and WWF/WWE’s The Great American Bash and the 2011 Slammy Awards.[109] Norfolk Scope was also the site of an infamous episode of WCW Monday Nitro, where several members of the World Wrestling Federation stable D-Generation X literally drove a tank to the entryway of the Scope, thus “invading” the competition. The Hampton Coliseum has also hosted many events, including RAW, in April 1998, August 2005, May 2007, January 2008, and July 2011, as well as SmackDown! and for ECW on Sci Fi on December 2006. In January 2008, WWE broadcast its first television show taped in high definition from Hampton, VA.

The Hampton Roads area is also home to at least one professional wrestling promotion, Vanguard Championship Wrestling, which holds events throughout the region, and has a weekly television show on the local Fox affiliate.

In 1997, Norfolk presented a proposal to bring an expansion hockey team to Hampton Roads. But that initiative failed. The team was going to be called the Hampton Roads Rhinos.

In 2002, Norfolk presented a proposal to bring the Charlotte Hornets basketball team to southeastern Virginia, but New Orleans won the bid for the team, renaming it the New Orleans Hornets.

In 2004, Norfolk presented a proposal to bring the Montreal Expos baseball team to the metro area, but Washington, D.C. won the bid for the team, renaming it the Washington Nationals.

In 1998, 2001, 2006, and 2010 Hampton Roads was hosting the AAU Junior Olympics.[110]

In 2012, there were talks of the Sacramento Kings of the NBA moving to a proposed new arena in Virginia Beach near the Oceanfront.[111]

Hampton Roads is 130 miles (210km) from the nearest major sports teams in Washington, D.C. and Raleigh, North Carolina. Another significant issue with the area as a sports market is internal transportation. The metropolitan area is split into two distinct parts by its eponymous harbor; as of 2012, the harbor has only three widely separated road crossings (the Hampton Roads Bridge-Tunnel, Monitor-Merrimac Memorial Bridge-Tunnel, and James River Bridge), each with two lanes of traffic in each direction. In addition, the area has two other major tunnels, plus several drawbridges on key highway corridors.

Hampton Roads previously hosted a successful franchise in the American Basketball Association, although it was never a full-time home for that team. Its highest-ranking teams as of 2012 are the Virginia Destroyers of the UFL, the Norfolk Admirals of the AHL, and the Norfolk Tides of the IL. Virginia is also the most populous state without a major team playing within its borders, though its northern reaches are served by the Washington clubstwo of which, the NHL’s Capitals and NFL’s Redskins, have their operational headquarters and practice facilities in Virginia. Redskins owner Daniel Snyder, through a separate company, owns two radio stations, WXTG and WXTG-FM, in the Norfolk market. The Hampton Roads television market is ranked 42nd in the U.S.

Articles Relating to The Hampton Roads Area

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NATO – Organizzazione del Trattato Nord Atlantico (fonte …

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Aug 232015

Da Wikipedia, l’enciclopedia libera.

Coordinate: 505234.16N 42519.24E / 50.876156N 4.422011E50.876156; 4.422011

L’Organizzazione del Trattato dell’Atlantico del Nord (in inglese North Atlantic Treaty Organization, in sigla NATO,[3] in francese: Organisation du Trait de l’Atlantique du Nord, in sigla OTAN), un’organizzazione internazionale per la collaborazione nella difesa.

Il trattato istitutivo della NATO, il Patto Atlantico, fu firmato a Washington, D.C. il 4 aprile 1949 ed entr in vigore il 24 agosto dello stesso anno. Attualmente, fanno parte della NATO 28 stati del mondo.

Il Patto Atlantico traeva origine dalla percezione che il cosiddetto mondo occidentale (costituito da Stati Uniti d’America, Canada, Regno Unito, Francia, Scandinavia, Italia ed altri Paesi dell’Europa occidentale), dopo la Seconda Guerra Mondiale, stesse cominciando ad accusare tensioni nei confronti dell’altro paese vincitore della guerra, ossia l’Unione Sovietica, con i suoi Stati satellite.

