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Dallas Fort Worth SEO Internet Marketing Company | Dallas SEO

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Nov 022015

Internet Marketing Company

In todays world of online searching, no business can ignore the importance of internet marketing. That is why we provide quality SEO services for small businesses who want to gain visibility in their local market. Through proper search engine optimization your site can rise to the top and dominate your online market. We are a Dallas / Fort Worth SEO company that serves businesses across the nation. We work with a variety of budgets and business types such as HVAC, Plumbing, Roofing, Bail and more. We are not new to the SEO industry and have a proven track record of helping businesses succeed online. We can help your company reach the top 10 in search engine results on giants like Google, Yahoo and Bing. With this increased visibility, your company will garner new leads. This organic optimization yields the best return on investment of any marketing dollar you can spend.

If you are ready to begin, the following is our easy process of getting started. We never ask our clients to commit to a long term contract, in fact you can remain with us on a month to month basis. And we dont charge start up fees or have any hidden costs.

With the large number of SEO companies out there who all claim to provide you with amazing results, how do you know who to trust? The following are all reasons you should choose Dallas Fort Worth SEO as your internet marketing company in Dallas:

Although proper SEO work is an in-depth process and involves more details than ever meet the eye, there are some fundamental principles that make up the basics of SEO. We are experts in these basic SEO components and we include all of the following important aspects of proper SEO in our work:

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Dallas Fort Worth SEO Internet Marketing Company | Dallas SEO

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Dallas SEO Staff – Web Design – Garland, TX – Reviews …

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Nov 022015


Dallas SEO Staff works solely with small and medium business in the Dallas Texas area. We specialize in getting companies who service a local to regional market promoted in search engine rankings through white hat organic Search Engine Optimization. We stay up to date with recent algorithm updates and industry best practices and we have developed proprietary methods of ranking websites on page one. Our optimization process includes on page SEO such as optimized content, images, menu structure, etc; off page SEO such as link building and marketing through third party site (such as Groupon or Yelp); Development optimization which includes streamlining code for faster page speed and to allow Google to see your site easier.

Established in 1998.

Back in the days of link farms and keyword spammers we started an ethical honest approach to search engine optimization. And it’s paid off. While some “black hat” techniques helped other sites early on, they are all sunk while our sites continue to gain traction and better rankings. We started with clean deign and development code and as search engines became smarter we had to evolve to understand and optimize our sites for the growing technology. Now in the days of Panda, Penguin, Hummingbird and Pigeon (Google updates) our client’s sites are reaping the benefit of decades of honest “white hat” SEO practices.

Growing up I loved building things with Legos, drawing painting and taking things apart to see how they worked. As I grew up, I started down the science and technology path in high school, but I loved my art classes which fueled my hobby of painting and sculpting. In college I entered the engineering program at Ohio University. During my 5+ years there I took several art classes including computer design. That was around the time the Internet became widely used as forums and chat rooms, then became visual and corporations started building websites. This was a perfect mix of technology and art for me! When I graduated I got a job as a web designer and quickly moved into development. It didn’t take long before sites like AOL, Yahoo and Google came on the scene and changed everything. I learned all I could about how these websites could keep track of every other website and associate them with a term or phrase I searched from my home computer. I’m out of space, so you’ll have to call…

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Dallas SEO Staff – Web Design – Garland, TX – Reviews …

 NSA  Comments Off on
Nov 012015

The National Security Agency (NSA) is an intelligence organization of the United States government, responsible for global monitoring, collection, and processing of information and data for foreign intelligence and counterintelligence purposes a discipline known as signals intelligence (SIGINT). NSA is concurrently charged with protection of U.S. government communications and information systems against penetration and network warfare.[8][9] Although many of NSA’s programs rely on “passive” electronic collection, the agency is authorized to accomplish its mission through active clandestine means,[10] among which are physically bugging electronic systems[11] and allegedly engaging in sabotage through subversive software.[12][13] Moreover, NSA maintains physical presence in a large number of countries across the globe, where its Special Collection Service (SCS) inserts eavesdropping devices in difficult-to-reach places. SCS collection tactics allegedly encompass “close surveillance, burglary, wiretapping, breaking and entering”.[14][15]

Unlike the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), both of which specialize primarily in foreign human espionage, NSA does not unilaterally conduct human-source intelligence gathering, despite often being portrayed so in popular culture. Instead, NSA is entrusted with assistance to and coordination of SIGINT elements at other government organizations, which are prevented by law from engaging in such activities without the approval of the NSA via the Defense Secretary.[16] As part of these streamlining responsibilities, the agency has a co-located organization called the Central Security Service (CSS), which was created to facilitate cooperation between NSA and other U.S. military cryptanalysis components. Additionally, the NSA Director simultaneously serves as the Commander of the United States Cyber Command and as Chief of the Central Security Service.

Originating as a unit to decipher coded communications in World War II, it was officially formed as the NSA by Harry S. Truman in 1952. Since then, it has become one of the largest of U.S. intelligence organizations in terms of personnel and budget,[6][17] operating as part of the Department of Defense and simultaneously reporting to the Director of National Intelligence.

NSA surveillance has been a matter of political controversy on several occasions, such as its spying on anti-Vietnam war leaders or economic espionage. In 2013, the extent of the NSA’s secret surveillance programs was revealed to the public by Edward Snowden. According to the leaked documents, the NSA intercepts the communications of over a billion people worldwide and tracks the movement of hundreds of millions of people using cellphones. Internationally, research has pointed to the NSA’s ability to surveil the domestic internet traffic of foreign countries through “boomerang routing”.[18]

The origins of the National Security Agency can be traced back to April 28, 1917, three weeks after the U.S. Congress declared war on Germany in World War I. A code and cipher decryption unit was established as the Cable and Telegraph Section which was also known as the Cipher Bureau and Military Intelligence Branch, Section 8 (MI-8). It was headquartered in Washington, D.C. and was part of the war effort under the executive branch without direct Congressional authorization. During the course of the war it was relocated in the army’s organizational chart several times. On July 5, 1917, Herbert O. Yardley was assigned to head the unit. At that point, the unit consisted of Yardley and two civilian clerks. It absorbed the navy’s cryptoanalysis functions in July 1918. World War I ended on November 11, 1918, and MI-8 moved to New York City on May 20, 1919, where it continued intelligence activities as the Code Compilation Company under the direction of Yardley.[19][20]

MI-8 also operated the so-called “Black Chamber”.[22] The Black Chamber was located on East 37th Street in Manhattan. Its purpose was to crack the communications codes of foreign governments. Jointly supported by the State Department and the War Department, the chamber persuaded Western Union, the largest U.S. telegram company, to allow government officials to monitor private communications passing through the company’s wires.[23]

Other “Black Chambers” were also found in Europe. They were established by the French and British governments to read the letters of targeted individuals, employing a variety of techniques to surreptitiously open, copy, and reseal correspondence before forwarding it to unsuspecting recipients.[24]

Despite the American Black Chamber’s initial successes, it was shut down in 1929 by U.S. Secretary of State Henry L. Stimson, who defended his decision by stating: “Gentlemen do not read each other’s mail”.[21]

During World War II, the Signal Security Agency (SSA) was created to intercept and decipher the communications of the Axis powers.[25] When the war ended, the SSA was reorganized as the Army Security Agency (ASA), and it was placed under the leadership of the Director of Military Intelligence.[25]

On May 20, 1949, all cryptologic activities were centralized under a national organization called the Armed Forces Security Agency (AFSA).[25] This organization was originally established within the U.S. Department of Defense under the command of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.[26] The AFSA was tasked to direct Department of Defense communications and electronic intelligence activities, except those of U.S. military intelligence units.[26] However, the AFSA was unable to centralize communications intelligence and failed to coordinate with civilian agencies that shared its interests such as the Department of State, Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI).[26] In December 1951, President Harry S. Truman ordered a panel to investigate how AFSA had failed to achieve its goals. The results of the investigation led to improvements and its redesignation as the National Security Agency.[27]

The agency was formally established by Truman in a memorandum of October 24, 1952, that revised National Security Council Intelligence Directive (NSCID) 9.[28] Since President Truman’s memo was a classified document,[28] the existence of the NSA was not known to the public at that time. Due to its ultra-secrecy the U.S. intelligence community referred to the NSA as “No Such Agency”.[29]

In the 1960s, the NSA played a key role in expanding America’s commitment to the Vietnam War by providing evidence of a North Vietnamese attack on the American destroyer USSMaddox during the Gulf of Tonkin incident.[30]

A secret operation code-named “MINARET” was set up by the NSA to monitor the phone communications of Senators Frank Church and Howard Baker, as well as major civil rights leaders including Dr. Martin Luther King, and prominent U.S. journalists and athletes who criticized the Vietnam War.[31] However the project turned out to be controversial, and an internal review by the NSA concluded that its Minaret program was “disreputable if not outright illegal.”[31]

In the aftermath of the Watergate Scandal, a congressional hearing in 1975 led by Sen. Frank Church[32] revealed that the NSA, in collaboration with Britain’s SIGINT intelligence agency Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ), had routinely intercepted the international communications of prominent anti-Vietnam war leaders such as Jane Fonda and Dr. Benjamin Spock.[33] Following the resignation of President Richard Nixon, there were several investigations of suspected misuse of FBI, CIA and NSA facilities.[34] Senator Frank Church uncovered previously unknown activity,[34] such as a CIA plot (ordered by the administration of President John F. Kennedy) to assassinate Fidel Castro.[35] The investigation also uncovered NSA’s wiretaps on targeted American citizens.[36]

After the Church Committee hearings, the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 was passed into law. This was designed to limit the practice of mass surveillance in the United States.[34]

In 1986, the NSA intercepted the communications of the Libyan government during the immediate aftermath of the Berlin discotheque bombing. The White House asserted that the NSA interception had provided “irrefutable” evidence that Libya was behind the bombing, which U.S. President Ronald Reagan cited as a justification for the 1986 United States bombing of Libya.[37][38]

In 1999, a multi-year investigation by the European Parliament highlighted the NSA’s role in economic espionage in a report entitled ‘Development of Surveillance Technology and Risk of Abuse of Economic Information’.[39] That year, the NSA founded the NSA Hall of Honor, a memorial at the National Cryptologic Museum in Fort Meade, Maryland.[40] The memorial is a, “tribute to the pioneers and heroes who have made significant and long-lasting contributions to American cryptology”.[40] NSA employees must be retired for more than fifteen years to qualify for the memorial.[40]

In the aftermath of the September 11 attacks, the NSA created new IT systems to deal with the flood of information from new technologies like the internet and cellphones. ThinThread contained advanced data mining capabilities. It also had a ‘privacy mechanism’; surveillance was stored encrypted; decryption required a warrant. The research done under this program may have contributed to the technology used in later systems. ThinThread was cancelled when Michael Hayden chose Trailblazer, which did not include ThinThread’s privacy system.[42]

Trailblazer Project ramped up in 2002. SAIC, Boeing, CSC, IBM, and Litton worked on it. Some NSA whistleblowers complained internally about major problems surrounding Trailblazer. This led to investigations by Congress and the NSA and DoD Inspectors General. The project was cancelled in early 2004; it was late, over budget, and didn’t do what it was supposed to do. The Baltimore Sun ran articles about this in 200607. The government then raided the whistleblowers’ houses. One of them, Thomas Drake, was charged with violating 18 U.S.C.793(e) in 2010 in an unusual use of espionage law. He and his defenders claim that he was actually being persecuted for challenging the Trailblazer Project. In 2011, all 10 original charges against Drake were dropped.[43][44]

Turbulence started in 2005. It was developed in small, inexpensive ‘test’ pieces rather than one grand plan like Trailblazer. It also included offensive cyber-warfare capabilities, like injecting malware into remote computers. Congress criticized Turbulence in 2007 for having similar bureaucratic problems as Trailblazer.[44] It was to be a realization of information processing at higher speeds in cyberspace.[45]

The massive extent of the NSA’s spying, both foreign and domestic, was revealed to the public in a series of detailed disclosures of internal NSA documents beginning in June 2013. Most of the disclosures were leaked by former NSA contractor, Edward Snowden.

It was revealed that the NSA intercepts telephone and internet communications of over a billion people worldwide, seeking information on terrorism as well as foreign politics, economics[46] and “commercial secrets”.[47] In a declassified document it was revealed that 17,835 phone lines were on an improperly permitted “alert list” from 2006 to 2009 in breach of compliance, which tagged these phone lines for daily monitoring.[48][49][50] Eleven percent of these monitored phone lines met the agency’s legal standard for “reasonably articulable suspicion”(RAS).[48][51]

A dedicated unit of the NSA locates targets for the CIA for extrajudicial assassination in the Middle East.[52] The NSA has also spied extensively on the European Union, the United Nations and numerous governments including allies and trading partners in Europe, South America and Asia.[53][54]

The NSA tracks the locations of hundreds of millions of cellphones per day, allowing them to map people’s movements and relationships in detail.[55] It reportedly has access to all communications made via Google, Microsoft, Facebook, Yahoo, YouTube, AOL, Skype, Apple and Paltalk,[56] and collects hundreds of millions of contact lists from personal email and instant messaging accounts each year.[57] It has also managed to weaken much of the encryption used on the Internet (by collaborating with, coercing or otherwise infiltrating numerous technology companies), so that the majority of Internet privacy is now vulnerable to the NSA and other attackers.[58][59]

Domestically, the NSA collects and stores metadata records of phone calls,[60] including over 120 million US Verizon subscribers[61] as well as internet communications,[56] relying on a secret interpretation of the Patriot Act whereby the entirety of US communications may be considered “relevant” to a terrorism investigation if it is expected that even a tiny minority may relate to terrorism.[62] The NSA supplies foreign intercepts to the DEA, IRS and other law enforcement agencies, who use these to initiate criminal investigations. Federal agents are then instructed to “recreate” the investigative trail via parallel construction.[63]

The NSA also spies on influential Muslims to obtain information that could be used to discredit them, such as their use of pornography. The targets, both domestic and abroad, are not suspected of any crime but hold religious or political views deemed “radical” by the NSA.[64]

According to a report in The Washington Post in July 2014, relying on information furnished by Snowden, 90% of those placed under surveillance in the U.S. are ordinary Americans, and are not the intended targets. The newspaper said it had examined documents including emails, message texts, and online accounts, that support the claim.[65]

Despite President Obama’s claims that these programs have congressional oversight, members of Congress were unaware of the existence of these NSA programs or the secret interpretation of the Patriot Act, and have consistently been denied access to basic information about them.[66] Obama has also claimed that there are legal checks in place to prevent inappropriate access of data and that there have been no examples of abuse;[67] however, the secret FISC court charged with regulating the NSA’s activities is, according to its chief judge, incapable of investigating or verifying how often the NSA breaks even its own secret rules.[68] It has since been reported that the NSA violated its own rules on data access thousands of times a year, many of these violations involving large-scale data interceptions;[69] and that NSA officers have even used data intercepts to spy on love interests.[70] The NSA has “generally disregarded the special rules for disseminating United States person information” by illegally sharing its intercepts with other law enforcement agencies.[71] A March 2009 opinion of the FISC court, released by court order, states that protocols restricting data queries had been “so frequently and systemically violated that it can be fairly said that this critical element of the overall … regime has never functioned effectively.”[72][73] In 2011 the same court noted that the “volume and nature” of the NSA’s bulk foreign internet intercepts was “fundamentally different from what the court had been led to believe”.[71] Email contact lists (including those of US citizens) are collected at numerous foreign locations to work around the illegality of doing so on US soil.[57]

