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Second Amendment – National Constitution Center

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Oct 122015

The Second Amendment

Modern debates about the Second Amendment have focused on whether it protects a private right of individuals to keep and bear arms, or a right that can be exercised only through militia organizations like the National Guard. This question, however, was not even raised until long after the Bill of Rights was adopted.

Many in the Founding generation believed that governments are prone to use soldiers to oppress the people. English history suggested that this risk could be controlled by permitting the government to raise armies (consisting of full-time paid troops) only when needed to fight foreign adversaries. For other purposes, such as responding to sudden invasions or other emergencies, the government could rely on a militia that consisted of ordinary civilians who supplied their own weapons and received some part-time, unpaid military training.

The onset of war does not always allow time to raise and train an army, and the Revolutionary War showed that militia forces could not be relied on for national defense. The Constitutional Convention therefore decided that the federal government should have almost unfettered authority to establish peacetime standing armies and to regulate the militia.

This massive shift of power from the states to the federal government generated one of the chief objections to the proposed Constitution. Anti-Federalists argued that the proposed Constitution would take from the states their principal means of defense against federal usurpation. The Federalists responded that fears of federal oppression were overblown, in part because the American people were armed and would be almost impossible to subdue through military force.

Implicit in the debate between Federalists and Anti-Federalists were two shared assumptions. First, that the proposed new Constitution gave the federal government almost total legal authority over the army and militia. Second, that the federal government should not have any authority at all to disarm the citizenry. They disagreed only about whether an armed populace could adequately deter federal oppression.

The Second Amendment conceded nothing to the Anti-Federalists desire to sharply curtail the military power of the federal government, which would have required substantial changes in the original Constitution. Yet the Amendment was easily accepted because of widespread agreement that the federal government should not have the power to infringe the right of the people to keep and bear arms, any more than it should have the power to abridge the freedom of speech or prohibit the free exercise of religion.

Much has changed since 1791. The traditional militia fell into desuetude, and state-based militia organizations were eventually incorporated into the federal military structure. The nations military establishment has become enormously more powerful than eighteenth century armies. We still hear political rhetoric about federal tyranny, but most Americans do not fear the nations armed forces and virtually no one thinks that an armed populace could defeat those forces in battle. Furthermore, eighteenth century civilians routinely kept at home the very same weapons they would need if called to serve in the militia, while modern soldiers are equipped with weapons that differ significantly from those generally thought appropriate for civilian uses. Civilians no longer expect to use their household weapons for militia duty, although they still keep and bear arms to defend against common criminals (as well as for hunting and other forms of recreation).

The law has also changed. While states in the Founding era regulated gunsblacks were often prohibited from possessing firearms and militia weapons were frequently registered on government rollsgun laws today are more extensive and controversial. Another important legal development was the adoption of the Fourteenth Amendment. The Second Amendment originally applied only to the federal government, leaving the states to regulate weapons as they saw fit. Although there is substantial evidence that the Privileges or Immunities Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment was meant to protect the right of individuals to keep and bear arms from infringement by the states, the Supreme Court rejected this interpretation in United States v. Cruikshank (1876).

Until recently, the judiciary treated the Second Amendment almost as a dead letter. In District of Columbia v. Heller (2008), however, the Supreme Court invalidated a federal law that forbade nearly all civilians from possessing handguns in the nations capital. A 54 majority ruled that the language and history of the Second Amendment showed that it protects a private right of individuals to have arms for their own defense, not a right of the states to maintain a militia.

The dissenters disagreed. They concluded that the Second Amendment protects a nominally individual right, though one that protects only the right of the people of each of the several States to maintain a well-regulated militia. They also argued that even if the Second Amendment did protect an individual right to have arms for self-defense, it should be interpreted to allow the government to ban handguns in high-crime urban areas.

Two years later, in McDonald v. City of Chicago (2010), the Court struck down a similar handgun ban at the state level, again by a 54 vote. Four Justices relied on judicial precedents under the Fourteenth Amendments Due Process Clause. Justice Thomas rejected those precedents in favor of reliance on the Privileges or Immunities Clause, but all five members of the majority concluded that the Fourteenth Amendment protects against state infringement the same individual right that is protected from federal infringement by the Second Amendment.

Notwithstanding the lengthy opinions in Heller and McDonald, they technically ruled only that government may not ban the possession of handguns by civilians in their homes. Heller tentatively suggested a list of presumptively lawful regulations, including bans on the possession of firearms by felons and the mentally ill, bans on carrying firearms in sensitive places such as schools and government buildings, laws restricting the commercial sale of arms, bans on the concealed carry of firearms, and bans on weapons not typically possessed by law-abiding citizens for lawful purposes. Many issues remain open, and the lower courts have disagreed with one another about some of them, including important questions involving restrictions on carrying weapons in public.

The right to keep and bear arms is a lot like the right to freedom of speech. In each case, the Constitution expressly protects a liberty that needs to be insulated from the ordinary political process.

Gun control is as much a part of the Second Amendment as the right to keep and bear arms. The text of the amendment, which refers to a well regulated Militia, suggests as much.

Not a Second Class Right: The Second Amendment Today by Nelson Lund

The right to keep and bear arms is a lot like the right to freedom of speech. In each case, the Constitution expressly protects a liberty that needs to be insulated from the ordinary political process. Neither right, however, is absolute. The First Amendment, for example, has never protected perjury, fraud, or countless other crimes that are committed through the use of speech. Similarly, no reasonable person could believe that violent criminals should have unrestricted access to guns, or that any individual should possess a nuclear weapon.

Inevitably, courts must draw lines, allowing government to carry out its duty to preserve an orderly society, without unduly infringing the legitimate interests of individuals in expressing their thoughts and protecting themselves from criminal violence. This is not a precise science or one that will ever be free from controversy.

One judicial approach, however, should be unequivocally rejected. During the nineteenth century, courts routinely refused to invalidate restrictions on free speech that struck the judges as reasonable. This meant that speech got virtually no judicial protection. Government suppression of speech can usually be thought to serve some reasonable purpose, such as reducing social discord or promoting healthy morals. Similarly, most gun control laws can be viewed as efforts to save lives and prevent crime, which are perfectly reasonable goals. If thats enough to justify infringements on individual liberty, neither constitutional guarantee means much of anything.

During the twentieth century, the Supreme Court finally started taking the First Amendment seriously. Today, individual freedom is generally protected unless the government can make a strong case that it has a real need to suppress speech or expressive conduct, and that its regulations are tailored to that need. The legal doctrines have become quite complex, and there is room for disagreement about many of the Courts specific decisions. Taken as a whole, however, this body of case law shows what the Court can do when it appreciates the value of an individual right enshrined in the Constitution.

The Second Amendment also raises issues about which reasonable people can disagree. But if the Supreme Court takes this provision of the Constitution as seriously as it now takes the First Amendment, which it should do, there will be some easy issues as well.

District of Columbia v. Heller (2008) is one example. The right of the people protected by the Second Amendment is an individual right, just like the right[s] of the people protected by the First and Fourth Amendments. The Constitution does not say that the Second Amendment protects a right of the states or a right of the militia, and nobody offered such an interpretation during the Founding era. Abundant historical evidence indicates that the Second Amendment was meant to leave citizens with the ability to defend themselves against unlawful violence. Such threats might come from usurpers of governmental power, but they might also come from criminals whom the government is unwilling or unable to control.

McDonald v. City of Chicago (2010) was also an easy case under the Courts precedents. Most other provisions of the Bill of Rights had already been applied to the states because they are deeply rooted in this Nations history and tradition. The right to keep and bear arms clearly meets this test.

The text of the Constitution expressly guarantees the right to bear arms, not just the right to keep them. The courts should invalidate regulations that prevent law-abiding citizens from carrying weapons in public, where the vast majority of violent crimes occur. First Amendment rights are not confined to the home, and neither are those protected by the Second Amendment.

Nor should the government be allowed to create burdensome bureaucratic obstacles designed to frustrate the exercise of Second Amendment rights. The courts are vigilant in preventing government from evading the First Amendment through regulations that indirectly abridge free speech rights by making them difficult to exercise. Courts should exercise the same vigilance in protecting Second Amendment rights.

Some other regulations that may appear innocuous should be struck down because they are little more than political stunts. Popular bans on so-called assault rifles, for example, define this class of guns in terms of cosmetic features, leaving functionally identical semi-automatic rifles to circulate freely. This is unconstitutional for the same reason that it would violate the First Amendment to ban words that have a French etymology, or to require that French fries be called freedom fries.

In most American states, including many with large urban population centers, responsible adults have easy access to ordinary firearms, and they are permitted to carry them in public. Experience has shown that these policies do not lead to increased levels of violence. Criminals pay no more attention to gun control regulations than they do to laws against murder, rape, and robbery. Armed citizens, however, prevent countless crimes and have saved many lives. Whats more, the most vulnerable peopleincluding women, the elderly, and those who live in high crime neighborhoodsare among the greatest beneficiaries of the Second Amendment. If the courts require the remaining jurisdictions to stop infringing on the constitutional right to keep and bear arms, their citizens will be more free and probably safer as well.

The Reasonable Right to Bear Arms by Adam Winkler

Gun control is as much a part of the Second Amendment as the right to keep and bear arms. The text of the amendment, which refers to a well regulated Militia, suggests as much. As the Supreme Court correctly noted in District of Columbia v. Heller (2008), the militia of the founding era was the body of ordinary citizens capable of taking up arms to defend the nation. While the Founders sought to protect the citizenry from being disarmed entirely, they did not wish to prevent government from adopting reasonable regulations of guns and gun owners.

Although Americans today often think that gun control is a modern invention, the Founding era had laws regulating the armed citizenry. There were laws designed to ensure an effective militia, such as laws requiring armed citizens to appear at mandatory musters where their guns would be inspected. Governments also compiled registries of civilian-owned guns appropriate for militia service, sometimes conducting door-to-door surveys. The Founders had broad bans on gun possession by people deemed untrustworthy, including slaves and loyalists. The Founders even had laws requiring people to have guns appropriate for militia service.

The wide range of Founding-era laws suggests that the Founders understood gun rights quite differently from many people today. The right to keep and bear arms was not a libertarian license for anyone to have any kind of ordinary firearm, anywhere they wanted. Nor did the Second Amendment protect a right to revolt against a tyrannical government. The Second Amendment was about ensuring public safety, and nothing in its language was thought to prevent what would be seen today as quite burdensome forms of regulation.

The Founding-era laws indicate why the First Amendment is not a good analogy to the Second. While there have always been laws restricting perjury and fraud by the spoken word, such speech was not thought to be part of the freedom of speech. The Second Amendment, by contrast, unambiguously recognizes that the armed citizenry must be regulatedand regulated well. This language most closely aligns with the Fourth Amendment, which protects a right to privacy but also recognizes the authority of the government to conduct reasonable searches and seizures.

The principle that reasonable regulations are consistent with the Second Amendment has been affirmed throughout American history. Ever since the first cases challenging gun controls for violating the Second Amendment or similar provisions in state constitutions, courts have repeatedly held that reasonable gun lawsthose that dont completely deny access to guns by law-abiding peopleare constitutionally permissible. For 150 years, this was the settled law of the landuntil Heller.

Heller, however, rejected the principle of reasonableness only in name, not in practice. The decision insisted that many types of gun control laws are presumptively lawful, including bans on possession of firearms by felons and the mentally ill, bans on concealed carry, bans on dangerous and unusual weapons, restrictions on guns in sensitive places like schools and government buildings, and commercial sale restrictions. Nearly all gun control laws today fit within these exceptions. Importantly, these exceptions for modern-day gun laws unheard of in the Founding era also show that lawmakers are not limited to the types of gun control in place at the time of the Second Amendments ratification.