Iniziava, infatti, a svilupparsi nelle opinioni pubbliche occidentali il timore che il regime sovietico potesse “non accontentarsi” della spartizione geografica generata, al termine della Guerra, da varie conferenze di pace e che, radicalizzando i contenuti ideologici della societ, volesse iniziare una mira espansionista per l’affermazione globale dell’ideologia comunista. Ci gener un movimento di opinione che – anche grazie alle varie attivit in tal senso organizzate dagli Stati Uniti d’America – inizi a svilupparsi in modo generalizzato nei Paesi occidentali e che identific una nuova assoluta necessit di garantire la sicurezza del mondo occidentale dalla minaccia comunista; la NATO, quindi, rispondeva all’esigenza di allearsi e di mettere a fattor comune i propri dispositivi di difesa, per reagire “come un sol uomo” ad un eventuale attacco.

Tale sentimento ebbe una significativa spinta dopo i fatti di Berlino del 1948. La citt tedesca, simbolo del nazismo e Capitale della Germania hitleriana, dopo Jalta venne a trovarsi nel territorio della Germania Est, ossia sotto influenza sovietica, e venne suddivisa in 4 zone, tre delle quali controllate dai Paesi occidentali e la quarta (la parte orientale della citt) dall’Unione Sovietica. Berlino Est divenne Capitale della Germania Est.

Dopo alcuni mesi durante i quali i sovietici avevano iniziato a manifestare disagio e dissenso sulla situazione territoriale e logistica “anomala” di Berlino (enclave occidentale in territorio orientale), che permetteva alle genti sottoposte al regime socialista di transitare facilmente all’Ovest trovandovi rifugio, il 24 giugno 1948 decisero di chiudere il corridoio terrestre attraverso il quale Berlino Ovest era connessa al mondo occidentale, impedendo, di fatto, il suo approvvigionamento logistico: il successivo ponte aereo, organizzato dal mondo occidentale per assicurare la sopravvivenza della popolazione di Berlino Ovest, entrato nella storia.

La vicenda dell'”assedio” a Berlino Ovest, fece naturalmente forte impressione alle popolazioni occidentali e, di fatto, rese matura la decisione di istituire un’Alleanza del mondo occidentale contro la minaccia sovietica.

Il concetto informatore di questa nuova “Alleanza” era quello della “difesa collettiva”, riportato nell’Art. 5, che recita:

Questa misura era concepita in modo tale che se l’Unione Sovietica avesse lanciato un attacco contro uno qualsiasi dei paesi membri, questo sarebbe stato trattato da ciascun paese membro come un attacco diretto, ed era rivolta soprattutto a una temuta invasione sovietica dell’Europa occidentale. Le trattative si svolsero tra i firmatari del trattato di Bruxelles (Regno Unito, Francia e Benelux), Stati Uniti, Canada, Norvegia, Danimarca, Islanda, Portogallo ed Italia. L’Unione Sovietica protest vivacemente, affermando la natura aggressiva nei suoi confronti del Patto. Da l a pochi anni essa avrebbe dato vita ad un’Alleanza militare contrapposta alla NATO: il Patto di Varsavia.

La creazione degli organi politici dell’Alleanza Atlantica impieg circa un anno di lavori, tra il maggio 1950 e lo stesso mese del 1951; nelle riunioni a Londra ed a Bruxelles i ministri degli Esteri si accordarono per la creazione di un Consiglio Permanente, dotato di potere esecutivo, affiancato da tre comitati, di difesa economica e finanziaria, di difesa e militare, inglobati poi nel Consiglio Permanente nella conferenza di Londra del maggio 1951.

Con la nascita del Patto di Varsavia inizi la “Guerra fredda”, cos definita in quanto, in realt, mai combattuta sul campo, ma per la quale i due blocchi prepararono i loro dispositivi militari in modo cos meticoloso e credibile che fu sviluppato il concetto di “pace armata” (attuato anche con armi nucleari potenzialmente distruttive per l’umanit intera). Dopo la caduta del muro di Berlino, che simboleggi la fine del socialismo reale e soprattutto dell’URSS, la NATO ha radicalmente cambiato la sua visione strategica, avviando un processo di radicale trasformazione. Dopo i fatti dell’11 settembre 2001 avvenuto un nuovo cambiamento nelle strategie dell’Alleanza, che adesso, a processo di trasformazione ormai compiuta, si configura come l’organizzazione mondiale principale per la lotta effettiva al terrorismo internazionale.