Legal opinions on the NSA’s bulk collection program have differed. In mid-December 2013, U.S. District Court Judge Richard Leon ruled that the “almost-Orwellian” program likely violates the Constitution, and wrote, “I cannot imagine a more ‘indiscriminate’ and ‘arbitrary invasion’ than this systematic and high-tech collection and retention of personal data on virtually every single citizen for purposes of querying and analyzing it without prior judicial approval. Surely, such a program infringes on ‘that degree of privacy’ that the Founders enshrined in the Fourth Amendment. Indeed, I have little doubt that the author of our Constitution, James Madison, who cautioned us to beware ‘the abridgement of freedom of the people by gradual and silent encroachments by those in power,’ would be aghast.”[74]

Later that month, U.S. District Judge William Pauley ruled that the NSA’s collection of telephone records is legal and valuable in the fight against terrorism. In his opinion, he wrote, “a bulk telephony metadata collection program [is] a wide net that could find and isolate gossamer contacts among suspected terrorists in an ocean of seemingly disconnected data” and noted that a similar collection of data prior to 9/11 might have prevented the attack.[75]

An October 2014 United Nations report condemned mass surveillance by the United States and other countries as violating multiple international treaties and conventions that guarantee core privacy rights.[76]

On March 20, 2013 the Director of National Intelligence, Lieutenant General James Clapper, testified before Congress that the NSA does not wittingly collect any kind of data on millions or hundreds of millions of Americans, but he retracted this in June after details of the PRISM program were published, and stated instead that meta-data of phone and internet traffic are collected, but no actual message contents.[77] This was corroborated by the NSA Director, General Keith Alexander, before it was revealed that the XKeyscore program collects the contents of millions of emails from US citizens without warrant, as well as “nearly everything a user does on the Internet”. Alexander later admitted that “content” is collected, but stated that it is simply stored and never analyzed or searched unless there is “a nexus to al-Qaida or other terrorist groups”.[67]

Regarding the necessity of these NSA programs, Alexander stated on June 27 that the NSA’s bulk phone and Internet intercepts had been instrumental in preventing 54 terrorist “events”, including 13 in the US, and in all but one of these cases had provided the initial tip to “unravel the threat stream”.[78] On July 31 NSA Deputy Director John Inglis conceded to the Senate that these intercepts had not been vital in stopping any terrorist attacks, but were “close” to vital in identifying and convicting four San Diego men for sending US$8,930 to Al-Shabaab, a militia that conducts terrorism in Somalia.[79][80][81]

The U.S. government has aggressively sought to dismiss and challenge Fourth Amendment cases raised against it, and has granted retroactive immunity to ISPs and telecoms participating in domestic surveillance.[82][83] The U.S. military has acknowledged blocking access to parts of The Guardian website for thousands of defense personnel across the country,[84][85] and blocking the entire Guardian website for personnel stationed throughout Afghanistan, the Middle East, and South Asia.[86]

The NSA is led by the Director of the National Security Agency (DIRNSA), who also serves as Chief of the Central Security Service (CHCSS) and Commander of the United States Cyber Command (USCYBERCOM) and is the highest-ranking military official of these organizations. He is assisted by a Deputy Director, who is the highest-ranking civilian within the NSA/CSS.

NSA also has an Inspector General, head of the Office of the Inspector General (OIG), a General Counsel, head of the Office of the General Counsel (OGC) and a Director of Compliance, who is head of the Office of the Director of Compliance (ODOC).[87]

Unlike other intelligence organizations such as CIA or DIA, NSA has always been particularly reticent concerning its internal organizational structure.

As of the mid-1990s, the National Security Agency was organized into five Directorates:

Each of these directorates consisted of several groups or elements, designated by a letter. There were for example the A Group, which was responsible for all SIGINT operations against the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, and G Group, which was responsible for SIGINT related to all non-communist countries. These groups were divided in units designated by an additional number, like unit A5 for breaking Soviet codes, and G6, being the office for the Middle East, North Africa, Cuba, Central and South America.[89][90]

As of 2013[update], NSA has about a dozen directorates, which are designated by a letter, although not all of them are publicly known. The directorates are divided in divisions and units starting with the letter of the parent directorate, followed by a number for the division, the sub-unit or a sub-sub-unit.

The main elements of the organizational structure of the NSA are:[91]

In the year 2000, a leadership team was formed, consisting of the Director, the Deputy Director and the Directors of the Signals Intelligence (SID), the Information Assurance (IAD) and the Technical Directorate (TD). The chiefs of other main NSA divisions became associate directors of the senior leadership team.[99]

After president George W. Bush initiated the President’s Surveillance Program (PSP) in 2001, the NSA created a 24-hour Metadata Analysis Center (MAC), followed in 2004 by the Advanced Analysis Division (AAD), with the mission of analyzing content, internet metadata and telephone metadata. Both units were part of the Signals Intelligence Directorate.[100]

The NSA maintains at least two watch centers:

The number of NSA employees is officially classified[4] but there are several sources providing estimates. In 1961, NSA had 59,000 military and civilian employees, which grew to 93,067 in 1969, of which 19,300 worked at the headquarters at Fort Meade. In the early 1980s NSA had roughly 50,000 military and civilian personnel. By 1989 this number had grown again to 75,000, of which 25,000 worked at the NSA headquarters. Between 1990 and 1995 the NSA’s budget and workforce were cut by one third, which led to a substantial loss of experience.[103]

In 2012, the NSA said more than 30,000 employees worked at Ft. Meade and other facilities.[2] In 2012, John C. Inglis, the deputy director, said that the total number of NSA employees is “somewhere between 37,000 and one billion” as a joke,[4] and stated that the agency is “probably the biggest employer of introverts.”[4] In 2013 Der Spiegel stated that the NSA had 40,000 employees.[5] More widely, it has been described as the world’s largest single employer of mathematicians.[104] Some NSA employees form part of the workforce of the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO), the agency that provides the NSA with satellite signals intelligence.

As of 2013 about 1,000 system administrators work for the NSA.[105]

The NSA received criticism early on in 1960 after two agents had defected to the Soviet Union. Investigations by the House Un-American Activities Committee and a special subcommittee of the House Armed Services Committee revealed severe cases of ignorance in personnel security regulations, prompting the former personnel director and the director of security to step down and leading to the adoption of stricter security practices.[106] Nonetheless, security breaches reoccurred only a year later when in an issue of Izvestia of July 23, 1963, a former NSA employee published several cryptologic secrets.

The very same day, an NSA clerk-messenger committed suicide as ongoing investigations disclosed that he had sold secret information to the Soviets on a regular basis. The reluctance of Congressional houses to look into these affairs had prompted a journalist to write “If a similar series of tragic blunders occurred in any ordinary agency of Government an aroused public would insist that those responsible be officially censured, demoted, or fired.” David Kahn criticized the NSA’s tactics of concealing its doings as smug and the Congress’ blind faith in the agency’s right-doing as shortsighted, and pointed out the necessity of surveillance by the Congress to prevent abuse of power.[106]

Edward Snowden’s leaking of PRISM in 2013 caused the NSA to institute a “two-man rule” where two system administrators are required to be present when one accesses certain sensitive information.[105] Snowden claims he suggested such a rule in 2009.[107]

The NSA conducts polygraph tests of employees. For new employees, the tests are meant to discover enemy spies who are applying to the NSA and to uncover any information that could make an applicant pliant to coercion.[108] As part of the latter, historically EPQs or “embarrassing personal questions” about sexual behavior had been included in the NSA polygraph.[108] The NSA also conducts five-year periodic reinvestigation polygraphs of employees, focusing on counterintelligence programs. In addition the NSA conducts aperiodic polygraph investigations in order to find spies and leakers; those who refuse to take them may receive “termination of employment”, according to a 1982 memorandum from the director of the NSA.[109]

There are also “special access examination” polygraphs for employees who wish to work in highly sensitive areas, and those polygraphs cover counterintelligence questions and some questions about behavior.[109] NSA’s brochure states that the average test length is between two and four hours.[110] A 1983 report of the Office of Technology Assessment stated that “It appears that the NSA [National Security Agency] (and possibly CIA) use the polygraph not to determine deception or truthfulness per se, but as a technique of interrogation to encourage admissions.”[111] Sometimes applicants in the polygraph process confess to committing felonies such as murder, rape, and selling of illegal drugs. Between 1974 and 1979, of the 20,511 job applicants who took polygraph tests, 695 (3.4%) confessed to previous felony crimes; almost all of those crimes had been undetected.[108]

In 2010 the NSA produced a video explaining its polygraph process.[112] The video, ten minutes long, is titled “The Truth About the Polygraph” and was posted to the website of the Defense Security Service. Jeff Stein of The Washington Post said that the video portrays “various applicants, or actors playing them it’s not clear describing everything bad they had heard about the test, the implication being that none of it is true.”[113] argues that the NSA-produced video omits some information about the polygraph process; it produced a video responding to the NSA video.[112] George Maschke, the founder of the website, accused the NSA polygraph video of being “Orwellian”.[113]

After Edward Snowden revealed his identity in 2013, the NSA began requiring polygraphing of employees once per quarter.[114]

The number of exemptions from legal requirements has been criticized. When in 1964 the Congress was hearing a bill giving the director of the NSA the power to fire at will any employee, the Washington Post wrote: “This is the very definition of arbitrariness. It means that an employee could be discharged and disgraced on the basis of anonymous allegations without the slightest opportunity to defend himself.” Yet, the bill was accepted by an overwhelming majority.[106]

The heraldic insignia of NSA consists of an eagle inside a circle, grasping a key in its talons.[115] The eagle represents the agency’s national mission.[115] Its breast features a shield with bands of red and white, taken from the Great Seal of the United States and representing Congress.[115] The key is taken from the emblem of Saint Peter and represents security.[115]

When the NSA was created, the agency had no emblem and used that of the Department of Defense.[116] The agency adopted its first of two emblems in 1963.[116] The current NSA insignia has been in use since 1965, when then-Director, LTG Marshall S. Carter (USA) ordered the creation of a device to represent the agency.[117]

The NSA’s flag consists of the agency’s seal on a light blue background.

Crews associated with NSA missions have been involved in a number of dangerous and deadly situations.[118] The USS Liberty incident in 1967 and USS Pueblo incident in 1968 are examples of the losses endured during the Cold War.[118]

The National Security Agency/Central Security Service Cryptologic Memorial honors and remembers the fallen personnel, both military and civilian, of these intelligence missions.[119] It is made of black granite, and has 171 names carved into it, as of 2013[update] .[119] It is located at NSA headquarters. A tradition of declassifying the stories of the fallen was begun in 2001.[119]

NSANet stands for National Security Agency Network and is the official NSA intranet.[120] It is a classified network,[121] for information up to the level of TS/SCI[122] to support the use and sharing of intelligence data between NSA and the signals intelligence agencies of the four other nations of the Five Eyes partnership. The management of NSANet has been delegated to the Central Security Service Texas (CSSTEXAS).[123]

NSANet is a highly secured computer network consisting of fiber-optic and satellite communication channels which are almost completely separated from the public internet. The network allows NSA personnel and civilian and military intelligence analysts anywhere in the world to have access to the agency’s systems and databases. This access is tightly controlled and monitored. For example, every keystroke is logged, activities are audited at random and downloading and printing of documents from NSANet are recorded.[124]

In 1998, NSANet, along with NIPRNET and SIPRNET, had “significant problems with poor search capabilities, unorganized data and old information”.[125] In 2004, the network was reported to have used over twenty commercial off-the-shelf operating systems.[126] Some universities that do highly sensitive research are allowed to connect to it.[127]

The thousands of Top Secret internal NSA documents that were taken by Edward Snowden in 2013 were stored in “a file-sharing location on the NSA’s intranet site” so they could easily be read online by NSA personnel. Everyone with a TS/SCI-clearance had access to these documents and as a system administrator, Snowden was responsible for moving accidentally misplaced highly sensitive documents to more secure storage locations.[128]

The DoD Computer Security Center was founded in 1981 and renamed the National Computer Security Center (NCSC) in 1985. NCSC was responsible for computer security throughout the federal government.[129] NCSC was part of NSA,[130] and during the late 1980s and the 1990s, NSA and NCSC published Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria in a six-foot high Rainbow Series of books that detailed trusted computing and network platform specifications.[131] The Rainbow books were replaced by the Common Criteria, however, in the early 2000s.[131]

On July 18, 2013, Greenwald said that Snowden held “detailed blueprints of how the NSA does what they do”, thereby sparking fresh controversy.[132]

Headquarters for the National Security Agency is located at 39632N 764617W / 39.10889N 76.77139W / 39.10889; -76.77139 in Fort George G. Meade, Maryland, although it is separate from other compounds and agencies that are based within this same military installation. Ft. Meade is about 20mi (32km) southwest of Baltimore,[133] and 25mi (40km) northeast of Washington, DC.[134] The NSA has its own exit off Maryland Route 295 South labeled “NSA Employees Only”.[135][136] The exit may only be used by people with the proper clearances, and security vehicles parked along the road guard the entrance.[137]

NSA is the largest employer in the U.S. state of Maryland, and two-thirds of its personnel work at Ft. Meade.[138] Built on 350 acres (140ha; 0.55sqmi)[139] of Ft. Meade’s 5,000 acres (2,000ha; 7.8sqmi),[140] the site has 1,300 buildings and an estimated 18,000 parking spaces.[134][141]

The main NSA headquarters and operations building is what James Bamford, author of Body of Secrets, describes as “a modern boxy structure” that appears similar to “any stylish office building.”[142] The building is covered with one-way dark glass, which is lined with copper shielding in order to prevent espionage by trapping in signals and sounds.[142] It contains 3,000,000 square feet (280,000m2), or more than 68 acres (28ha), of floor space; Bamford said that the U.S. Capitol “could easily fit inside it four times over.”[142]

The facility has over 100 watchposts,[143] one of them being the visitor control center, a two-story area that serves as the entrance.[142] At the entrance, a white pentagonal structure,[144] visitor badges are issued to visitors and security clearances of employees are checked.[145] The visitor center includes a painting of the NSA seal.[144]

The OPS2A building, the tallest building in the NSA complex and the location of much of the agency’s operations directorate, is accessible from the visitor center. Bamford described it as a “dark glass Rubik’s Cube”.[146] The facility’s “red corridor” houses non-security operations such as concessions and the drug store. The name refers to the “red badge” which is worn by someone without a security clearance. The NSA headquarters includes a cafeteria, a credit union, ticket counters for airlines and entertainment, a barbershop, and a bank.[144] NSA headquarters has its own post office, fire department, and police force.[147][148][149]

The employees at the NSA headquarters reside in various places in the Baltimore-Washington area, including Annapolis, Baltimore, and Columbia in Maryland and the District of Columbia, including the Georgetown community.[150]

Following a major power outage in 2000, in 2003 and in follow-ups through 2007, The Baltimore Sun reported that the NSA was at risk of electrical overload because of insufficient internal electrical infrastructure at Fort Meade to support the amount of equipment being installed. This problem was apparently recognized in the 1990s but not made a priority, and “now the agency’s ability to keep its operations going is threatened.”[151]

Baltimore Gas & Electric (BGE, now Constellation Energy) provided NSA with 65 to 75 megawatts at Ft. Meade in 2007, and expected that an increase of 10 to 15 megawatts would be needed later that year.[152] In 2011, NSA at Ft. Meade was Maryland’s largest consumer of power.[138] In 2007, as BGE’s largest customer, NSA bought as much electricity as Annapolis, the capital city of Maryland.[151]

One estimate put the potential for power consumption by the new Utah Data Center at $40million per year.[153]

When the agency was established, its headquarters and cryptographic center were in the Naval Security Station in Washington, D.C.. The COMINT functions were located in Arlington Hall in Northern Virginia, which served as the headquarters of the U.S. Army’s cryptographic operations.[154] Because the Soviet Union had detonated a nuclear bomb and because the facilities were crowded, the federal government wanted to move several agencies, including the AFSA/NSA. A planning committee considered Fort Knox, but Fort Meade, Maryland, was ultimately chosen as NSA headquarters because it was far enough away from Washington, D.C. in case of a nuclear strike and was close enough so its employees would not have to move their families.[155]