In the years since Heller, the federal courts have upheld the overwhelming majority of gun control laws challenged under the Second Amendment. Bans on assault weapons have been consistently upheld, as have restrictions on gun magazines that hold more than a minimum number of rounds of ammunition. Bans on guns in national parks, post offices, bars, and college campuses also survived. These decisions make clear that lawmakers have wide leeway to restrict guns to promote public safety so long as the basic right of law-abiding people to have a gun for self-defense is preserved.

Perhaps the biggest open question after Heller is whether the Second Amendment protects a right to carry guns in public. While every state allows public carry, some states restrict that right to people who can show a special reason to have a gun on the street. To the extent these laws give local law enforcement unfettered discretion over who can carry, they are problematic. At the same time, however, many constitutional rights are far more limited in public than in the home. Parades can be required to have a permit, the police have broader powers to search pedestrians and motorists than private homes, and sexual intimacy in public places can be completely prohibited.

The Supreme Court may yet decide that more stringent limits on gun control are required under the Second Amendment. Such a decision, however, would be contrary to the text, history, and tradition of the right to keep and bear arms.

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Second Amendment – National Constitution Center

Illuminati – Crystalinks

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Oct 032015


Eye Symbology

The Illuminati is the name of many groups, modern and historical, real and fictitious, verified and alleged. Most commonly, however, The Illuminati refers specifically to the Bavarian Illuminati, perhaps the least secret of all secret societies in the world, described below. Most use refers to an alleged shadowy conspiratorial organization which controls world affairs behind the scenes, usually a modern incarnation or continuation of the Bavarian Illuminati. Illuminati is sometimes used synonymously with New World Order.

Illuminati is a Greek word meaning Illumination a name given to those who submitted to Christian baptism. Those who were baptized were called Illuminati or Illuminated / Enlightened Ones by the Ante-Nicene clergy, on the assumption that those who were instructed for baptism in the Apostolic faith had an enlightened understanding. The Alumbrados, a mystical 16th-century Spanish sect, were among the societies that subsequently adopted the name Illuminati.

Since Illuminati literally means ‘enlightened ones’ in Latin, it is natural that several unrelated historical groups have identified themselves as Illuminati. Often, this was due to claims of possessing gnostic texts or other arcane information not generally available.

The designation illuminati was also in use from the 14th century by the Brethren of the Free Spirit, and in the 15th century was assumed by other enthusiasts who claimed that the illuminating light came, not by being communicated from an authoritative but secret source, but from within, the result of exalted consciousness, or “enlightenment”.

Alumbrados of Spain

To the former class belong the alumbrados of Spain. The historian Marcelino Menendez y Pelayo found the name as early as 1492 (in the form iluminados, 1498), but traced them to a Gnostic origin, and thought their views were promoted in Spain through influences from Italy. One of their earliest leaders, born in Salamanca, a laborer’s daughter known as La Beata de Piedrahita, came under the notice of the Inquisition in 1511, as claiming to hold colloquies with Jesus and the Virgin Mary; some high patronage saved her from a rigorous denunciation. (Menendez Pelayo, Los Heterodoxos Espaoles, 1881, vol. V.). Ignatius Loyola, while studying at Salamanca in 1527, was brought before an ecclesiastical commission on a charge of sympathy with the alumbrados, but escaped with an admonition.

Illumines of France

The movement (under the name of Illumines) seems to have reached France from Seville in 1623, and attained some following in Picardy when joined (1634) by Pierce Guerin, cure of Saint-Georges de Roye, whose followers, known as Gurinets, were suppressed in 1635. A century later, another, more obscure body of Illumines came to light in the south of France in 1722, and appears to have lingered till 1794, having affinities with those known contemporaneously in Britain as ‘French Prophets’, an offshoot of the Camisards.


A different class were the Rosicrucians, who claimed to originate in 1407, but rose into notice in 1614 when their main text Fama Fraternitatis appeared; a secret society, that claimed to combine the possession of esoteric principles of religion with the mysteries of alchemy. Their positions are embodied in three anonymous treatises of 1614 (mentioned in Richard and Giraud, Dictionnaire universel des sciences ecclesiastiques, Paris 1825), as well as in the Confessio Fraternitatis of 1615. Rosicrucians also claimed heritage from the Knights Templar.


Later, the title Illuminati was applied to the French Martinists which had been founded in 1754 by Martinez Pasqualis, and to their imitators the Russian Martinists, headed about 1790 by Professor Schwartz of Moscow; both were occultist cabalists and allegorists, absorbing eclectic ideas from Jakob Boehme and Emanuel Swedenborg.


A movement of freethinkers that were the most radical offshoot of The Enlightenment – whose adherents were given the name Illuminati (but who called themselves “Perfectibilists”) – was founded on May 1, 1776 by Jesuit-taught Adam Weishaupt (d. 1830), who was the first lay professor of canon law. The group has also been called the Illuminati Order, the Order of the Illuminati, and the Bavarian Illuminati.In the conservative state of Bavaria, where the progressive and enlightened elector Maximilian III Joseph von Wittelsbach was succeeded (1777) by his conservative heir Karl Theodor, and which was dominated by the Roman Catholic Church and the aristocracy, such an organization did not last long before it was suppressed by the powers of the day.

In 1784, the Bavarian government banned all secret societies, including the Illuminati and the Freemasons. The structure of the Illuminati soon collapsed, but while it was in existence many influential intellectuals and progressive politicians counted themselves as members.

Its members were supposedly drawn primarily from Masons and former Masons, and although some Masons were known to be members there is no evidence that it was supported by Freemasons. The members pledged obedience to their superiors, and were divided into three main classes: the first, known as the Nursery, encompassed the ascending degrees or offices of Preparation, Novice, Minerval and Illuminatus Minor; the second, known as the Masonry, consisting of the ascending degrees of Illuminatus Major and Illuminatus dirigens, the latter also sometimes called Scotch Knight; the third, designated the Mysteries, was subdivided into the degrees of the Lesser Mysteries (Presbyter and Regent) and those of the Greater Mysteries (Magus and Rex). Relations with Masonic lodges were established at Munich and Freising in 1780.

The order had its branches in most countries of the European continent; its members were reportedly around 3,000-4,000 members in the span of 10 years. The scheme had its attraction for literary men, such as Goethe and Herder, and even for the reigning dukes of Gotha and Weimar. Internal rupture preceded its downfall, which was effected by an edict of the Bavarian government in 1785.

The Bavarian Illuminati have cast a long shadow in popular history thanks to the writings of their opponents; the lurid allegations of conspiracy that have colored the image of the Freemasons have practically opaqued that of the Illuminati. In 1797, Abbe Augustin Barruel published Memoirs Illustrating the History of Jacobinism outlining a vivid conspiracy theory involving the Knights Templar, the Rosicrucians, the Jacobins and the Illuminati.

A Scottish Mason and professor of natural history named John Robison started to publish Proofs of a Conspiracy Against all the Religions and Governments of Europe in 1798. Robison claimed to present evidence of an Illuminati conspiracy striving to replace all religions with humanism and all nations with a single world government.

More recently, Antony C. Sutton suggested that the secret society Skull and Bones was founded as the American branch of the Illuminati; others think Scroll and Key had Illuminati origins, as well. Writer Robert Gillette claimed that these Illuminati ultimately intend to establish a world government through assassination, bribery, blackmail, the control of banks and other financial powers, the infiltration of governments, mind control, and by causing wars and revolution to move their own people into higher positions in the political hierarchy.

Thomas Jefferson, on the other hand, claimed they intended to spread information and the principles of true morality. He attributed the secrecy of the Illuminati to what he called “the tyranny of a despot and priests”.

Both seem to agree that the enemies of the Illuminati were the monarchs of Europe and the Church; Barrul claimed that the French revolution (1789) was engineered and controlled by the Illuminati through the Jacobins, and later conspiracy theorists have also claimed their responsibility for the Russian Revolution (1917), although the order was officially shut down in 1790. Few historians give credence to these views; they regard such claims as the products of over-fertile imaginations.

Several sources suggest that the Bavarian Illuminati survived, and perhaps even exists today. Conspiracy theorists highlight the link between the Illuminati and Freemasonry. It is also suggested that the United States’ founding fathers – some being Freemasons – were rife with corruption from the Illuminati. Often the symbol of the all-seeing pyramid in the Great Seal of the United States is cited as an example of the Illuminati’s ever-present watchful eye over Americans.

Very little reliable evidence can be found to suggest that Weishaupt’s group survived into the 19th century. However, several groups have since used the name Illuminati to found their own rites, claiming to be the Illuminati. Such groups include the Grand Lodge Rockefeller of David Goldman (USA), Orden Illuminati of Gabriel Lopez de Rojas (Spain), and The Illuminati Order of Solomon Tulbure (USA).

In 1995, Gabriel Lpez de Rojas founded Illuminati Order in Barcelona, Spain, elaborating the Operative Rite of The Illuminati of Bavaria. This Rite is based on the Rite of the Illuminati and high degrees of Scottish Rite of 33 degrees.The System of its Illuminati Grand Master, Gabriel Lpez de Rojas, is the Redism. This system is based on the lemma HOMO EST DEUS, or “man is god”.

Groups describing themselves as Illuminati say they have members and chapters (lodges) throughout the world.

About the time that the Illuminati were outlawed in Bavaria, the Roman Catholic Church prohibited its members from joining Masonic lodges, on pain of excommunication. This was done as a general edict, since the Church believed many lodges to have been infiltrated and subverted by the Illuminati, but was not able to accurately ascertain which ones. This rule was relaxed only in the late 20th century.

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Illuminati – News, Updates, Images & Quotes

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Sep 232015

Status message You are currently viewing our site as a guest which gives you limited access to view most discussions, videos and photo galleries. By joining our free community you will have access to post topics, communicate privately with other users, upload videos and photos in your own photo album and access many other special features. Registration is fast, simple and absolutely free so please, join our community today! Articles (7) Illuminati Cliff Notes By admin 3 years 1 week ago

Cliffs notes for those who care: Illuminatti was started by Adam Weishaupt in the 1760s, who was financed by the recently reorganized and consolidated House of Rothschild, the largest len…

“The question of how and why the United Nations is the crux of the great conspiracy to destroy the sovereignty of the United States and the enslavement of the American people within a U.N. o…

The leader of the Earths Illuminati is called the “Pindar”. The Pindar is a member of one of the 13 ruling Illuminati families, and is always male. The title, Pindar, is an abbreviated ter…

Compartmentalization has been a key instrument in keeping people away from information that would make them free to discover the truth. The less information people have to go off, the smalle…

The illuminati Big Brother is listening the illuminati Big Brother wants you, and the illuminati Big Brother actually already has you under his full surveillance. But we still accept this fa…

In the Preface to “Brave New World,” (1932) Aldous Huxley wrote: “As political and economic freedom diminishes, sexual freedom tends correspondingly to increase. And the dictator will do…

This article illustrates a few key distinguishing factors between you and the Illuminati….

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SEO Copywriting Tips, Secrets, and Strategies

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Sep 232015

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SEO Copywriting Tips, Secrets, and Strategies

SEO Miami | Miami SEO Company | Miami SEO Expert

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Sep 172015

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Search Engines grade pages not websites, their algorithms dive in deep into each web page and grade it accodingly in order to position it in their search engine result pages. This happends every day of the year, and even more so after the release of a new search engine algorithm or algorithm update. Everyone knows that Google brings major traffic to websites compared to other search engines. But it doesn’t mean that you should ignore the small but highly qualifed traffic that Bing and Yahoo are able to provide. The traffic value difference between the search engine’s outside of Google is in the millions and not in the few thousand.

And so, our Miami SEO professionals choose to follow the guidelines of Googles, Bing and Yahoo different ranking algorithms for both local and nationwide organic search dominance. Moreover, Google keeps updating its algorithm to serve its users better and not to help your website rank higher. As an Elite Local Miami SEO Company, we love to stay up to date on industry related trends and cutting-edge web technology, but are also seriously obsessed with understanding and using Google algorithms to our clients advantage.