Il disposto dell’art. 5 del Trattato, mai attuato durante la Guerra fredda, venne invocato per la prima volta nella storia il 12 settembre 2001 dagli Stati Uniti, in risposta all’attacco terroristico del giorno precedente a New York.

Motivo: Questa sezione esprime, in alcuni passaggi, alcuni giudizi.

Dalla caduta del muro di Berlino in poi, la NATO ha progressivamente perso la propria caratteristica di “Alleanza Difensiva” per orientarsi sempre pi come un ambito di collaborazione militare tra Paesi aderenti. Dopo gli eventi dell’11 settembre 2001, gli Stati Uniti hanno richiesto l’intervento dell’Alleanza sulla base dell’Art. 5 del trattato. In linea generale, la NATO oggi rappresenta l’organizzazione militare pi utilizzata per l’imposizione del pieno rispetto della Carta dell’ONU e delle norme e convenzioni di Diritto umanitario e di Diritto bellico, delle risoluzioni del Consiglio di sicurezza dell’ONU relative a situazioni di crisi di importanza globale.

I principi generali che regolano le attivit dell’Alleanza sono mutati nel tempo, adattandosi ai continui cambiamenti del panorama geopolitico internazionale, ed attualmente possono essere riassunti nei seguenti punti:

L’art. 10 del Trattato del Nord Atlantico descrive come gli stati possano entrare nella NATO:[7]

Questo articolo pone due limiti generali agli stati per l’accesso:

Il secondo criterio significa che ciascun stato membro ha diritto di veto, ovvero pu decidere di porre delle condizioni per l’ingresso di un paese. In pratica la NATO ha formulato un insieme di criteri-base che devono essere soddisfatti per aspirare all’accesso, ma in alcuni casi ci possono essere dei criteri aggiuntivi. I casi pi importanti sono:

Non invece mai stato un criterio riconosciuto quello secondo cui la NATO non si sarebbe estesa ad Est se l’URSS avesse consentito la riunificazione della Germania: questa rivendicazione russa[8] del contenuto di un colloquio tra Gorbacev e James Baker, infatti, non mai stata accettata dalla diplomazia USA[9], che anzi negli anni Novanta sfid l’irritazione russa propiziando l’ingresso della Polonia, dell’Ungheria e della Repubblica Ceca nell’Alleanza.

Come procedura per i paesi che vogliono aderire (pre-adesione) esiste un meccanismo chiamato Piano d’azione per l’adesione o Membership Action Plan (MAP) che fu introdotto nel vertice di Washington del 23-25 aprile 1999. La partecipazione al MAP prevede per un paese la presentazione di un rapporto annuale sui progressi fatti nel raggiungere i criteri stabiliti: la NATO provvede poi a rispondere a ciascun paese con suggerimenti tecnici e valuta singolarmente la situazione dei progressi.

Questi paesi sono all’interno del MAP:

previsto che entrino nel MAP i seguenti paesi:

L’altro meccanismo di pre-adesione il Dialogo intensificato o Intensified Dialogue che visto come passo precedente prima di essere invitati al MAP.

I paesi attualmente in questa fase sono:

Un doppio schema tecnico-diplomatico di accordi stato creato per aiutare la cooperazione tra i membri NATO e altri “paesi partner”.

Il Partenariato Euro-Atlantico, o Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC), fu creato il 27 maggio 1997 al vertice di Parigi ed un forum di regolare consultazione, coordinamento e dialogo tra la NATO e i partner esterni. la diretta conseguenza del partenariato per la pace. I 23 paesi partner sono:

Ex Repubbliche sovietiche:

Paesi neutrali con economia di mercato durante la guerra fredda:

Paesi neutrali con economia socialista durante la guerra fredda:

Paesi “in attesa”:

Il Partenariato per la pace o Partnership for Peace (PfP) fu creato nel 1994 ed basato su relazioni individuali e bilaterali tra la NATO e il paese partner: ciascuno stato pu decidere l’intensit della collaborazione. stato il primo tentativo di dialogo della NATO con paesi esterni, ma ora considerato il “braccio operativo” del partenariato Euro-Atlantico. costituito in maniera principale, da membri operativi della NATO, ad esempio, membri START1991, e collaborano in tema di giustizia, per garantire i principali diritti internazionali, come i patti Bilaterali tra stati nel mondo, svolgono in tema politico-sociale la cooperazione al sostentamento umanitario. La sua azione operativa permette in diversi ambiti, quali sociale, politico, economico, giuridico, medico, ingegneristico, scientifico, artistico, la tutela e la conservazione di diritti umani nel mondo, promuovendo la cultura pacifica nei popoli.

