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Put in Bay, Put in Bay Hotel, Put in Bay Lodging, Put-in-Bay Ohio

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May 262016

Welcome to Put-in-Bay 2016 and your complete Put in Bay Ohio information source for hotels, lodging, ferryboats, golf carts, camping, boating and home rentals, all located at Put-in-Bay, South Bass Island, Ohio. We are your one-stop shop for Put-in-Bay Reservations and finding out what is on this year’s Calendar of Events.

There is no doubt that Put-in-Bay Ohio is one of the most unique places you will ever visit. Our tiny two by four mile island is dotted with historic homes, the nation’s third tallest monument, quaint restaurants and local pubs. Beautiful water surrounds Put in Bay where you will find the best walleye and perch fishing in the United States.

May 09, 2016 – Put-in-Bay, OH – The NFL Draft Day is now behind us and the Cleveland Browns are looking forward to a great rebuilding season with some top-notch draft picks… (click for details)

May 16, 2016 – Put-in-Bay, OH – It’s that time of year! Entries are now open for the 2016 “Best of the Bay” Awards. Each year, we let you, the island visitor, choose your favorite lodgins, foods, and attractions. (click for entry)

Over 2 million people annually discover the magic of the Bass Islands of Lake Erie. Put-in-Bay Ohio on South Bass Island is the crown jewel of the Lake Erie islands of Ohio. This website will provide you with all the information you need to plan that special Put in Bay getaway with your family or friends. now offers our summer vacation visitors the convenience of a mobile-enhanced website. We are the first and only Put-in-Bay mobile web presence! We have entertainment schedules, a Put-in-bay calendar of events, Jet Express ferry schedules, bars and dining info, shopping lists, and Put in Bay attractions locations. All of which is conveniently located here on our new Mobile Website. Download the Official 2016 Put in Bay Island Visitor Guide & Vacation Planner before you visit!

Beginning in April of each year, visitors flock to Put-in-Bay Ohio for an island retreat. Shopping, boating, perch fishing, walleye fishing, great restaurants (and food reviews), The Roundhouse Bar, and a vibrant nightlife offer something for everyone. Family vacations can be a great learning experience for the kids starting with the ferry to Put in Bay and the many historical events that have taken place on the island.

While exploring, you will learn about the many family activities Put-in-Bay has to offer as well as all the services you may need for your Lake Erie island getaway. We have all the information you need for a great family visit to Put in Bay.

Putinbay, Nicknamed the “Key West of the North” offers an exciting nightlife with live musical entertainment to satisfy all generations. Strolling Barbershop singers, bagpipers, steel drums and Ohio’s best entertainers (such as Pat Dailey and Mike “Mad Dog” Adams) are frequently seen on Put-in-Bay island.

Relax, you’re on island time, explore and be sure to register for our free Put-in-Bay weekend giveaway and monthly newsletter via e-mail where we keep you informed of Put-in-Bay island events.

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North Carolina Beaches – Best Beaches in North Carolina

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May 262016

The best beaches in North Carolina are found along the Outer Bank. The well known Cape Hatteras and Cape Fear are just the beginning of some of the great beaches in North Carolina. Most of the areas mentioned are also places where excellent North Carolina beach rentals can be located for a vacation stay of a weekend or an entire week. Whether you head to one of the major state parks for North Carolina fishing or plan to hide away at a cabin on one of the smaller North Carolina beaches, beaches in North Carolina are often referred to as some of the best on the Atlantic Coast.

Carolina Beach State Park is one great option for a trip to the beach. Although swimming is not allowed at Carolina Beach State Park, this is a popular place to go for sea life enthusiasts. The creatures and surrounding plants (including native Venus Flytraps) make for a great day of walking and exploring. There are also just over 5 miles worth of hiking trails, and many consider this to be one of the best beaches in North Carolina. The beach goes on for about 10 miles, and there is no entrance fee to use the park.

Another of the best beaches in North Carolina is the Wrightsville Beach. Located on the Cape Fear coast near Wilmington and the Cape Fear Museum, Wrightsville Beach is generally packed with swimmers and loungers during the summer. There is no fee imposed for using the beach, and the beach is actually located on an island which is connected to the main shore by a draw bridge. Travelers will find toilet facilities and picnic areas at the beach, but if you go in the summer get there early, especially on the weekend. By lunchtime, the picnic tables and the entire beach is full of people.

Another great choice among North Carolina beaches is Kure Beach. This is one of the best beaches in North Carolina for travelers looking for an un-crowded place to kick back during the summer. Kure Beach is located close to Cape Fear River and is a relaxed place where a nice selection of beachside cafes comes to life mainly during the summer for tourists and local residents. Kill Devil Hills and Nags Head are also popular beaches in North Carolina.

North Carolina beach rentals can be found near or on all of the beaches mentioned above. The Outer Bank is another place to go in general to find great North Carolina beach rentals for a vacation. Note that in North Carolina, swimming is off-limits at some beaches due to high winds and difficult currents. Some beaches might be closed during summer hours when they would normally be open due to inclement weather conditions, so be sure to check your weather report before packing up your beach gear.

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North Carolina Beaches – Best Beaches in North Carolina

Naples Beaches: 10Best Beach Reviews

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May 182016

The number one attraction for visitors to the greater Naples area, its beaches boast pearlescent sugar sand that runs along the gentle Gulf of Mexico from Bonita Beach in the north to the beaches of Marco Island and Ten Thousand Islands in the south.

The beaches range from thriving mid-city beaches with full facilities and water sports rentals galore to quiet natural preserves and a state park, where observing wildlife and chilling take precedence. Broken only occasionally by passes and inlets, they provide long stretches for walking and communing with the sea.

Take your pick from this 10 Best list of family friendly beaches such as Lowdermilk Park, downtown’s Naples Municipal Beach and Pier and even a freshwater lake beach at Sugden Regional Park.

Activities range from sunning and swimming to fishing, jet-skiing, sailing, kayaking and bar hopping. Naples beaches are known for their seashells and rich shore bird life, so don’t forget your shell bag and binoculars. Throw in a shelling and birding field guide while you’re at it.

Whichever variety of beach beckons your inner beach-bum, you are sure to find one that pleases. Or try a different one each day to experience the vast variety Naples has to offer.

Sugden Regional Park The only freshwater lake public beach in the Naples area, Sugden Regional Park is most well known for its sailing events and programs, but the 60-acre Avalon Lake is also a great place for kayaking and water skiing. The park rents water sports equipment including paddle boats. A scenic walking trail takes you around the lake, and visitors also enjoy picnicking, playing on the playground, fishing from the pier and relaxing on the sand beach. Water-skiing and sailing lessons are available at this county maintained facility in a quiet neighborhood on the east side of Naples – including instruction for those with special needs. ((239) 793-4414)

Bonita Beach Park Big Hickory Island holds the community of Bonita Beach, an erstwhile fishing village turned swank. At the island’s southernmost end, beach-lovers come to play. The closest beach to Interstate 75, it attracts a lively crowd of active beach-goers with all sorts of water sports rentals and beach volleyball. Although many come to party at Bonita Beach Park, it is also family friendly with a playground, picnic shelters with tables and grills, beach rentals and a burger joint that feeds you indoors and outdoors. Heading north, you will find about ten more smaller public beach accesses, with free but limited parking, lining Hickory Boulevard. (239-229-0649)

South Marco Beach Public beach access is limited on Marco Island. This one, at the southernmost end of the island, is easiest to get to and find, although there is a bit of a walk from the parking lot on the other side of Collier Boulevard. Marco Island boasts a soft sugar-sand brand of beach, wide and usually teaming with activity volleyball, jet-skiing, parasailing, paddle-boarding, you name it. Set back high-rises line most of the shoreline. Native vegetation grows between development and the sand. The only facilities are restrooms in the parking lot, but there is a restaurant next to the access where you can use the restrooms if you’re eating or drinking. (239-252-4000)

Clam Pass County Park This beach adventure begins with a tram ride across a three-quarter-mile boardwalk through a mangrove estuary, so you get to experience at least two different Naples habitats within minutes. The park fronts the Naples Grande Beach Resort, located adjacent to its parking lot, which means it can be heavily populated, especially in the winter and spring season. The lovely coastal habitat spans 35 acres and also includes a tidal bay area where beachgoers can observe wading shorebirds, osprey and other marine life. Boat and cabana rentals are available at the county-operated facility, plus there are restrooms, showers and a resort food concession. (239-353-0404, 239-252-8999)

Tigertail Beach At Marco Island’s northern end, an island and a sand spit peninsula intercept the sand, stealing the beach from the main island. Coconut Island and Sand Dollar Spit are both accessible from Tigertail Beach, the public access operated by Collier County. Both barrier sand structures are known for their sea shells. Meanwhile at Tigertail, a lagoon has formed at the public access that fills with birds, especially in the morning breakfast hours. The access also has playgrounds, water sports rentals, a food concession and restrooms. To get to Sand Dollar Spit, you can swim across the lagoon or walk south to where it connects to land. From the spit’s north end, Coconut Island is a short walk away. (239-252-4000)

Vanderbilt Beach Vanderbilt Beach in North Naples fronts a line of resorts, including the Ritz-Carlton. The good news is that affords beach-goers venues for bar-hopping and dining. The bad: It gets a little crowded. Plenty of open white sand carpets the beach along the gently lapping Gulf of Mexico. In the quiet early morning hours, beachers can enjoy hunting for sea shells and watching shore birds. You can walk for miles along this stretch, to Clam Pass Preserve Park to the north and along housing developments and residential neighborhoods to the south. Perks such as a concession stand, public restrooms, showers and bike racks appeal to the midday crowd. (239-252-4000)

Lowdermilk Park Lowdermilk Park holds the most full-service facilities of any Gulf of Mexico beach in the Naples area, making it a good fit for families with children. They can gather for picnics in one of the two gazebo pavilions that the park rents out, go check out the duck pond, play on the two playgrounds and enjoy the calm and safe waters here away from any rushing pass waters. Other facilities include sand volleyball courts, restrooms and showers, handicap access and beach wheelchairs and a food concession stand. Its close proximity to the downtown area adds to its convenience for visitors of all ages. (239-597-6196)

Naples Municipal Beach and Pier A staple in the community for more than 100 years, the Naples Fishing Pier is a must-see attraction close to the downtown goings-on around Third Street South. Once the entry point for those who arrived to Naples by boat, the main mode of transportation in the early days, today its importance lies in the recreational rather than practical realm. Six miles of flawless, white sand meets aquamarine waves that lull beach lovers into relaxation. Bring a rod to try fishing off the pier, or just watch as others reel in their catches. The pier and beach never close, and provide the perfect spot to watch the setting sun dip into the endless sea. It’s a nightly ritual for fishermen, strollers, lovers and pelicans. (239-213-1800)

Barefoot Beach Preserve Park This pristine park offers the ideal beach experience complete with tropical hammocks, scenic tidal creeks and lush mangrove swamps. For those who eschew beach crowds, this is usually a good bet, because it is a little trickier to get to – through a neighborhood development mined with speed bumps and roaming gopher tortoises. The 342-acre preserve features a one-mile nature trail, public showers, a picnic area, a concession stand, a butterfly garden and equipment rentals. Rangers give free nature walks and shell talks at the chickee learning center. Its natural, unspoiled quality appeals to wildlife watchers, fishermen and beach bums alike. (239-591-8596, 239-254-4024)

Delnor-Wiggins Pass State Park Recognized as one of the best beaches in the US, the sandy shore at Delnor-Wiggins Pass State Park is all-natural and devoid of the high rises and development of most of the other local beaches. A nature trail leads to an observation tower at the beach’s north end. Fishermen head to the pass to hook into fish being flushed out of the Cocohatchee River. This is a popular park, but you can usually find parking in one of the many lots if you arrive early enough. The park posts a sign on the road leading to it when it is full, but there’s another parking lot less than a quarter mile away if you don’t mind walking. Picnic areas have grills, restrooms and showers. (239-597-6196)

About Chelle Koster Walton

Chelle Koster Walton the Local Expert for Naples, Florida and the Caribbean has been covering the destination for 30 years. Her top-sellingSarasota, Sanibel Island, and Naplesguidebook (Countryman Press) is in its sixth edition. She was contributing editor forCaribbean Travel & Lifefor 12 years and has written guidebooks on the Bahamas. A veteran travel writer, Chelle has published thousands of articles forMiami Herald, USA TODAY, Latitudes;has written/contributed to a dozen guidebooks, and produces travel shows for the local PBS station.

Read more about Chelle Koster Walton here.