Regular web designs are gradually becoming a thing of past. Marketers and entrepreneurs are looking for fresh and innovative designs that are simple, clean, interactive, user friendly and capable of establishing communication with the visitors. They seek for designs that carry artistic value and stand out of the crowd. Furthermore, marketers and website owners now prefer to choose designs that have qualities or features that help in brand building and bring traffic through user experience.

Creating a design for website is like the job half done. Our experienced and professional designers check the loading speed of a website or webpage while designing every aspect of your site. They very well understand that poor loading speed of a website irritates visitors and severely hampers the SEO and user-experience. So, we take help of various tools and software to perform tests and measure the website loading time, uptime and response time.

Miami Content Marketing | Citation Building

Googles latest algorithm is ‘Humming bird” that has severely affected the traffic and ranking of websites. To overcome this challenge marketers are now fast approaching Miami SEO Experts to understand the update and its solutions to restore the ranking. We can help your website to recover from the setback and gain ranking in SERPs with our expertise and a robust strategy.

Search engine optimization comprises a range of activities related to incremental improvements or small modifications that impact the sites performance in organic search results and also in user experience. It is of least importance whether a site is smaller or larger but the thing that vastly matters is a well-thought SEO strategy that can impel a website on the organic search results. Z Networks Group is a professional Miami SEO Company providing comprehensive search engine optimization services to all sized businesses with expertise and efficiency based on over two decades of combined experience.

Conversion-Focused Keyword Research by an Expert Miami SEO Company

Start off with our free $500 website Miami SEO Audit in an effort to identify all of the existing negative SEO factors that are affecting your rankings for your Miami based business. We can then optimize your website, category by category and page by page, by following both the Google Guidelines and Google Algorithms as well as several of our own unique strategies and tactics, for all required on-page and off-page optimization.

Our unique Local Miami SEO Company website audit, consists of some of the following procedural steps in order to identify all negative ranking factors that are diminishing your rankings, and that prevent your website from converting your visitors and generate sales:

Why Choose Us as your Local Miami SEO Company?

SEO has become a necessity for online businesses rather than a solution. Marketers and entrepreneurs are aggressively looking for expert and knowledgeable Miami SEO professionals to become visible on SERPs and earn revenue. Interestingly, several web development and web designing companies have morphed into Search Engine Marketing experts to meet clients’ requirements.

We have made available our proven Miami SEO Services to all sized business at an affordable budget. Marketers who look for customized SEO services can choose our Pay-for-Performance plans that allow them to choose keywords and pay us based on our performance.

Besides being a reliable Local Miami SEO Company, we have a track record of being a leading internet marketing solutions provider to clients across the globe by integrating SEO, PPC and analytics team. Seach Engine Optimization is acritical internet marketing approach of our Search Engine Ranking solutions intended to help websites meet the standard search engines guidelines, manage site traffic and assist conversion metrics flow with the help of conclusive analytics data. Search Engine Optimization (SEO) campaigns is a long term and highly beneficial strategy that help website owners and marketers to make crucial decisions and reap the return of investment.

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First Amendment of our countrys Bill of Rights

 Misc  Comments Off on First Amendment of our countrys Bill of Rights
Sep 102015

Freedom of Speech and of the Press: The First Amendment allows citizens to express and to be exposed to a wide range of opinions and views. It was intended to ensure a free exchange of ideas even if the ideas are unpopular.

Freedom of speech encompasses not only the spoken and written word, but also all kinds of expression (including non-verbal communications, such as sit-ins, art, photographs, films and advertisements). Under its provisions, the media including television, radio and the Internet is free to distribute a wide range of news, facts, opinions and pictures. The amendment protects not only the speaker, but also the person who receives the information. The right to read, hear, see and obtain different points of view is a First Amendment right as well.

But the right to free speech is not absolute. The U.S. Supreme Court has ruled that the government sometimes may be allowed to limit speech. For example, the government may limit or ban libel (the communication of false statements about a person that may injure his or her reputation), obscenity, fighting words, and words that present a clear and present danger of inciting violence. The government also may regulate speech by limiting the time, place or manner in which it is made. For example the government may require activists to obtain a permit before holding a large protest rally on a public street. Freedom of Assembly and Right to Petition the Government: The First Amendment also protects the freedom of assembly, which can mean physically gathering with a group of people to picket or protest; or associating with one another in groups for economic, political or religious purposes.

The First Amendment also protects the right not to associate, which means that the government cannot force people to join a group they do not wish to join. A related right is the right to petition the government, including everything from signing a petition to filing a lawsuit.

Freedom of Religion: The First Amendment’s free exercise clause allows a person to hold whatever religious beliefs he or she wants, and to exercise that belief by attending religious services, praying in public or in private, proselytizing or wearing religious clothing, such as yarmulkes or headscarves. Also included in the free exercise clause is the right not to believe in any religion, and the right not to participate in religious activities.

Second, the establishment clause prevents the government from creating a church, endorsing religion in general, or favoring one set of religious beliefs over another. As the U.S. Supreme Court decided in 1947 in Everson v. Board of Education of Ewing Township, the establishment clause was intended to erect “a wall of separation between church and state,” although the degree to which government should accommodate religion in public life has been debated in numerous Supreme Court decisions since then.

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First Amendment of our countrys Bill of Rights

First Amendment – Kids |

 Misc  Comments Off on First Amendment – Kids |
Sep 102015

A Guide to the First Amendment

The First Amendment, sometimes called Amendment 1, is the first amendment to the United States Constitution and is also one out of ten amendments in the Bill of Rights. The First Amendment makes it illegal to make a law that establishes a religion, stops the freedom of speech, stops people from practicing their religion, stops the press from printing what they want, and stops people from exercising their right to assemble peacefully or demonstrating against the government.

Text of the First Amendment

The text of the First Amendment of the United States Constitution is the following:

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

What Does the First Amendment Mean?

There are many key phrases in the first Amendment. Here are some explanations on what exactly they mean.

Freedom of religion: The First Amendment of the United States Constitution prevents the government from setting up or establishing an official religion of the country. American Citizens have the freedom to attend a church, mosque, synagogue, temple, or other house of worship of their choice. They can also choose to not be involved in any religion as well. Because of the First Amendment, we can practice our religion however we want to.

Freedom of speech: The First Amendment of the United States Constitution stops the government from making any laws that may stop us from saying what we feel or think. The American people have the right to share their opinions with other people or criticize the government.

Freedom of the press: Freedom of the press means we have the right to get information from many different sources of information. The government does not have the power to control what is broadcasted on radio or TV, what is printed in books or newspapers, or what is offered online. American citizens can request time on TV to respond to any views that they disagree with. They can also write letters to newspapers, which might be printed for others readers to see. Americans can also pass out leaflets that state their opinions. They may also their own online web pages that have their opinions.

Freedom of assembly: American citizens have the right to come together in private and public gatherings. Citizens can join groups for religious, social, recreational, or political reasons. By organizing in order to act on a common idea and accomplish a common goal, American citizens can more easily spread their ideas to others.

Right to petition: The right to petition the government means that American citizens can ask for adjustments or changes in the government. Citizens can do this by collecting signatures for petitions and sending them to elected representatives. They can also call, e-mail, or write to their elected representatives as well. Another way they can petition the government is by creating support groups that try to cause change by lobbying the government.


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First Amendment – Kids |

Federal court rules that only drug companies, not supplement …

 Misc  Comments Off on Federal court rules that only drug companies, not supplement …
Sep 102015

(NaturalNews) In a ruling that many holistic healers and homeopathic physicians are likely to find hypocritical, a federal court has handed Big Pharma an unprecedented victory by giving a drug company preliminary approval to market a drug for a condition for which it has yet to be approved by the Food and Drug Administration.

The drug, Vascepa, manufactured by Amarin Pharma, is approved for use in treating very high levels of fats known as triglycerides over 500 mg per deciliter in a patient’s bloodstream, reports But Amarin also wanted to promote the medication for use in patients who have “persistently high levels” of triglycerides, from 200 to 499 mg/deciliter.

The FDA denied that request earlier this year over concerns that Vascepa would not help such patients avoid heart attacks or heart disease. That decision led Amarin to file suit in court, claiming its First Amendment rights permitted the company to provide information to physicians and other primary care providers.

Providers have long prescribed medications for “off-label” uses those not included in a drug’s literature or for uses not specifically approved by federal regulators but the drug companies have traditionally been banned from marketing their products for such off-label uses.

“This is huge,” Jacob Sherkow, an associate professor at New York Law School, told The Washington Post. “There have been other instances a court has held that off-label marketing is protected by the First Amendment, but… this is the first time, I think, that any federal court that any court has held in such a clear, full-throated way that off-label marketing is protected by the First Amendment, period, full stop.” reported that the case stemmed from a 2012 New York City federal appeals court ruling finding that a Big Pharma sales rep had not violated FDA regulations by promoting off-label use for a drug to treat narcolepsy, Xyrem, because his speech as long as he was not being misleading was protected by the First Amendment. However, in the Amarin case, the FDA said that the Xyrem decision was limited in scope and therefore could not be applied to Vascepa, but Engelmayer disagreed.

However, the parameter of “truthful speech” and a complete statement of facts has proved concerning to some.

“I find the decision very troubling. It’s a big push off on to a very slippery slope, a very steep slippery slope toward removing the government’s authority to limit the claims that drug companies can make about the effectiveness of their products,” Harvard Medical School professor Jerry Avorn told the Post.

“There’s an enormous amount, enormous numbers of statements that drug companies could make about their products that are not overtly fraudulent, but are not the same as a comprehensive review of all the good and bad evidence, that the FDA undertakes when it reviews a drug,” Avorn added.

Makers and consumers of health-related supplements, however, are also decrying the ruling, especially companies whose First Amendment rights have been ignored by courts and the FDA in the past.

In December 2012, we reported that a federal appeals court in New York upheld the free speech rights of a pharmaceutical company regarding off-label uses of Xyrem, even as courts and the FDA were gagging makers of natural supplements.

And in March 2013, we reported that the FDA used a truth-in-labeling regulation in issuing warning letters to a pair of supplement companies whose “crime” was nothing more than having customer-related interactions via the Internet.

It appears that there are two separate standards for Big Pharma and holistic and homeopathic healers.


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Federal court rules that only drug companies, not supplement …

A Skype alternative worth its salt: Jitsi | usability …

 Jitsi  Comments Off on A Skype alternative worth its salt: Jitsi | usability …
Sep 052015

Ive been using Skype, Google Talk and Facebook chat for years to communicate with friends and family. Theyre all convenient, reliable and easy to use. But there is a big problem: They are all very easy to record and monitor by 3rd parties. We now know that:

So if you happen to live in a surveillance state (think countries of the Arab Spring, think UK with their repeated attempts to introduce surveillance of their citizens, think USA with their record-breaking demands for your personal data from all of the above service providers (Microsoft, Google and Facebook)) then you can expect that all your online communications with your loved ones (voice calls, video calls, text chats) are recorded and stored, or at least eavesdropped upon. Theyre all great free services that allow you to keep in touch with people, with one caveat: the government is listening in.

If you have no problem with that, perhaps because you subscribe to the flawed I have nothing to hide school of thought, read no further.

If you feel that being spied upon constantly, and having no reasonable expectation of privacy for your online life is not cool, read on.

The work of thousands of visionaries (starting with people like Richard Stallman in the 70s) has today given us the free tools to protect our online communications to a reasonable degree. These are not tools to stop a police investigation against you from succeeding these are tools that empower you to opt-out from the surveillance-by-default communications channels most of us use, and instead keep your private thoughts and words only between yourself and your loved ones.

The easiest one to get us started is Jitsi.

Jitsi gives you voice calls, video calls, instant text messages and group chats. It therefore covers 100% of the communication capabilities of Microsofts Skype, Google Talk, Facebook Chat, IRC channels and the like. Use Jitsi, and you dont need to use any of these again.