Come gi detto, la NATO rappresenta non soltanto una mera iniziativa di cooperazione militare, ma si configura come fondamentale strumento di collaborazione politica tra i Paesi membri, soprattutto nell’ambito dei processi decisionali afferenti materie di politica estera.

Per questo motivo, la NATO ha una duplice struttura: politica e militare. In linea con quanto accade normalmente nell’ambito dei Sistemi istituzionali democratici dei Paesi membri, anche in questo caso la parte militare ha una posizione subordinata rispetto a quella politica, che, nelle sue diverse articolazioni, espressione diretta della volont dei popoli dei Paesi membri.

L’Alleanza governata dai suoi 28 Stati membri, ognuno dei quali ha una delegazione presso la sede centrale della NATO a Bruxelles. Il pi anziano membro di ciascuna delegazione chiamato “Rappresentante permanente”. L’organizzazione politica della NATO basata sulla regola del consenso unanime e comprende:

L’organizzazione militare della NATO articolata in vari comandi con sedi nei diversi paesi membri. Al vertice costituita da:

formato dai rappresentati militari dei Paesi membri ed ha il compito di decidere le linee strategiche di politica militare della NATO. Provvede inoltre alla guida dei comandanti strategici, i cui rappresentanti partecipano alle sedute del Comitato, ed responsabile per la conduzione degli affari militari dell’Alleanza. Il rappresentante militare l’altra figura rilevante della delegazione permanente dei Paesi membri presso la NATO ed un ufficiale con il grado di generale di corpo d’armata o corrispondente che proviene dalle forze armate di ciascun paese membro.

Dal Military Committee dipendono:

I membri della NATO sono attualmente 28. Di questi, 22 sono anche membri dell’Unione europea, mentre 24 di questi sono membri a vario titolo (membri effettivi, membri associati, paesi osservatori, partner associati) dell’Unione dell’Europa Occidentale (UEO) che con il Trattato di Lisbona passata sotto il controllo UE. Per questo negli ultimi anni il peso dell’UE andato sempre pi in crescendo nelle decisioni NATO. Di seguito l’elenco dei 28 membri:

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NATO – Organizzazione del Trattato Nord Atlantico (fonte …

Member states of NATO – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Aug 152015

NATO (the North Atlantic Treaty Organization) is an international alliance that consists of 28 member states from North America and Europe. It was established at the signing of the North Atlantic Treaty on 4 April 1949. Article Five of the treaty states that if an armed attack occurs against one of the member states, it should be considered an attack against all members, and other members shall assist the attacked member, with armed forces if necessary.[1]

Of the 28 member countries, two are located in North America (Canada and the United States) and 25 are European countries while Turkey is in Eurasia. All members have militaries, except for Iceland which does not have a typical army (but does, however, have a coast guard and a small unit of civilian specialists for NATO operations). Three of NATO’s members are nuclear weapons states: France, the United Kingdom, and the United States. NATO has 12 original founding member nation states and from 18 February 1952 to 1 April 2009 it added 16 more member nations.

NATO has added new members six times since its founding in 1949, and since 2009 NATO has had 28 members. Twelve countries were part of the founding of NATO: Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, the United Kingdom, and the United States. In 1952, Greece and Turkey became members of the Alliance. In 1990, with the reunification of Germany, NATO grew to include the former country of East Germany. Between 1994 and 1997, wider forums for regional cooperation between NATO and its neighbors were set up, including the Partnership for Peace, the Mediterranean Dialogue initiative and the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council. In 1997, three former Warsaw Pact countries, Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Poland, were invited to join NATO. After this fourth enlargement in 1999, the Vilnius group of The Baltics and seven East European countries formed in May 2000 to cooperate and lobby for further NATO membership. Seven of these countries joined in the fifth enlargement in 2004. Albania and Croatia joined in the sixth enlargement in 2009.

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North Carolina – First Amendment Center

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Aug 132015

State Supreme Court says attorney-client privilege means documents involved in redistricting can remain confidential.