Construction of additional buildings began after the agency occupied buildings at Ft. Meade in the late 1950s, which they soon outgrew.[155] In 1963 the new headquarters building, nine stories tall, opened. NSA workers referred to the building as the “Headquarters Building” and since the NSA management occupied the top floor, workers used “Ninth Floor” to refer to their leaders.[156] COMSEC remained in Washington, D.C., until its new building was completed in 1968.[155] In September 1986, the Operations 2A and 2B buildings, both copper-shielded to prevent eavesdropping, opened with a dedication by President Ronald Reagan.[157] The four NSA buildings became known as the “Big Four.”[157] The NSA director moved to 2B when it opened.[157]

On March 30, 2015, shortly before 9am, a stolen sports utility vehicle approached an NSA police vehicle blocking the road near the gate of Fort Meade, after it was told to leave the area. NSA officers fired on the SUV, killing the 27-year-old driver, Ricky Hall (a transgender person also known as Mya), and seriously injuring his friend, 20-year-old Kevin Fleming. An NSA officer’s arm was injured when Hall subsequently crashed into his vehicle.[158][159]

The two, dressed in women’s clothing after a night of partying at a motel with the man they’d stolen the SUV from that morning, “attempted to drive a vehicle into the National Security Agency portion of the installation without authorization”, according to an NSA statement.[160] The NSA is investigating the incident, with help from the FBI. FBI spokeswoman Amy Thoreson said the incident is not believed to be related to terrorism.[161]

An anonymous police official told The Washington Post, “This was not a deliberate attempt to breach the security of NSA. This was not a planned attack.” The two are believed to have made a wrong turn off the highway, while fleeing from the motel after stealing the vehicle. A small amount of cocaine was found in the SUV. A local CBS reporter initially said a gun was found,[162] but her later revision does not.[163] Dozens of journalists were corralled into a parking lot blocks away from the scene, and were barred from photographing the area.[164]

In 1995, The Baltimore Sun reported that the NSA is the owner of the single largest group of supercomputers.[165]

NSA held a groundbreaking ceremony at Ft. Meade in May 2013 for its High Performance Computing Center 2, expected to open in 2016.[166] Called Site M, the center has a 150 megawatt power substation, 14 administrative buildings and 10 parking garages.[147] It cost $3.2billion and covers 227 acres (92ha; 0.355sqmi).[147] The center is 1,800,000 square feet (17ha; 0.065sqmi)[147] and initially uses 60 megawatts of electricity.[167]

Increments II and III are expected to be completed by 2030, and would quadruple the space, covering 5,800,000 square feet (54ha; 0.21sqmi) with 60 buildings and 40 parking garages.[147]Defense contractors are also establishing or expanding cybersecurity facilities near the NSA and around the Washington metropolitan area.[147]

As of 2012, NSA collected intelligence from four geostationary satellites.[153] Satellite receivers were at Roaring Creek Station in Catawissa, Pennsylvania and Salt Creek Station in Arbuckle, California.[153] It operated ten to twenty taps on U.S. telecom switches. NSA had installations in several U.S. states and from them observed intercepts from Europe, the Middle East, North Africa, Latin America, and Asia.[153]

NSA had facilities at Friendship Annex (FANX) in Linthicum, Maryland, which is a 20 to 25-minute drive from Ft. Meade;[168] the Aerospace Data Facility at Buckley Air Force Base in Aurora outside Denver, Colorado; NSA Texas in the Texas Cryptology Center at Lackland Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas; NSA Georgia at Fort Gordon in Augusta, Georgia; NSA Hawaii in Honolulu; the Multiprogram Research Facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and elsewhere.[150][153]

On January 6, 2011 a groundbreaking ceremony was held to begin construction on NSA’s first Comprehensive National Cyber-security Initiative (CNCI) Data Center, known as the “Utah Data Center” for short. The $1.5B data center is being built at Camp Williams, Utah, located 25 miles (40km) south of Salt Lake City, and will help support the agency’s National Cyber-security Initiative.[169] It is expected to be operational by September 2013.[153]

In 2009, to protect its assets and to access more electricity, NSA sought to decentralize and expand its existing facilities in Ft. Meade and Menwith Hill,[170] the latter expansion expected to be completed by 2015.[171]

The Yakima Herald-Republic cited Bamford, saying that many of NSA’s bases for its Echelon program were a legacy system, using outdated, 1990s technology.[172] In 2004, NSA closed its operations at Bad Aibling Station (Field Station 81) in Bad Aibling, Germany.[173] In 2012, NSA began to move some of its operations at Yakima Research Station, Yakima Training Center, in Washington state to Colorado, planning to leave Yakima closed.[174] As of 2013, NSA also intended to close operations at Sugar Grove, West Virginia.[172]

Following the signing in 19461956[175] of the UKUSA Agreement between the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and New Zealand, who then cooperated on signals intelligence and ECHELON,[176] NSA stations were built at GCHQ Bude in Morwenstow, United Kingdom; Geraldton, Pine Gap and Shoal Bay, Australia; Leitrim and Ottawa, Canada; Misawa, Japan; and Waihopai and Tangimoana,[177] New Zealand.[178]

NSA operates RAF Menwith Hill in North Yorkshire, United Kingdom, which was, according to BBC News in 2007, the largest electronic monitoring station in the world.[179] Planned in 1954, and opened in 1960, the base covered 562 acres (227ha; 0.878sqmi) in 1999.[180]

The agency’s European Cryptologic Center (ECC), with 240 employees in 2011, is headquartered at a US military compound in Griesheim, near Frankfurt in Germany. A 2011 NSA report indicates that the ECC is responsible for the “largest analysis and productivity in Europe” and focusses on various priorities, including Africa, Europe, the Middle East and counterterrorism operations.[181]

In 2013, a new Consolidated Intelligence Center, also to be used by NSA, is being built at the headquarters of the United States Army Europe in Wiesbaden, Germany.[182] NSA’s partnership with Bundesnachrichtendienst (BND), the German foreign intelligence service, was confirmed by BND president Gerhard Schindler.[182]

Thailand is a “3rd party partner” of the NSA along with nine other nations.[183] These are non-English-speaking countries that have made security agreements for the exchange of SIGINT raw material and end product reports.

Thailand is the site of at least two US SIGINT collection stations. One is at the US Embassy in Bangkok, a joint NSA-CIA Special Collection Service (SCS) unit. It presumably eavesdrops on foreign embassies, governmental communications, and other targets of opportunity.[184]

The second installation is a FORNSAT (foreign satellite interception) station in the Thai city of Khon Kaen. It is codenamed INDRA, but has also been referred to as LEMONWOOD.[184] The station is approximately 40 ha (100 acres) in size and consists of a large 3,7004,600 m2 (40,00050,000ft2) operations building on the west side of the ops compound and four radome-enclosed parabolic antennas. Possibly two of the radome-enclosed antennas are used for SATCOM intercept and two antennas used for relaying the intercepted material back to NSA. There is also a PUSHER-type circularly-disposed antenna array (CDAA) array just north of the ops compound.[185][186]

NSA activated Khon Kaen in October 1979. Its mission was to eavesdrop on the radio traffic of Chinese army and air force units in southern China, especially in and around the city of Kunming in Yunnan Province. Back in the late 1970s the base consisted only of a small CDAA antenna array that was remote-controlled via satellite from the NSA listening post at Kunia, Hawaii, and a small force of civilian contractors from Bendix Field Engineering Corp. who job it was to keep the antenna array and satellite relay facilities up and running 24/7.[185]

According to the papers of the late General William Odom, the INDRA facility was upgraded in 1986 with a new British-made PUSHER CDAA antenna as part of an overall upgrade of NSA and Thai SIGINT facilities whose objective was to spy on the neighboring communist nations of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia.[185]

The base apparently fell into disrepair in the 1990s as China and Vietnam became more friendly towards the US, and by 2002 archived satellite imagery showed that the PUSHER CDAA antenna had been torn down, perhaps indicating that the base had been closed. At some point in the period since 9/11, the Khon Kaen base was reactivated and expanded to include a sizeable SATCOM intercept mission. It is likely that the NSA presence at Khon Kaen is relatively small, and that most of the work is done by civilian contractors.[185]

NSA’s eavesdropping mission includes radio broadcasting, both from various organizations and individuals, the Internet, telephone calls, and other intercepted forms of communication. Its secure communications mission includes military, diplomatic, and all other sensitive, confidential or secret government communications.[187]

According to the Washington Post, “[e]very day, collection systems at the National Security Agency intercept and store 1.7billion e-mails, phone calls and other types of communications. The NSA sorts a fraction of those into 70 separate databases.”[188]

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Censorship and Free Speech | Amnesty International USA

 Free Speech  Comments Off on Censorship and Free Speech | Amnesty International USA
Oct 262015

“Free speech” isn’t so free when it costs you your liberty. In countries around the world, the right to express one’s thoughts and beliefs is under assault.

Throughout the world individuals face harassment and imprisonment as a result of exercising their right to freedom of expression.

Everyone has the right to seek, receive and impart information and ideas without fear or interference.

This right is important for the personal development and dignity of every individual and is vital for the fulfillment of other human rights.

Freedom of expression has always been a core part of Amnesty International’s work and is closely linked to the right to hold opinions and the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion.

Amnesty International has campaigned on behalf of thousands of prisoners of conscience people who are imprisoned because of their political, religious or other conscientiously held beliefs, ethnic origin, sex, color, language, national or social origin, economic status, birth, sexual orientation or other status.

Amnesty International calls for the immediate and unconditional release of all prisoners of conscience

Human rights defenders are individuals, groups of people or organizations who promote and protect human rights through peaceful and non-violent means. Their actions depend on, and fuel, freedom of expression.

Because of their activities, human rights defenders can become a target of abuse. Governments, security forces, business interests, armed groups, religious leaders and sometimes even their own families and communities can try and silence their dissenting opinions or actions.

The internet has opened up new possibilities for individuals and groups to seek and impart information and ideas. Yet, the internet is also a new frontier where freedom of expression is being challenged.

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Censorship and Free Speech | Amnesty International USA

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Birmingham AL Search Engine Optimization Company

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Oct 242015

Birmingham ALSearch Engine optimization and social media marketing helps customers to successfully find products and services on the internet with less effort and faster. Bottom line is a rise in interested and motivated clients to your website is an indicator that there will be an increase in sales for your business. Below are advantages of SEO.

You will be able to improve your competitive edge. Increasing the chances of clients getting you online shows that they are also going to find your competitors. The faster and easier your products and services can be found, the more likely you will keep your present customers and also boost your market share.

SEO helps to enlarge client base and specific audience. Your website will be easy to find and locate on the internet. It is going to improve your ranking, enlarge traffic and your chances of making sales. When you increase your internet market, you will be exposing your things to motivated and interested clients.

You are going to boost your return on investment. Research shows that customers are five times more likely to buy what you are offering after locating your website by search engine instead of advertising online. Improved position ranking shows there is an increase in client visit which turns to boost in sales opportunity. Search results get the highest conversion rates which turn visitors into paying clients.

One will save time and money. This is done by using free SEO to promote your products and services. When your website is optimized and submitted, it will continue to be crawled and indexed with Search engines and maintained with less effort. The more popular your website gets with time, the higher your Search Engine standing will be.

It is therefore ideal for one to consider using Birmingham ALSEO in order to get the most from your business.

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Birmingham AL Search Engine Optimization Company

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PRISM (surveillance program) – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 NSA  Comments Off on PRISM (surveillance program) – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Oct 202015

PRISM is a clandestine[1]surveillance program under which the United States National Security Agency (NSA) collects internet communications from at least nine major US internet companies.[2][3][4] Since 2001 the United States government has increased its scope for such surveillance, and so this program was launched in 2007.

PRISM is a government code name for a data-collection effort known officially by the SIGAD US-984XN.[5][6] The PRISM program collects stored internet communications based on demands made to internet companies such as Google Inc. under Section 702 of the FISA Amendments Act of 2008 to turn over any data that match court-approved search terms.[7] The NSA can use these PRISM requests to target communications that were encrypted when they traveled across the internet backbone, to focus on stored data that telecommunication filtering systems discarded earlier,[8][9] and to get data that is easier to handle, among other things.[10]

PRISM began in 2007 in the wake of the passage of the Protect America Act under the Bush Administration.[11][12] The program is operated under the supervision of the U.S. Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISA Court, or FISC) pursuant to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA).[13] Its existence was leaked six years later by NSA contractor Edward Snowden, who warned that the extent of mass data collection was far greater than the public knew and included what he characterized as “dangerous” and “criminal” activities.[14] The disclosures were published by The Guardian and The Washington Post on June 6, 2013. Subsequent documents have demonstrated a financial arrangement between NSA’s Special Source Operations division (SSO) and PRISM partners in the millions of dollars.[15]

Documents indicate that PRISM is “the number one source of raw intelligence used for NSA analytic reports”, and it accounts for 91% of the NSA’s internet traffic acquired under FISA section 702 authority.”[16][17] The leaked information came to light one day after the revelation that the FISA Court had been ordering a subsidiary of telecommunications company Verizon Communications to turn over to the NSA logs tracking all of its customers’ telephone calls.[18][19]

U.S. government officials have disputed some aspects of the Guardian and Washington Post stories and have defended the program by asserting it cannot be used on domestic targets without a warrant, that it has helped to prevent acts of terrorism, and that it receives independent oversight from the federal government’s executive, judicial and legislative branches.[20][21] On June 19, 2013, U.S. President Barack Obama, during a visit to Germany, stated that the NSA’s data gathering practices constitute “a circumscribed, narrow system directed at us being able to protect our people.”[22]

PRISM was publicly revealed when classified documents about the program were leaked to journalists of The Washington Post and The Guardian by Edward Snowden at the time an NSA contractor during a visit to Hong Kong.[2][3] The leaked documents included 41 PowerPoint slides, four of which were published in news articles.[2][3]

The documents identified several technology companies as participants in the PRISM program, including Microsoft in 2007, Yahoo! in 2008, Google in 2009, Facebook in 2009, Paltalk in 2009, YouTube in 2010, AOL in 2011, Skype in 2011 and Apple in 2012.[23] The speaker’s notes in the briefing document reviewed by The Washington Post indicated that “98 percent of PRISM production is based on Yahoo, Google, and Microsoft”.[2]

The slide presentation stated that much of the world’s electronic communications pass through the U.S., because electronic communications data tend to follow the least expensive route rather than the most physically direct route, and the bulk of the world’s internet infrastructure is based in the United States.[16] The presentation noted that these facts provide United States intelligence analysts with opportunities for intercepting the communications of foreign targets as their electronic data pass into or through the United States.[3][16]

Snowden’s subsequent disclosures included statements that governments such as the United Kingdom’s GCHQ also undertook mass interception and tracking of internet and communications data[24] described by Germany as “nightmarish” if true[25] allegations that the NSA engaged in “dangerous” and “criminal” activity by “hacking” civilian infrastructure networks in other countries such as “universities, hospitals, and private businesses”,[14] and alleged that compliance offered only very limited restrictive effect on mass data collection practices (including of Americans) since restrictions “are policy-based, not technically based, and can change at any time”, adding that “Additionally, audits are cursory, incomplete, and easily fooled by fake justifications”,[14] with numerous self-granted exceptions, and that NSA policies encourage staff to assume the benefit of the doubt in cases of uncertainty.[26][27][28]

Below are a number of slides released by Edward Snowden showing the operation and processes behind the PRISM program.

Slide showing that much of the world’s communications flow through the U.S.

Details of information collected via PRISM

Slide listing companies and the date that PRISM collection began

Slide showing PRISM’s tasking process

Slide showing the PRISM collection dataflow

Slide showing PRISM case numbers

Slide showing the REPRISMFISA Web app

Slide showing some PRISM targets.