Connect with Chelle via: Blog | Facebook | Twitter | Pinterest

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Play NSA Website

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May 162016

Class A EASTERN July 25 – 31, 2016 8U Player Pitch, 10U, 12U, 14U, 16U, 18U NW Indiana

For more information please contact: Bill Horton, North/Central Zone Vice President 810-629-9551


For more information please contact: Bill Horton, North/Central Zone Vice President 810-629-9551


For more information please contact: David Butler, Eastern Zone VP 704-596-2270

Class B SOUTH EASTERN July 12 – 16, 2016 8U, 10U, 12U, 14U, 16U, 18U Clearwater Beach / St. Pete, FL

“Win, lose or go to the beach” Travel Channel’s #1 Florida Beach!

For more information please contact: Pat Affrunti, FL State Youth Director 727-409-9683

John Wisniewski 407-617-4176

Class A & B NORTH WESTERN July 20 – 24, 2016 10U, 12U, 14U, 16U, 18U Tri Cities, WA

For more information please contact: Steve Jensen, WA State Youth Director 360-652-5065

Marty Lalley, Western Zone Vice President

For more information please contact: Chris Myers, Northern CA State Youth Director 916-473-9455

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10 Beaches Across Massachusetts –

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May 152016

Who doesnt love a good beach day? Sand between your toes and the relaxing sound of waves rolling in. But do you find yourself wondering which beach you should go to? If you need beach ideas, heres ten across Massachusetts.

Eric Wilbur

At first glance, the town beach in sleepy Menemsha doesnt appear to be much, but when the lights start to go down over Marthas Vineyard, thats when the show begins. Grab fried clams at the nearby popular shack, The Bite, or steamed lobster from the likes of Menemsha Seafood or Larsens Fish Market and settle in for what many consider to be the best spot to watch a sunset in the entire state. The calmer waves at Menemsha Beach also make this a favorite spot for families with young children. For sure, Menemsha is a more serene, genteel alternative to the busier crowds on most other Vineyard beaches.

Eric Wilbur

Well known on the other island for sunsets is Madaket, located at Nantuckets westernmost point. Sunsets are a seasonal treat here, but so too is an early-morning stroll on the quiet beach. The surf can be heavy, as evidenced by the amount of ocean debris on shore. And even though its easily reached by Nantucket public transportation, a $4 round-trip from Nantucket town, the remoteness can sometimes make you feel as though you know a secret kept from other islanders.

Eric Wilbur

The drive down Route 88 can be a headache on any given day, so do yourself a favor and reach this beach by way of Horseneck Road, which runs parallel. Youll discover rolling farm lands, a winery, and a tranquil alternative to the sometimes maddening rush. Once at Horseneck, youll find ample inexpensive parking ($8 for residents, $14 for non-residents), classic Massachusetts dunes, sparkling, clean sand, and new changing facilities. Birders will love the habitat situated here. Camping is also available nearby, featuring 100 sites. Ocean waves can be rough at times, and seaweed can be plentiful, but Horseneck is still a beautiful spot to spend a beach day.

Eric Wilbur

The fine, white sand at Katama Beach, also known as South Beach, plays well in contrast to the deep blue ocean crashing into it with some ferocity at the shore. The three-mile stretch of land stretches far to both left and right, creating a soothing atmosphere where no land is visible as far as the eye can see a welcome escape. The waves can be a bit more aggressive, which makes it an ideal destination for boogie boarding or body surfing.

Eric Wilbur

The sand is a little whiter and brighter at the tip of the Cape, where Provincetowns crown jewel provides the final stop on the historic Cape Cod National Seashore. The views of the Atlantic Ocean are sweeping, and this is a great spot to make an early destination for a spectacular summer sunrise. Waves tend to be light here on an average day, making it a fine spot for families and those not looking to tangle with seaweed.

Eric Wilbur

Parking can be a real issue, as spaces at the beach are reserved for Manchester-by-the-Sea residents only. But you can find limited metered spots in the nearby downtown area if you beat the crowds, and Singing Beach still gets points for accessibility thanks to the presence of the MBTA commuter rail, just a short walk away. The rocky cliff coast of Singing comes into full view upon arrival, giving the area a feel almost like Maine. The pristine sand makes this a favorite North Shore destination, while the stunning views provide a soothing atmosphere.

Eric Wilbur

Located on the south shore of Nantucket, Cisco Beach is a surfing paradise, with waves just gnarly enough to provide the perfect atmosphere for both beginner and experienced boarders alike. This long stretch of sand is backed on one side by eroding dunes, the other by a cool ocean that boasts a number of wetsuits at any time of day. Beginners can learn the craft from the Nantucket Surfing Co., which is on hand for lessons and rentals. No public transportation to Cisco, reachable only by personal vehicle or taxi. Fare from Nantucket town is generally around $14 for one person, one-way. Each additional person will run a few dollars more.

Eric Wilbur

One of the first stops on the Cape Cod National Seashore, this Eastham favorite places annually on beach guru Dr. Stephen Leathermans list of the top 10 cleanest beaches in the country thanks to pristine ocean conditions, fine, powdery sand, and a concerted effort to protect the nesting piping plovers. Adjacent to the beach youll find miles of salt marshes, providing a dramatic backdrop to a Cape Cod jewel. Plentiful parking is available in the nearby parking lot ($15), from which a free National Seashore shuttle bus will whisk you to the shore. Passes for all National Seashore-run beaches are $45 for the season.

Eric Wilbur

Stare out at the ocean from atop this Wellfleet classics sand cliffs for one of Cape Cods most breathtaking views. Then make your way slowly down the adjacent embankment and it will seem like the beach swallowed you into its beauty. The clay-colored cliffs consume you, as if youve been swallowed up by the surroundings. Be sure to stop for lunch at the Beachcomber atop the cliffs, a typical beachside bar. Tip: Park for the day in the Beachcomber lot for $20; youll receive a food or merchandise voucher for the same amount. If thats full, look for additional parking down the road. As with most popular destinations, parking can be tight, so plan to get there early.

Eric Wilbur

This gorgeous stretch of land on the North Shore features fine powdery sand, clear ocean water, and some impressively clean changing and food facilities. The short walk across the parking lot boardwalk to the beach provides beachgoers with a variety of sights, from the plentiful mounds of sand dunes to the immaculate view of one of the states most beloved summer spots. Parking can be pricey $25 on weekends but spots are normally available if you get there early enough. And since the beach stretches for miles, youre not likely to have a difficult time landing a spot in the sand even on the most crowded summer days. If you want to leave the car behind, consider taking the Ipswich Essex Explorer, from the Ipswich commuter rail station. For just $5 round-trip, the shuttle transports passengers and drops them off right in front of the beacheven if the parking lot is full. The ticket price also covers beach admission.

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best and worst beaches in Massachusetts – Julie A. left tips …

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May 152016

This is my favorite beach on the North Shore. the sand is so soft and fine it’s like powder, and it’s got a lot of mica in it so it’s sparkly and glittery. The beach is kept very clean and for some reason always feels warmer than other North Shore beaches. They have a pretty good consession stand and showers and changing rooms which is a plus if you are traveling a long ways home. The beach has a slow decline, so at low tide you can go out for a mile and still be up to your knees. You can actually bring boogie boards and other ‘floatation devices” and just chill in warm water.

As far as I am concerned the beach is separated into 3 areas. The best part, the Private side. If you are not lucky enough to know someone to get over there, you can always drive your boat to it (because we all have one of those) or walk over at low tide. It’s around the big rocky point on the left. It is way less crowded, even warmer than the public side and goes on for a nice several mile long walk (with a sweet sandbar detour or two) The public side as two areas. The nice sandy area when you first enter the beach. then to the right there are some great rocks and tide pools, marsh area and then a whole other sandy beach area. No one knows about the beach in the back, so no one is ever there! when the sand gets wet it’s turns into quicksand and is fun to walk through. There are 2 weeks in July where the blackheads get a little nasty and annoying, but nothing like at Cranes beach.

This is my favorite beach on the North Shore. the sand is so soft and fine it’s like powder, and it’s got a lot of mica in it so it’s sparkly and glittery. The beach is kept very clean and for some reason always feels warmer than other North Shore beaches. They have a pretty good consession stand and showers and changing rooms which is a plus if you are traveling a long ways home. The beach has a slow decline, so at low tide you can go out for a mile and still be up to your knees. You can actually bring boogie boards and other ‘floatation devices” and just chill in warm water.

As far as I am concerned the beach is separated into 3 areas. The best part, the Private side. If you are not lucky enough to know someone to get over there, you can always drive your boat to it (because we all have one of those) or walk over at low tide. It’s around the big rocky point on the left. It is way less crowded, even warmer than the public side and goes on for a nice several mile long walk (with a sweet sandbar detour or two) The public side as two areas. The nice sandy area when you first enter the beach. then to the right there are some great rocks and tide pools, marsh area and then a whole other sandy beach area. No one knows about the beach in the back, so no one is ever there! when the sand gets wet it’s turns into quicksand and is fun to walk through. There are 2 weeks in July where the blackheads get a little nasty and annoying, but nothing like at Cranes beach.

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best and worst beaches in Massachusetts – Julie A. left tips …

Blue Mesa Reservoir: Colorado Beach |

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May 122016

Updated: 3/21/2016

True, Colorado is a landlocked state, but plenty of Rocky Mountain lakes and reservoirs offer miles of shoreline to swim in and sun yourself by each summer. Blue Mesa Reservoir part of Curecanti National Recreation Area is the state’s largest body of water, which means abundant recreation and lounge-worthy beaches.

As US Hwy. 50 winds through the pinyon-dotted, high-mountain desert between the rural community ofMontroseand the mountain college town ofGunnison, it opens up into a broad landscape of sparkling blue water and talus-sloped hills. Here is the Blue Mesa Reservoir, where the waters of the Gunnison River gather before carving through the steep walls of the Black Canyon of the Gunnison.

Boaters love the 29-mile-long reservoir, which has several arms that lead into secluded canyons. The fishing is legendary, as its stocked with millions of fish each year, and it is home to the largest cokanee salmon fishery in the US.

Colorado’s Blue Mesa Reservoir, near Montrose and Gunnison, CO

And, with camping, windsurfing, waterskiing, hiking, horseback riding and boat tours also vying for attention, it takes a few days to experience it all.

While much of the shoreline is rocky, youll find good swimming areas at the Bay of Chickens, Dry Creek and Old Highway 50 beach. The water is always cool, and theres nothing more refreshing on a hot day spent in the high-altitude sun.

All of these Colorado beaches have plenty of camping nearby so you never have to be too far from the water during the hot summer months.

-Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve:Enjoy the sandy expanses at the base of the tallest dunes in North America nearAlamosa. In springtime, splash away in the gently flowing Medano Creek.

-Boulder Reservoir:One of the larger beaches in Colorado, the swim area is 300 yards of clean sand with views of the famously picturesqueBoulderFlatirons.

-Chatfield State Park:Nestled at the base of the foothills, this reservoir offers a recreation haven just 30 minutes from downtown Denver inLittleton.

-Jackson Lake State Park:ThisFort Morgan-area oasis on the plains is quite shallow, allowing it to warm quickly during the summer.

-John Martin Reservoir State Park:This low-trafficLamarlake offers a peaceful escape perfect for picnicking, swimming, fishing and boating.

-Grand Lake:This massive, glassy lake on the western edge ofRocky Mountain National Parkhas something for everyone and is popular with boaters, waterskiers, anglers and sunbathers.

Plan a two-day itinerary around Gunnison and Crested Butte >>

Discover more great places to drop a fishing line in Colorado >>

Photo Courtesy of the National Park Service/Lisa Lynch.

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Blue Mesa Reservoir: Colorado Beach |

Beaches – Tourism in Chicago

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May 092016

Chicago boasts 26 miles of shoreline, 26 beaches and an 18.5-mile long bike path along Lake Michigan. While most cities build industrially all the way up to their respective lakefronts, Chicago’s remains an open playground to the public.

We’re proud to boast wildlife sanctuaries, golf courses and, of course, beautiful sandy beaches along our celebrated shores.

Located in Jackson Park, 63rd Street Beach is one of Chicago’s oldest and most storied parks. The designers of New York City’s Central Park, Olmsted and Vaux, planned Jackson Park in 1871. By 1888, an area made from granite bricks extended the lakefront, creating a paved beach. In 1899, when Chicago’s innovative Drainage Canal began diverting sewage to other locations, the lakefront became a common sport for public bathing. They were simpler times.