4th Circuit rules that officials did not violate mans rights when it fined him for painting Screwed By The Town of Cary on his house.

Brian France, who has fought for years to keep confidential the details of his 2008 divorce, had appealed judges ruling that documents in the case should be made public.

Religious colleges in North Carolina, Illinois are challenging rules that require the schools to provide free contraceptives to employees.

Game operators had argued that 2010 law banning sweepstakes machines as a form of gambling violated their free-speech rights.

North Carolina cant offer anti-abortion license plates unless it also makes plates available for people who support abortion rights, court finds.

At issue is a new North Carolina law that strengthens a cyberbullying statute to provide extra protection to school employees from online defamation.

ACLU says statute, which may be the first of its kind in the country, could chill students speech and vows to seek plaintiffs for a possible court challenge.

North Carolina elementary school that told girl to remove reference to God before reading her poem to students was technically defensible, but it probably would have been better to let her read it as written.

Federal appeals panel finds inmate failed to explain how denial of outdoor circle for Asatru ceremony violated his religious beliefs.

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Porthtowan – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Aug 132015

Coordinates: 501656N 51413W / 50.28234N 5.23682W / 50.28234; -5.23682

Porthtowan (Cornish: Porth Tewyn, meaning cove of sand dunes) is a small village in Cornwall, England which is a popular summer tourist destination. Porthtowan is on Cornwall’s north Atlantic coast about 2km (1.2mi) west of St Agnes, 4km (2.5mi) north of Redruth, 10km (6.2mi) west of Truro and 15km (9.3mi) south-west of Newquay in the Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape, a World Heritage Site.

Porthtowan is popular with surfers and industrial archaeologists; former mine stacks and engine houses dot the landscape.[1]

Porthtowan lies along the 627-hectare (1,550-acre) Godrevy Head to St Agnes heritage coast,[2] which is located on the north Cornwall coast of the Celtic Sea in the Atlantic Ocean. It lies between Godrevy Head (with the Godrevy Towans) and St Agnes Head, north of the village of St Agnes.[3][4][5] The Godrevy to St Agnes Heritage Coast has been a nationally designated protected area since 1986. The marine site protects 40 species of mammals and amphibians.[6][7]

Porthtowan is within walking distance of National Trust coastal and cliff-side walks. Between Porthtowan and Agnes Head is one of Cornwall’s “largest remaining heathland[s].” Ironically, the heath survived – and was not turned into arable land – because of the soil contamination of previous mining activities. Few plants or species other than heathers and spiders can thrive in the area’s environmental condition.[8][nb 1]

Its name comes from the Cornish words “porth” and “tewynn” to mean landing place at the sand dunes.[1]

Porthtowan’s history is associated with mining and one of its most prominent buildings is a former engine house converted for residential use.[citation needed] Allen’s Corn Mill operated at Porthtowan between 1752 and 1816.[10]

Porthtowan owes much of its present day character to its popularity as a local seaside resort in Victorian and Edwardian times when the local populace from Redruth and the surrounding areas went there, particularly on Bank Holidays.[citation needed]

Coastal settlements in Cornwall between Perranporth and Porthtowan had copper, lead, iron, tin and zinc mines. Porthtowan mines mainly produced copper.[11]

The South Wheal Towan copper mine also operated in the area. Still visible is its Echo Corner mine stack.[1] The mine had a slide lode that intersected with the main lode, Hamptons and Downright lode. In addition to copper pyrites, brown iron ore was also found in the mine.[12]

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How Laissez-Faire Made Sweden Rich |

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Aug 082015

October 25, 2013 essays

Sweden often gets held up as an example of how socialism can work better than markets. But, as Norberg shows, Swedens history in fact points to the opposite conclusion.

Once upon a time I got interested in theories of economic development because I had studied a low-income country, poorer than Congo, with life expectancy half as long and infant mortality three times as high as the average developing country.

That country is my own country, Swedenless than 150 years ago.

At that time Sweden was incredibly poorand hungry. When there was a crop failure, my ancestors in northern Sweden, in ngermanland, had to mix bark into the bread because they were short of flour. Life in towns and cities was no easier. Overcrowding and a lack of health services, sanitation, and refuse disposal claimed lives every day. Well into the twentieth century, an ordinary Swedish working-class family with five children might have to live in one room and a kitchen, which doubled as a dining room and bedroom. Many people lodged with other families. Housing statistics from Stockholm show that in 1900, as many as 1,400 people could live in a building consisting of 200 one-room flats. In conditions like these it is little wonder that disease was rife. People had large numbers of children not only for lack of contraception, but also because of the risk that not many would survive for long.