Slide fragment mentioning “upstream collection”, FAA702, EO 12333, and references explicitly in the text.

FAA702 Operations, and map

FAA702 Operations, and map. The subheader reads “Collection only possible under FAA702 Authority”. FAIRVIEW is in the center box.

FAA702 Operations, and map. The subheader reads “Collection only possible under FAA702 Authority”. STORMBREW is in the center box.

Tasking, Points to Remember. Transcript of body: Whenever your targets meet FAA criteria, you should consider asking to FAA. Emergency tasking processes exist for [imminent /immediate ] threat to life situations and targets can be placed on [illegible] within hours (surveillance and stored comms). Get to know your Product line FAA adjudicators and FAA leads.

The French newspaper Le Monde disclosed new PRISM slides (See Page 4, 7 and 8) coming from the “PRISM/US-984XN Overview” presentation on October 21, 2013.[29] The British newspaper The Guardian disclosed new PRISM slides (see pages 3 and 6) in November 2013 which on the one hand compares PRISM with the Upstream program, and on the other hand deals with collaboration between the NSA’s Threat Operations Center and the FBI.[30]

Wikimedia Commons keeps copies of the leaked PowerPoint slides, and other associated documents.

PRISM is a program from the Special Source Operations (SSO) division of the NSA, which in the tradition of NSA’s intelligence alliances, cooperates with as many as 100 trusted U.S. companies since the 1970s.[2] A prior program, the Terrorist Surveillance Program,[31][32] was implemented in the wake of the September 11 attacks under the George W. Bush Administration but was widely criticized and challenged as illegal, because it did not include warrants obtained from the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court.[32][33][34][35][36] PRISM was authorized by the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court.[16]

PRISM was enabled under President Bush by the Protect America Act of 2007 and by the FISA Amendments Act of 2008, which immunizes private companies from legal action when they cooperate with U.S. government agencies in intelligence collection. In 2012 the act was renewed by Congress under President Obama for an additional five years, through December 2017.[3][37][38] According to The Register, the FISA Amendments Act of 2008 “specifically authorizes intelligence agencies to monitor the phone, email, and other communications of U.S. citizens for up to a week without obtaining a warrant” when one of the parties is outside the U.S.[37]

The most detailed description of the PRISM program can be found in a report about NSA’s collection efforts under Section 702 FAA, that was released by the Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board (PCLOB) on July 2, 2014.[39]

According to this report, PRISM is only used to collect internet communications, not telephone conversations. These internet communications are not collected in bulk, but in a targeted way: only communications that are to or from specific selectors, like e-mail addresses, can be gathered. Under PRISM, there’s no collection based upon keywords or names.[39]

The actual collection process is done by the Data Intercept Technology Unit (DITU) of the FBI, which on behalf of the NSA sends the selectors to the US internet service providers, which were previously served with a Section 702 Directive. Under this directive, the provider is legally obliged to hand over (to DITU) all communications to or from the selectors provided by the government.[39] DITU then sends these communications to NSA, where they are stored in various databases, depending on their type.

Data, both content and metadata, that already have been collected under the PRISM program, may be searched for both US and Non-US person identifiers. These kind of queries became known as “back-door searches” and are conducted by NSA, FBI and CIA.[40] Each of these agencies have slightly different protocols and safeguards to protect searches with a US person identifier.[39]

Internal NSA presentation slides included in the various media disclosures show that the NSA could unilaterally access data and perform “extensive, in-depth surveillance on live communications and stored information” with examples including email, video and voice chat, videos, photos, voice-over-IP chats (such as Skype), file transfers, and social networking details.[3] Snowden summarized that “in general, the reality is this: if an NSA, FBI, CIA, DIA, etc. analyst has access to query raw SIGINT [signals intelligence] databases, they can enter and get results for anything they want.”[14]

According to The Washington Post, the intelligence analysts search PRISM data using terms intended to identify suspicious communications of targets whom the analysts suspect with at least 51 percent confidence to not be U.S. citizens, but in the process, communication data of some U.S. citizens are also collected unintentionally.[2] Training materials for analysts tell them that while they should periodically report such accidental collection of non-foreign U.S. data, “it’s nothing to worry about.”[2]

According to The Guardian, NSA had access to chats and emails on, Skype, because Microsoft had “developed a surveillance capability to deal” with the interception of chats, and “for Prism collection against Microsoft email services will be unaffected because Prism collects this data prior to encryption.”[41][42]

Also according to The Guardian’s Glenn Greenwald even low-level NSA analysts are allowed to search and listen to the communications of Americans and other people without court approval and supervision. Greenwald said low level Analysts can, via systems like PRISM, “listen to whatever emails they want, whatever telephone calls, browsing histories, Microsoft Word documents.[31] And it’s all done with no need to go to a court, with no need to even get supervisor approval on the part of the analyst.”[43]

He added that the NSA databank, with its years of collected communications, allows analysts to search that database and listen “to the calls or read the emails of everything that the NSA has stored, or look at the browsing histories or Google search terms that you’ve entered, and it also alerts them to any further activity that people connected to that email address or that IP address do in the future.”[43] Greenwald was referring in the context of the foregoing quotes to the NSA program X-Keyscore.[44]

Unified Targeting Tool

Shortly after publication of the reports by The Guardian and The Washington Post, the United States Director of National Intelligence, James Clapper, on June 7, 2013 released a statement confirming that for nearly six years the government of the United States had been using large internet services companies such as Google and Facebook to collect information on foreigners outside the United States as a defense against national security threats.[18] The statement read in part, “The Guardian and The Washington Post articles refer to collection of communications pursuant to Section 702 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act. They contain numerous inaccuracies.”[46] He went on to say, “Section 702 is a provision of FISA that is designed to facilitate the acquisition of foreign intelligence information concerning non-U.S. persons located outside the United States. It cannot be used to intentionally target any U.S. citizen, any other U.S. person, or anyone located within the United States.”[46] Clapper concluded his statement by stating, “The unauthorized disclosure of information about this important and entirely legal program is reprehensible and risks important protections for the security of Americans.”[46] On March 12, 2013, Clapper had told the United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence that the NSA does “not wittingly” collect any type of data on millions or hundreds of millions of Americans.[47] Clapper later admitted the statement he made on March 12, 2013 was a lie,[48] or in his words “I responded in what I thought was the most truthful, or least untruthful manner by saying no.”[49]

On June 7, 2013 U.S. President Barack Obama, referring to the PRISM program[citation needed] and the NSA’s telephone calls logging program, said, “What you’ve got is two programs that were originally authorized by Congress, have been repeatedly authorized by Congress. Bipartisan majorities have approved them. Congress is continually briefed on how these are conducted. There are a whole range of safeguards involved. And federal judges are overseeing the entire program throughout.”[50] He also said, “You can’t have 100 percent security and then also have 100 percent privacy and zero inconvenience. You know, we’re going to have to make some choices as a society.”[50] In separate statements, senior Obama administration officials (not mentioned by name in source) said that Congress had been briefed 13 times on the programs since 2009.[51]

On June 8, 2013, Director of National Intelligence Clapper made an additional public statement about PRISM and released a fact sheet providing further information about the program, which he described as “an internal government computer system used to facilitate the government’s statutorily authorized collection of foreign intelligence information from electronic communication service providers under court supervision, as authorized by Section 702 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) (50 U.S.C. 1881a).”[52][53] The fact sheet stated that “the surveillance activities published in The Guardian and the Washington Post are lawful and conducted under authorities widely known and discussed, and fully debated and authorized by Congress.”[52] The fact sheet also stated that “the United States Government does not unilaterally obtain information from the servers of U.S. electronic communication service providers. All such information is obtained with FISA Court approval and with the knowledge of the provider based upon a written directive from the Attorney General and the Director of National Intelligence.” It said that the Attorney General provides FISA Court rulings and semi-annual reports about PRISM activities to Congress, “provid[ing] an unprecedented degree of accountability and transparency.”[52] Democratic Senators Udall and Wyden, who serve on the U.S. Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, subsequently criticized the fact sheet as being inaccurate.[clarification needed] NSA Director General Keith Alexander acknowledged the errors, stating that the fact sheet “could have more precisely described” the requirements governing the collection of e-mail and other internet content from U.S. companies. The fact sheet was withdrawn from the NSA’s website around June 26.[54]

In a closed-doors Senate hearing around June 11, FBI Director Robert Mueller said that Snowden’s leaks had caused “significant harm to our nation and to our safety.”[55] In the same Senate NSA Director Alexander defended the program.[further explanation needed] Alexander’s defense was immediately criticized by Senators Udall and Wyden, who said they saw no evidence that the NSA programs had produced “uniquely valuable intelligence.” In a joint statement, they wrote, “Gen Alexander’s testimony yesterday suggested that the NSA’s bulk phone records collection program helped thwart ‘dozens’ of terrorist attacks, but all of the plots that he mentioned appear to have been identified using other collection methods.”[55][56]

On June 18, NSA Director Alexander said in an open hearing before the House Intelligence Committee of Congress that communications surveillance had helped prevent more than 50 potential terrorist attacks worldwide (at least 10 of them involving terrorism suspects or targets in the United States) between 2001 and 2013, and that the PRISM web traffic surveillance program contributed in over 90 percent of those cases.[57][58][59] According to court records, one example Alexander gave regarding a thwarted attack by al Qaeda on the New York Stock Exchange was not in fact foiled by surveillance.[60] Several senators wrote Director of National Intelligence Clapper asking him to provide other examples.[61]

U.S. intelligence officials, speaking on condition of anonymity, told various news outlets that by June 24 they were already seeing what they said was evidence that suspected terrorists had begun changing their communication practices in order to evade detection by the surveillance tools disclosed by Snowden.[62][63]

In contrast to their swift and forceful reactions the previous day to allegations that the government had been conducting surveillance of United States citizens’ telephone records, Congressional leaders initially had little to say about the PRISM program the day after leaked information about the program was published. Several lawmakers declined to discuss PRISM, citing its top-secret classification,[64] and others said that they had not been aware of the program.[65] After statements had been released by the President and the Director of National Intelligence, some lawmakers began to comment:

Senator John McCain (R-AZ)

Senator Dianne Feinstein (D-CA), chair of the Senate Intelligence Committee

Senator Rand Paul (R-KY)

Senator Susan Collins (R-ME), member of Senate Intelligence Committee and past member of Homeland Security Committee

Representative Jim Sensenbrenner (R-WI), principal sponsor of the Patriot Act

Representative Mike Rogers (R-MI), a Chairman of the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence.

Senator Mark Udall (D-CO)

Representative Todd Rokita (R-IN)

Representative Luis Gutierrez (D-IL)

Senator Ron Wyden (D-OR)

Following these statements some lawmakers from both parties warned national security officials during a hearing before the House Judiciary Committee that they must change their use of sweeping National Security Agency surveillance programs or face losing the provisions of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act that have allowed for the agency’s mass collection of telephone metadata.[75] “Section 215 expires at the end of 2015, and unless you realize you’ve got a problem, that is not going to be renewed,” Rep. Jim Sensenbrenner, R-Wis., author of the USA Patriot Act, threatened during the hearing.[75] “It’s got to be changed, and you’ve got to change how you operate section 215. Otherwise, in two and a half years, you’re not going to have it anymore.”[75]

Leaks of classified documents pointed to the role of a special court in enabling the government’s secret surveillance programs, but members of the court maintained they were not collaborating with the executive branch.[76]The New York Times, however, reported in July 2013 that in “more than a dozen classified rulings, the nation’s surveillance court has created a secret body of law giving the National Security Agency the power to amass vast collections of data on Americans while pursuing not only terrorism suspects, but also people possibly involved in nuclear proliferation, espionage and cyberattacks.”[77] After Members of the U.S. Congress pressed the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court to release declassified versions of its secret ruling, the court dismissed those requests arguing that the decisions can’t be declassified because they contain classified information.[78]Reggie Walton, the current FISA presiding judge, said in a statement: “The perception that the court is a rubber stamp is absolutely false. There is a rigorous review process of applications submitted by the executive branch, spearheaded initially by five judicial branch lawyers who are national security experts, and then by the judges, to ensure that the court’s authorizations comport with what the applicable statutes authorize.”[79] The accusation of being a “rubber stamp” was further rejected by Walton who wrote in a letter to Senator Patrick J. Leahy: “The annual statistics provided to Congress by the Attorney General […]frequently cited to in press reports as a suggestion that the Court’s approval rate of application is over 99%reflect only the number of final applications submitted to and acted on by the Court. These statistics do not reflect the fact that many applications are altered to prior or final submission or even withheld from final submission entirely, often after an indication that a judge would not approve them.”[80]

The U.S. military has acknowledged blocking access to parts of The Guardian website for thousands of defense personnel across the country,[81] and blocking the entire Guardian website for personnel stationed throughout Afghanistan, the Middle East, and South Asia.[82] A spokesman said the military was filtering out reports and content relating to government surveillance programs to preserve “network hygiene” and prevent any classified material from appearing on unclassified parts of its computer systems.[81] Access to the Washington Post, which also published information on classified NSA surveillance programs disclosed by Edward Snowden, had not been blocked at the time the blocking of access to The Guardian was reported.[82]

The former head of the Austrian Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution and Counterterrorism, Gert-Ren Polli, stated he knew the PRISM program under a different name and stated that surveillance activities had occurred in Austria as well. Polli had publicly stated in 2009 that he had received requests from US intelligence agencies to do things that would be in violation of Austrian law, which Polli refused to allow.[83][84]

The Australian government has said it will investigate the impact of the PRISM program and the use of the Pine Gap surveillance facility on the privacy of Australian citizens.[85] Australia’s former foreign minister Bob Carr said that Australians shouldn’t be concerned about PRISM but that cybersecurity is high on the government’s list of concerns.[86] An Australian diplomat stated that the acts of Edward Snowden were treachery and offered a staunch defence of her nation’s intelligence co-operation with America. [87]

Brazil’s president, Dilma Rousseff, responded by cancelling a planned October 2013 state visit to the United States, demanding an official apology, which by October 20, 2013, hadn’t come.[88] Also, Rousseff classified the spying as unacceptable between more harsh words in a speech before the UN General Assembly on September 24, 2013.[89] As a result, Boeing lost out on a US$4.5 billion contract for fighter jets to Sweden’s Saab Group.[90]

Canada’s national cryptologic agency, the Communications Security Establishment (CSEC), said that commenting on PRISM “would undermine CSE’s ability to carry out its mandate.” Privacy Commissioner Jennifer Stoddart lamented Canada’s standards when it comes to protecting personal online privacy stating “We have fallen too far behind” in her report. “While other nations’ data protection authorities have the legal power to make binding orders, levy hefty fines and take meaningful action in the event of serious data breaches, we are restricted to a ‘soft’ approach: persuasion, encouragement and, at the most, the potential to publish the names of transgressors in the public interest.” And, “when push comes to shove,” Stoddart wrote, “short of a costly and time-consuming court battle, we have no power to enforce our recommendations.”[91][92]

On 20 October 2013 a committee at the European Parliament backed a measure that, if it is enacted, would require American companies to seek clearance from European officials before complying with United States warrants seeking private data. The legislation has been under consideration for two years. The vote is part of efforts in Europe to shield citizens from online surveillance in the wake of revelations about a far-reaching spying program by the U.S. National Security Agency.[93] Germany and France have also had ongoing mutual talks about how they can keep European email traffic from going across American servers.[94]

On October 21, 2013 the French Foreign Minister, Laurent Fabius, summoned the U.S. Ambassador, Charles Rivkin, to the Quai d’Orsay in Paris to protest large-scale spying on French citizens by the U.S. National Security Agency (NSA). Paris prosecutors had opened preliminary inquiries into the NSA program in July, but Fabius said, ” obviously we need to go further” and “we must quickly assure that these practices aren’t repeated.”[95]

Germany did not receive any raw PRISM data, according to a Reuters report.[96]German Chancellor Angela Merkel said that “the internet is new to all of us” to explain the nature of the program; Matthew Schofield of McClatchy Washington Bureau said, “She was roundly mocked for that statement.”[97] Gert-Ren Polli, a former Austrian counter-terrorism official, said in 2013 that it is “absurd and unnatural” for the German authorities to pretend not to have known anything.[83][84] The German Army was using PRISM to support its operations in Afghanistan as early as 2011.[98]

In October 2013, it was reported that the NSA monitored Merkel’s cell phone.[99] The United States denied the report, but following the allegations, Merkel called President Obama and told him that spying on friends was “never acceptable, no matter in what situation.”[100]

Israeli newspaper Calcalist discussed[101] the Business Insider article[102] about the possible involvement of technologies from two secretive Israeli companies in the PRISM programVerint Systems and Narus.