By the early 1900s community planners extended the beach’s sand area by ten acres. An elaborate bathing pavilion was constructed in 1919 and is better known today as the historic 63rd Street Beach House, a celebrated landmark of the area.

In 1909 the North Shore District concentrated its resources on purchasing beachfront real estate and developing a boating basin known as North Shore Park. Less than ten years later the District had acquired nine more acres of lakeshore property, built a small fieldhouse and provided public game rooms. The popularity of the park quickly sky rocketed, bringing droves to the beach in the summer months and filling the ice with skaters in the winter.

In the mid-1930s the Chicago Park District took control of the property and held a contest to choose a new name for the area. Neighborhood residents favored the name Loyola Park, an ode to nearby Loyola University. Over the next half century Loyola Park grew to over 20 acres in size. Today, it’s a central hub for a series of street-end beaches in Rogers Park.

The largest beach in Chicago is a favorite for dog lovers as it contains one of only a pair of Park District-run dog beaches. A fenced off section on the beach’s northern end is open to playful pups who are free to run without a leash once inside the contained area.

The location’s beach house was designed by EV Buchsbaum and, unfortunately, lost the east wing to a fire in the 1950s. Although the east wing was never rebuilt, the house has been remodeled recently with a 3,000-square-foot patio deck and a full service restaurant. Chicago’s July 4th fireworks are held in three locations throughout the city, Montrose Beach hosts the procession for the City’s North Side.

Widely considered Chicago’s trademark beach, North Avenue is conveniently located just north of Downtown Chicago in the picturesque neighborhood of Lincoln Park. Boasting a seven million dollar beach house and the immensely popular Castaways bar, it’s a favorite amongst locals and visitors.

The beach hosts international volleyball tournaments like Volleywood and the AVP Chicago open. It’s also a popular vantage point for the always exciting Chicago Air and Water Show.

The site of the former Miegs Filed airport is now a 91-acre peninsula just south of the Adler Planetarium. The area boasts a 30-acre prairie reserve and, given its proximity to the Lake Michigan, is a popular “hang out” for migratory and resident birds. The prairie was burned for the first time in 2007 to manage invasive plants and encourage native prairie grasses.

In 2005 the city introduced a temporary concert hall that’s reconstructed every year in accordance with the city’s insistence on the area remaining a nature preserve. The venue holds more than 7,000 people and is a popular destination for boaters who seek some from-the-water entertainment. In December of 2010, the Chicago Park District announced its plans for Northerly Island over the next quarter of a century featuring educational themes and year-round use.

In the late 1800s, the construction of a breakwater system at the mouth of the Chicago River led to a buildup of sand just north of the area. As the space grew in size, it became a haven for squatters who claimed the newly formed land as their own. Naturally, this led to a bevy of property disputes.

Most famous, perhaps, is the land quarrel between the City and George Streeter in 1886. Streeter encouraged dumping around a small sandbar, which eventually turned into a sizeable island. He claimed this manmade oasis for himself, sold parcels to nave buyers at the Tremont Hotel, and, to the bafflement of his neighbors, declared the area “The District of Lake Michigan” – neither a part of Chicago or Illinois. This, predictably, triggered a dispute between Streeter and the City that, at times, involved gun fights. Eventually, Streeter was evicted and the island was filled in, giving birth to the micro-neighborhood known today as Streeterville – and the home to Oak Street Beach.

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A Guide to Beaches in the Milwaukee Area

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May 082016

A view from Miwaukee’s South Shore Park. Image by Carrie Trousil

By Carrie Trousil

Updated November 25, 2014.

Milwaukee is located on the west side of Lake Michigan, and where water meets land one will often find a beach. Warm weather brings the people of Brew City flocking to the lakefront hubs of Bradford and McKinley beach, but there are other great beaches dotting our shoreline to the north and south as well. But be warned! Taking a dip in Lake Michigan is nothing like sliding into the warm waters of the Gulf of Mexico, or diving into a heated pool. Be prepared for a “refreshing” experience — especially if you decide to take the Polar Bear Plunge in the middle of winter.

It’s always a good idea to check the water quality at any beach before taking a dip. Check out the WDNR’S Beach Advisories for Great Lakes Beaches website for up-to-date beach water quality monitoring data.

Atwater Beach Where: East Capitol and North Lake Drive, Shorewood Atwater Beach is a north shore beach located in Shorewood that can offer a relatively uncrowded visit.

Atwater recently underwent a concentrated clean-up effort.

Bender Park Where: 4503 E. Ryan Rd., Oak Creek Bender Park is a far southside lakefront gem featuring a safe harbor, boat launch and beach.

Big Bay Park Where: 5000 N. Lake Dr., Whitefish Bay Another nice beach tucked away in Whitefish Bay, Big Bay Park is not recommended for swimming, but is great for soaking in some sun on a hot day.

Bradford Beach Where: 2400 N. Lincoln Memorial Dr., Milwaukee When it’s hot in Milwaukee, the masses flock to Bradford Beach. After undergoing a massive clean-up and concerted efforts by local non-profits, businesses and the County Parks to bring entertainment to this lakeside gem, Bradford Beach is experiencing a renaissance.

Doctors Park / Tietjen Beach Where: 1870 E. Fox Ln., Fox Point Nearly 50 acres set on the bluffs north of Milwaukee, Doctors Park is a great place to work off some calories on the hills before you head down to the beach.

Grant Park Beach Where: 100 S. Hawthorne Ave., South Milwaukee Grant Park Beach is located in Grant Park (surprise!) in South Milwaukee. Hike the Seven Bridges Trail of Grant Park then hit the cold water of Lake Michigan.

Klode Park Where: 5900 N. Lake Dr., Whitefish Bay Located north of downtown Milwaukee in Whitefish Bay, Klode Park offer an uncrowded beach on which to lay a towel in hot weather.

McKinley Beach Where: 1750 N. Lincoln Memorial Dr., Milwaukee You’ll find McKinley Beach south of Bradford Beach on the lakefront. Located on the same stretch of Lincoln Memorial Drive, both are popular warm-weather hang-out spots.

South Shore / Bay View Park Beach Where: 2900 S. Superior St., Milwaukee Located in Bay View, south of downtown, South Shore park is a gem of a park with a sandy beach offering beautiful views of South Shore Yacht Club.

Read the rest here:
A Guide to Beaches in the Milwaukee Area

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Illinois Beaches from including a complete …

 Beaches  Comments Off on Illinois Beaches from including a complete …
May 012016

Central East

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Clinton Lake

Clinton Lake State Recreation Area

Clinton, Illinois

Open Memorial Day – Labor Day

Swimming, Water Skiing, No Pets Allowed, Showers, Restrooms

Effingham Beach

Lake Sara

Effingham, IL

Swimming, Beach Volleyball, Concession

Moraine View State Recreation Area

27374 Moraine View Park Road

LeRoy, IL 61752

(309) 724-8032

Open Memorial Day – Labor Day

Lake Shelbyville Beach

Shelbyville, IL

Public Beaches are at Dam West, Sullivan Beach, Wilborn Creek, and Wolf Creek State Park.

Swimming, Picnicing, Camping, Boating, Hiking, Marina

Central West

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Lake Springfield Beach

Center Park just north of Lyndsay Bridge

Springfield, Illinois

(217) 786-4032

Admission is FREE

Swimming, Fishing, Boating – Canoes, Motorboats, Pontoons, Rowboats, Sailboats

Chicago Area

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. Chicago Park District Beaches

Calumet Beach (9600-9900 South) Chicago, Illinois

Swimming, Fieldhouse, Bathrooms, Beach House, Park Concessions, Baseball Fields, Basketball Court, Bike Racks, Drinking Fountains, Tennis Courts, Launch/Land Site, Parking

Rainbow Park & Beach

East 75th Street & Lake Michigan

Chicago, IL

Swimming, Bathroom, Beach House, Baseball Field, Basketball Courts, Benches, Bike Racks, Drinking Fountain, Spray Pools, Tennis Courts, Dunes, Water Trail Launch/Land Site

South Shore Cultural Center

7059 S. South Shore Drive

Chicago, IL

Cultural Center, Lakefront Trail Starts, Bathroom, Beach House, Benches, Bike Racks, Drinking Fountains, Nature Area, Bird Sanctuary, Dunes and Prairies, Parking

63rd Street Beach House

6400 Street and Lake Shore Drive

Jackson Park

Chicago, IL

Beach House, Bathroom, Subway Sandwiches, Bike Racks, Drinking Fountains, Play Lots, Interactive Spray Fountain, ADA and Stroller Beach Mats, Parking, Serenity Courtyard, Posts, Beach Chairs, Water Trail Launch/Land Site, Jackson Park Harbor, Nature Area, Lagoons, Prairies, Bird Sanctuaries

57th Street Beach

5700 Street South

Chicago, IL

Swimming, Bathroom, Rib Inn

49th Street Beach

4900 Street South

Chicago, IL

Swimming, Bathroom, Drinking Fountain

31st Street Beach

1200 Street South

Chicago, IL

Swimming, Bathroom, Drinking Fountain, Playground, Robinson’s No. 1 Ribs, Tri State Novelty Balloons, ADA and Stroller Mats, Parking, Burnham Skate Park (offers 20,000 square feet of smooth skate surface featuring various “spine”, “pyramids” and “bowls” to accommodate skateboarding stunts as well as curbs, rails and stairs. Pedestrian Underpass, Nature Area, Prairies, Water Trail Launch/Land Site

12th Street Beach

1200 Street South

Chicago, IL

Swimming, Bathroom, Museum Campus Cafe & Ice Cream Shop, Prairie Concessions, Kim & Carol’s Chic Hot Dogs, Classic Carousel, Pretzels & More, Benches, Bike Racks, Drinking Fountains, Pedestrian Underpass

Ohio Street Beach

400 North

Chicago, IL

Swimming, Robinson’s No. 1 Ribs, Shan’s Sunglasses, and Pedestrian Underpass

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Oak Street Beach

1000 North

Chicago, IL

Swimming, Bathroom, Shan’s Sunglasses,Oak Street Beachstro, Volleyball Posts, ADA and Stroller Beach Mat and Pedestrian Underpass

North Avenue Beach

1600 North

Chicago, IL

Swimming, Bathroom, Ship Shaped Beach House, Bike Chicago, North Avenue Beach News, Crunch Fitness, North Avenue Hockey, Shan’s Sunglasses, Sunshine Beach Toys, Stefani’s Castawayas, Benches, Volleyball Posts, Drinking Founains, Pavillion, Parking, ADA and Stroller BEach Mat, Pedestrian Underpass, Lagoons

Wilson Avenue

4800 North

Illinois Beaches from including a complete …

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Portland Area Oregon Beaches –

 Beaches  Comments Off on Portland Area Oregon Beaches –
Apr 302016

The majority of north Oregon coast beaches are within two hours drive of Portland. The spectacular coastline has much to offer its visitors – breathtaking views of unspoiled beaches, sand dunes, and rocky cliffs and miles of nature and hiking trails. Although the north coast waters are too cold for most people to swim, wet-suit surfing is a popular sport on some beaches.

Seaside Beach Seaside is the favorite beach destination of many locals. This popular family-friendly town features a promenade and boardwalk along the beach. The downtown streets are lined with clothing shops, candy stores, arcades and the usual coastal trinket shops.

Cannon Beach Cannon Beach is a more upscale version of Seaside with boutiques, art galleries, coffee shops, and restaurants featuring fresh seafood lining both sides of the main street. Cannon Beach is also home to Haystack Rock – one of the largest monoliths in the world.

Lincoln City Lincoln City is known as one of the top kite-flying destinations in the world. Thousands of people come to this seaside town to watch the gray whales migrate in early spring and again in fall and early winter. Other favorite pastimes are beach-combing, deep-sea fishing, antiquing, and shopping at the Tanger Outlet Mall.