Why switch to Jitsi?

Because it protects your privacy as much as possible. If you and your loved ones use Jitsi, you can:

As an additional benefit, its great to have all of your instant messaging contacts in one window, and Jitsi gives you that. It also runs on Windows, MacOSX and GNU/Linux.

Start using Jitsi instead of Skype, Google Talk and Facebook Chat and stop corporations and governments collecting, storing and analyzing the thoughts you share with your loved ones.

PS: You can only have private communications if both ends of the chat/voice/video call support this. If both you and your loved ones use Jitsi, voice & video calls are private by default. For text chats, you will have to click the lock icon in your chat window (as shown below) until it displays a closed lock state.

PPS: No lock icon? That probably means that the person you are chatting with is not using Jitsi or a similar program that can protect your chats with OTR. You can only have a private conversation if both ends support OTR.

PPPS: Looking for something like Jitsi for your smartphone? For private text messaging (using the Off The Record protocol) look at ChatSecure for iPhones or GibberBot for Android phones. For private voice calls on the Android, look into csipsimple and Moxie Marlinspikes RedPhone. Remember, both ends of the conversation need the same technology to create a private channel.

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Anonymous banking, offshore banking, anonymous offshore bank …

 Offshore Banking  Comments Off on Anonymous banking, offshore banking, anonymous offshore bank …
Aug 302015

If you sincerely want to legally obtain personal and financial freedom from Big Brother – Point and Click below for our 450+ of asset and wealth protection offshore and privacy products and services – several of which are even FREE! Check our unique offers for yourself.

For more information regarding the options below – roll over your item shown on the left in the Table of Contents column.

U.S. Multi-Million-Dollar Corporations for Sale! Click here for more information!

The yearly maintenance costs for a Panamanian corporation (Nominee Directors, Resident Agent, Registered Office) is only US$300 payable by anniversary date of incorporation. The government fee of US$250 (Law 61 of December 26th of 2002) is payable within the semester of incorporation the year of incorporation and by anniversary date each year afterwards.

Upon receipt of your order please include three names in order of preference fort your structure. Once of which should be available. It takes 3-4 working days to create your structure.

To learn about Panama’s secrecy laws: click here!

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Anonymous banking, offshore banking, anonymous offshore bank …


 Cryonics  Comments Off on Cryonics-UK
Aug 252015

I love to play games since my childhood. So when I grew with time the addiction and passion for this also increased. So now I am very big fan of these ones but mostly I prefer to play betting type. Basically there are two types of amusements which you can enjoy one is online and another is offline. Millions of computer users prefer to play on it because it gives a good and clear experience to the player. But I like the most slots which is major million.

But before start playing with this, I prefer to find the reviews because the experiences players can explain about it very well. So the on the net portals and forums are the best way to know about the pokie which you are planning to play. This slot machine gives a progressive jackpot which give lure to the gamblers to play it. Its a 5 reel fruit machine which also available on the mobile where you can play and win the game or jackpot. When you play with it very first time then it gives the free spins to play. If you are a beginner in it then it is necessary to you that check the guide or rules of this.

This video machine is very popular in Aussie players because of its progressive and lucrative offers. The concept of this is very simple and clear, you just need to get the winning combination on the screen, if you get that combination then you will be able to play next round and finally you can be a winner of the jackpot round, and this is also the concept of the progressive jackpot. I can bet you with this that if you will play it once you will try to play more and more.

Because the same happened with me, i once played these awesome slots crafted by top makers like microgaming and aristocrat i became fond of them instantly. i tried one or two at first with no deposit bonus and the free spins and later thought of catching some big fish. so i went for the real play & win Australian pokies online wheres the gold by buying credits through Paypal and earned a lot more there after.

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Tor Browser – Free Download

 Tor Browser  Comments Off on Tor Browser – Free Download
Aug 212015

Open network of private data tunnels, which preserves anonymity and fights censorship

TOR is a software that is used by people who wish to protect their anonymity while they participate in online activities. The TOR software allows for anonymity by directing online traffic through a series of relays that thwarts any surveillance attempts. By doing so, it becomes very difficult, if not entirely impossible, to trace a TOR user’s online activities. The NSA has called TOR the leader in Internet anonymity software, with no other immediate contenders to their throne.

TOR uses several different layers of encryption, TOR is actually an acronym for The Onion Router. TOR enables users to hide their IP address by sending traffic through a series of digital relays. Each relay further increases the level of obscurity until it becomes virtually impossible to trace back the traffic to the actual user. This is all done without the original IP address ever being revealed.



Developed by AnchorFree, this software application lets people connect to the internet via Virtual Private Network

FREE 10GB VPN: ZPN Connect VPN for WiFi Hotspot

At the time of downloading you accept the EULA and privacy policies stated by Jaleco. The download will be executed through a download manager that belongs to Jaleco. The mentioned download manager doesn’t have any relationship with the author. It can be downloaded as well freely from the author’s website. Jaleco aims to offer downloads free of viruses and malware.

The download manager is part of our virus and malware filtering system and certifies the file’s reliability. Additionally, the download manager offers the optional installation of a toolbar.

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Vitrification in Cryonics – Ben Best

 Cryonics  Comments Off on Vitrification in Cryonics – Ben Best
Aug 152015


Although most living organisms are composed of large amounts of water, it is not inevitable that freezing these organisms results in ice-formation. Among amphibians and insects that can tolerate freezing, there is wide variation in the amount of freezing they can tolerate.

Species of frogs can spend days or weeks “with as much as 65 percent of their total body water as ice”. Some amphibians achieve their protection due to the glycerol manufactured by their livers. Glycerol is “antifreeze”, it reduces ice formation and lowers freezing point. Glycerol (glycerin), like ethylene glycol (automobile anti-freeze) is a cryoprotectant. The sugar glucose is also a cryoprotectant and arctic frogs have a special form of insulin that accelerates glucose release and absorption into cells as temperatures approach freezing. A cryoprotectant can make water harden like glass with no crystal formation a process called vitrification. Freezing-damage to cells is due to the formation of ice-crystals.

Insects most often used sugars for cryoprotectant. They may also refrain from eating (not such a hardship because their metabolism slows at low temperature) and utilize tough waxy coverings to keep nucleating substances out of their body when temperature drops. Adult arctic beetles (Pterostichus brevicornis) normally endure temperatures below 35C. These beetles have been frozen in the laboratory to 87C for 5 hours without apparent injury, ie, they demonstrated “directed, coordinated activity such as walking, feeding, and avoidance response, and no paralysis or erratic behavior…” [SCIENCE166:106-7 (1-OCT-69)]. (A replication of this experiment would be of value to confirm or challenge the results.) This would seem to indicate that neurological tissue can, in principle, recover in a functional way from vitrification. The glycerol, sugars, and other cryoprotectants which are produced naturally in these organisms, are not found in levels that adequately explain (with current knowledge of cryobiology) the remarkable freezing-tolerance.

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Water is not very viscous, therefore it can be vitrified only by an extremely rapid “flash-freezing” of a small sample about 3millionC per second to 135C. Under such rapid cooling, water molecules don’t have time to arrange themselves into a crystalline lattice structure. Viscosity increases very little when water is cooled, but at freezing temperature a sudden phase transition occurs to an ice crystal. Molten silica (silicon dioxide, SiO2, liquid glass), by contrast, is very viscous. This viscosity is the result of the tendency of silica to form amorphous networks of polymers rather than to arrange in an orderly crystal lattice.

Quartz (rock-crystal) & sand are examples of SiO2 as pure crystal. SiO2 which has been made to exist in noncrystalline form is called vitreous silica (fused silica). Oxides can be added to prevent crystallization and promote vitrification. About 90% of all manufactured glass (called soda-lime glass) contains about 12% each of soda (Na2O or Na2CO3) and lime (CaO) added to the SiO2. The soda is analogous to cryoprotectants in preventing crystallization (the lime is added to prevent the glass from dissolving in water).

By cooling silica very slowly it is possible to form rock crystal, having very high density and low volume. By cooling faster, resistance to crystallization due to viscosity & the absence of nucleators causes silica to pass below its freezing temperature (supercool) and vitrify at some glass transition temperature (Tg). Viscosity increases rapidly to solidification near Tg, but over a small temperature range rather than at a precise temperature (in contrast to crystallization or fusion, which occurs at a precise temperature). The change that happens at Tg is simply a rapid increase in viscosity, not a change of state. Viscosity becomes very high near Tg when cooling from above, which means that Tg is better characterized as a “rubber/glass transition” than a “liquid/glass transition”. Moreover, Tg is a function of cooling-rate. A faster cooling-rate results in Tg at a higher temperature leading to a solid that has a high volume (lower density), is more amorphous and less viscous. A slower cooling-rate results in Tg at a lower temperature leading to a solid that has a low volume (higher density), is less amorphous and is more viscous. In practice, Tg occurs within a narrow temperature range because changing cooling rate an order of magnitude (ie, by a factor of ten) only changes Tg by 35C.

But volume continues to decrease and viscosity continues to increase below Tg. The change at Tg is quantitative, not qualitative (in contrast to crystallization). Because cooling occurs from outside to inside, overly rapid cooling creates stress when the warmer core needs to contract more than the cooler surface. This is the reason why slow cooling reduces cracking. At Tg there is a sudden increase in viscosity and heat capacity (usually many orders of magnitude), but there is no comparable sudden decrease in volume. In fact, Tg is characterized as a temperature-range where the rate of decrease of volume decreases, although volume does continue to decrease (and viscosity continues to increase) linearly below Tg. Tg could be a temperature critical to cracking because the sudden increase in viscosity would be likely to affect heat conduction as well as stress. [For further discussion of Tg, stress and cooling rates, see my essays Physical Parameters of Cooling in Cryonics and Lessons for Cryonics from Metallurgy and Ceramics.]

Sugar, like silica, can form a crystal (rock candy) or a glass (cotton candy) depending on the rate of cooling. Like molten glass, liquid sugar is very viscous and prone to formation of amorphous polymers. In silica the polymerization bonds tend to be of a “mixed” covalent-ionic type, whereas for sugar the polymerization is assisted by weaker forces (van der Waals or hydrogen bonding). In neither case do these bonds have the defined bond-lengths and bond-angles of covalent bonds. Glycerol/water in the human body is more like sugar than like silica. But the situation is complicated by the presence of many salts, proteins, fats, etc.

Vitrifying liquids have been classified as “strong” or “fragile”. The term fragile is confusing because it does not refer to the tendency to break under mechanical stress, but rather to a highly rapid rise in viscosity as temperature approaches Tg from above. Substances which are called fragile tend to have more ionic bond types (or hydrogen bonds), whereas substances which are strong (and show a modest decline in viscosity above Tg) have more covalent bonding. “Gripping strength” changes more radically for ionic bonding near Tg. Covalent bonds are stronger (less fragile), and groups of molecules held together by covalent bonds are less susceptible to molecular phase changes just above Tg. Glycerol-type cryoprotectants (which cohere mainly by hydrogen bonding) are more “fragile” than vitreous silica (which has covalent coherence), but is less “fragile” than ionic substances.

(For more on the subject of fragility, viscosity and molecular mobility, see Viscosity and Glass Transition.)

If rapid cooling causes vitrification, it seems plausible that rapid application of pressure could do the same thing at above Tg for rapid-cooling. Because Tg is a function of cooling rate, there is no reason why it could not also be a function of pressure-application rate or some combination of the two (plus cryoprotectant). It is known that pressure distorts the iceI lattice from its ideal tetrahedral orientation, and this could be important in preventing nucleation.