The Mexican Government after finding out about the PRISM program has started to build its own spying program to spy on its own citizens. According to Jenaro Villamil a writer from Proceso(magazine), CISEN the intelligence agency from Mexico has started to work with IBM and Hewlett Packard to develop its own data gathering software. Facebook, Twitter, Emails and other social network sites are going to be priority.”[103]

In New Zealand, University of Otago information science Associate Professor Hank Wolfe said that “under what was unofficially known as the Five Eyes Alliance, New Zealand and other governments, including the United States, Australia, Canada, and Britain, dealt with internal spying by saying they didn’t do it. But they have all the partners doing it for them and then they share all the information.”[104]

Edward Snowden, in a live streamed Google Hangout to Kim Dotcom and Julian Assange alleged that he had received intelligence from New Zealand, and the NSA has listening posts in New Zealand[105]

At a meeting of European Union leaders held the week of 21 October 2013, Mariano Rajoy, Spain’s prime minister, said that “spying activities aren’t proper among partner countries and allies”. On 28 October 2013 the Spanish government summoned the American ambassador, James Costos, to address allegations that the U.S. had collected data on 60 million telephone calls in Spain. Separately, igo Mndez de Vigo, a Spanish secretary of state, referred to the need to maintain “a necessary balance” between security and privacy concerns, but said that the recent allegations of spying, “if proven to be true, are improper and unacceptable between partners and friendly countries”.[106]

In the United Kingdom, the Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ), which also has its own surveillance program Tempora, had access to the PRISM program on or before June 2010 and wrote 197 reports with it in 2012 alone. But after 2014, the Tempora lost its access to the PRISM programme.[citation needed] The Intelligence and Security Committee of the UK Parliament reviewed the reports GCHQ produced on the basis of intelligence sought from the US. They found in each case a warrant for interception was in place in accordance with the legal safeguards contained in UK law.[107]

In August 2013, The Guardian newspaper’s offices were visited by agents from GCHQ, who ordered and supervised the destruction of the hard drives containing information acquired from Snowden.[108]

The original Washington Post and Guardian articles reporting on PRISM noted that one of the leaked briefing documents said PRISM involves collection of data “directly from the servers” of several major internet services providers.[2][3]

Corporate executives of several companies identified in the leaked documents told The Guardian that they had no knowledge of the PRISM program in particular and also denied making information available to the government on the scale alleged by news reports.[3][109] Statements of several of the companies named in the leaked documents were reported by TechCrunch and The Washington Post as follows:[110][111]

In response to the technology companies’ denials of the NSA being able to directly access the companies’ servers, The New York Times reported that sources had stated the NSA was gathering the surveillance data from the companies using other technical means in response to court orders for specific sets of data.[18]The Washington Post suggested, “It is possible that the conflict between the PRISM slides and the company spokesmen is the result of imprecision on the part of the NSA author. In another classified report obtained by The Post, the arrangement is described as allowing ‘collection managers [to send] content tasking instructions directly to equipment installed at company-controlled locations,’ rather than directly to company servers.”[2] “[I]n context, ‘direct’ is more likely to mean that the NSA is receiving data sent to them deliberately by the tech companies, as opposed to intercepting communications as they’re transmitted to some other destination.[111]

“If these companies received an order under the FISA amendments act, they are forbidden by law from disclosing having received the order and disclosing any information about the order at all,” Mark Rumold, staff attorney at the Electronic Frontier Foundation, told ABC News.[114]

On May 28, 2013, Google was ordered by United States District Court Judge Susan Illston to comply with a National Security Letter issued by the FBI to provide user data without a warrant.[115] Kurt Opsahl, a senior staff attorney at the Electronic Frontier Foundation, in an interview with VentureBeat said, “I certainly appreciate that Google put out a transparency report, but it appears that the transparency didn’t include this. I wouldn’t be surprised if they were subject to a gag order.”[116]

The New York Times reported on June 7, 2013, that “Twitter declined to make it easier for the government. But other companies were more compliant, according to people briefed on the negotiations.”[117] The other companies held discussions with national security personnel on how to make data available more efficiently and securely.[117] In some cases, these companies made modifications to their systems in support of the intelligence collection effort.[117] The dialogues have continued in recent months, as General Martin Dempsey, the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, has met with executives including those at Facebook, Microsoft, Google and Intel.[117] These details on the discussions provide insight into the disparity between initial descriptions of the government program including a training slide which states, “Collection directly from the servers”[118] and the companies’ denials.[117]

While providing data in response to a legitimate FISA request approved by the FISA Court is a legal requirement, modifying systems to make it easier for the government to collect the data is not. This is why Twitter could legally decline to provide an enhanced mechanism for data transmission.[117] Other than Twitter, the companies were effectively asked to construct a locked mailbox and provide the key to the government, people briefed on the negotiations said.[117] Facebook, for instance, built such a system for requesting and sharing the information.[117] Google does not provide a lockbox system, but instead transmits required data by hand delivery or ssh.[119]

In response to the publicity surrounding media reports of data-sharing, several companies requested permission to reveal more public information about the nature and scope of information provided in response to National Security requests.

On June 14, 2013, Facebook reported that the U.S. government had authorized the communication of “about these numbers in aggregate, and as a range.” In a press release posted to its web site, the company reported, “For the six months ending December 31, 2012, the total number of user-data requests Facebook received from any and all government entities in the U.S. (including local, state, and federal, and including criminal and national security-related requests) was between 9,000 and 10,000.” The company further reported that the requests impacted “between 18,000 and 19,000” user accounts, a “tiny fraction of one percent” of more than 1.1 billion active user accounts.[120]

That same day, Microsoft reported that for the same period, it received “between 6,000 and 7,000 criminal and national security warrants, subpoenas and orders affecting between 31,000 and 32,000 consumer accounts from U.S. governmental entities (including local, state and federal)” which impacted “a tiny fraction of Microsoft’s global customer base.”[121]

Google issued a statement criticizing the requirement that data be reported in aggregated form, stating that lumping national security requests with criminal request data would be “a step backwards” from its previous, more detailed practices on its website’s transparency report. The company said that it would continue to seek government permission to publish the number and extent of FISA requests.[122]

Cisco Systems has seen a huge drop in export sales because of spying fears from the National Security Agency using backdoors in its products.[123]

On September 12, 2014, Yahoo! reported the U.S. Government threatened the imposition of $250,000 in fines per day if Yahoo didn’t hand over user data as part of the NSA’s PRISM program.[124] It is not known if other companies were threatened or fined for not providing data in response to a legitimate FISA requests.

The New York Times editorial board charged that the Obama administration “has now lost all credibility on this issue,”[125] and lamented that “for years, members of Congress ignored evidence that domestic intelligence-gathering had grown beyond their control, and, even now, few seem disturbed to learn that every detail about the public’s calling and texting habits now reside in a N.S.A. database.”[126] It wrote with respect to the FISA-Court in context of PRISM that it is “a perversion of the American justice system” when “judicial secrecy is coupled with a one-sided presentation of the issues.”[127] According to the New York Times, “the result is a court whose reach is expanding far beyond its original mandate and without any substantive check.”[127]

James Robertson, a former federal district judge based in Washington who served on the secret Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act court for three years between 2002 and 2005 and who ruled against the Bush administration in the landmark Hamdan v. Rumsfeld case, said FISA court is independent but flawed because only the government’s side is represented effectively in its deliberations. “Anyone who has been a judge will tell you a judge needs to hear both sides of a case,” said James Robertson.[128] Without this judges do not benefit from adversarial debate. He suggested creating an advocate with security clearance who would argue against government filings.[129] Robertson questioned whether the secret FISA court should provide overall legal approval for the surveillance programs, saying the court “has turned into something like an administrative agency.” Under the changes brought by the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 Amendments Act of 2008, which expanded the US government’s authority by forcing the court to approve entire surveillance systems and not just surveillance warrants as it previously handled, “the court is now approving programmatic surveillance. I don’t think that is a judicial function.”[128] Robertson also said he was “frankly stunned” by the New York Times report[77] that FISA court rulings had created a new body of law broadening the ability of the NSA to use its surveillance programs to target not only terrorists but suspects in cases involving espionage, cyberattacks and weapons of mass destruction.[128]

Former CIA analyst Valerie Plame Wilson and former U.S. diplomat Joseph Wilson, writing in an op-ed article published in The Guardian, said that “Prism and other NSA data-mining programs might indeed be very effective in hunting and capturing actual terrorists, but we don’t have enough information as a society to make that decision.”[130] Computer security expert John Bambenek from the University of Illinois suggested that use of data mining in national security cases might be prone to inaccuracy and manipulation.[131]

The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF), an international non-profit digital-rights group based in the U.S., is hosting a tool, by which an American resident can write to their government representatives regarding their opposition to mass spying.[132]

The Obama administration’s argument that NSA surveillance programs such as PRISM and Boundless Informant had been necessary to prevent acts of terrorism was challenged by several parties. Ed Pilkington and Nicholas Watt of The Guardian said of the case of Najibullah Zazi, who had planned to bomb the New York City Subway, that interviews with involved parties and U.S. and British court documents indicated that the investigation into the case had actually been initiated in response to “conventional” surveillance methods such as “old-fashioned tip-offs” of the British intelligence services, rather than to leads produced by NSA surveillance.[133] Michael Daly of The Daily Beast stated that even though Tamerlan Tsarnaev, who is alleged to have conducted the 2013 Boston marathon bombings with his brother Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, had visited the Al Qaeda-affiliated Inspire magazine website, and even though Russian intelligence officials had raised concerns with U.S. intelligence officials about Tamerlan Tsarnaev, PRISM did not prevent him from carrying out the Boston attacks. Daly observed that, “The problem is not just what the National Security Agency is gathering at the risk of our privacy but what it is apparently unable to monitor at the risk of our safety.”[134]

Ron Paul, a former Republican member of Congress and prominent libertarian, thanked Snowden and Greenwald and denounced the mass surveillance as unhelpful and damaging, urging instead more transparency in U.S. government actions.[135] He called Congress “derelict in giving that much power to the government,” and said that had he been elected president, he would have ordered searches only when there was probable cause of a crime having been committed, which he said was not how the PRISM program was being operated.[136]

New York Times columnist Thomas L. Friedman defended limited government surveillance programs intended to protect the American people from terrorist acts:

Yes, I worry about potential government abuse of privacy from a program designed to prevent another 9/11abuse that, so far, does not appear to have happened. But I worry even more about another 9/11. … If there were another 9/11, I fear that 99 percent of Americans would tell their members of Congress: “Do whatever you need to do to, privacy be damned, just make sure this does not happen again.” That is what I fear most. That is why I’ll reluctantly, very reluctantly, trade off the government using data mining to look for suspicious patterns in phone numbers called and e-mail addressesand then have to go to a judge to get a warrant to actually look at the content under guidelines set by Congressto prevent a day where, out of fear, we give government a license to look at anyone, any e-mail, any phone call, anywhere, anytime.[137]

Political commentator David Brooks similarly cautioned that government data surveillance programs are a necessary evil: “if you don’t have mass data sweeps, well, then these agencies are going to want to go back to the old-fashioned eavesdropping, which is a lot more intrusive.”[138]

Conservative commentator Charles Krauthammer worried less about the legality of PRISM and other NSA surveillance tools than about the potential for their abuse without more stringent oversight. “The problem here is not constitutionality. … We need a toughening of both congressional oversight and judicial review, perhaps even some independent outside scrutiny. Plus periodic legislative revisionsay, reauthorization every couple of yearsin light of the efficacy of the safeguards and the nature of the external threat. The object is not to abolish these vital programs. It’s to fix them.”[139]

In a blog post, David Simon, the creator of The Wire, compared the NSA’s programs, including PRISM, to a 1980s effort by the City of Baltimore to add dialed number recorders to all pay phones to know which individuals were being called by the callers;[140] the city believed that drug traffickers were using pay phones and pagers, and a municipal judge allowed the city to place the recorders. The placement of the dialers formed the basis of the show’s first season. Simon argued that the media attention regarding the NSA programs is a “faux scandal.”[140][141] Simon had stated that many classes of people in American society had already faced constant government surveillance.

Political theorist, and frequent critic of U.S. government policies, Noam Chomsky argued, “Governments should not have this capacity. But governments will use whatever technology is available to them to combat their primary enemy which is their own population.”[142]

A CNN/Opinion Research Corporation poll conducted June 11 through 13 found that 66% of Americans generally supported the program.[143][144][Notes 1] However, a Quinnipiac University poll conducted June 28 through July 8 found that 45% of registered voters think the surveillance programs have gone too far, with 40% saying they do not go far enough, compared to 25% saying they had gone too far and 63% saying not far enough in 2010.[145] Other polls have shown similar shifts in public opinion as revelations about the programs were leaked.[146][147]

In terms of economic impact, a study released in August by the Information Technology and Innovation Foundation[148] found that the disclosure of PRISM could cost the U.S. economy between $21.5 and $35 billion in lost cloud computing business over three years.[149][150][151][152]

Sentiment around the world was that of general displeasure upon learning the extent of world communication data mining. Some national leaders spoke against the NSA and some spoke against their own national surveillance. One national minister had scathing comments on the National Security Agency’s data-mining program, citing Benjamin Franklin: “The more a society monitors, controls, and observes its citizens, the less free it is.”[153] Some question if the costs of hunting terrorists now overshadows the loss of citizen privacy.[154][155]

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Tor Browser Download

 Tor Browser  Comments Off on Tor Browser Download
Oct 122015

Preserving your privacy on the net is no easy task nowadays with so many security risks and potential prowlers out there.

Tor Browser is a toolset that’s designed for anyone who wants to improve their safety and security on the Internet. It can help you anonymize web browsing and publishing, instant messaging, and other applications that use the TCP protocol. For business users, it means that confidential exchanges of information can be kept from prying eyes and for more general users, it means that ISPs, keyloggers and other types of malware can’t track your activities easily.

It works by bouncing traffic around a distributed network of servers which it calls “onion routers” (hence the logo). The Tor Browser interface allows you to easily toggle it on and off based on when you need to go online anonymously – there’s no need to restart your computer when you’ve done so. If you want, you can also choose from various proxy tunnels based on a world map which displays exactly where each one is located.

To check it’s working, you can use the online Tor detector to see if you’re surfing anonymously or not. Connection can take some time depending on how many users are logged onto the network at any one time but usually its very quick. The Tor onion logo turns from yellow to green in your taskbar when a successful connection has been made.

Tor is simple, well organized and effective tool for anyone worried about security or invasions of privacy online.

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Tor Browser Download

Cosmic Heaven Awaiting Sunshine 043 (28-09-2015) mp3 …

 Cosmic  Comments Off on Cosmic Heaven Awaiting Sunshine 043 (28-09-2015) mp3 …
Oct 042015

Download Cosmic Heaven Awaiting Sunshine 043 (28-09-2015) from zippyshare immediately!