As Vilhelm Moberg, our greatest author, observed when he wrote a history of the Swedish people: Of all the wondrous adventures of the Swedish people, none is more remarkable and wonderful than this: that it survived all of them.

But in one century, everything was changed. Sweden had the fastest economic and social development that its people had ever experienced, and one of the fastest the world had ever seen. Between 1850 and 1950 the average Swedish income multiplied eightfold, while population doubled. Infant mortality fell from 15 to 2 per cent, and average life expectancy rose an incredible 28 years. A poor peasant nation had become one of the worlds richest countries.

Many people abroad think that this was the triumph of the Swedish Social Democratic Party, which somehow found the perfect middle way, managing to tax, spend, and regulate Sweden into a more equitable distribution of wealthwithout hurting its productive capacity. And so Swedena small country of nine million inhabitants in the north of Europebecame a source of inspiration for people around the world who believe in government-led development and distribution.

But there is something wrong with this interpretation. In 1950, when Sweden was known worldwide as the great success story, taxes in Sweden were lower and the public sector smaller than in the rest of Europe and the United States. It was not until then that Swedish politicians started levying taxes and disbursing handouts on a large scale, that is, redistributing the wealth that businesses and workers had already created. Swedens biggest social and economic successes took place when Sweden had a laissez-faire economy, and widely distributed wealth preceded the welfare state.

This is the story about how that happened. It is a story that must be learned by countries that want to be where Sweden is today, because if they are to accomplish that feat, they must do what Sweden did back then, not what an already-rich Sweden does now.

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Image Archive on the American Eugenics Movement

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Aug 022015

Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory’s

The Eugenics Archive utilizes Flash for enhanced search features, cross referencing, and interactive images created with Zoomifyer. Get the Flash plugin at

The Eugenics Archive will open in a new window.

I prefer the original, HTML-only Eugenics Archive site, take me there.

Based on a task force recommendation, the North Carolina legislature is considering paying $50,000 to living individuals sterilized by the state against their will or without their knowledge. North Carolina reportedly sterilized 7,600 individuals between 1929 and 1974. However, other American states also passed laws legalizing sterilization; the first was passed in Indiana in 1907


Examine the Chronicle of how society dealt with mental illness and other “dysgenic” traits in the final section of our website DNA Interactive. Meet four individuals who became objects of the eugenic movement’s zeal to cleanse society of “bad” genes during the first half of the 20th century. Then meet a modern-day heroine for an account of mental illness and the lesson it holds for living in the gene age.


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Freedom Church 04/05/15 – Application: What Does the Text Tell Me To Do? – Video

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Apr 142015

Freedom Church 04/05/15 – Application: What Does the Text Tell Me To Do?
Equipped Luke Vandall – Lincolnton, North Carolina.

By: Freedom Church

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Freedom Church 04/05/15 – Application: What Does the Text Tell Me To Do? – Video

North Liberty police officer spots burning home

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Apr 132015

North Liberty police officer spots burning home

April 13, 2015 | 12:41 pm

NORTH LIBERTY Quick actions and a little luck may have saved a North Liberty home after it was struck by lightning early Monday morning.

According to the North Liberty Fire Department, a police officer spotted the burning home, 395 Carlyle Dr., moments after departing from a different fire call at a home one block away.

North Liberty fire officials said they were on scene within one minute.

First arriving units found flames and smoke coming from the front of the home from the roof eaves, a news release stated.

It was a great save, said North Liberty Fire Department Captain Chris Kochanny.

Officials said everyone inside the house made it out safely, and the house sustained only minor damage as firefighters were able to quickly extinguish the fire.

Firefighters had originally been called out to the 400 block of Carlyle Drive after a homeowner reported hearing a large boom followed by their smoke detectors going off around 1:30 a.m. Monday. No fire was found at that home, according to fire officials.

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North Liberty police officer spots burning home

Pierre Teilhard De Chardin | Designer Children | Prometheism | Euvolution | Transhumanism