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Portland Area Oregon Beaches –

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Freedom, PA – Freedom, Pennsylvania Map & Directions – MapQuest

 Freedom  Comments Off on Freedom, PA – Freedom, Pennsylvania Map & Directions – MapQuest
Mar 212016

Freedom is a borough in Beaver County, Pennsylvania, United States, along the Ohio River 25 miles (40km) northwest of Pittsburgh. In the early years of the twentieth century, the chief industries were the production of oil, caskets, and monuments. In 1900, 1,783 people lived in Freedom; in 1910, 3,060 people lived there. The population was 1,763 at the 2000 census. In 1824, the Harmony Society returned to Pennsylvania, from Indiana. The society settled in what is now Ambridge, Pennsylvania, five miles (8km) up the Ohio River. One of the reasons the society left Indiana was because of harassment for their abolitionist activities. Their settlement was in Beaver County along the Ohio River. There they founded “konomie,” now better known as Old Economy Village. Here the Society gained worldwide recognition for its religious devotion and economic prosperity. The Harmonites were abolitionists, and began placing signs along the Ohio River with one word, “FREEDOM”. The Harmonites selected this location because the river curves at this point. The river is actually flowing North, so runaway slaves from the South would be traveling up the river. The FREEDOM sign on the river bank was to let runaway slaves know that they had reached freedom (and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania). If the runaway slaves were still in Illinois, Indiana, or Ohio, then slave hunters from Kentucky or Virginia could legally cross the river and capture them. Once in Pennsylvania, the slaves were free.

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Freedom, PA – Freedom, Pennsylvania Map & Directions – MapQuest

Hubble Space Telescope finds most distant galaxy yet – CBS News

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Mar 172016

38 Photos

This image shows the position of the most distant galaxy discovered so far within a deep sky Hubble Space Telescope survey called GOODS North (Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey North). The remote galaxy GN-z11, shown in the inset, existed only 400 million years after the Big Bang, when the Universe was only 3 percent of its current age.

NASA, ESA, and P. Oesch (Yale University)

The Hubble Space Telescope just calculated the distance to the most far-out galaxy ever measured, providing scientists with a look deep into the history of the universe.

The far-away galaxy, named GN-z11, existed a mere 400 million years after the Big Bang, or about 13.3 billion years ago. Because the light from such a distant galaxy must travel huge distances to reach Earth, scientists are seeing the galaxy as it looked over 13 billion years ago. You can see the galaxy in this video from the Hubble Telescope team.

“We’ve taken a major step back in time, beyond what we’d ever expected to be able to do with Hubble. We managed to look back in time to measure the distance to a galaxy when the universe was only 3 percent of its current age,” Pascal Oesch, an astronomer at Yale University and lead author of the research paper announcing the new measurement, said in a statement from the Hubble European Space Agency Information Centre in Germany. [Celestial Photos: Hubble Space Telescope’s Latest Cosmic Views]

19 Photos

For more than 20 Years, the Hubble Space Telescope has been shooting up the universe

Measuring the distance to an extremely far-off cosmic object poses many challenges to scientists, including the fact that the universe is expanding, and has been expanding for nearly all of time. Any distance measurement must take into account exactly how much the space between objects has stretched since an object’s light left and traveled to Earth.

This can get quite complicated. So instead of talking about the distance to cosmic objects in terms of miles, astronomers and astrophysicists will more often refer to when the object existed in the history of the universe.

To determine this for GN-z11, scientists measured the degree to which the light from the galaxy has been shifted by the expanding universe, known as redshift. A higher redshift indicates a more distant object. Previously, the highest redshift ever measured was from the galaxy EGSY8p7, whose redshift was 8.68. The GN-z11 galaxy’s newly measured redshift is a whopping 11.1.

The Dark Ages

If GN-z11 existed 400 million years after the Big Bang, then it belongs to the very first population of stars and galaxies to form in the cosmos. At that time, the universe was just emerging from a period known as the Dark Ages.

“The previous record-holder was seen in the middle of the epoch when starlight from primordial galaxies was beginning to heat and lift a fog of cold, hydrogen gas,” said Rychard Bouwens from the University of Leiden in the Netherlands and a co-author on the new paper. “This transitional period is known as the re-ionisation era. GN-z11 is observed 150 million years earlier, near the very beginning of this transition in the evolution of the Universe.”

This illustration shows a timeline of the universe, stretching from the present day (left) back to the Big Bang, 13.8 billion years ago (right). The newly discovered galaxy GN-z11 is the most distant galaxy discovered so far, at a redshift of 11.1, which corresponds to 400 million years after the Big Bang. The previous record holder’s position is also identified

NASA, ESA, and A. Feild (STScI)

GN-z11 is 25 times smaller than the Milky Way galaxy and has only about 1 percent the total stellar mass of the Milky Way, observations by Hubble at the Spitzer Space Telescope have revealed, the statement said.

“It’s amazing that a galaxy so massive existed only 200 million to 300 million years after the very first stars started to form,” said Garth Illingworth of the University of California, Santa Cruz, a coauthor on the new research paper. “It takes really fast growth, producing stars at a huge rate, to have formed a galaxy that is a billion solar masses so soon.”

GNz11 is forming stars at 20 times the current rate of the Milky Way, the statement said, which is part of why the distant galaxy is bright enough to be observed by telescopes like Hubble and Spitzer.

Marijn Franx, a member of the team from the University of Leiden, said in the statement that previous work suggested galaxies as bright as GN-z11 should not have been able to form at such an early point in the universe’s history.

“The discovery of GN-z11 showed us that our knowledge about the early universe is still very restricted,” said Ivo Labbe, also of the University of Leiden and a co-author on the paper. “How GN-z11 was created remains somewhat of a mystery for now. Probably we are seeing the first generations of stars forming around black holes.”

Researchers said the find provides a hint at the new information that will be revealed by the James Webb Space Telescope, which is set to launch in 2018. The primary mirror on JWST is 16.4 feet (5.4 meters) wide, compared to Hubble’s 7.8-foot-wide (2.4 m) mirror.

The new research paper will be published in the Astrophysical Journal.

Follow Calla Cofield @callacofield. Follow us @Spacedotcom, Facebook and Google+. Original article on All rights reserved.

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Hubble Space Telescope finds most distant galaxy yet – CBS News

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How to Open an Offshore Bank Account in Singapore

 Offshore Banking  Comments Off on How to Open an Offshore Bank Account in Singapore
Mar 132016

Posted on: January 26, 2010 by editor IMPORTANT UPDATE!

Since the publication of this article, it has become a great deal more difficult to open an account in either Hong Kong or Singapore. To find out which jurisdictions are now better options for you, please read our Practical International Banking Guide, in which you will find the names and contact details of individual personnel within banks all around the world.

Singapore is a convenient destination to protect and add value to your international wealth according to the website of one of the 205 banks operating in Singapore today. I couldnt have put it better myself!

Singapore has developed in recent years into a sophisticated private banking and wealth management base for Asia. But besides targeting their traditional but fast growing market of wealthy entrepreneurs in Asia, the best offshore banks in Singapore today are also developing products and services tailored for North Americans, Europeans and Australians, including multi currency accounts.

UPDATE 2015 For the Latest information, names, addresses and contacts, see the latest Offshore International Banking Guide 2015

If this sounds like you, read on to find out about some of the advantages and disadvantages of opening an offshore bank account in Singapore, and learn how to open an offshore bank account as a non-resident. Is Singapore the best offshore banking country for the new decade?

Singapore Banks Among The Best

Typical investors from this latter group are looking for first-world banking services, delivered over the internet in English, in a country that is outside the zone of influence of the United States and the European Union.

One of the worlds most prosperous countries, Singapore today boasts a prominent financial centre and highly developed economy. Its flexible regulatory framework, independent judiciary and practical English-inspired legal system have become the foundations of the countrys success.

In common with most offshore financial centres, interest earned by individuals on bank deposits and foreign sourced income including foreign sourced dividends received on non-Singaporeans securities is exempt from Singapore taxes. Singapore also has no capital gains tax nor estate duty on bank deposits and investments.

Accounts can freely be maintained in all major currencies. These multi currency accounts provide an excellent hedge for those of us who foresee major devaluations of currencies like the dollar and the euro in the months and years ahead.

Accounts may also be opened in the name of foreign entities like corporations, trusts and LLCs, achieving even greater privacy and asset protection benefits, and sometimes legally sidestepping any requirement to report assets as personal holdings.

All these benefits are delivered in a strong bank secrecy regime, helping account holders to protect their investments from prying eyes inside or outside the country. Banking secrecy in Singapore is not just laid down by law, but is part of the national business culture. Indeed, tax authorities in Singapore are specifically blocked from having any access to individual bank accounts.

As in Asia in general, a lot of business in Singapore has traditionally been carried out in cash. This is epitomised by the $10,000 bill, the largest bank note in the world: at current exchange rates (January 2010) one of these bills is worth more than seven thousand US dollars. These days, however, as restrictions on cash are becoming tighter, sophisticated internet banking is becoming the norm.

So, if you are not resident in Singapore how can you access these banking services? Everything starts with opening a basic current, savings or checking account the basis of your banking relationship.

One of the disadvantages of banking in Singapore is that you will need to go there to open an account. Banking regulations do not permit the opening of accounts by mail, unless the client is already known to the bank. The only possible exception to this is opening an account at one of the many banks in Singapore that send officers to visit their wealthier clients in their overseas homes, or have associated offices in other countries. HSBC clients, for example, may be able to open accounts at HSBC in Singapore via their local offices. The above process, however, is not advisable if banking secrecy is important to you since it leaves permanent records of your accounts accessible in other jurisdictions. In any case I always recommend visiting at least once so you can get to know your banker personally.

Apart from that, opening your account should be relatively straightforward. There are few complications. If you choose one of the commercial banks such as DBS Bank or United Overseas Bank, a few hundred dollars will be enough to open an account. If you want a higher level of personal service and are prepared to make a higher deposit, lets say over a hundred thousand dollars or equivalent (bank policies vary widely), contact one of the more discreet private banking operations. I recommend you go for one of the lower profile ones, since they tend to offer the best privacy protection.

A full list of banks operating in Singapore is available on Wikipedia, and you can contact them directly. It is always easier, however, if you have an introduction from a regulated professional who is known to the bank, such as a lawyer, accountant or company formation agent.

My firm can help with that, for example, if you are a Q Wealth member. Membership starts at just $99 per yearso wont break the bank!

In terms of documentation needed to open an offshore account, you will be expected to provide proof of who you are (a copy of your passport), where you live (such as a utility bill) and most importantly of all, proof that the funds come from a legitimate source. For example, if the funds you are depositing were obtained from a real estate sale or from an inheritance, you would show the relevant legal documents to prove this. Finally, it is advisable to take a letter of reference from your bankers at home, introducing you as a responsible account holder. This bank reference may be addressed to whom it may concern.

Note: Peter Macfarlane is editor of the Practical Offshore Banking Guide, an annually updated guide available free to readers of The Q Wealth Report. If you havent got yours yet, sign up today to access this information.

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How to Open an Offshore Bank Account in Singapore

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Freedom | Article about freedom by The Free Dictionary

 Freedom  Comments Off on Freedom | Article about freedom by The Free Dictionary
Feb 272016


1.the quality or state of being free, esp to enjoy political and civil liberties

3.Philosophy the quality, esp of the will or the individual, of not being totally constrained; able to choose between alternative actions in identical circumstances


the human capacity to act in accordance with aims and interests, relying on a knowledge of objective necessity.

In the history of social thought, the problem of freedom was traditionally reduced to the question of whether people have free willin other words, whether their intentions and actions are governed by external circumstances. The materialist conception of history rejects the idealist view of individual freedom as individual consciousness independent of objective circumstances. Marxism also opposes the metaphysical belief that there is an antithesis between freedom and necessitya view that was widely held by philosophers and natural scientists of the 17th through 19th centuries, including T. Hobbes, P. H. Holbach, J. O. de La Mettrier, P. S. de Laplace, and E. Dhring. The Marxist conception of freedom in dialectical interaction with necessity is opposed to voluntarism, which asserts the arbitrary willfulness of human actions, and to fatalism, which regards actions as predetermined. Unlike the idealists, including Hegel and the existentialists, who limit the problem of freedom to the realm of consciousness, Marxism argues that without the possibility of realization, the consciousness of freedom is merely an illusion.

In their everyday activity people encounter not an abstract necessity but its concrete, historical embodiment in existing social and economic relations that determine the range of peoples interests, as well as in the material means for achieving desired goals. People are not free to choose the objective conditions in which they function, but they do possess a certain freedom in their choice of goals, since at any given moment there are usually several real possibilities of varying feasibility. Even when there is no alternative, people are in a position to forestall undesirable developments or hasten desirable ones. In addition, they are more or less free in their choice of the means for attaining a particular end. Thus, freedom is not absolute but relative, and it is made real through the choice of a definite plan of action. The degree of freedom increases as people grow more aware of their real possibilities, as they gain greater access to the means of attaining desired goals, and as their interests coincide more with the aspirations of many other people and especially with those of entire social classes, as well as with the objective trends of social progress.