Some people say, that living has never been easier! Actually, this statement might be relevant not only to specific parts of the live, especially knowing that most of the people are free, that anyone can do whatever they really want to, yet we are also talking about the services and products, which could be received anytime and on any point of Earth.

Actually, today we are going to talk about zippyshare more the hosting and at the same time free music storage, which might be found on the internet by only clicking several numbers, several buttons. We are going to explain, how people might get their desired songs out of zippyshare in less than few minutes and at the same time, how can they realize, which tracks are most popular right now. Honestly, we are keening on the idea, that this kind of solution of getting free music for the people will be way more than interesting for them, thus hopefully not only severe people will take their chance, their try and read this one lets go viral, as people say!

Lets begin with saying that zippyshare, as the project, as the free music company, if we can say it in this way, has been popular since they started their activity and, as we can see, for a reason. What we are willing to say is that people have always been looking for greatest opportunity to get anything, especially not realistic material, for free, thus such possibilities to download the desired tracks just in few moments, naturally, got loved.

Actually, zippyshare might be found easily, as we have mentioned before. Saying in few words, all you have to do is to type your desired track and write the zippyshares companys name as well, next to the name. In this way, the results will show you the list of downloads, which can be achieved in extremely short period. It would be hard to find better solutions, is not it?

Hopefully you will be one of the persons, who have been using zippyshare for a while and without any regrets naturally. Simply, imagine the possibility to get your loved tracks immediately sounds way greater, than it is, especially, when downloading makes the tracks in a short period to your computer. Easy downloading, easy to listen, easy to find what can be better, dear readers? The future is right here.

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Cosmic Heaven Awaiting Sunshine 043 (28-09-2015) mp3 …

How to Browse Anonymously With Tor

 Tor Browser  Comments Off on How to Browse Anonymously With Tor
Sep 232015

Everything you do online can be traced back to your IP address. Even if youre accessing encrypted websites, networks can see the websites youre accessing and the websites themselves know your IP address. Use the Tor network to browse with anonymity.

Tor is an encrypted network that can route your traffic through relays, making the traffic appear to come from exit nodes. Unlike with proxies, the exit node itself doesnt know your IP address or where you are.

When you use a Tor client, your Internet traffic is routed through Tors network. The traffic travels through several randomly selected relays (run by volunteers), before exiting the Tor network and arriving at your destination. This prevents your Internet service provider and people monitoring your local network from viewing the websites you access. It also prevents the websites themselves from knowing your physical location or IP address theyll see the IP address and location of the exit node instead. Even the relays dont know who requested the traffic theyre passing along. All traffic within the Tor network is encrypted.

Image Credit: The Tor Project, Inc.

For example, lets say you access through Tor. Your Internet service provider and local network operator cant see that youre accessing they just see encrypted Tor traffic. The Tor relays pass your traffic along until it eventually reaches an exit node. The exit node talks to Google for you from Googles perspective, the exit node is accessing their website. (Of course, traffic can be monitored at the exit node if youre accessing an unencrypted website.) The exit node passes the traffic back along the relays, and the relays dont know where it ends up.

Tor offers anonymity and a path through Internet censorship and monitoring people living under repressive regimes with censored Internet connections can use Tor to access the wider Internet without fear of reprisal. Whistleblowers can use Tor to leak information without their traffic being monitored and logged.

Its not a great idea to use Tor for normal browsing, though. While the architecture does a good job of offering anonymity, browsing through Tor is significantly slower than browsing normally.

If you want more detailed information about how Tor works, check out the Tor Projects website.

The Tor Project recommends the Tor Browser Bundle as the safest, easiest way to use Tor. The Tor Browser Bundle is a customized, portable version of Firefox that comes preconfigured with the ideal settings and extensions for TOr. You can use Tor with other browsers and browser configurations, but this is likely to be unsafe. For example, Flash and other browser plug-ins can reveal your IP address the Tor Browser Bundle disables plug-ins for you and provides a safe environment, so you dont have to worry about your browser settings. It also includes the EFFs HTTPS Everywhere extension, which enables HTTPS on websites with HTTPS support. HTTPS provides encryption between the exit node and destination website.

Tor recommends that you not download document files, such as DOC and PDF files, and open them in external applications. The external application can connect to the Internet to download additional resources, exposing your IP address.

After downloading the Tor Browser Bundle, double-click the downloaded EXE file and extract it to your hard drive. The Tor Browser Bundle requires no installation, so you can extract it to a USB stick and run it from there.

Launch the Start Tor Browser.exe file in the Tor Browser folder.

The EXE file will launch Vidalia, which connects to the Tor network. After connecting, Vidalia will automatically open Tors customized Firefox browser.

Vidalia automatically launches the Tor Browser once it connects. When you close the browser, Vidalia automatically disconnects from Tor and closes.

Vidalia creates a local proxy on your system. The Tor Browser Bundle is configured to route all your traffic through it by default, as we can see here in the Tor Browsers connection settings window. You can configure other programs to access Tor through the proxy, but they may reveal your IP address in other ways.

Use the Tor Browser to browse the web just as you would with a normal browser. Its pre-configured with Startpage and DuckDuckGo, search engines that respect your privacy.

Remember not to provide any personal information say, by logging into an account associated with you while using the Tor browser, or youll lose the anonymity.

Chris Hoffman is a technology writer and all-around computer geek. He’s as at home using the Linux terminal as he is digging into the Windows registry. Connect with him on Google+.

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SEO Miami | Miami SEO Company | Miami SEO Expert

 SEO  Comments Off on SEO Miami | Miami SEO Company | Miami SEO Expert
Sep 172015

Our Miami SEO Solutions = Revenue

There is a very important reason why you have arrived here and it has to do with your desire to drive qualified traffic to your website, receive more leads, increase inquiries and sales to improve your bottom line. Maybe you have already invested a great deal of time and money with a Local Miami SEO Company and you did not obtained the results you were looking for. There is a reason why we are Miami’s Navy Seals (or Local SEO Seals) as business owners continue to seek out our leading SEO Business Services because all of those cheap options they’ve tried have failed them; we get the call when everything else fails.

There is a vast amount of Local Miami SEO Businesses promising top placements on Google and some will even go to the extend as to promise number one spots on search engines. SEO requires professionals that understand and that abide by all of the Google Guidelines, not promises from fly-by-night SEO providers. With all of the SEO complexity and misinformation provided by low quality and uneducated sources, no wonder why business owners continue to feel frustrated. In our case, our existing customers will attest that our Miami Search Engine Optimization (SEO) campaigns will give you more phone calls, website sign ups, and new leads. We will greatly increase your business online discovery for people who are ready tu buy.

Our Miami SEO Business Campaigns puts your website closer to your audience day by day, in a format that is impossible to ignore.

People Rank Websites, not Google. All other things being equal, a PageRank is acquired through valuable, localized and relevant content that people enjoy and share with their peers. As Miami’s Leading Local SEO Business, we know that websites rank because people pass along that website or particular page of a website with other people, not just because it has all of the technical SEO bells and whistles. PageRank is only one of over two hundred different ranking factors, it is not the final answer. At Z Networks Group we know very well that a website its literally by itself, a billboard in the middle of nowhere.

Adding and substracting SEO strategies, while it is fundamental, is not the only responsible factor for your website’s ranking and overall success. For your website to rank well, it must not only have a search engine’s website best practices, but also have useful and shareable content in a format that people understand and appreciate.You can have google’s own engineers code every web page of your site, but if its not user friendly, or if the information is not organized neatly – under logical categorization, your site is simply going to fail.

SEO is about Conditioning your Website for both Search Engines & Web Users alike.

As the Local Miami SEO Experts, we do not build links, we build businessess. There is so much more than just on-page and off-page SEO, link building, and meta tags etc. There are a great deal of local and nationwide SEO factors that we must implement on web pages to faciliate their indexing and categorization by google’s algorithms. The reality is that while we are able to implement all of the existing ranking factors, we also implement various other techniques that search engines repond very well to. There is really nothing magical happening here, its truly ardous work that demands trained individuals who trully have a keen obsession on understanding and abiding by the search engine’s guidelines, ranking factors — and that spend countless hours studying new innovative ways of breaking into the ranking spot light in the most ethical way. We know search engines and we understand how to use them to help our clients become profitable online.

If your business is not in the first page on Google Bing and Yahoo Search Engines, you are either loosing allot of business to your competitors or your business will simply fail. An organic search engine presence should be the foremost strategy when it comes to promoting a website or brand – and our Local Miami SEO Company services gives you just that and much more.The fact of the matter is that, if you are not showing up on peoples browsers when they search for what you have to offer, not only are you instead letting your competitors take advantage of that, youre also simply ignoring the great potential that your website can have to drive visitors, generate leads and even increase your sales exponentially.

A good-looking website does not communicate with your visitors through telepathy, it requires over 150 different coded items that search engines look for in your website, in order to understand your pages’ relevance to the user’s search term. As Local Miami SEO Experts, we understand that there is far more than basic changes to a site, we must place all of the required changes on your site so that it evolves and remains current and compliant to any existing algorithm.. Your must primarily speak user language, and provide all of the navigation and lead generation tools that people understand and find easy to use, otherwise your site will receive a very poor SEO grade. If your website can speak to the algorithms but not those browsing your site, it will get pushed further down the rabbit hole of search engine invisibility. The fundamental function of any Local SEO Firm is to balance the two, with a little more emphasis on one or the other depending on what your are trying to achieve.

We are a Local Miami SEO Company that gives your site the boost it needs to attrack the search engine’s attention and turn your visitors into paying customers.

As leading Miami SEO Experts in Florida, we truly understand that marketers and entrepreneurs who are serious about their online business or website cannot simply ignore search engine placements. For website owners being on the top of searches of search engines results is critical just as it is for any “mom-and-pop” home based businesses. As our Miami SEO Company and Internet Marketing solutions help in building not only a solid online reputation, but also facilitate the information for search engines to associate your brand with the searchers intent. We achieve those results page rankings, through scientific keyword analysis, analytics research on historical consumer behavioral patterns for your brand.

Even if your competition is sitting right next to you, you can still get an advantage by trying out our SEO Business Services. Every business is different, thinks different, and treat their customers differently. People have learned the hard way to look beyond cheap prices and empty promises. But if your website is struggling to secure a privileged, revenue-based position on the search results, then you need to focus on our Miami SEO Expert solutions and Professional SEO Miami strategies provided by a no nonsense, ROI driven Local Miami SEO Company.

Z Networks Group is a highly preferred Miami SEO Company that provides you with those niche-specific and collaborative Miami Search Engine Optimization solutions, which will help you, the business owner, create a successful lead generation and inbound marketing campaigns that bring you revenue. We don’t rank websites to pat ourselves on the back, we rank them to help our customers obtain substancial and measurable results on their return on investment.

The following is a graphical representation on some of the Good SEO as well as what kind of SEO to avoid at all cost.

Search Engines provide answers to billions of queries every day with relevant information so that users can make a decision. So, how a search engine prioritize which website is relevant to a query. Isnt it interesting? Yes, it is. If you are new to the topic of Miami SEO and want to improve your websites interaction both on mayor search engines (Google/Yahoo/Bing) and users, then approach our SEO Miami Company who will enlighten you with a niche specific Miami SEO Strategy and Miami SEO Competitive Analysis. As a reputed Miami Internet marketing solutions provider, our Miami SEO Service helps website owners gain results from organic engine results placement of various search engines and for multiple conversion-based and revenue-focused search terms and phrases.

Search Engines grade pages not websites, their algorithms dive in deep into each web page and grade it accodingly in order to position it in their search engine result pages. This happends every day of the year, and even more so after the release of a new search engine algorithm or algorithm update. Everyone knows that Google brings major traffic to websites compared to other search engines. But it doesn’t mean that you should ignore the small but highly qualifed traffic that Bing and Yahoo are able to provide. The traffic value difference between the search engine’s outside of Google is in the millions and not in the few thousand.

And so, our Miami SEO professionals choose to follow the guidelines of Googles, Bing and Yahoo different ranking algorithms for both local and nationwide organic search dominance. Moreover, Google keeps updating its algorithm to serve its users better and not to help your website rank higher. As an Elite Local Miami SEO Company, we love to stay up to date on industry related trends and cutting-edge web technology, but are also seriously obsessed with understanding and using Google algorithms to our clients advantage.

Regular web designs are gradually becoming a thing of past. Marketers and entrepreneurs are looking for fresh and innovative designs that are simple, clean, interactive, user friendly and capable of establishing communication with the visitors. They seek for designs that carry artistic value and stand out of the crowd. Furthermore, marketers and website owners now prefer to choose designs that have qualities or features that help in brand building and bring traffic through user experience.

Creating a design for website is like the job half done. Our experienced and professional designers check the loading speed of a website or webpage while designing every aspect of your site. They very well understand that poor loading speed of a website irritates visitors and severely hampers the SEO and user-experience. So, we take help of various tools and software to perform tests and measure the website loading time, uptime and response time.

Miami Content Marketing | Citation Building

Googles latest algorithm is ‘Humming bird” that has severely affected the traffic and ranking of websites. To overcome this challenge marketers are now fast approaching Miami SEO Experts to understand the update and its solutions to restore the ranking. We can help your website to recover from the setback and gain ranking in SERPs with our expertise and a robust strategy.

Search engine optimization comprises a range of activities related to incremental improvements or small modifications that impact the sites performance in organic search results and also in user experience. It is of least importance whether a site is smaller or larger but the thing that vastly matters is a well-thought SEO strategy that can impel a website on the organic search results. Z Networks Group is a professional Miami SEO Company providing comprehensive search engine optimization services to all sized businesses with expertise and efficiency based on over two decades of combined experience.

Conversion-Focused Keyword Research by an Expert Miami SEO Company

Start off with our free $500 website Miami SEO Audit in an effort to identify all of the existing negative SEO factors that are affecting your rankings for your Miami based business. We can then optimize your website, category by category and page by page, by following both the Google Guidelines and Google Algorithms as well as several of our own unique strategies and tactics, for all required on-page and off-page optimization.

Our unique Local Miami SEO Company website audit, consists of some of the following procedural steps in order to identify all negative ranking factors that are diminishing your rankings, and that prevent your website from converting your visitors and generate sales:

Why Choose Us as your Local Miami SEO Company?

SEO has become a necessity for online businesses rather than a solution. Marketers and entrepreneurs are aggressively looking for expert and knowledgeable Miami SEO professionals to become visible on SERPs and earn revenue. Interestingly, several web development and web designing companies have morphed into Search Engine Marketing experts to meet clients’ requirements.

We have made available our proven Miami SEO Services to all sized business at an affordable budget. Marketers who look for customized SEO services can choose our Pay-for-Performance plans that allow them to choose keywords and pay us based on our performance.

Besides being a reliable Local Miami SEO Company, we have a track record of being a leading internet marketing solutions provider to clients across the globe by integrating SEO, PPC and analytics team. Seach Engine Optimization is acritical internet marketing approach of our Search Engine Ranking solutions intended to help websites meet the standard search engines guidelines, manage site traffic and assist conversion metrics flow with the help of conclusive analytics data. Search Engine Optimization (SEO) campaigns is a long term and highly beneficial strategy that help website owners and marketers to make crucial decisions and reap the return of investment.

# COM-A Miami, FL 33130 USA

(786) 270-1736

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Bitcoin /r/Bitcoin – reddit

 Bitcoin  Comments Off on Bitcoin /r/Bitcoin – reddit
Sep 162015

Bitcoin is the currency of the Internet: a distributed, worldwide, decentralized digital money. Unlike traditional currencies such as dollars, bitcoins are issued and managed without any central authority whatsoever: there is no government, company, or bank in charge of Bitcoin. As such, it is more resistant to wild inflation and corrupt banks. With Bitcoin, you can be your own bank.

If you are new to Bitcoin, check out We Use Coins and You can also explore the Bitcoin Wiki:

How to buy bitcoins Buy Reddit Gold using bitcoins!