Water can be made to vitrify if cooled at a rate of millions of degrees Celcius per second. Water can also vitrify if mixed with salts or cryoprotectants. Salt solutions have their highest Tg at their eutectic concentration, but this would be too concentrated for cryobiological applications. Salt solutions having cations with a high oxidation state (e.g., trivalent cations) and more basic anions (e.g., citrate) are better glass-formers (have a higher Tg) than salt solutions that do not. Nitrates vitrify better than chlorides, and magnesium (Mg2+) vitrify better than salts of zinc (Zn2+)[THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS; Angell,CA; 52(1):1058-1068 (1970)].

In practice, vitrification can be assisted by substances other than cryoprotective agents. Carrier solutions can reduce the amount of cryoprotectant needed to vitrify. The carrier solution described in CRYOBIOLOGY27(5):492-510 (1990) is a mixture of salts, dextrose and glutathione, and is based on the so-called RPS-2 solution used for storing rabbit kidneys. A carrier solution will substitute for water, but only in a 25% range. The carrier solution effect is largely colligative ie, molecules getting in the way of water molecules which might otherwise form ice. A good carrier solution will be non-toxic, and by reducing the amount of cryoprotectant needed to vitrify will reduce toxicity from cryoprotectant. [For further discussion of carrier solutions, see my essay Perfusion & Diffusion in Cryonics Protocol.]

When freezing occurs in aqueous mixtures of non-crystalline solutes (such as ice cream), the unfrozen freeze-concentrated solute can display a transition temperature Tg’ that has a more prominent thermal signature than Tg. Tg’ is the Tg of the unfrozen portion of a sample that contains ice. For ice cream, Tg’ is about 32C and the unfrozen water(Wg’) is about 35wt%[FOOD CHEMISTRY; Owen Fennema; 3rd Edition; Table11; page76]. (Wg is water content of the sample at Tg, whereas Wg’ is the unfrozen water content at Tg’ which has been called bound water, as if that term could be applied to the water content of any vitrified sample). For low molecular weight solutes, Tg’ (andTg) typically increases with molecular weight. Biopolymers (starch, gluten, collagen, albumins, etc.) of high molecular weight typically have Tg’ near 10C.

Aqueous solutions of cryoprotectants can themselves freeze, and have an unfrozen portion that solidifies at a temperature Tg’ which is considerably higher than Tg[JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE; Brake,NC; 64(1):10-15 (1999)]. The glass transition temperature of the maximally freeze-concentrated portion of the sample (Tg’) should, by definition, exhibit the same high viscosity as Tg[FOOD RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL; Bai,Y; 34(2-3):89-95 (2001)]. The Tg’ will be below the eutectic temperature[PURE & APPLIED CHEMISTRY; Goff,HD; 67(11):1801-1808 (1995)]. Mixtures of basic amino acids with hydroxy dicarboxylic acids added to the protein solute can raise Tg’ by hydrogen-bond networking[CHEMICAL & PHARMACEUTICAL BULLETIN; Izutsu,K; 57(1):43-48 (2009)]. If ice is formed in a mixture intended to vitrify as in an imperfectly perfused cryonics patient the vitrification mixture remaining in the unfrozen portion will have a higher concentration and, thus, a higher Tg (which will be Tg’)[Figure1; CRYOBIOLOGY; Wowk,B; 60(1):11-22 (2010)]. 57(1):43-48 (2009)].

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The other source of assistance for vitrification comes from ice blockers. While cryoprotectants slow ice-crystal growth and formation, ice blockers act specifically against the formation of the ice nuclei which are necessary for freezing to begin. Arctic fish use ice-blocking proteins to keep the freezing temperature of their bodies at or below 2.2C, which is below the freezing temperature of seawater (1.9C). Some plant flavonal glycosides can depress freezing temperature by as much as 9C[CRYOBIOLOGY; Kasuga,J; 60(2):240-243 (2010)].

Although the melting temperature of water is 0C, water that is absolutely pure will not freeze above 40C because water requires nucleating agents to begin crystal growth[PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON; Lundheim,R; 357:937-43 (2002)]. Tapwater has enough nucleating agents that ice trays in refrigerators can freeze water at close to 0C. Water with small amounts of nucleating agents can be supercooled, but once ice crystals begin forming they spread with explosive speed.

The temperature at which pure water will freeze (40C) is called the homogenous nucleation temperature (Th) in contrast to Tm, which is the melting temperature (0C). The temperatures between Th and Tm are the region of heterogenous nucleation where the ice formation is a function of time and nucleating agent concentration (or nucleating ability of the nucleators).

Heterogenous nucleation takes its name from the fact that the nucleus around which ice crystal growth occurs is composed of both water molecules and other kinds of molecules. Conversely, in homogenous nucleation the only molecule found in the crystal nucleus is water. The string used to make rock candy from a cooling super-saturated sugar and water mixture acts as a heterogenous nucleator around which the sugar molecules can crystallize. At temperatures close to 40C in the sky (in polar regions and above 30,000 feet), homogenous nucleation occurs whenever there is a sufficient concentration of water vapor. Silver iodide (AgI) is water-insoluble and has a crystal structure similar enough to ice that it can readily act as a heterogenous nucleator below 5C. Silver iodide is especially suitable for seeding rainclouds because it can be micronized into particles smaller than 10nanometers.

The critical size for a homogenous nucleus to begin ice crystal growth is 45,000 water molecules at 5C, 650water molecules at 20C, and only 70water molecules at 40C[Vali,G; “Principles of Ice Nucleation” in BIOLOGICAL ICE NUCLEATION AND ITS APPLICATIONS, p.5; Richard E.Lee,Jr., et. al., Editors; APS Press (1995)]. Vibrational spectroscopy indicates the onset of ice-like structure for water in gas phase at about 275molecules[SCIENCE; Pradzynski,CC; 337:1529-1532 (2012)]. Below the critical size spontaneous dissolution of the ice nuclei will occur due to solubility. Thus, the temperature of homogenous nucleation is a function of sample volume and of time. But the function is an exponential one, with nucleation decreasing so rapidly above 40C that it is rarely seen more than a few degrees above 40C [CRYOBIOLOGY41(4):257-279 (2000)]. The probability of a volume V of pure water freezing in time t due to homologous nucleation is J(T)xVxt. J(T) is nucleation rate at temperature T, determined by the empirically-derived equation:


for J(T) in meters3/second and T in C[Vali,G; Ibid; p.4]. The e3.9T factor means that the probability of nucleation increases by about 50 for each drop of 1C or by over 6million (504) for a 4C temperature drop. Although volume and time are linear components in the probability, the exponential temperature component means that probability rapidly goes from zero to one in the temperature range between 38C and 42C (being very close to 40C for all practical purposes).

Not surprisingly, the probability of heterogenous nucleation in an animal increases with body size (volume). Some species of reptiles with body mass less than 20grams can supercool to temperatures below 5C, but not reptile having body mass greater than 40grams can supercool to as low as 2C[Costanzo,JP & Lee,RE,Jr.; “Supercooling and Ice Nucleation in Vertebrate Ectotherms” in BIOLOGICAL ICE NUCLEATION AND ITS APPLICATIONS, p.229; Richard E.Lee,Jr., et. al., Editors; APS Press (1995)].

Higher pressures lower Th and elevate Tm [CRYOBIOLOGY21(4):407-426 (1984)]. Increasing cryoprotectant concentrations lower both Th and Tm, but the effect is more dramatic on Th than on Tm. As shown by the two-headed arrow in the figure, enough cryoprotectant to lower Tm by 30C will lower Th to the glass transition temperature (Tg) thereby eliminating homogenous nucleation. Using ice-blockers to prevent heterogenous nucleation creates the possibility of eliminating nucleation (ice formation) altogether and achieving vitrification at roughly 55% cryoprotectant concentration.

The double-arrow shown in the diagram serves to focus attention on another phenomenon which needs to be addressed in attempting tissue cryopreservation. Namely, that maximum nucleation occurs just above Tg near the downward-pointing arrow (80C to 120C) and that maximum ice-crystal growth-rate occurs just below Tm near the upward-pointing arrow (80C to 40C). (The location of the arrowheads is not significant.) The significance of these facts is that it is much easier to avoid ice-crystal formation when cooling (vitrifying) than when re-warming (de-vitrifying). The many nuclei formed when cooling in the 80C to 120C range can cause massive ice growth when rewarming in the 80C to 40C range. This is called the devitrification problem. Before the use of ice-blockers it was believed that only radio-frequency rewarming technology could possibly achieve rewarming rates rapid enough to avoid ice-crystal formation upon devitrification. With ice-blockers, however, ice crystal growth is greatly inhibited during rewarming.

Ice crystals can grow along six symmetric axes the aaxes, all six axes in the same plane or the caxis, which is perpendicular to the plane of the six aaxes. Ice crystal growth at higher temperatures typically occurs along the aaxes, which accounts for the familiar hexagonal shape of snowflakes. Caxis growth results in needle-like, spicular ice crystals, which are potentially damaging[THE FASEB JOURNAL; Davis,PC; 4(8):2460-2468 (1990)]. (For more detail on ice formation see The Freezing Process.) Ice blockers can act by three mechanisms: (1)bind-to and inactivate heterogenous nucleating substances, (2)block aaxis growth or, (3)block caxis growth. In anti-freeze proteins, amino acids such as threonine & serine hydrogen-bond to the ice[CRYOBIOLOGY41(4):257-279 (2000)]. Inhibition of aaxis growth by anti-freeze proteins typically is found in arctic fish. Arctic insects, by contrast, typically have anti-freeze proteins that inhibit caxis growth. By binding to the basal plane(caxis) rather than the prism plane(aaxis), insect anti-freeze proteins can depress freezing temperature by 4-5C, whereas fish anti-freeze proteins only depress freezing temperature by not much more than 1C[BIOPHYSICAL JOURNAL; Pertaya,N; 95(1):333-341 (2008)].

Not all ice-blockers are proteins. In fact, 21st Century Medicine (21CM) researchers have discovered that the polymer polyvinyl alcohol (commonly found in adhesives such as Elmer’s glue & postage-stamp glue) is an extremely effective ice-blocker if used in the syndiotactic stereochemical form. In the isotactic stereochemical form, the hydroxyl groups are all on the same side of the molecule, whereas in the syndiotactic stereochemical form, the hydroxyl groups are on alternate sides of the molecule. OH OH OH | | | -CH2-C-CH2-C-CH2-C-CH2-C-CH2-C-CH2-C-(POLYVINYL ALCOHOL) | | | OH OH OH

Polyvinyl alcohol in the syndiotactic stereochemical form is an excellent fit size & conformation for attaching to an ice-crystal surface. Every hydroxyl group of the polyvinyl alcohol will hydrogen-bond to a water molecule. The polyvinyl alcohol molecules adhere to ice crystals (preventing growth) at temperatures as high as 30C, above which temperature separation begins to occur and ice-blocking activity diminishes. Polyvinyl alcohol is most effective against caxis growth and most effective in the temperature range of maximum nucleation.

21st Century Medicine researchers have produced a patented co-polymer (mixture of polymers) consisting of 20% vinyl acetate and 80% vinyl alcohol which they now sell as the commercial product Supercool X-1000. It is believed that the vinyl acetate reduces self-association of the vinyl alcohol, making the latter more available for ice-blocking [CRYOBIOLOGY40(3):228-236 (2000)]. A 0.01% solution of X1000 can reduce the amount of glycerol needed to vitrify by 3%. A 1% solution of X1000 can reduce the amount of glycerol needed to vitrify by 5%. Concentrations of X1000 greater than 1% do not provide much additional benefit.

Although these percentage differences may seem small, the benefits from ice-blockers are actually very great. Toxicity increases exponentially as the cryoprotectant concentrations reach the high levels needed to vitrify. Of particular relevance to cryonics, however, is the fact that cryoprotectants become too viscous to perfuse well at high concentrations, whereas ice blockers add little to viscosity. Thus, ice-blocker plus cryoprotectant can produce a solution that can both perfuse and vitrify.