Based on these considerations, Marxists define freedom as the known necessity. According to this point of view, the freedom of an individual, a group, a class, or an entire society does not consist in an imaginary independence from objective laws but in the ability to choose and to make decisions with knowledge of the subject (F. Engels, Anti-Dhring, 1966, p. 112). The individuals historically relative but practically effective freedom to choose a line of action under various circumstances makes him morally and socially responsible for his actions. Moreover, negative freedom, or freedom from deprivation, exploitation, and social and national oppression is a condition for positive freedom, which is associated with creative work, self-determination, and the comprehensive development of the individual.

Freedom does not mean arbitrary choice. Mans freedom in thought and action does not involve freedom from causality, and freedom is not negated by the causal determination of thoughts, interests, intentions, and actions, because these human capacities are not determined in identical ways. Regardless of the origin of their aims and intentions, people enjoy freedom to the extent that they have the real possibility of exercising a choice or preference that objectively corresponds to their interests and to the extent that external circumstances do not force them to act against personal interests and needs. Abstract freedom does not exist. Freedom is always concrete and relative. Depending on the objective circumstances and the specific situation, people may enjoy freedom or be totally deprived of it. They may have freedom in some spheres of activity but not in others. Moreover, the degree of freedom may vary greatly, from freedom in the choice of goals to freedom in the choice of means or to freedom only to adapt to reality.

In reality, freedom exists in necessity in the form of an unbroken chain of past free choices that have resulted in the present condition of society. Necessity, which exists within freedom in the form of objective circumstances, can only be realized through free action. Consequently, historical determinism does not deny freedom of choice in social action but presupposes it, including it as a result of such action.

According to Marx definition, free conscious activity is a species characteristic distinguishing humans from animals, and the freedom enjoyed in a particular historical epoch is a necessary product of historical development. Engels wrote: The first men who separated themselves from the animal kingdom were in all essentials as unfree as the animals themselves, but each step forward in civilization was a step toward freedom (ibid). Despite all its contradictions and its antagonistic character, social development has generally been accompanied by an expansion of the limits of individual freedom, and ultimately it will result in the liberation of humanity from social restrictions on freedom in classless communist society, where the free development of each is the condition for the free development of all (K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 4, p. 447). If the extent of human freedom is considered a measure of social progress, the pace of social progress depends on the degree of freedom people possess.

The degree of freedom enjoyed in a specific historical epoch is generally defined by the level of development of the productive forces, the extent of peoples knowledge of the objective processes in nature and in society, and the social and political structure of the society. The freedom of the individual always represents merely a portion of the freedom enjoyed by an entire society. In this sense, as Lenin pointed out when he repudiated anarchistic, individualistic conceptions of the freedom of the individual, one cannot live in society and be free from society (Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 12, p. 104).

In antagonistic class society the division of labor, private ownership of the means of production, and the division of society into antagonistic classes result in the domination of particular interests and the spontaneous operation of processes that are beyond peoples control and that are accompanied by social cataclysms. Under such conditions, the reverse side of the freedom of the ruling class to dispose of property, material wealth, and knowledge is the necessity for the exploited class to labor for the enrichment of others and to obey the will of others. In the relations between individuals, the individual freedom of some is eroded by the arbitrary power of others to do as they please. The measure of individual freedom is the extent of private property, which is the main determinant of opportunities for enjoying material and cultural goods. Under these conditions, the freedom of the overwhelming majority is restricted, and at the same time, there is a colossal waste of material and human resources in a society.

Seeking to expropriate for its own use as much as possible of the total freedom potentially available to society as a whole, the ruling class in antagonistic class society has always imposed maximum regimentation on the behavior of the rest of the population by means of various social norms, such as caste systems, social estates, and other hierarchical and legal systems. Such legalized limitations on the behavior of the majority become the condition for the freedom and arbitrary rule of the privileged minority.

Regardless of its ideological form, the peoples struggle against social restrictions on their freedom has been a powerful, driving force for social progress throughout history. Demands for freedom and equality have fueled each other, although they have been justified in different ways by the ideologists of various classes. On the eve of the bourgeois revolutions in Western Europe and North America, these demands took the form of an assertion of the natural right of all people to partake equally in the benefits of civilization, to dispose equally of the fruits of their labor, and to determine their own fate. Under the slogan Liberty, equality, and fraternity, the progressive bourgeoisie led the masses in the struggle against feudalism. However, these principles could not be realized in capitalist society.

The history of capitalism refuted the bourgeois doctrines of freedom, especially the popular, 19th-century liberal ideas of A. Smith, J. Bentham, and J. S. Mill, who argued that maximum restrictions on government, the freedom of the individual to dispose of his private property, and the individuals pursuit of rational self-interest would lead to universal well-being, with the result that the individual freedom of all members of society would flourish. Even in the most advanced capitalist countries, individual freedom is largely a formality, and reactionary forces constantly infringe on the rights won by the masses through stubborn struggle (for example, freedom of speech, freedom of conscience, freedom of organization, and freedom of assembly).

Because it is irresistibly attractive to the broad masses, the slogan of freedom is widely used by bourgeois ideologists for propaganda purposes. For precisely this reason, the phrase the free world is used to designate the capitalist West, and the most reactionary organizations promote their own interests by using the word freedom in a wide variety of contexts. Many bourgeois ideologists, including M. Friedman, H. Wallich, and C. Whittaker, openly counterpose freedom to equality. At the same time, various technocratic and behaviorist theories, which denigrate and even openly reject the freedom of the individual, have become popular in the West. For example, the American social psychologist B. F. Skinner and his followers deny individual freedom and justify the manipulation of peoples consciousness and behavior. With the crisis of bourgeois individualism, with the increasing restriction of individual freedom and disregard for human dignity by the state-monopoly bureaucracy, these theories are attractive to members of the ruling class who wish to suppress democratic rights and strengthen bureaucratic control over the masses. At the same time, these theories are shared by representatives of the liberal intelligentsia and the radical youth, who have become so disillusioned with the traditional values of bourgeois civilization that they are inclined to regard all individual freedom as a sham. From a long-term historical perspective, however, the expansion of freedom is a dialectical, irreversible process moving toward the consistent social and national emancipation of mankind.

The objective conditions for genuine freedom can be realized only through the elimination of the antagonistic relations that private property fosters between people. When planned development replaces the spontaneous processes in society, eliminating most unforeseen economic and social consequences, peoples social activity becomes genuinely free, conscious, creative historical action. According to Engels, in communist society the objective, external forces which have hitherto dominated history will pass under the control of men themselves. It is only from this point that men, with full consciousness, will fashion their own history; it is only from this point that the social causes set in motion by men will have, predominantly and in constantly increasing measure, the effects willed by men. It is humanitys leap from the realm of necessity into the realm of freedom (Anti-Dhring, 1966, p. 288). At the same time, if the maximum degree of individual freedom is to be attained, the goals set by each individual must be consistent with the interests of the rest of the members of society. Thus, every member of society receives genuine opportunities for the comprehensive, full development of his inherent abilities and talents and free access to mankinds storehouse of knowledge, experience, and other cultural values, as well as the leisure time to master this legacy.

The socialist revolution has laid the foundation for the emancipation of people in all spheres of social life. This process has been accelerated by the rapid growth of the productive forces, the development of the scientific and technological revolution, the improvement of social relations, and general cultural progress. In communist society freedom will be embodied in the creation of all the necessary conditions for the comprehensive, harmonious development of the individual. As Marx pointed out, under communism, beyond the realm of necessity (beyond the limits of material production), begins that development of human energy, which is an end in itself, the true realm of freedom, which, however, can blossom only with this realm of necessity as its basis (in K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 25, part 2, p. 387).

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Freedom | Article about freedom by The Free Dictionary

Maryland Route 26 – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 Liberty  Comments Off on Maryland Route 26 – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Feb 242016

Maryland Route 26 (MD 26) is a state highway in the U.S. state of Maryland. Known for most of its length as Liberty Road, the state highways runs 44.10 miles (70.97km) from U.S. Route 15 (US 15) in Frederick east to MD 140 in Baltimore. MD 26 connects Frederick and Baltimore with the highway’s namesake of Libertytown in eastern Frederick County, the suburban area of Eldersburg in southern Carroll County, and the western Baltimore County suburbs of Randallstown, Milford Mill, and Lochearn. The highway also serves as a major thoroughfare in the western part of Baltimore, where the street is named Liberty Heights Avenue. MD 26 is maintained by the Maryland State Highway Administration outside of Baltimore and by the Baltimore City Department of Transportation within the city.

MD 26 follows much of the course of three turnpikes established in the 19th century. The Maryland State Roads Commission marked the portion of the highway from Baltimore to Eldersburg for improvement as one of the original state roads in 1909 and reconstructed the old turnpike in the early to mid-1910s. The FrederickLibertytown segment of Liberty Road was reconstructed in the early 1920s. The remainder of MD 26 between Libertytown and Eldersburg was built in the mid- to late 1920s and early 1930s. MD 26 was one of the original state-numbered highways designated in 1927; however, the FrederickLibertytown portion was marked as MD 31 until 1933. Improvements to the highway at the Baltimore end began in the late 1910s and continued periodically through the 1950s. MD 26 was reconstructed from Frederick to Eldersburg throughout the 1950s, with major work concluding in the early 1960s. Many bypassed portions of the old road became parts of MD 850. MD 26 was extended west to modern US 15 in the late 1950s as a divided highway. That divided highway was extended east to MD 194 in Ceresville in the late 1990s.

MD 26 is a part of the National Highway System as a principal arterial in three separate sections: from US 15 in Frederick east to Israel Creek east of Ceresville; from Emerald Lane west of Eldersburg to Liberty Reservoir east of Eldersburg; and from Lyons Mill Road in Randallstown east to MD 140 in Baltimore.[1][3]

MD 26 begins at a partial trumpet interchange with US 15 (Catoctin Mountain Highway) on the north side of the city of Frederick. There is no access from southbound US 15 to eastbound MD 26. MD 26 heads east as a four-lane divided highway through a mixed commercial and industrial area. The state highway has an intersection with Wormans Mill Road and Routzhan Way and a directional intersection with the northern end of Market Street that allows access to and from MD 26 east. The first intersection, which was formerly MD 355, provides the missing movements from the Market Street intersection. MD 26 intersects Monocacy Boulevard, a partial circumferential highway of Frederick, and passes between a pair of residential subdivisions before crossing the Monocacy River on a pair of dissimilar bridges, the westbound one a through truss bridge. East of the river, the state highway meets the southern end of MD 194 (Woodsboro Pike) at the hamlet of Ceresville. The divided highway continues north as MD 194 toward Woodsboro and MD 26 turns east onto a two-lane road.[1][4]

MD 26 continues east through farmland where it crosses Israel Creek and passes through the village of Mount Pleasant. The state highway forms the main street of Libertytown, where the highway meets the southern end of MD 550 (Woodsboro Road), intersects MD 75 (Church Street), and intersects the western end of MD 31 (New Windsor Road) at the east end of the village. MD 26 crosses Dollyhyde Creek and several branches of the North Fork of Linganore Creek while passing to the north of Unionville and to the south of the historic Pearre-Metcalfe House. The state highway enters Carroll County at its intersection with Buffalo Road where the highway is paralleled by the first of many segments of Old Liberty Road, MD 850, to the south. MD 26 is paralleled by a second section of MD 850 as the highway enters the hamlet of Taylorsville, where it intersects MD 27 (Ridge Road). Two more segments of MD 850 parallel MD 26 through Winfield, which is the home of South Carroll High School.[1][4]

At the west end of the expansive suburban area of Eldersburg, MD 26 is paralleled to the south by the easternmost section of MD 850 and the mainline highway has an interchange with MD 97 (New Washington Road) that consists of a two-way ramp between the two highways in the southwest quadrant of the junction and an exit ramp from westbound MD 26 to MD 97. MD 26 is paralleled by several county-maintained sections of Old Liberty Road as it approaches the center of Eldersburg. West of Wesley Chapel Methodist Episcopal Church, MD 26 expands to a five-lane road with center turn lane. East of the highway’s intersection with MD 32 (Sykesville Road), the highway parallels a few more stretches of Old Liberty Road and passes to the north of the community of Carrolltowne, which contains the historic Moses Brown House. At the east end of Eldersburg, MD 26 reduces to two lanes and crosses a branch of Liberty Reservoir, which is an impoundment of the North Branch of the Patapsco River. The state highway passes through the hamlet of Shervettes Corner, which contains the final segment of Old Liberty Road and Branton Manor, before crossing the mainstem of Liberty Reservoir into Baltimore County.[1][4]