Will I earn money by mining? Security guide

(Sorted roughly by decreasing popularity.) #bitcoin

Bitcoin Forum Bitcoin Stack Exchange

Bitcoin Core is the the backbone of the Bitcoin network. Almost all Bitcoin wallets rely on Bitcoin Core in one way or another. If you have a fairly powerful computer that is almost always online, you can help the network by running Bitcoin Core. You can also use Bitcoin Core as a very secure Bitcoin wallet.

The CSS used by this subreddit is the Erdune Theme modified by /u/Annihilia and /u/konkedas .

Logo design by /u/Annihilia. Check out his other work here.

Ad campaign:

We previously collected donations to fund Bitcoin advertising efforts, but we no longer accept donations. The funds already donated will be spent on some sort of advertising, as intended. (10.35799117 BTC spent so far.)

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Bitcoin /r/Bitcoin – reddit

First Amendment of our countrys Bill of Rights

 Misc  Comments Off on First Amendment of our countrys Bill of Rights
Sep 102015

Freedom of Speech and of the Press: The First Amendment allows citizens to express and to be exposed to a wide range of opinions and views. It was intended to ensure a free exchange of ideas even if the ideas are unpopular.

Freedom of speech encompasses not only the spoken and written word, but also all kinds of expression (including non-verbal communications, such as sit-ins, art, photographs, films and advertisements). Under its provisions, the media including television, radio and the Internet is free to distribute a wide range of news, facts, opinions and pictures. The amendment protects not only the speaker, but also the person who receives the information. The right to read, hear, see and obtain different points of view is a First Amendment right as well.

But the right to free speech is not absolute. The U.S. Supreme Court has ruled that the government sometimes may be allowed to limit speech. For example, the government may limit or ban libel (the communication of false statements about a person that may injure his or her reputation), obscenity, fighting words, and words that present a clear and present danger of inciting violence. The government also may regulate speech by limiting the time, place or manner in which it is made. For example the government may require activists to obtain a permit before holding a large protest rally on a public street. Freedom of Assembly and Right to Petition the Government: The First Amendment also protects the freedom of assembly, which can mean physically gathering with a group of people to picket or protest; or associating with one another in groups for economic, political or religious purposes.

The First Amendment also protects the right not to associate, which means that the government cannot force people to join a group they do not wish to join. A related right is the right to petition the government, including everything from signing a petition to filing a lawsuit.

Freedom of Religion: The First Amendment’s free exercise clause allows a person to hold whatever religious beliefs he or she wants, and to exercise that belief by attending religious services, praying in public or in private, proselytizing or wearing religious clothing, such as yarmulkes or headscarves. Also included in the free exercise clause is the right not to believe in any religion, and the right not to participate in religious activities.

Second, the establishment clause prevents the government from creating a church, endorsing religion in general, or favoring one set of religious beliefs over another. As the U.S. Supreme Court decided in 1947 in Everson v. Board of Education of Ewing Township, the establishment clause was intended to erect “a wall of separation between church and state,” although the degree to which government should accommodate religion in public life has been debated in numerous Supreme Court decisions since then.

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First Amendment of our countrys Bill of Rights

Cryptocurrency-Stealing Malware Landscape – Dell SecureWorks

 Cryptocurrency  Comments Off on Cryptocurrency-Stealing Malware Landscape – Dell SecureWorks
Sep 072015


Bitcoin, a digital currency and payment system introduced in 2009, has been subject to an increasing amount of attention from thieves. Although the system itself is protected by strong cryptography, thieves have stolen millions of dollars of bitcoin[i] from victims by exploiting weaknesses in Bitcoin private key storage systems.

Since Bitcoin’s introduction, an increasing number of alternative digital currencies (altcoins) have been created, based on the original Bitcoin client’s source code. Even though none of these altcoins have approached the per-coin value of Bitcoin, some have achieved total market caps measuring in the millions of dollars. As a result, these altcoins have also been targeted for theft.

Mass theft of cryptocurrency is usually accomplished through the hacking of exchanges or marketplaces. These thefts are typically well-publicized, and the total number of stolen coins is known. However, another category of Bitcoin theft targets individual users’ wallets or exchange accounts via malware such as general-purpose remote access trojans (RATs) or specialized cryptocurrency-stealing malware (CCSM). Due to the skyrocketing value of cryptocurrencies since the beginning of 2013 and the relative simplicity of coding malware and tools to steal cryptocurrency, the Dell SecureWorks Counter Threat Unit(TM) (CTU) research team predicts that CCSM will become one of the fastest-growing categories of malware.

CCSM classification project

To understand the scope of this new threat, CTU researchers embarked on a project to obtain and classify as many CCSM samples as possible. Researchers scanned incoming malware streams with YARA rules, searching for samples that refer to known cryptocurrency software wallet filenames and locations. These samples were classified into families based on similarity. As of this publication, there are more than 100 unique families of malware on the Internet with functionality to steal wallet files or to steal cryptocurrency using other means.

Overall trends

Figure 1 shows the increase in the Windows-compatible CCSM over time. This chart tracks only Windows malware because the Windows portable executable format includes a timestamp in the file headers showing exactly when the malware was compiled. Most malware authors do not bother to alter this timestamp post-release, so it a reasonable and reliable indicator of when a particular sample was created. This chart shows the relationships between average monthly Bitcoin price, new family emergence, and overall total number of families. These variables show a correlation between malware emergence and the price (acceptance) of the currency.

Figure 1. The correlation between Bitcoin price, new malware emergence, and total threat of cryptocurrency-stealing malware. (Source: Dell SecureWorks)

The trend shown in Figure 1 closely follows the overall price trend of Bitcoin. As Bitcoin has become more valuable, more malware authors are targeting it. The record-breaking highs in Bitcoin value from the end of 2013 into 2014 have been accompanied by record-breaking numbers of new CCSM families.

Popularity of coins in CCSM

All CCSM analyzed by CTU researchers targeted Bitcoin. Figure 2 shows the distribution of CCSM-targeted altcoins between January 2009 and the middle of February, 2014.

Figure 2. The distribution of altcoins targeted by CCSM between January 2009 and mid-February, 2014. (Source: Dell SecureWorks)

Figure 3 shows the overall ratio of samples belonging to each malware family. A few malware families seem to be in widespread distribution, while others may have only one or two variants. The “Unclassified” group represents cryptocurrency malware that CTU researchers have not classified as of this publication. The “Miscellaneous” group includes the cryptocurrency malware families the CTU research team has discovered that would not fit into the chart.

Figure 3. The overall ratio of discovered samples belonging to each malware family. (Source: Dell SecureWorks)

CCSM categories

Wallet stealer

The most common type of CCSM is the wallet stealer, a category that includes nearly every family of CTU-analyzed CCSM. This type of malware searches for “wallet.dat” or other well-known wallet software key storage locations, either by checking known file locations or by searching all hard drives for matching filenames. Typically, the file is uploaded to a remote FTP, HTTP, or SMTP server where the thief can extract the keys and steal the coins by signing a transaction, transferring the coins to the thief’s Bitcoin/altcoin address.

Most cryptocurrency security guides recommend protecting the wallet with a strong passphrase, preventing the thief from decrypting and using the private keys if the file is stolen. To counter this protection, many of the analyzed wallet-stealer malware families use a keylogger or clipboard monitor to obtain the wallet file’s passphrase and send it to the thief.

Credential stealer

Many wallet-stealer families also steal credentials for various web-based wallets, such as Bitcoin exchanges. Some individuals keep a significant amount of bitcoin or other currency in exchanges to trade on price movements. Malware authors are aware of this activity, and many victims have reported that their exchange wallets were emptied without their authorization. In most cases, it is impossible to know exactly what malware was used in the theft, because a full forensic analysis of the victim’s hard drive is rarely performed.

Many exchanges have implemented two-factor authentication (2FA) using one-time PINs (OTP) to combat unauthorized account logins. However, advanced malware can easily bypass OTP-based 2FA by intercepting the OTP as it is used and creating a second hidden browser window to log the thief into the account from the victim’s computer. Simultaneously, the malware displays a fake “authentication failed” message and blocks the victim’s access to the website while the thief empties the account. CTU researchers have not observed a verified example of this type of attack against cryptocurrency exchanges. However, this technique has been successfully used against online banking sites for several years, and it is only a matter of time before CCSM uses this approach.

Man in the middle

CTU researchers have observed at least one family of CCSM that does not exfiltrate wallet files or private keys. Instead, it acts as a “man in the middle,” altering the recipient address of a transaction before it is signed. The observed sample runs in the background, monitoring the contents of the clipboard. The malware checks new data in the clipboard for a valid Bitcoin address. If the data is a valid address, the malware replaces it with the thief’s Bitcoin address. Victims who do not notice the replacement send the bitcoins to the thief.

RPC automation

Bitcoin and altcoin “reference client” software includes remote procedure call (RPC) functionality, which allows another program to interact with the wallet software. In many cases, a thief with access to this functionality could connect to a running client on a local TCP port and steal the balance of an unencrypted wallet using only two commands (three if the wallet is encrypted and the malware has obtained the passphrase). CTU researchers have not witnessed any CCSM malware taking advantage of this technique as of this publication. It would be difficult to detect this type of theft from a network standpoint, as the transaction would look like any authorized transaction. Another advantage to this technique is that it requires no external command and control (C2) or exfiltration server that can be shut down or blocked.

Detection rates

Across the CCSM samples analyzed by CTU researchers, the average unweighted detection rate across all major antivirus (AV) vendors was 48.9%. Figure 4 lists the major CCSM families classified by the CTU research team and their respective detection rates averaged across all major AV vendors.

Figure 4. Top CCSM families and their detection rate across AV vendors as of February 20, 2014. (Source: Dell SecureWorks)

Wallet protection

Client software choices

When the private keys for a cryptocurrency are stored on a computer connected to the Internet, the potential for theft exists. For Bitcoin there are alternative wallets, such as Armory and Electrum, which can protect against theft-by-malware by using a split arrangement for key storage. One computer, disconnected from any network, runs a copy of the software and holds the private key that can sign transactions. A second computer connected to the Internet holds only a master public key of which addresses belong to the offline wallet. This computer can generate transactions, but it cannot sign them because it does not have the private key. A user wishing to transfer coins generates an unsigned transaction on the online computer, carries the transaction to the offline computer, signs the transaction, and then carries it to the online computer to broadcast the transaction to the Bitcoin network.

Using a split Armory or Electrum wallet can make processing transactions much safer, although the user must still verify the transaction details to ensure malware on the online computer has not altered the transaction before it is signed. Unfortunately, no such clients currently exist for altcoins, although the need for them is recognized and bounties have been offered for their development.

Hardware wallets

Using two computers in a split arrangement where transactions are carried via “sneakernet” is relatively secure, but the logistics are complicated. A much more convenient method would be to use a dedicated hardware device to store the private keys and verify transactions without the possibility of theft. These devices are already in development, with one (the “Trezor” wallet) due to be shipped within the first quarter of 2014.

Transaction integrity verification

Hardware wallets work well for local transactions but not for safely interacting with a remote website on a potentially infected computer. Securely verifying a transaction that has transited a potentially compromised waypoint requires an offline device that can display the details of the transaction before it is processed. Public-key cryptography signs the transaction data on the bank’s server before the data is sent to the user. The offline device can verify the signature of the transaction and determine if any changes occurred in transit. If the transaction shows no tampering, the offline device generates a one-time code that authenticates the transaction. This transaction integrity verification (TIV) should become standard for all financial entities, including institutions and sites that accept cryptocurrencies.


After observing CCSM, CTU researchers drew the following conclusions:

As discussed in Enterprise Best Practices for Cryptocurrency Adoption, wallet security is the most pivotal aspect to keeping funds secure. Implementing the practices outlined in that publication will mitigate most, if not all, of the current threats to cryptocurrency wallets.


Table 1 lists the most commonly observed malicious filenames in the CTU research team’s sample set.

Table 1. Common filenames in malware samples.


[i] Bitcoin (capitalized) refers to the protocol, software, and community, while bitcoins (lowercase) are currency units.

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Merchant Accounts Offshore – Offshore Banking, Bank …

 Offshore Banking  Comments Off on Merchant Accounts Offshore – Offshore Banking, Bank …
Sep 012015

Liberty Enterprises offers a wide array of offshore and US domestic credit card and ACH/E-check merchant solutions. Our aim is to assist Internet business owners across the world to secure solid, secure credit card processing solutions with professional, reputable banks.

The merchant offshore and domestic banking sector can be confusing and overwhelming to the average businessman. With our experienced and highly skilled staff, our objective is to diminish the cloud of confusion that surrounds the merchant industry, and help your business take advantage of our many banking connections.

Studies show that Internet businesses that accept credit cards enjoy higher sales volumes.

It is important to remember that the offshore merchant processing sector in particular is expanding at an exponential rate, with great opportunities for Internet businesses to obtain solid, long term banking relationships. That being said, one needs to be very selective in determining which banks and processors to use. This is where our service comes to the forefront; we know all the key players and the groups to avoid.

ACH/E-checks should also be considered for your US customers, as this has also been shown to increase sales volume by as much as 20% of gross volume. We can of course provide ACH/E-check processing with reputable tier one US banks.

Our IBC incorporation product line will also enable you and your business to conduct all your high risk merchant processing activities in confidential private jurisdictions. Our exclusive offshore jurisdictions include Panama, Belize, BVI, the Seychelles and Cyprus IBCs.

Contact us today and start enjoying increased sales revenues with the use of your own offshore merchant account.

Talk to an ExpertContact Us

Complete Merchant Banking and Offshore Financial Services at One Stop!

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Jitsi SIP Softphone Review – Tech

 Jitsi  Comments Off on Jitsi SIP Softphone Review – Tech
Aug 302015 Commons Rating

Visit Their Website

Jitsi is a Java-based communication tool that offers a lot of features and allows SIP-based calls. Jitsi supports voice and video calls and gives all the functionalities of an Instant Messaging software. It offers a nice interface and runs on many platforms. It also offers conference calls over SIP and allows you to connect to many other networks including Facebook, Google Talk, Windows Live, Yahoo!, AIM and ICQ.

Jitsi is a nice tool for integrating all your communication needs into one application. Jitsi is open source and is therefore free.



Jitsi offers a very simple but nice-looking interface, with basic features and easy controls for configuring the tool and communication. Download and installation are straightforward and easy, and it is also easy to configure your SIP settings. You can use Jitsi with any SIP account.

Jitsi supports many IM protocols and works with many other networks, including Facebook, Google Talk, Windows Live, Yahoo!, AIM and ICQ. This makes it possible to call and contact your friends without having to change tool.

Jitsi is free and open source. Having a look the source code of tools like this is an interesting adventure for programmers who want to work on VoIP applications. Being Java-based, the application works on most operating systems.

Jitsi offers privacy and encryption for calls. It uses the ZRTP encryption, and is one of the rare SIP clients to offer something for security.

With Jitsi, you can use your computer and Internet connection to make free voice and video calls through SIP. Just get a SIP address and register with Jitsi. You can then communicate with your other friends using SIP or with people on the other networks mentioned above. You can also use Jitsi with Google Voice to call regular landline and mobile numbers.

Jitsi supports voice communication, video conferencing, chat, IM network, file transfer and desktop sharing.

The application is a little bit slow compared to others of the kind, due to it being Java-based and therefore interpreted. But if you have a powerful computer, you wont notice it. Also, you dont get to more detailed options where you can select codecs and other technical things. But you will be happy if you are not geeky enough for that.