The widespread presence of biological nucleators in the environment causes water to freeze close to 0C rather than at 40C. The most abundant and widely distributed nucleator is protein on the surface of the Pseudomonas syringae bacteria, a kind of bacteria that causes early freezing damage on plants (most commonly found on plant leaves, and other above-ground plant parts)[PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON; Lundheim,R; 357:937-943 (2002) and APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY; Maki,LR; 28(3):456-459 (1974)]. Such proteins must assume a rigid, ice-like conformation larger than 10nanometers and be able to aggregate[JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR BIOLOGY; Kajava,A; 232(3):709-717 (1993)].

21st Century Medicine researchers have succeeded in finding an ice-blocker that specifically binds-to and inactivates heterogenous nucleating agents. (These proteins evolved specifically to cause freezing at the highest possible temperature). The linear polymer polyglycerol(PGL) binds and inactivates these proteins, and is complementary to the action of polyvinyl alcohol(PVA). PGL is ineffective at inhibiting nucleation in small volumes, but is more effective than PVA at suppressing initial ice nucleation events in large volumes. The lowest number of visible ice-nucleation events is achieved with 0.1%PGL and 0.9%PVA[CRYOBIOLOGY 44(1):14-23 (2002)]. (PVA can also bind-to heterogenous nucleating agents.) 21CM now markets this formulation as Supercool Z-1000.

Ice blockers cannot cross cell membranes and do not cross an intact blood-brain barrier, which means that for a cryonics patient in good condition the only portion of the brain containing ice blocker will be the vasculature (about 4% of the brain). Ice blockers are not needed inside of cells because cells contain few nucleators cryoprotectant diffusion into cells is adequate. Ice blockers in the brain vasculature could prevent ice crystals from forming in the blood vessels which could propagate through the blood-brain barrier, especially in areas that are weakly perfused due to poor circulation. Circulation is often very poor in cryonics patients and the blood-brain barrier is frequently damaged. Although poor perfusion and reduced cryoprotectant concentration poses a danger of ice formation, ice blocker concentration will also be reduced in those areas and may not be of benefit.

As a cautionary note, it should be mentioned that use of ice-blocker without sufficient cryoprotectant (or rapid-enough cooling) to cause vitrification can result in ice formation that is more damaging than the ice that would have formed at a higher temperature if no ice-blocker had been used. Ice-formation at higher temperature tends to be extracellular and dehydrates the cells. At lower temperature osmosis is less active. So if ice-blockers simply result in ice formation at a lower temperature, the ice that forms at those temperatures is more likely to be inside the cells, thus causing greater damage.

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In 1949 it was discovered that glycerol can be used to protect bull sperm against freezing injury. A year later, the same techniques were successfully applied to red blood cells. Since that time large industries have developed around the cryopreservation of bull sperm and human blood.

In 1959 the substance DiMethyl SulfOxide (DMSO) was demonstrated to be useful as a cryoprotectant. DMSO passes through cell membranes more readily than glycerol, but it can be more toxic at higher temperatures. In 1972, 8-cell mouse embryos were cryopreserved to liquid nitrogen temperature temperature and rewarmed to obtain live mice, thanks to slow cooling and skillful combination of DMSO with glycerol. Glycerol is introduced first, the embryo is cooled to a low temperature, and then the highly permeant DMSO can be introduced with minimal toxic effect.

In 1983 a human pregnancy was first established by Trounson & Mohr using an 8-cell human embryo, which had been cryopreserved to liquid nitrogen temperature using gradually increasing concentrations of DMSO giving time for equilibration to prevent osmotic damage (PBI 10 minutes, 0.25M DMSO 10 minutes, 0.5M DMSO 10 minutes, 1.0M DMSO 10 minutes, 1.5M DMSO 10 minutes)[FERTILITY AND STERILITY 46(1):1-12 (1986)].

Since 1983 human embryos have been cryopreserved with not only DMSO, but with glycerol and propylene glycol. The best embryo survival rates are with those at the 2-cell to 4-cell stage of development. No one knows exactly how many human embryos are now being cryopreserved worldwide, but it is at least a million. And the number of living children who were once embryos at liquid nitrogen temperature is in the tens of thousands. (For an online review of human embryo cryopreservation technology see Human Oocyte and Embryo Cryopreservation.)

Over 50% of nematode worm (C. elegans) larvae and about 3% of adult nematodes can survive cooling to liquid nitrogen temperature. The required protocol is pre-treatment with 5% DMSO at 0C for 10minutes, cooling from 0C to 100C at 0.2C/minute, being plunged into liquid nitrogen (196C) and ultimately rewarming to 10C at a rate of 27.6C/minute. [CRYOBIOLOGY12(5):497-505 (1975)]. This is particularly noteworthy insofar as nematodes are fully functioning organisms with a digestive system, reproductive organs, muscles and a nervous system consisting of approximately 300 neurons.

In an organ with such high water & fat content as the brain, proper perfusion to protect the very delicate cell-to-cell relationships (synaptic connections) would be expected to be especially difficult to achieve. It has been known since the 1950s, however, that brains have a certain tolerance for ice crystallization. Audrey Smith [PROC.ROYAL SOCIETYB145:427-442 (1956) and BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF FREEZING AND SUPERCOOLING, A.U.Smith,Ed., p.304-368] demonstrated that hamsters could be slowly cooled to nearly 1C such that over 60% of brain water is turned to crystalline ice with no gross loss of normal behavior upon rewarming. The mechanism of this effect is based on the fact that intracellular ice crystallization & elevated intracellular salt concentrations causes the greatest damage. When tissues are cooled slowly, extracellular crystallization starts first and water tends to migrate out of cells to freeze in the extracellular space. If the intracellular electrolyte concentrations increase, it is evidently not enough to cause observable neurological damage at the 60% level.

[For more recent research on cryopreservation of brain tissue see The Hippocampal Slice Cryopreservation Project.]

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The cryoprotectant glycerol has long been used in vitrifying human blood & sperm and for many years was used to reduce freezing in human cryonics patients. Glycerol cannot be used to completely vitrify organs or cryonics patients because it is not possible to perfuse organs with high enough concentrations of glycerol to fully vitrify. When perfusion is performed with full-strength glycerol, enough glycerol gets into the tissues to achieve partial vitrification with about 20% ice formation.

Cryopreservation of tissues & organs is much more difficult than cryopreservation of small collections of cells. Time is required for cryoprotectant to permeate an organ and also for temperature to penetrate. Tissue is subject to degradation if there is no blood circulation even if the temperature is very low, yet a very low temperature will slow the rate of cryoprotectant perfusion. Moreover, organs can be damaged by even extremely small amounts of ice formation due to the critical cell-to-cell relationships which must be maintained for proper function. Even so, cryoprotectants have been used to preserve bone marrow, fetal hearts, intestines, parathyroid glands, skin, spleens, thymus glands, etc., which have been slowly cooled to dry ice temperature (79C) all without ice crystal damage.

Crystallization is not an inevitable consequence of glycerol cooling. A 68%v/v (volume/volume) glycerol/water solution will not crystallize at any subzero temperature it simply hardens like glass. But concentrations of glycerol much greater than 55%v/v have been called too viscous & toxic for cryonics use. Shortly before Alcor began using vitrification solutions, cryobiologist Brian Wowk determined that a combination of 58.4%v/v (8Molar) glycerol and 1%X1000 ice-blocker could vitrify a 2liter flask presumably meaning that a brain could be vitrified with 8Molar glycerol and 1%X1000 ice-blocker.

Most tissues can tolerate having over 80% of the water in the form of ice crystals upon slow cooling without noticeable damage upon re-warming. Most organs can tolerate 40% of water as ice crystals without damage upon re-warming. As mentioned above, the brain is an especially ice-crystal tolerant organ, insofar as 60% water as ice-crystals causes little gross damage.

The experiments of I.Suda [NATURE212:268-270 (1966) and BRAIN RESEARCH70:527-531 (1974)] indicate that cat brains cooled to 20C in 15%v/v glycerol (62% brain water as ice) for 777 days and 7.25 years, both show normal-looking EEG patterns upon re-warming although neurological activity is less for the 7.25-year brains. Hemorrhaging and cell loss of these specimens probably could have been prevented using several measures: (1)addition of glucose (nutrient) to the perfusion fluid, (2)careful washing of glycerol from the brains as part to the thawing/reperfusion process and (3)storing the brains at lower temperatures with higher glycerol concentrations.

According to an excellent paper describing vitrification (cryoprotectant) solutions [CRYOBIOLOGY24:196-213 (1987)], the quantity of glycerol (C), in %v/v, required to prevent mechanical injury from ice at any subzero temperature is:

C = 68 – 0.68P

where “P” is the percentage of liquid volume of an organ which can be converted to ice without crystal-damage. This formula is the equation of the line in Figure3 of the paper. It is related to the fact that a mixture of 68% glycerol and 32% water (volume/volume) will vitrify completely.

Using the finding that at least 60% of the brain can be frozen without neurological damage, gives:

C = 68 0.68(60) = 27.2

ie, 27.2%v/v glycerol (3.72Molar) should be sufficient to prevent ice-crystal damage to brains cooled to any subzero temperature (including liquid nitrogen temperature, 196C). In fact, rabbit brains perfused at room temperature with 23%v/v glycerol (3Molar) and cooled to dry ice temperature (79C) show excellent histological preservation under a light microscope[CRYOBIOLOGY21(4):407-426 (1984)]. For years cryonicists believed that “the Smith Criterion” of a minimum of 3.72 Molar glycerol concentration might be adequate to prevent freezing damage in cryonics patients.

[NOTE: Glycerol is 1,2,3-propanetriol and has a molecular weight of 92.09grams/mole and a density of 1.2613grams/cm3 at 20C. Therefore, to convert glycerol Molarity to %v/v multiply by 7.30]

In the December 1991 issue of CRYONICS magazine, a cryobiologist described the results of an experiment with a single rabbit brain perfused at room temperature with 3.72 Molar glycerol, cooled to 130C, cut into slabs, and the resulting slabs stored at 78C for many months before examination under an electron microscope. He states: “…the pattern of ice formation seems to be potentially quite damaging. Everywhere one looks, thick sheets of ice are found stabbing their way through brain tissue with apparent abandon.”

But if this is true, how can we explain the complete neurological recovery of Audrey Smith’s hamsters, 60% of whose brain water had been ice. When asked this question, the cryobiologist could give no answer. He also wrote, “Biochemically, all functions measured to date have always survived freezing and thawing, even under poor circumstances, again in possible disagreement with the poor electron microscope (EM) results. Hence, the reality of the EM results and the possibility of artifacts in these results have been in question for some time.” He goes on to say, “It is almost miraculous how well the tissue organization re-establishes itself in general after thawing, even in areas where gaps are present. However, the likelihood of extensive damage existing below the level of resolution of the light microscope, but all too visible in the electron microscope, appears high.”

Although a certain caution should be taken in accepting the results of a single preparation of a rabbit brain by a single experimenter, the cryobiologist’s observations are not entirely inconsistent with those of Audrey Smith. As expected, the observed freezing was extracellular, rather than intracellular. But the damage seen not only seems inconsistent with the complete neurological recovery of Audrey Smith’s hamsters, it also seems inconsistent with the finding that even without cryoprotectants, 80% of synapses in whole brain tissues cooled to 70C retain the metabolic properties of fresh brain biopsy synapses [“Metabolically Active Synaptosomes can be Prepared from Frozen Rat and Human Brain”, JOURNAL OF NEUROCHEMISTRY40:608-614 (1983)]. Could it be that the glycerol cryoprotectant contributes to extracellular damage in some way? In any case, concentrations of glycerol above 3.72 Molar (27.2%v/v) glycerol are not difficult to achieve in cryonics. Cryonicists are typically more concerned with eliminating structural damage than in loss of viability due to cryoprotectant toxicity. At high concentrations glycerol perfuses poorly into cells and osmotically draws water out of cells resulting in dehydration.