MD 26 passes through the hamlet of Harrisonville and expands to a five-lane road with center turn lane at Deer Park Road at the west end of Randallstown, where the highway passes the Choate House next to Wildwood Park. The state highway intersects Old Court Road before entering the suburb of Milford Mill, where the highway meets Rolling Road. MD 26 expands to a divided highway shortly before its partial cloverleaf interchange with Interstate 695 (Baltimore Beltway). The state highway has a center turn lane within Lochearn, where the highway crosses Gwynns Falls and enters the city of Baltimore. Here, the highway’s name changes to Liberty Heights Avenue.[1][4] MD 26 meets the western end of Northern Parkway and passes through Powder Mill Park just east of the city line. The highway passes Howard Park P.S. 218 in the Howard Park neighborhood and Forest Park High School in the Forest Park area of the city, where the highway expands to a six-lane divided boulevard and continues through Ashburton, the site of Hanlon Park and Lake Ashburton. MD 26 crosses over CSX’s Hanover Subdivision just west of Druid Park Drive and Baltimore City Community College. The highway passes between Liberty Square and the Mondawmin neighborhoodthe latter the site of Mondawmin Mall, the Mondawmin station of the Baltimore Metro Subway, and Coppin State Universitybefore reaching its eastern terminus at MD 140 (Reisterstown Road). Liberty Heights Avenue continues east as an unnumbered street to MD 129 (Auchentoroly Terrace) at Druid Hill Park. There is no left turn from eastbound MD 26 to northbound MD 140; that movement is made via Liberty Heights Avenue and MD 129 or by Druid Park Drive.[2][4]

Much of Liberty Road in Baltimore and Frederick counties originated as a trio of turnpikes. The Frederick and Woodsboro Turnpike ran from its split with the Frederick and Emmitsburg Turnpike north of Frederick east to Ceresville. In Ceresville, the highway split into the Woodsboro and Frederick Turnpike, which headed toward Woodsboro, and the Liberty and Frederick Turnpike, which terminated in Libertytown. The Baltimore and Liberty Turnpike ran from the city of Baltimore west to the Patapsco River.[5] This turnpike was surveyed and reconstructed in 1861, at which time the turnpike’s original bridge over Gwynns Falls was repaired. That bridge lasted until 1868, when it was destroyed by a flood and replaced by the turnpike company with a higher timber bridge.[6]

In 1909, Liberty Road was marked for improvement between Baltimore and Eldersburg as one of the original state roads by the Maryland State Roads Commission.[7] The first section of the highway improved was in Baltimore County from the existing city limit of Baltimore near what is now Grenada Avenue west to what is now Rogers Avenue; that section was constructed as a 16-to-18-foot (4.9 to 5.5m) wide tarred macadam road in 1911.[6][8] The portion of Liberty Heights Avenue from the city line east to Callaway Avenue was reconstructed in 1915 as a 50-foot (15m) wide street with vitrified brick and sheet asphalt surface.[6] The section between Callaway Avenue and Reisterstown Road was underway by 1914 and completed shortly after 1916; this section included a bridge over the Western Maryland Railway with a roadway width of 40 feet (12m).[6][9]

Construction on Liberty Road outside of Baltimore continued in 1914, when a new concrete arch span was constructed over Gwynns Falls as part of the 14-foot (4.3m) wide macadam section from Rogers Avenue west to Old Court Road completed in 1915. Another 14-foot (4.3m) wide macadam road was built from Eldersburg to the Patapsco River, with a new reinforced concrete bridge over the river, in 1915.[6] The state road from Baltimore to Eldersburg was completed shortly after 1916 with the addition of a 3-mile (4.8km) concrete road from the Patapsco River to the west end of Randallstown and macadam resurfacing of the old turnpike through Randallstown to Old Court Road.[9][10]

At the west end of Liberty Road, the highway from Frederick to Libertytown was paved in macadam by 1921.[10] This highway was originally marked as MD 31 when the Maryland State Roads Commission first numbered state highways in 1927.[11] The portion of MD 31 west of Libertytown became an extension of MD 26 by 1933.[12] The gap between Eldersburg and Libertytown was gradually constructed as a concrete road. The highway was constructed from Eldersburg to Dorsey Crossroads, the site of the modern MD 97 junction, by 1923.[13] MD 26 was extended through Winfield in 1924 and 1925.[11][14] The concrete road was extended to just east of Taylorsville in 1928, the same year a new section of the highway was paved through Unionville.[15] The road to Taylorsville was completed and the Unionville concrete road was extended east in 1930.[16][17] The final sections of MD 26 between Baltimore and Frederick were completed in 1933, the same year a steel through truss bridge was constructed over the Monocacy River to replace the vulnerable old bridge at Ceresville.[12][18]

Widening of MD 26 began shortly after the first sections were built. Liberty Heights Avenue was widened with 3-foot (0.91m) concrete shoulders starting in 1918.[9] Concrete shoulders were added to Liberty Road through Baltimore County and west to Eldersburg by 1926; the highway’s macadam surface was also widened from US 15 to Ceresville in that time span.[14] MD 26 from Baltimore to Randallstown had been widened again, to 20 feet (6.1m), by 1930, and was recommended to be widened again to 30 feet (9.1m) in 1934.[16][18] The highway was widened to 22 feet (6.7m) in width in 1945.[19] MD 26 received a new steel beam bridge with a 26-foot (7.9m) wide roadway over the Patapsco River at North Branch in 1938.[20] That bridge was replaced in 1954 when Liberty Reservoir was filled; the highway was also widened and resurfaced from Randallstown to the bridge in 1952.[21][22]

Modernization of MD 26 in Frederick County began in 1949 with a pair of projects on either side of Libertytown.[23] The highway was rebuilt with relocations through Mount Pleasant in 1950 and a bypass of Unionville, replacing what is now Unionville Road, was completed in 1951.[24] MD 26 was widened and resurfaced through Libertytown starting in 1954.[21] Reconstruction work continued into Carroll County when the highway was rebuilt from Liberty Reservoir west to Eldersburg starting in 1954 and from the eastern end of the Unionville relocation to Taylorsville beginning in 1956.[25] In 1957, work began on relocating, widening, and resurfacing MD 26 through Eldersburg and between Taylorsville and Winfield.[26] The final section of MD 26 in Carroll County to be placed in its modern form was from Winfield to Eldersburg, which was completed in 1962 with a grade separation and interchange ramps at the MD 97 junction.[27] Sections of the old Liberty Road became segments of MD 850 as they were bypassed.

MD 26 was extended west as a divided highway from Market Street in Frederick to modern US 15 when that highway was completed in 1959.[28] MD 26 was reconstructed as a divided highway from Market Street (then part of MD355) in Frederick to Ceresville between 1997 and 1999.[29][30] This work involved the construction of a parallel bridge across the Monocacy River to complement the old truss bridge.[31] In addition, the MD26MD194 intersection was reconfigured so the primary movement through the intersection is between MD26 to the west and MD194 to the north; the southernmost portion of MD194 became an extension of the MD26 divided highway.[30] This configuration was chosen because two-thirds of traffic passing through the intersection was between Frederick and Woodsboro.[30]

Route map: Bing / Google

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Caribbean – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 Islands  Comments Off on Caribbean – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Feb 172016

Caribbean Area 2,754,000km2 (1,063,000sqmi) Land area 239,681km2 (92,541sqmi) Population (2009) 39,169,962[1] Density 151.5/km2 (392/sqmi) Ethnic groups Afro-Caribbean, White Caribbean, Indo-Caribbean, Chinese Caribbean,Middle Eastern-Caribbean,[2]Arawak (Kalinago, Tano) Demonym Caribbean, Caribbean person, West Indian Languages Spanish, English, French, Dutch, French Creole, English Creole, Caribbean Hindustani, among others Government 13 sovereign states 17 dependent territories Largest cities List of metropolitan areas in the West Indies Santo Domingo Havana Port-au-Prince Santiago de los Caballeros Kingston Santiago de Cuba San Juan Holgun Cap-Hatien Fort-de-France Port of Spain Internet TLD Multiple Calling code Multiple Time zone UTC-5 to UTC-4

The Caribbean ( or ; Spanish: Caribe; Dutch: Caraben(helpinfo); Caribbean Hindustani: (Kairibiyana); French: Carabe or more commonly Antilles) is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean), and the surrounding coasts. The region is southeast of the Gulf of Mexico and the North American mainland, east of Central America, and north of South America.

Situated largely on the Caribbean Plate, the region comprises more than 700 islands, islets, reefs, and cays. (See the list.) These islands generally form island arcs that delineate the eastern and northern edges of the Caribbean Sea.[3] The Caribbean islands, consisting of the Greater Antilles on the north and the Lesser Antilles on the south and east (including the Leeward Antilles), are part of the somewhat larger West Indies grouping, which also includes the Lucayan Archipelago (comprising The Bahamas and Turks and Caicos Islands) north of the Greater Antilles and Caribbean Sea. In a wider sense, the mainland countries of Belize, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana are also included.

Geopolitically, the Caribbean islands are usually regarded as a subregion of North America[4][5][6][7][8] and are organized into 30 territories including sovereign states, overseas departments, and dependencies. From December 15, 1954, to October 10, 2010 there was a country known as the Netherlands Antilles composed of five states, all of which were Dutch dependencies.[9] While from January 3, 1958, to May 31, 1962, there was also a short-lived country called the Federation of the West Indies composed of ten English-speaking Caribbean territories, all of which were then British dependencies. The West Indies cricket team continues to represent many of those nations.

The region takes its name from that of the Caribs, an ethnic group present in the Lesser Antilles and parts of adjacent South America at the time of the Spanish conquest.[10]

The two most prevalent pronunciations of “Caribbean” are KARR–BEE-n, with the primary accent on the third syllable, and k-RIB-ee-n, with the accent on the second. The former pronunciation is the older of the two, although the stressed-second-syllable variant has been established for over 75 years.[11] It has been suggested that speakers of British English prefer KARR–BEE-n while North American speakers more typically use k-RIB-ee-n,[12] although not all sources agree.[13] Usage is split within Caribbean English itself.[14]

The word “Caribbean” has multiple uses. Its principal ones are geographical and political. The Caribbean can also be expanded to include territories with strong cultural and historical connections to slavery, European colonisation, and the plantation system.

The geography and climate in the Caribbean region varies: Some islands in the region have relatively flat terrain of non-volcanic origin. These islands include Aruba (possessing only minor volcanic features), Barbados, Bonaire, the Cayman Islands, Saint Croix, the Bahamas, and Antigua. Others possess rugged towering mountain-ranges like the islands of Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, Dominica, Montserrat, Saba, Saint Kitts, Saint Lucia, Saint Thomas, Saint John, Tortola, Grenada, Saint Vincent, Guadeloupe, Martinique, and Trinidad & Tobago.

Definitions of the terms Greater Antilles and Lesser Antilles often vary. The Virgin Islands as part of the Puerto Rican bank are sometimes included with the Greater Antilles. The term Lesser Antilles is often used to define an island arc that includes Grenada but excludes Trinidad and Tobago and the Leeward Antilles.

The waters of the Caribbean Sea host large, migratory schools of fish, turtles, and coral reef formations. The Puerto Rico trench, located on the fringe of the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea just to the north of the island of Puerto Rico, is the deepest point in all of the Atlantic Ocean.[16]

The region sits in the line of several major shipping routes with the Panama Canal connecting the western Caribbean Sea with the Pacific Ocean.

The climate of the area is tropical to subtropical in Cuba, The Bahamas and Puerto Rico. Rainfall varies with elevation, size, and water currents (cool upwellings keep the ABC islands arid). Warm, moist tradewinds blow consistently from the east creating rainforest/semidesert divisions on mountainous islands. Occasional northwesterlies affect the northern islands in the winter. The region enjoys year-round sunshine, divided into ‘dry’ and ‘wet’ seasons, with the last six months of the year being wetter than the first half.

Hurricane Season is from June to November, but they occur more frequently in August and September and more common in the northern islands of the Caribbean.Hurricanes that sometimes batter the region usually strike northwards of Grenada and to the west of Barbados. The principal hurricane belt arcs to northwest of the island of Barbados in the Eastern Caribbean.

Water temperatures vary from 31C (88F) to 22C (72F) all around the year. The air temperature is warm, in the 20s and 30s C (70s, 80s, and 90s F) during the year, only varies from winter to summer about 25 degrees on the southern islands and about 1020 degrees difference can occur in the northern islands of the Caribbean. The northern islands, like the Bahamas, Cuba, Puerto Rico, and The Dominican Republic, may be influenced by continental masses during winter months, such as cold fronts.