Visit Their Website

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BruceClay – SEO: Reputable Search Engine Optimization company …

 SEO  Comments Off on BruceClay – SEO: Reputable Search Engine Optimization company …
Aug 302015

In the ever-changing world of search engine optimization, one goal remains constant: traffic. The higher the site ranks on a search engine results page as seen by a user, the more traffic the site will receive. A site that has been subjected to the standards and strategies of an expert and reputable SEO company is better positioned than its competitors. However, proper white hat SEO strategy implementation does not mean applying a series of quick fixes for higher rankings and more traffic. Reputable search engine optimization means following the search engines guidelines, and never placing a client in harms way.

SEO helps a site with traffic, and thus conversions. The SEO experts here at Bruce Clay, Inc. have a reputation of accomplishment as a top search engine optimization company. We understand why SEO is beneficial to your business, and that without a solid white hat SEO strategy that any great website will fail.

A solid and ethical SEO strategy should function as an integral extension to Internet marketing, as it is vital to the success of any organization with an online presence. While it’s important to recognize traffic as the primary target, it is equally important to understand why SEO is an objective in the first place. Hence this site offers free tools, training and supplemental services as you choose.

An optimal SEO strategy encapsulates many things. Chief among them is content. Creating authoritative content that includes targeted keywords relevant to user queries is key to organic search. A site that effectively practices the recommendations of reputable SEO professionals will most likely be better than the competition. A site optimized by an SEO expert will typically be rewarded with a higher search engine ranking because that site aims to deliver what the user wants. And search engines reward sites that do so.

The topics we cover are quite varied and all are about SEO. If you want to learn you should consider the Tutorial or Training areas. If you want services you will want out services and prices pages. If you are into conversation, opinion or tools you can use consider the blog and tools areas. We have several pages for you to visit:

As a full-service SEO company operating since 1996, Bruce Clay, Inc. is a reputable search engine optimization company. We focus on search engine optimization as part of a holistic, all-encompassing Internet marketing optimization strategy. In addition to search engine optimization, Bruce Clay, Inc.s SEO professionals offer consulting services, site assessments, SEO tools, fantastic SEO training and more across the most important Internet marketing disciplines.

We also encourage continued education with our SEO expert training courses that provide an in-depth look into current best practices for ethical SEO strategies as well as other SEO services. Bruce Clay, Inc. also offers website design consultation (SEO information architecture), pay-per-click management, website analytics, conversion rate optimization, social media marketing and especially the integration of these services.

Effective development and execution of a proper search engine optimization strategy is a vital component to our mutual success, and one of the most powerful online marketing tools available. With the help of the reputable SEO professionals at Bruce Clay, Inc. we can maximize results and over time, increase ROI.We make lasting improvements for your sites long-term success. We provide sound search engine optimization services to ensure that your site is authoritative and excels above your competition’s. And all of our SEO services are customized to your needs and prices are negotiated to fit your needs for a successful project.

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BruceClay – SEO: Reputable Search Engine Optimization company …

Submitedge – SEO Firm

 SEO  Comments Off on Submitedge – SEO Firm
Aug 302015


What Is Complete Website Marketing Service?

Complete Website Marketing Service from SubmitEdgeSEO is the ultimate internet marketing solution that your website needs to fight the toughest online competition in the most efficient way. Our Complete Website Marketing service has been designed by the most experienced internet marketing experts to help websites improve their search engine ranking in the most search engine friendly way. Our internet marketing service uses strategic blend of website marketing solutions that incorporate search engine optimization and social media optimization techniques that help you cut through the competition and get top rankings in Google, other leading search engines and top social media platforms. Our Complete Website Marketing service should not be mistaken for overnight success programs. The internet marketing service is rather to be understood as an elaborate and tactical scheme that gives your website and your brand the online stature that it deserves just as you have envisioned all along.

Our Complete Website Marketing service devised by SubmitEdgeSEO is a Google compliant solution. The multi-faceted method that we use here will make your website “de-index proof” and our website marketing solutions will empower your website to dominate the Google search results.

Benefits Of Complete Website Marketing Service For Your Website

Our Complete Website Marketing service gives your website extended and stable online visibility. Most of the internet marketing techniques create just a ‘spike’ effect but does not produce results that last long enough to make a difference to your website. The internet marketing service effectively addresses this issue and helps your website enjoy very stable online presence.

This service does not just throw complex jargons at you but seriously aims at delivering results, results that really matter to your website.

Identifies traffic sources for your website and channels highly targeted traffic to the most important pages of your website.

Driving targeted traffic the internet marketing service seeks to increase your overall brand revenue and thereby help you achieve your business objectives.

This internet marketing service is a holistic approach that simultaneously promotes your website in the search results as well as in the social media sites. SubmitEdgeSEO’s Complete Website Marketing strategy appreciates greatly the importance of social media presence in making a brand successful on the web.

Your website’s visibility will also be improved in the local search results.

Seeks to achieve your brand’s reputation management goals too by creating a positive buzz around your brand.

This Complete Website Marketing service not only helps you generate highly prospective new leads but it also consistently works upon improving brand loyalty by making your brand visible in the right networks and thereby constantly reinforcing your brand image to your existing customers.

You will find this solution highly cost effective.

There cannot be a more comprehensive approach to internet marketing.

An assured approach that works equally well with all types of websites.

Complete Website Marketing Service

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TOR Bundle Download – Tor Project: Anonymity Online

 Tor Browser  Comments Off on TOR Bundle Download – Tor Project: Anonymity Online
Aug 262015

You need to change some of your habits, as some things won’t work exactly as you are used to.

Tor does not protect all of your computer’s Internet traffic when you run it. Tor only protects your applications that are properly configured to send their Internet traffic through Tor. To avoid problems with Tor configuration, we strongly recommend you use the Tor Browser. It is pre-configured to protect your privacy and anonymity on the web as long as you’re browsing with the Tor Browser itself. Almost any other web browser configuration is likely to be unsafe to use with Tor.

Torrent file-sharing applications have been observed to ignore proxy settings and make direct connections even when they are told to use Tor. Even if your torrent application connects only through Tor, you will often send out your real IP address in the tracker GET request, because that’s how torrents work. Not only do you deanonymize your torrent traffic and your other simultaneous Tor web traffic this way, you also slow down the entire Tor network for everyone else.

The Tor Browser will block browser plugins such as Flash, RealPlayer, Quicktime, and others: they can be manipulated into revealing your IP address. Similarly, we do not recommend installing additional addons or plugins into the Tor Browser, as these may bypass Tor or otherwise harm your anonymity and privacy.

Tor will encrypt your traffic to and within the Tor network, but the encryption of your traffic to the final destination website depends upon on that website. To help ensure private encryption to websites, the Tor Browser includes HTTPS Everywhere to force the use of HTTPS encryption with major websites that support it. However, you should still watch the browser URL bar to ensure that websites you provide sensitive information to display a blue or green URL bar button, include https:// in the URL, and display the proper expected name for the website. Also see EFF’s interactive page explaining how Tor and HTTPS relate.

The Tor Browser will warn you before automatically opening documents that are handled by external applications. DO NOT IGNORE THIS WARNING. You should be very careful when downloading documents via Tor (especially DOC and PDF files) as these documents can contain Internet resources that will be downloaded outside of Tor by the application that opens them. This will reveal your non-Tor IP address. If you must work with DOC and/or PDF files, we strongly recommend either using a disconnected computer, downloading the free VirtualBox and using it with a virtual machine image with networking disabled, or using Tails. Under no circumstances is it safe to use BitTorrent and Tor together, however.

Tor tries to prevent attackers from learning what destination websites you connect to. However, by default, it does not prevent somebody watching your Internet traffic from learning that you’re using Tor. If this matters to you, you can reduce this risk by configuring Tor to use a Tor bridge relay rather than connecting directly to the public Tor network. Ultimately the best protection is a social approach: the more Tor users there are near you and the more diverse their interests, the less dangerous it will be that you are one of them. Convince other people to use Tor, too!

Be smart and learn more. Understand what Tor does and does not offer. This list of pitfalls isn’t complete, and we need your help identifying and documenting all the issues.

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TOR Bundle Download – Tor Project: Anonymity Online

NJ SEO Company – New Jersey Seach Engine Optimization

 SEO  Comments Off on NJ SEO Company – New Jersey Seach Engine Optimization
Aug 262015

Looking for NJ SEO Services? The Simple Truth

Advertising used to be simple. Put an ad in the paper the phone rings and people walk through your door.

But put yourself in todays consumer shoes for a second when was the last time you picked up a phone book or flipped through a newspaper to find a local business?

Do you think thats where potential customers are finding you?

Fact 97% of consumers use the internet to find local businesses (Google)

So if your business doesnt show up on the front page of local search engine rankings, then youre losing hundreds of sales opportunities daily.

With 1.8 billion searches made by consumers looking for local businesses every month, someone is always looking for your products or services.

Having a website is a good start, but if it doesnt show up on the first page of natural search engine rankings, then youre losing potential sales to local companies listed above you.

As a business owner, can you really afford to sit back and let the other guy take money out of your pocket?

Youth Noise will help your business thrive in the digital age, and local search engine optimization (SEO) is a great place to start.

We develop proven online strategies that drive local traffic to your website utilizing the best in proven local SEO practices to ensure you dont miss out on sales opportunities.

Local SEO is a cost effective, high results return on investment when compared to other advertising methods.

Using specific key words and phrases to attract qualified visitors to your website, a local search engine optimization program puts your business in front of customers who are ready to buy today!

Youth Noise will help you climb the competitive search engine ladder in your city for a fraction of the cost of larger firms. We develop custom solutions to meet every clients unique set of needs.

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NJ SEO Company – New Jersey Seach Engine Optimization

Tulsa Seo Web Design Search Engine Optimization Tulsa

 SEO  Comments Off on Tulsa Seo Web Design Search Engine Optimization Tulsa
Aug 252015

SEO Tulsa is ranked number one by Google for keywords such as Tulsa Search Engine Optimization and Tulsa SEO and theres a reason for that. We are extremely good in our profession. Do you want your website to rank high on search engines such as Yahoo, Google and Bing? The fact is that a website is of no good if your existing clients or prospective clients cannot find it on the World Wide Web. We can help you optimize your site so that it appears in the top results of search engines. This process of reaching for the top of search engine results is known as search engine optimization (SEO for short). SEO plays an important part in directing potential clients to your website. Some additional tactics we utilize to achieve the greatest possible results in a relatively short time period include: online reputation management, social media marketing, and the creation of e-newsletters, press releases as well as other high-quality marketing content.

SEO Tulsa offers distinctive and holistic marketing strategies and services to help businesses achieve maximum visibility as well as reputability. We utilize a customized approach in helping our customers to elevate their businesses to higher levels in their respective niches.

We use a strategic tactic thats built around creating, quantifying as well as measuring customer objectives. Our team stays very current as well as up to date on all Google changes and updates made to its algorithm. All these help to ensure that our clients achieve optimum online exposure.

As a world class Communications Company operating within one of the worlds fastest developing economic markets, SEO Tulsa is wholly committed to serving the needs of local companies via services designed specially to target local clients. If you operate a business in Tulsa and environs, you require strategic online advertising as well as local Tulsa SEO to give your website the visibility it needs to bring your business to the attention of prospective customers.

First, you will need to decide whether to optimize your marketing activities for the international market, for only the local Tulsa market or for both. Whichever one you choose, we can help you achieve your objectives. Our local Tulsa search engine optimization services are specially designed to maximize your chances of being listed within the local section of a Google search listing. The objective of Tulsa SEO is to get your website to rank high in the search page results when a prospective client uses the internet to search for a local supplier of the products or services that you offer. A few examples of pertinent search terms include: automobile repair in Tulsa, Tulsa dentist, Tulsa realtor, or if you are searching for an SEO service provider, SEO Tulsa or Search Engine Optimization Tulsa.

Aside from providing quality and highly effective SEO services, we also utilize Google My Business as well as other far-reaching online platforms to get to your targeted client base directly. Some of the tools we employ include directory listings, customer reviews and local mapping. Also, we adopt a community-centric tactic to web reputation management by concentrating on things such as email marketing, press releases designed for local media outlets and social media presence. All these are specially designed to reach as well as engage your target clients or audience.

If your business is located within the Tulsa area, then your main priority should be localized leads. Since Tulsa has one of the fastest growing populations as well as strongest economies in the country, local Tulsa businesses are generally the most valuable; also they have a very high inbound lead conversion rate. This means greater returns on marketing investment.

Business owners operating internationally via the web can benefit from the international search engine optimization services provided by our parent company SSD Fair Marketing. They utilize fair marketing methods just like ours to create brand awareness as well as online authority within the global marketplace.

Companies that sell products in various parts of the globe require efficient and comprehensive international search engine optimization services and strategies. For companies that presently have (or are trying to setup) an ecommerce site, geography is certainly not a problem. Consumers can order for the products they require from anywhere on the planet via the internet. Whether you are looking to optimize your present website or want to create a new website for your ecommerce business, SEO Tulsa can help you.

As soon as your site has been optimized for the international market, it will appear in the search results when a prospective client searches for the kind of products that you provide without indicating a particular location. Bear in mind that your site will be competing with millions of other websites in different parts of the world, and not merely with businesses or websites that are within your locality. This is where international search engine optimization services can help you achieve competitive edge. You can even compete with corporate giants such as Coca-cola and Nike.

When considering Local Tulsa SEO versus International, do not forget that you dont have to sell globally merely because you have the capability to do so. It might be much simpler to sell to consumers within your locality compared to selling to consumers located six thousand miles away. If you are operating on a low budget, you should consider optimizing your site for the local audience first, before you venture into the international scene and compete globally.

Please get in touch with us so we can analyze your sites current SEO requirements whether international or local. This analysis is completely free of charge.

We do not provide a one size fits all solution at SEO Tulsa. We custom produce a marketing campaign that is distinctly suited to meet the needs and expectations of individual clients. Some of the strategies as well as services that we include within our comprehensive marketing campaigns include:

* PPC advertising

* Offsite, Onsite and guest blogging

* Strategic link building

* Testimonial solicitation and marketing case studies

* Social media management and marketing

* Comprehensive website analysis plus cleanup

At SEO Tulsa, we do not only focus on improving your rankings in search engine results. We also depend upon a comprehensive and all-inclusive marketing tactic which utilizes both traditional and digital mediums for optimum exposure across various channels. The result is established, measurable outcomes as well as greater returns on marketing investment. In addition to delivering excellent results, SEO Tulsa also carries the customer along by promising complete transparency via a highly progressive and advanced method of lead tracking, reliable reporting as well as high-level business development tools which place campaign analytics within the hands of customers directly.

If you own a business, be aware that there are several web hosting firms that provide services which can ultimately damage your rankings in search engines. You should also not forget that the average website designer may likely have little or no knowledge about internet marketing or search engine optimization. For these professional services, you should be working with a reliable and experienced marketing communications company such as SEO Tulsa and SSD Fair Marketing (our parent company).

One very common mistake that business owners and managers make is purchasing several domain names and using all of them to promote one website. This strategy is flawed in that most search engines including Google will regard the extra sites as duplicate content and may remove your site from search engine results or impose heavy penalties. Having multiple domain names is fine provided that you have unique and original content on each website.

For additional assistance and to start improving your business online brand via strategic search engine optimization services as well as established online marketing tactics, contact and schedule an appointment with one of our knowledgeable consultants now.

You want to select a company that provides ethical and effective marketing services, whether you do business locally, nationally or globally. SEO Tulsa does not employ black hat SEO tactics to get the job done for you. Instead, we utilize ethical SEO practices to help your website rank high in search engine results.

What this means is that we will never be dishonest regarding what can be reasonably expected from a personalized comprehensive marketing strategy for your business. Also we will give you detailed and accurate reports about the progress we are making. SEO Tulsa is committed to helping your business achieve online success as well as industry recognition. This, in turn, will help attract more clients thus generate more sales.

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Tulsa Seo Web Design Search Engine Optimization Tulsa

Pierre Teilhard De Chardin | Designer Children | Prometheism | Euvolution | Transhumanism