Following the ultramicroscopic evidence of intra-cellular damage the cryonics organizations Alcor and later CryoCare began perfusing patients with the highest possible concentrations of glycerol. Cryonics patients became very dehydrated (losing body volume) by this procedure. The high viscosity of glycerol only allowed 55%v/v (7.5Molar) maximum concentration well below the 68%v/v necessary for vitrification. It has been estimated, however, that in combination with ice-blockers, 8Molar glycerol could vitrify if only such a concentration of glycerol could be attained in human patients. (Cryonics patients are now typically perfused with vitrifying cryoprotectants rather than with glycerol.)

Often a cryonics patient has been perfused with glycerol at one location and shipped in dry ice(frozen carbon dioxide) for storage at another location. The solidification temperature(Tg) of glycerol is 90C, which is below the temperature of dry ice(79C). But glycerol is viscous enough at dry ice temperature that little harm results from holding the glycerolized patient in dry ice for a few days. The result can be very damaging, however, if the dry ice is allowed to melt and the patient rewarms. The liquid portion of a glycerolized patient is about 20% water and about 80% glycerol. As can be seen from the diagram at the beginning of the section on ice blockers melting temperature(Tm) declines rapidly with increasing cryoprotectant concentration. In a glycerolized patient considerable melting of ice occurs at 60C and higher. Melting releases debris created by freezing and thereby causes loss of structural information that could potentially be used by future molecular repair technology. Moreover, cryoprotectant toxicity can result in structural damage to the debris and damaged tissues which is far worse on rewarming than what would occur when passing through the same temperatures on cooling. So extreme caution must be taken to prevent a glycerolized patient from rewarming from dry ice temperature.

[For more information about perfusing cryonics patients with cryoprotectant, see my essay Perfusion & Diffusion in Cryonics Protocol.]

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The cell membrane (plasmalemma) is the site of most freezing damage. Therefore good cryoprotectants may not only perform the anti-freeze function of preventing ice formation, but protect cell membranes as well. Cryoprotectant toxicity, however, can potentially affect any organelle or macromolecule with proteins being the most vulnerable.

Sugars are polyhydroxyl aldehydes or ketones (carbon chains with terminal aldehydes or ketones and hydroxyl side-chains). Glyceraldehyde is a very simple sugar. High levels of sugars and sugar alcohols(polyols) are found in many polar plants, insects, fungi, etc. as non-toxic cryoprotectants. The fact that fructose will not crystallize is the reason sucrose is used as table sugar, despite the fact that fructose is cheaper.

Northern frogs use glucose as a cryoprotectant. When temperatures drop the livers of these frogs produce large amounts of glucose which a special form of insulin allows to enter cells in large quantity. The heart and brain does not freeze, but much of the rest of the body does (the frog is two-thirds ice). Upon thawing the frog must rapidly remove the glucose to prevent metabolic injury, but the glucose is saved in a special bladder because the frog cannot risk losing so many precious calories. Gradually, the glucose from the special bladder re-enters the plasma for metabolism or storage in the liver[JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR ENDOCRINOLOGY; Conlon,JM; 21(2):153-159 (1998)].

The two disaccharides (sugars composed of two simple simple sugars) that most protect proteins & cell membranes against chilling, freezing & dehydration are sucrose (fructose,glucose) and trehalose (glucose,glucose). Sucrose is the most common sugar found in freezing-tolerant plants which can increase their sucrose levels ten-fold in response to low temperature. Sucrose and trehalose inhibit the membrane mixing associated with chilling. Both sugars fit well in cell membranes, binding to phospholipid head groups. Trehalose constitutes 20% of the dry weight of organisms able to survive complete dehydration. Trehalose has an abnormally large hydrated radius well over twice as large as other sugars and (unlike other sugars) is totally excluded from the hydration shell of proteins.

Cryoprotection from freezing injury can differ from cryoprotection for vitrification reducing electrolyte toxicity might be more important for the former, but it would not be so important for the latter. Sucrose and ethylene glycol have been used in combination to vitrify human oocytes[HUMAN REPRODUCTION; Kuleshova,L; 14(12):3077-3079 (1999)]. But sugars are more often used as cryoprotectants against freezing and chilling injury rather than for vitrification, with the disaccharide sucrose being more effective than the monosaccharide glucose[CRYOBIOLOGY; Santarius,KA; 20(1):90-99 (1983) and CRYOBIOLOGY; Carpenter,JF; 25(3):244-255 (1988)].

Carbonyl groups (>C=O) such as are found on aldehydes (RCOH) and ketones (RCOR’) can reduce certain heavy metal ions (ie, “reduce” the positive charge by adding an electron). Copper ion in the plus two state (Cu2+), for example, can be reduced to the plus one state (Cu+) in the presence of a ketone or aldehyde. (Sugars are ketones or aldehydes, eg, glucose is an aldehyde and fructose is a ketone.) Copper and iron ions in the reduced state can result in production of damaging hydroxyl radicals as a result of the Fenton Reaction.

Because most sugars have free aldehyde or ketone end-groups, they readily bind to the free amine group of lysine or arginine on proteins, a process called glycation. Sugars that participate in this reaction are called reducing sugars. All monosaccharides are reducing sugars because, although the carbonyl group may not be exposed when a ring structure is formed, the carbonyl group is exposed when a hemiacetal ring opens (e.g., in the interconversion of glucose between anomeric forms). Monosaccharides can dissolve in cryoprotectant solutions more readily and vitrify at lower concentrations than disaccharides[CRYOBIOLOGY; Kuleshova,LL; 38(2):119-130 (1999)], but because of their capacity for glycation, monosaccharide exposure to protein should be brief and at low temperature. A 220millimolar D-galactose solution was shown to be nearly as effective a cryoprotectant as 5%DMSO for human embryonic liver cells (and substantially better than D-glucose)[GLYCOBIOLOGY; Chaytor,JL; 22(1):123-133 (2012)], but galactose can be five times more glycating than glucose.

Some disaccharides (such as maltose) are reducing sugars because the link between the composite monosaccharides (the glycosidic bond) does not prevent the composite monosaccharide hemiacetal rings from opening. But trehalose and sucrose are non-reducing sugars because their glycosidic bonds do prevent opening of hemiacetal bonds. In acidic conditions, however, sucrose is far more vulnerable to hydrolysis into its reducing-sugar monosaccharides than is trehalose[CRYOBIOLOGY; Crowe,JH; 43(2):89-105 (2001)]. To the extent that glycation plays as role in enzyme stability and membrane stability associated with freezing damage or chilling injury, trehalose is a superior cryoprotectant to sucrose.

Disaccharides like trehalose and sucrose do not cross cell membranes, however, and thus only protect the inner cell membranes of organisms that synthesize them. Trehalose allows yeast to dehydrate, and can reach up to 35% of the dried weight. Trehalose is a blood sugar for lobsters, but it is not synthesized by vertebrates. Many strategies have been attempted to get trehalose inside of vertebrate cells so that its cryoprotective, protein-protective and membrane-protective properties can be of benefit on the inside as well as on the outside of cells. Plasmids containing the trehalose transporter gene TRET1 from African chironomid larvae[PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES (USA); Kikawada,T; 104(28):11585-11590 (2007)] have been transfected into Chinese hamster ovary cells, resulting in a seven-fold increase in trehalose and a 400% increase in growth after dessication[CRYOBIOLOGY; Chakraborty,N; 64(2):91-96 (2012)]. Microinjection has been used to get trehalose into human oocytes which improves cryopreservation[FERTILITY AND STERILITY 77(1):152-158 (2002)]. When combined with 0.5Molar DMSO, 0.5Molar trehalose microinjected into mouse oocytes resulted in excellent cryosurvival and healthy offspring (presumably because trehalose alone would not enter organelles such as mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum)[BIOLOGY OF REPRODUCTION; Eroglu,A; 80(1):70-78 (2009)]. Transplanted tissue-engineered epidermis that had been cryopreserved with a trehalose/DMSO mixture was indistinguishable from fresh control grafts[BIOMATERIALS; Chen,F; 32(33):8426-8435 (2011)]. Trehalose may also protect macromolecules by being a free radical scavenger[JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY; Benaroudj,N; 276(26):24261-24267 (2001)].

Nonetheless, non-penetrating cryoprotectants can assist vitrification because most nucleators are extracellular and because dehydration allows for intracellular vitrification by bound water. Extracellular vitrification which involves sugar prevents cell membranes from coming in contact and fusing[ANNUAL REVIEW OF PHYSIOLOGY; Crowe,JH; 60:73-103 (1998)]. Cell membranes are commonly believed to be the part of cells most vulnerable to freezing damage.

Trehalose displaces bound water and protects cell membranes by hydrogen-bonding to proteins and the polar ends of phospholipids more strongly than bound water[ARCHIVES OF BIOCHEMISTRY AND BIOPHYSICS 245(1):134-143 (1986)]. At the phospholipid bilayer of cell membranes trehalose is able to displace water molecules bound to carbonyls, but sucrose is not[BIOPHYSICAL JOURNAL; Amalfa,F; 78(5):2452-2458 (2000)]. Trehalose interacts more strongly with water than does sucrose, at least partly because sucrose forms intramolecular hydrogen bonds[THE JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRYB; Lerbret,A; 109(21):11046-11057 (2005)]. Trehalose has a hydration radius that is 2.5times greater than that of sucrose, and 2.5times the concentration of sucrose is required to provide an equivalent amount of protein protection[ARCHIVES OF BIOCHEMISTRY AND BIOPHYSICS; Sola-Penna,M; 360(1):10-14 (1998)]. 1.5Molar solutions of trehalose & sucrose contain 62.5% & 87% water by volume, respectively. The greater hydrated volume of trehalose reduces freezable water and increases viscosity[PROTEIN SCIENCE; Jain,NK; 18(1):24-36 (2009)]. Trehalose has been shown to be about twice as effective as sucrose in suppressing ice crystal growth, evidently due to the larger hydration radius[JOURNAL OF CRYSTAL GROWTH; Sei,T; 240(1-2):218-229 (2002)]. At 41.7wt% trehalose concentration crystal growth is about one quarter of what it is at 20.8wt%. At 52.1wt% trehalose crystal growth rate diminishes as crystal size increases.

Trehalose has a higher glass transition temperature (Tg) than sucrose or any other disaccharide studied. As a group, disaccharides have a Tg that is on average about 60C higher than monosaccharides[FRONTIERS IN BIOSCIENCE; Furuki,T; 14:3523-3535 (2009)]. At 5% water content, Tg for trehalose is about 40C whereas Tg for sucrose is about 15C. After being stored at 44C for 45days glucose/sucrose samples lost their amorphous state completely, whereas less than 4% of glucose/trehalose samples had crystallized[BIOCHEMCIA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA; Sun,WQ; 1425(1):235-244 (1998)].

Disaccharides are examples of the class of cryoprotectants that do not cross cell membranes:non-penetrating cryoprotectants. Non-penetrating cryoprotectants are partly effective because ice forms much more readily outside of cells than inside cells due to the fact that nucleating agents are much more prevalent outside of cells than inside cells. In general, non-penetrating cryoprotectants are much less toxic than penetrating cryoprotectants. Many effective cryoprotectant cocktails combine non-penetrating cryoprotectants with penetrating cryoprotectants, thereby reducing the amount of penetrating cryoprotectant required. Non-penetrating cryoprotectants act partially by inducing cell dehydration, thereby reducing the amount of ice that can form in cells. For that reason, non-penetrating cryoprotectants are used in classical cryopreservation methods involving freezing.