Aruba: Latitude 12N

Puerto Rico: Latitude 18N

Cuba: at Latitude 22N

Greater Antilles

Lesser Antilles

All islands at some point were, and a few still are, colonies of European nations; a few are overseas or dependent territories:

The British West Indies were united by the United Kingdom into a West Indies Federation between 1958 and 1962. The independent countries formerly part of the B.W.I. still have a joint cricket team that competes in Test matches, One Day Internationals and Twenty20 Internationals. The West Indian cricket team includes the South American nation of Guyana, the only former British colony on the mainland of that continent.

In addition, these countries share the University of the West Indies as a regional entity. The university consists of three main campuses in Jamaica, Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago, a smaller campus in the Bahamas and Resident Tutors in other contributing territories such as Trinidad.

Islands in and near the Caribbean

Maritime boundaries between the Caribbean (island) nations

The Caribbean islands are remarkable for the diversity of their animals, fungi and plants, and have been classified as one of Conservation International’s biodiversity hotspots because of their exceptionally diverse terrestrial and marine ecosystems, ranging from montane cloud forests to cactus scrublands. The region also contains about 8% (by surface area) of the world’s coral reefs[22] along with extensive seagrass meadows,[23] both of which are frequently found in the shallow marine waters bordering island and continental coasts off the region.

For the fungi, there is a modern checklist based on nearly 90,000 records derived from specimens in reference collections, published accounts and field observations.[24] That checklist includes more than 11250 species of fungi recorded from the region. As its authors note, the work is far from exhaustive, and it is likely that the true total number of fungal species already known from the Caribbean is higher. The true total number of fungal species occurring in the Caribbean, including species not yet recorded, is likely far higher given the generally accepted estimate that only about 7% of all fungi worldwide have been discovered.[25] Though the amount of available information is still small, a first effort has been made to estimate the number of fungal species endemic to some Caribbean islands. For Cuba, 2200 species of fungi have been tentatively identified as possible endemics of the island;[26] for Puerto Rico, the number is 789 species;[27] for the Dominican Republic, the number is 699 species;[28] for Trinidad and Tobago, the number is 407 species.[29]

Many of the ecosystems of the Caribbean islands have been devastated by deforestation, pollution, and human encroachment. The arrival of the first humans is correlated with extinction of giant owls and dwarf ground sloths.[30] The hotspot contains dozens of highly threatened animals (ranging from birds, to mammals and reptiles), fungi and plants. Examples of threatened animals include the Puerto Rican amazon, two species of solenodon (giant shrews) in Cuba and the Hispaniola island, and the Cuban crocodile.

The region’s coral reefs, which contain about 70 species of hard corals and between 500700 species of reef-associated fishes[31] have undergone rapid decline in ecosystem integrity in recent years, and are considered particularly vulnerable to global warming and ocean acidification.[32] According to a UNEP report, the caribbean coral reefs might get extinct in next 20 years due to population explosion along the coast lines, overfishing, the pollution of coastal areas and global warming.[33]

Some Caribbean islands have terrain that Europeans found suitable for cultivation for agriculture. Tobacco was an important early crop during the colonial era, but was eventually overtaken by sugarcane production as the region’s staple crop. Sugar was produced from sugarcane for export to Europe. Cuba and Barbados were historically the largest producers of sugar. The tropical plantation system thus came to dominate Caribbean settlement. Other islands were found to have terrain unsuited for agriculture, for example Dominica, which remains heavily forested. The islands in the southern Lesser Antilles, Aruba, Bonaire and Curaao, are extremely arid, making them unsuitable for agriculture. However, they have salt pans that were exploited by the Dutch. Sea water was pumped into shallow ponds, producing coarse salt when the water evaporated.[34]

The natural environmental diversity of the Caribbean islands has led to recent growth in eco-tourism. This type of tourism is growing on islands lacking sandy beaches and dense human populations.[35]

The Martinique amazon, Amazona martinicana, is an extinct species of parrot in the Psittacidae family.

At the time of European contact, the dominant ethnic groups in the Caribbean included the Tano of the Greater Antilles and northern Lesser Antilles, the Island Caribs of the southern Lesser Antilles, and smaller distinct groups such as the Guanajatabey of western Cuba and the Ciguayo of western Hispaniola. The population of the Caribbean is estimated to have been around 750,000 immediately before European contact, although lower and higher figures are given. After contact, social disruption and epidemic diseases such as smallpox and measles (to which they had no natural immunity)[36] led to a decline in the Amerindian population.[37] From 1500 to 1800 the population rose as slaves arrived from West Africa[38] such as the Kongo, Igbo, Akan, Fon and Yoruba as well as military prisoners and captured slaves from Ireland, who were deported during the Cromwellian reign in England.[39] Immigrants from Britain, Italy, France, Spain, the Netherlands, Portugal and Denmark also arrived, although the mortality rate was high for both groups.[40]

The population is estimated to have reached 2.2 million by 1800.[41] Immigrants from India, China, and other countries arrived in the 19th century.[42] After the ending of the Atlantic slave trade, the population increased naturally.[43] The total regional population was estimated at 37.5 million by 2000.[44]

The majority of the Caribbean has populations of mainly Africans in the French Caribbean, Anglophone Caribbean and Dutch Caribbean, there are minorities of mixed-race and European peoples of Dutch, English, French, Italian and Portuguese ancestry. Asians, especially those of Chinese and Indian descent, form a significant minority in the region and also contribute to multiracial communities. All of their ancestors arrived in the 19th century as indentured laborers.

The Spanish-speaking Caribbean have primarily mixed race, African, or European majorities. Puerto Rico has a European majority with a mixture of European-African (mulatto), and a large West African minority. One third of Cuba’s (largest Caribbean island) population is of African descent, with a sizable Mulatto (mixed AfricanEuropean) population, and European majority. The Dominican Republic has the largest mixed race population, primarily descended from Europeans, West Africans, and Amerindians.

Larger islands such as Jamaica, have a very large African majority, in addition to a significant mixed race, Chinese, Europeans, Indian, Lebanese, Latin American, and Syrian populations. This is a result of years of importation of slaves and indentured labourers, and migration. Most multi-racial Jamaicans refer to themselves as either mixed race or Brown. The situation is similar for the Caricom states of Belize, Guyana, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad and Tobago has a multi-racial cosmopolitan society due to the arrival of the Africans, Indians, Chinese, Syrians, Lebanese, Native Amerindians and Europeans. This multi-racial mix has created sub-ethnicities that often straddle the boundaries of major ethnicities and include Chindian, Mulatto and Dougla.

Spanish, English, French, Dutch, Haitian Creole, and Papiamento are the predominant official languages of various countries in the region, though a handful of unique creole languages or dialects can also be found from one country to another.

Christianity is the predominant religion in the Caribbean (84.7%).[45] Other religious groups in the region are Hinduism, Islam, Buddhist, Rastafari, and Afro-American religions such as Santera and Vodou.

Caribbean societies are very different from other Western societies in terms of size, culture, and degree of mobility of their citizens.[46] The current economic and political problems the states face individually are common to all Caribbean states. Regional development has contributed to attempts to subdue current problems and avoid projected problems. From a political and economic perspective, regionalism serves to make Caribbean states active participants in current international affairs through collective coalitions. In 1973, the first political regionalism in the Caribbean Basin was created by advances of the English-speaking Caribbean nations through the institution known as the Caribbean Common Market and Community (CARICOM)[47] which is located in Guyana.

Certain scholars have argued both for and against generalizing the political structures of the Caribbean. On the one hand the Caribbean states are politically diverse, ranging from communist systems such as Cuba toward more capitalist Westminster-style parliamentary systems as in the Commonwealth Caribbean. Other scholars argue that these differences are superficial, and that they tend to undermine commonalities in the various Caribbean states. Contemporary Caribbean systems seem to reflect a “blending of traditional and modern patterns, yielding hybrid systems that exhibit significant structural variations and divergent constitutional traditions yet ultimately appear to function in similar ways.”[48] The political systems of the Caribbean states share similar practices.

The influence of regionalism in the Caribbean is often marginalized. Some scholars believe that regionalism cannot exist in the Caribbean because each small state is unique. On the other hand, scholars also suggest that there are commonalities amongst the Caribbean nations that suggest regionalism exists. “Proximity as well as historical ties among the Caribbean nations has led to cooperation as well as a desire for collective action.”[49] These attempts at regionalization reflect the nations’ desires to compete in the international economic system.[49]

Furthermore, a lack of interest from other major states promoted regionalism in the region. In recent years the Caribbean has suffered from a lack of U.S. interest. “With the end of the Cold War, U.S. security and economic interests have been focused on other areas. As a result there has been a significant reduction in U.S. aid and investment to the Caribbean.”[50] The lack of international support for these small, relatively poor states, helped regionalism prosper.

Following the Cold War another issue of importance in the Caribbean has been the reduced economic growth of some Caribbean States due to the United States and European Union’s allegations of special treatment toward the region by each other. [clarification needed]

The United States under President Bill Clinton launched a challenge in the World Trade Organization against the EU over Europe’s preferential program, known as the Lom Convention, which allowed banana exports from the former colonies of the Group of African, Caribbean and Pacific states (ACP) to enter Europe cheaply.[51] The World Trade Organization sided in the United States’ favour and the beneficial elements of the convention to African, Caribbean and Pacific states has been partially dismantled and replaced by the Cotonou Agreement.[52]

During the US/EU dispute, the United States imposed large tariffs on European Union goods (up to 100%) to pressure Europe to change the agreement with the Caribbean nations in favour of the Cotonou Agreement.[53]

Farmers in the Caribbean have complained of falling profits and rising costs as the Lom Convention weakens. Some farmers have faced increased pressure to turn towards the cultivation of illegal drugs, which has a higher profit margin and fills the sizable demand for these illegal drugs in North America and Europe.[54][55]

The European Union has also taken issue with US based taxation extended to US companies via the Caribbean countries.[when?] The United States has not been in favor of shutting off the practice yet, mainly due to the higher costs that would be passed on to US companies via taxation.[citation needed] Caribbean countries have largely countered the allegations by the OECD by signing more bilateral information sharing deals with OECD members, thus reducing the dangerous aspects of secrecy, and they have strengthened their legislation against money laundering and on conditions under which companies can be based in their nations.[citation needed] The Caribbean nations have also started to more closely cooperate in the Caribbean Financial Action Task Force and other instruments to add oversight of the offshore industry.

One of the most important associations that deal with regionalism amongst the nations of the Caribbean Basin has been the Association of Caribbean States (ACS). Proposed by CARICOM in 1992, the ACS soon won the support of the other countries of the region. It was founded in July 1994. The ACS maintains regionalism within the Caribbean on issues unique to the Caribbean Basin. Through coalition building, like the ACS and CARICOM, regionalism has become an undeniable part of the politics and economics of the Caribbean. The successes of region-building initiatives are still debated by scholars, yet regionalism remains prevalent throughout the Caribbean.

The President of Venezuela, Hugo Chavez launched an economic group called the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas (ALBA), which several eastern Caribbean islands joined. In 2012, the nation of Haiti, with 9 million people, became the largest CARICOM nation that sought to join the union.[56]

Here are some of the bodies that several islands share in collaboration:

Coordinates: 143132N 754906W / 14.52556N 75.81833W / 14.52556; -75.81833

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Georgia Barrier Islands – Georgia Island Beaches

 Islands  Comments Off on Georgia Barrier Islands – Georgia Island Beaches
Feb 142016

The segment of the Georgia Barrier Islands runs along the east coast of the state, from the St Mary’s River bordering Florida and Georgia to Tybee Island where the Savannah River and Atlantic Ocean meet. Barrier Islands are found along most of the Eastern seaboard from Florida to Maine with the Georgia islands totaling fourteen.

The Georgia Islands begin with Cumberland Island and also include Little Cumberland, Jekyll, St. Simons, Sea Island, Little St Simons, Wolf, Sapelo, St. Catherine’s, Ossabaw Island, Wassaw, and Williamson Islands. The northernmost island in the chain is Tybee Island, one of the most popular beach destinations in the state.

Little St. Simons is also a premier vacation destination for vacationers wanting to get away from it all and enjoy a private vacation along Georgia island beaches. The privately owned island encompasses 10,000 acres and is home to a variety of trees and plant life, along with endangered and threatened species of birds. Dolphins, otters, and whales can sometimes be seen in the waters around the island.

A vacation to the Georgia Barrier Islands provides dramatic ocean views, luxury hotels, fine dining, spas, relaxation, and privacy. You can also spend time on the sugar-white Georgia Island beaches for quiet strolls, horseback riding, and romantic sunsets. Guests can arrange for a day trip to the island from the mainland for hiking, touring, or boating, and there are also options for overnight stays. Make plans ahead of time when traveling to Little St. Simon’s Island, however, as only a limited number of guests are allowed on the island at one time.

Cumberland Island, at the southern base of the Georgia Barrier Islands chain, is home to a diverse natural ecological setting with hardwood forests of oak trees and pine in the north, along with saltwater marshes supporting numerous species of fish and birds. There are seventeen miles of white Georgia Island beaches along this lovely island, making it a perennially popular destination in Georgia.

At nearby Crooked River State Park, the 500 acres provide hiking trails that will take you through areas filled with wildlife, including assorted birds, turtles, and alligators. Saltwater fishing, kayaking, boating, and miniature golf are available at the park, and RV and trailer camping is available along with individual rental cottages, making it an excellent fit for travelers who want to spend several days on the Barrier Islands.

The northernmost area of the Georgia Islands is Tybee Island, situated along the Savannah River. There are numerous things to do at Tybee for vacationers interested in outdoor excursions, due to the 100-acre Tybee National Wildlife Refuge providing birdwatchers and hikers with plenty of opportunities for sightseeing. The Tybee Island Pier & Pavilion is a great place for picnics and fishing, and at the Tybee Island Marine Science Center, you can take a one-hour guided walk along the beach to learn about the local environment. Those interested in history can also visit the Tybee Lighthouse, built in 1736 and still in use today.

At Jekyll Island, vacationers will have miles of Georgia island beaches and dunes to explore. In the nineteenth century, the island was a retreat for the rich and famous, and today visitors can tour the Jekyll Island Historic District. The district encompasses 240 acres of restored homes, chapels, cottages, and stables, displaying examples of Victorian and Gothic architecture, as well as Tiffany stained glass. In August, the island holds the annual Beach Music Festival, which lasts for three days and includes music, barbecue, dancing, wine tasting, and a golf tournament.

Whichever one you choose to visit, the Barrier Islands in Georgia are an excellent vacation destination for travelers who want to spend time outside and enjoy the beautiful beaches and coastline of this part of the US.

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Georgia Barrier Islands – Georgia Island Beaches

NSA Annapolis

 NSA  Comments Off on NSA Annapolis
Feb 132016

Welcome to Naval Support Activity Annapolis! NSA Annapolis is located across the Severn River from the US Naval Academy and is charged with delivering base operating support services to tenant commands. These include the United States Naval Academy, North Severn complex, Chesapeake Bay Detachment in Randle Cliff, MD, and Navy Operational Support Center in Baltimore, MD. NSA Annapolis includes over 1,500 acres and more than 400 buildings.

The Fleet & Family Readiness (FFR)Programs at NSA Annapolis can help you make the most of your visit or choice of relocation in the Annapolis area. Whether you’re here for just a short time or more permanently, we know you’ll enjoy working and recreating in this beautiful area. FFR facilities are here for use by active duty, retired military, active reservists, current and retired Department of Defense civilian employees (Civil Service and non-appropriated), active duty Coast Guard, family members in all of these categories, Midshipmen at the Naval Academy and USNA DoD contractors. We hope you’ll visit our facilities and take advantage of the many and varied activities and services we offer. FFR programs include Morale, Welfare and Recreation (MWR), Child and Youth Programs, Fleet and Family Support Program, Family and Bachelor Housing, and Navy Gateway Inns and Suites. We hope that you will become active in our FFR programs at NSA Annapolis. The staff at our facilities welcome you!

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NSA Annapolis

Channel Islands of California – Wikipedia, the free …

 Islands  Comments Off on Channel Islands of California – Wikipedia, the free …
Feb 122016

The Channel Islands of California are a chain of eight islands located in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of Southern California along the Santa Barbara Channel in the United States of America. Five of the islands are part of Channel Islands National Park, and the waters surrounding these islands make up Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary. The islands were first colonized by the Chumash and Tongva Native Americans 13,000 years ago, who were then displaced by European settlers who used the islands for fishing and agriculture. The U.S. military uses the islands as training grounds, weapons test sites, and as a strategic defensive location. The Channel Islands and the surrounding waters house a diverse ecosystem with many endemic species and subspecies.

The eight islands are split among the jurisdictions of three separate California counties: Santa Barbara County (four), Ventura County (two), and Los Angeles County (two). The islands are divided into two groupsthe Northern Channel Islands and the Southern Channel Islands. The four Northern Islands used to be a single landmass known as Santa Rosae.

The archipelago extends for 160 miles (257km) between San Miguel Island in the north and San Clemente Island in the south. Together, the islands land area totals 221,331 acres (89,569ha), or about 346 square miles (900km2).

Five of the islands (San Miguel, Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, Anacapa, and Santa Barbara) were made into the Channel Islands National Park in 1980. The Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary encompasses the waters six nautical miles (11 kilometers) off Anacapa, Santa Cruz, San Miguel, Santa Rosa, and Santa Barbara islands.

Santa Catalina Island is the only one of the eight islands with a significant permanent civilian settlementthe resort city of Avalon, California, and the unincorporated town of Two Harbors.

Natural seepage of oil occurs at several places in the Santa Barbara Channel.[1] Tar balls or pieces of tar in small numbers are found in the kelp and on the beaches. Native Americans used naturally occurring tar, bitumen, for a variety of purposes which include roofing, waterproofing, paving and some ceremonial purposes.[2]

The Channel Islands at low elevations are virtually frost-free and constitute one of the few such areas in the 48 contiguous US states. It snows only rarely, on higher mountain peaks.

Separated from the California mainland throughout recent geological history, the Channel Islands provide the earliest evidence for human seafaring in the Americas. It is also the site of the discovery of the earliest paleontological evidence of humans in North America.[3] The Northern Channel Islands are now known to have been settled by maritime Paleo Indian peoples at least 13,000 years ago. Archaeological sites on the island provide a unique and invaluable record of human interaction with Channel Island marine and terrestrial ecosystems from the late Pleistocene to historic times. Historically, the northern islands were occupied by the island Chumash, while the southern islands were occupied by the Tongva. Scott O’Dell has had a book written about the indigenous peoples living on the island, Island of the Blue Dolphins. Aleuts hunters visited the islands to hunt otters in the early 1800s. The Aleuts purportedly clashed with the native Chumash, killing many over trading disputes. Aleut interactions with the natives were also detailed in O’Dell’s book.[4]

The Chumash and Tongva were removed from the islands in the early 19th century, taken to Spanish missions and pueblos on the adjacent mainland. For a century, the Channel Islands were used primarily for ranching and fishing activities, which had significant impacts on island ecosystems, including the local extinction of sea otters, bald eagles, and other species. With most of the Channel Islands now managed by federal agencies or conservation groups, the restoration of the island ecosystems has made significant progress.Several of the islands were used by whalers in the 1930s to hunt for sperm whales.[5]

In 1972, the Brown Berets seized and claimed the islands for Mexico, citing the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, a treaty between Mexico and the USA by which Mexico lost more than half of its territory, and arguing that the treaty does not specifically mention the Channel Islands nor the Farallon Islands. Though the United States had occupied them since 1852, the group speculated that Mexico could claim the islands and seek their return through litigation before the International Court of Justice. However, a detailed analysis of its situation puts in doubt the likelihood of Mexico winning the case at the International Court of Justice.[6]The Channel Islands National Park’s mainland visitor center received 342,000 visitors in 2014. The Channel Islands itself attracts around 70,000 tourists a year, most during the summer.[7] Visitors can travel to the islands via public boat or airplane transportation. Camping grounds are available on Anacapa, Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, San Miguel, and Santa Barbara Islands in the Channel Islands National Park. Attractions include whale watching, hikes, snorkeling, kayaking and camping.[8]

The United States Navy controls San Nicolas Island and San Clemente Island, and has installations elsewhere in the chain. During World War II all of Southern Californias Channel Islands were put under military control, including the civilian-populated Santa Catalina where tourism was halted and established residents needed permits to travel to and from the mainland.[9] San Miguel Island was used as a bombing range[10] and Santa Barbara Island as an early warning outpost under the presumed threat of a Japanese attack on California.[11] San Clemente Island was used to train the Navy’s first amphibious force to prepare for Pacific combat against the Japanese in World War II.[12] San Nicolas Island has been used since 1957 as a launch pad for research rockets. San Nicolas was considered out of eight possible locations as the site of the Trinity nuclear test.[13] Santa Rosa Island was used in 1952 as a base for the USAF 669th AC&W Squadron and they operated two Distant Early Warning FPS-10 radars from the hilltops there. In 1955 another FPS-3 search radar was added, and in 1956, a GPS-3 search radar was installed. A new MPS-14 long-range height-finder radar was installed in 1958. The base was shut down in March 1963, when the 669th was moved to Vandenberg AFB In Lompoc, California. The islands still house US Navy SEALs training facilities and continues to use the Naval Auxiliary Landing Field located on San Clemente Island.[12]

The Channel Islands are part of one of the richest marine ecosystems of the world. Many unique species of plants and animals are endemic to the Channel Islands, including fauna such as the Channel Islands spotted skunk, ashy storm-petrel, Santa Cruz sheep, and flora including a unique subspecies of Torrey pine.

Flora on the Channel Islands include a unique subspecies of pine, oak, and the island tree mallow. Santa Rosa Island holds two groves of the Torrey pine subspecies Pinus torreyana var. insularis, which is endemic to the island. Torrey pines are the United States’ rarest pine species.[14] The islands also house many rare and endangered species of plants, including the island barberry, the island rushrose, and the Santa Cruz Island lace pod. Giant kelp forests surround the islands and act as a source of nutrition and protection for other animals.[15]

Invasive species, such as the Australian blue gum tree, olive tree, sweet fennel and Harding grass threaten native species through competition for light, nutrients, and water. The Australian blue gum, for example, releases toxins in its leaf litter which prevents other species of plants from growing in the soil surrounding it. The blue gum, as well as other species including the Harding grass, are much more flammable and better adapted to wildfires than native species.[16]

The Channel Islands and the waters surrounding hold many endemic species of animals, including fauna such as the Channel Islands spotted skunk, island scrub jay, ashy storm-petrel, Santa Cruz sheep, San Clemente loggerhead shrike, San Clemente sage sparrow. Many species of large marine mammals, including pacific gray whales, blue whales, humpback whales, and California sea lions breed or feed close to the Channel Islands. Current occurrences, if still happen, of the critically endangered North Pacific right whales, and historically abundant Steller’s sea lions in these areas are unknown. Seabirds, including the western gulls, bald eagles, pigeon guillemonts, and Scripps’s murrelets use the islands as well for shelter and breeding grounds. The endemic island fox is California’s smallest natural canine and has rebounded from its near extinction in the late 1990s. Several endemic reptile species including the island fence lizard, island night lizard, and Channel Islands slender salamander live on the islands.[17]

Conservation efforts are being made to maintain the islands’ endemic species. Feral livestock, including pigs, goats, and sheep, pose a threat to many of the species, including the San Clemente loggerhead shrike and Channel Islands spotted skunk. The National Park Service eradicated the feral pigs on Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz islands during the 1990s and on Santa Catalina Island in 2007.[4][18] Introduced pathogens have devastated island species due to isolation from the mainland. In 1998, an outbreak of canine distemper swept through Santa Catalina Island severely reducing the island skunk and fox populations. Rabies and distemper vaccination programs were initiated to protect the island’s wildlife. Canine distemper is thought to have been brought to the islands on a stowaway raccoon or a domestic dog.[19]

In the 1950s, bald eagles and peregrine falcons on the Channel Islands became locally extinct after widespread use of pesticides such as DDT.[20] The birds ingest contaminated fish and seabirds which poisons the adults and weakens their eggs. Golden eagles, which are natural competitors of other birds of prey, do not primarily feed on these animals and were able to colonize the islands in the early 1990s. In the early 2000s, golden eagles were live trapped and relocated.[21] In 2002 and 2006 breeding pairs of bald eagles were reintroduced to the northern islands.[22] Later in 2006, the introduced adult eagles hatched chicks on the islands for the first time since their extinction. The Channel Islands National Park established a bald eagle webcam on their website in 2007.[4]

Coordinates: 340058N 1194814W / 34.01611N 119.80389W / 34.01611; -119.80389

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Channel Islands of California – Wikipedia, the free …

Pierre Teilhard De Chardin | Designer Children | Prometheism | Euvolution