Although the penetrating cryoprotectant glycerol is widely used for erythrocyte cryopreservation, efforts have been made to use the non-penetrating cryoprotectant hydroxyethyl starch(HES) because HES is a harmless plasma expander that would not need to be removed from erythrocytes after warming and prior to transfusion as is required with glycerol. Although one study concluded that the increased hemoglobin (increased hemolysis) associated with unwashed cryopreserved erythrocytes is not harmful[ANESTHESIA & ANALGESIA; Horn,E; 85(4):739-745 (1997)] concerns over possible renal toxicity from the increased hemoglobin have prevented clinical use of HES[TRANSFUSION MEDICINE REVIEWS; Scott,KL; 19(2):127-142 (2005)]. Erythrocytes preserved in liquid nitrogen with the nonpenetrating cryoprotectants trehalose and Dextran40 retained normal shape and enzyme activity, but had a 56% reduction in ATP[CRYOBIOLOGY; Pellerin-Mendes,C; 35(2):173-186 (1997)].

[For information on sugars in chilling & dehydration injury, see Viability, Cryoprotectant Toxicity and Chilling Injury in Cryonics.]

(return to contents)

Glycerol was the first CryoProtectant Agent (CPA) to gain widespread use in cryobiology, for cryopreserving red blood cells and sperm. The value of DMSO (DiMethylSulfOxide) as a CPA was discovered not long thereafter. Other polyols, such as ethylene glycol (automobile anti-freeze) and propylene glycol (formerly used to reduce ice formation in ice cream) were later shown to be effective cryoprotectants. Glycerol is still regarded as superior for cryopreserving spermatazoa from nearly all species, but lactamide results in motility for rabbit spermatazoa that is nearly double that seen for glycerol[JOURNAL OF REPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT; Kashiwazaki,N; 52(4):511-516 (2006)].

Cryoprotectants are assessed by means of a number of parameters, including glass transition temperature (Tg), permeance, viscosity, toxicity, and concentration needed to vitrify (Cv). Cv is the minimum required concentration of the particular CPA which will vitrify, which is an important quantity to keep in mind because concentrations too much above this minimum result in increased toxicity without increased benefit.

Amides are weak cryoprotectants compared to polyols (formamide is too weak to vitrify on its own, but can assist vitrification by other cryoprotectants). Both amides and polyols become stronger cryoprotectants (have lower Cv) by the addition of methyl groups, as can be seen from the structures and Cvs of methylated amides and polyols [fromCRYOBIOLOGY; Fahy,GM; 24(3):196-213 (1987)].

A Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) study has indicated that methylation increases hydrogen bonding strength of the polar groups[JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY; Forsyth,M; 94:6889-6893 (1990)]. Compared to propylene glycol (1,2-propanediol), 1,3-propanediol has a higher concentration needed to vitrify (57% versus 44%) and a higher homogenous nucleation temperature for a 20%w/w solution (60C versus 68C), indicating that it is weaker and even less toxic than ethylene glycol in comparison with propylene glycol[CRYOBIOLOGY; MacFarlane,DR; 27:345-358 (1990)]. Much less inhibition of disaccharidases is seen with 1,3-propanediol compared to propylene glycol[BIOCHEMICAL MEDICINE AND METABOLIC BIOLOGY; 45(2):161-170 (1991)].

Although polyols have long been known to be good cryoprotectants, other CPAs [such as methoxlylated compounds ie, CPAs in which a methyl (-CH3) group is added to an alcohol to make an ether] now being considered are less toxic and more penetrating. Aside from osmotic effects, however, glycerol is probably the CPA which damages cell membranes the least, compared to DiMethyl SulfOxide(DMSO), ethylene glycol, propylene glycol or methoxylated compounds because these other compounds are more likely to have a dissolving effect. Glycerol is, however, biochemically toxic because kidney tissue cannot be subjected to more than 3-4 molar glycerol without loss of viability.

Methoxylated compound toxicity may be similar to ethylene glycol. Human sperm membrane, for example, is 4 times more permeable to ethylene glycol than to glycerol. And the membrane transport of ethylene glycol is less affected by temperature than is glycerol[HUMAN REPRODUCTION; Gilmore,JA; 12(1):112-118 (1997)]. Ethylene glycol is toxic at 38C due to metabolism to oxalic acid by alcohol dehydrogenase in the liver. The oxalic acid can precipitate as calcium oxalate crystals in the brain, heart, kidney, lung and pancreas causing hypocalcemia with the greatest damage being seen in the kidney (see PRINCIPLES OF INTERNAL MEDICINE by Harrison). Methoxylated compounds can have similar toxicity to that of an unesterified glycol (glycol=alcohol with two hydroxyl groups) like ethylene glycol because they are easily hydrolyzed. But glycol ethers can have other toxic effects, such as hemolysis and chromosome damage (see Casarett & Doull’s TOXICOLOGY). It is doubtful, however, that many of these toxic effects would be seen during the application of a cryonics protocol with the blood being washed-out thereby preventing liver metabolites from reaching other cells. Moreover, ethylene glycol is of variable toxicity found to be nontoxic for cow embryos, for example[HUMAN REPRODUCTION; Gilmore,JA; 12(1):112-118 (1997)]].

Insofar as the cell membrane (plasmalemma) seems to be the cellular structure that is the most critical target in chilling and freezing injury, stabilization of cell membranes can be a significant aspect of cryoprotectant action. Proline, betaine, sarcosine, glycerol, DMSO, trehalose and sucrose all reduce membrane fusion. Proline, betaine and sarcosine stabilize phosphlipid bilayers by hydrophobic interactions. Hydrophobic interaction with membranes is a less effective means of membrane stabilization than the hydrogen bonding of the other cryoprotectants[CRYOBIOLOGY; Anchordoguy,TJ; 24(4):324-331 (1987)].

The major cryoprotectants can be listed with respect to vitrifying strength, toxicity and viscosity. A listing of cryoprotectants in order of glass-forming ability of 45%(v/v) solutions can be found in[CRYOBIOLOGY; Baudot;A; 40(2):151-158 (2000)]:

propylene glycol > DMSO > DMF > 1,4-butanediol > Ethylene glycol > glycerol > 1,3-propanediol

Studies by 21st Century Medicine (21CM) researchers on kidney slices have indicated that the relative order of toxicity matches the order of glass-forming ability. Formamide is exceptional, being the most toxic CPA while having the weakest glass-forming capability. Mixing CPAs reduces the toxicities of many of the individual agents.

Ordering CPAs by viscosity gives:

glycerol > Propylene glycol > Ethylene glycol > DMSO

A cryoprotectant mixture with high glass-forming ability, low toxicity and low viscosity is the elusive goal of vitrification research.

At the 2005 Society for Cryobiology Conference, 21st Century Medicine announced that it had successfully vitrified a rabbit kidney to solid state, rewarmed the kidney and transplanted it to a rabbit with complete viability[ORGANOGENESIS; Fahy,GM; 5(3):167-175 (2009)]. A rabbit brain has been vitrified with the same cryoprotectant mixture with no ice formation[ANNALS OF THE NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES; 1019:559 (2004)]. In both cases the cryoprotectant mixture used was M22[CRYOBIOLOGY 48:157-178 (2004)], a 65%w/v (9.35M) cryoprotectant mixture having a melting temperature of 55C and a Tg of 123.3C. (M22 was so-named because of the intention to introduce this vitrification cocktail to a biological specimen at Minus 22C.) The vitrified kidney was held at 135C for 4minutes.

Most of the cryoprotectants in M22 are penetrating cryoprotectants (cross cell membranes), with the exception of PVPK12 and (although they are not technically cryoprotectants) ice blockers. The cryoprotectantive agents and ice blockers used in M22 are:

22% dimethyl sulfoxide 13% formamide 17% ethylene glycol 3% N-methylformamide 4% 3-methoxy-1,2-propanediol 3% PVP K12 2% Z-1000 ice blocker 1% X-1000 ice blocker

Cryoprotectants are not simply added to water, they are added to an isotonic carrier solution that often can act as an organ preservation solution. The carrier solution used for M22 is LM5, a mixture of glucose, mannitol, lactose, KCl, K2HPO2, GSH, NaHCO3, and adenineHCl[TABLE1; CRYOBIOLOGY; Fahy,GM; 48(2):157-178 (2004)]. Adding ice blockers and reducing the amount of glucose in a previous carrier solution cut the required warming rate to prevent devitrification by more that half. Choice of carrier solution can affect tissue recovery, and the composition of tissue fluid also has an effect[CRYOBIOLOGY; Wusterman,MC; 56(1):62-71 (2008)]. M22 was optimized for kidney slices.

The cryoprotectant solution used by the Cryonics Institute (CIVM1) has 35% ethylene glycol and 35% dimethyl sulfoxide, a pair of cryoprotectants that can reduce toxicity when used in combination[REPRODUCTION, FERTILITY, AND DEVELOPMENT; Gautam,SK; 20(4):490-496 (2008)]. The carrier solution is mRPS2, a mixture of glucose, KCl, HCl, and TRIS buffer. CIVM1 is a more powerful and much less expensive cryoprotectant mixture than M22, but it is more toxic. CIVM1 was optimized on hippocampal slices by cryobiologist Dr.Yuri Pichugin.

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Vitrification in Cryonics – Ben Best

Download Tor – Tor Project: Anonymity Online

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Aug 152015

Want Tor to really work?

You need to change some of your habits, as some things won’t work exactly as you are used to. Please read the full list of warnings for details.

Microsoft Windows

Everything you need to safely browse the Internet. Learn more

Contains just Tor and nothing else. You’ll need to configure Tor and all of your applications manually. This installer must be run as Administrator.

Apple OS X

Everything you need to safely browse the Internet. This package requires no installation. Just extract it and run. Learn more

GNU/Linux, BSD, and Unix

Everything you need to safely browse the Internet. This package requires no installation. Just extract it and run. Learn more

Install the Tor components yourself, run a relay, create custom configurations. All an apt-get or yum install away.

Tor for Smartphones

Source Code

Configure with: ./configure && make && src/or/tor

The current stable version of Tor is Its release notes are available.

The current unstable/alpha version of Tor is Its Changelog is available.

You need to change some of your habits, as some things won’t work exactly as you are used to.

Tor does not protect all of your computer’s Internet traffic when you run it. Tor only protects your applications that are properly configured to send their Internet traffic through Tor. To avoid problems with Tor configuration, we strongly recommend you use the Tor Browser. It is pre-configured to protect your privacy and anonymity on the web as long as you’re browsing with the Tor Browser itself. Almost any other web browser configuration is likely to be unsafe to use with Tor.

Torrent file-sharing applications have been observed to ignore proxy settings and make direct connections even when they are told to use Tor. Even if your torrent application connects only through Tor, you will often send out your real IP address in the tracker GET request, because that’s how torrents work. Not only do you deanonymize your torrent traffic and your other simultaneous Tor web traffic this way, you also slow down the entire Tor network for everyone else.

The Tor Browser will block browser plugins such as Flash, RealPlayer, Quicktime, and others: they can be manipulated into revealing your IP address. Similarly, we do not recommend installing additional addons or plugins into the Tor Browser, as these may bypass Tor or otherwise harm your anonymity and privacy.

Tor will encrypt your traffic to and within the Tor network, but the encryption of your traffic to the final destination website depends upon on that website. To help ensure private encryption to websites, the Tor Browser includes HTTPS Everywhere to force the use of HTTPS encryption with major websites that support it. However, you should still watch the browser URL bar to ensure that websites you provide sensitive information to display a blue or green URL bar button, include https:// in the URL, and display the proper expected name for the website. Also see EFF’s interactive page explaining how Tor and HTTPS relate.

The Tor Browser will warn you before automatically opening documents that are handled by external applications. DO NOT IGNORE THIS WARNING. You should be very careful when downloading documents via Tor (especially DOC and PDF files) as these documents can contain Internet resources that will be downloaded outside of Tor by the application that opens them. This will reveal your non-Tor IP address. If you must work with DOC and/or PDF files, we strongly recommend either using a disconnected computer, downloading the free VirtualBox and using it with a virtual machine image with networking disabled, or using Tails. Under no circumstances is it safe to use BitTorrent and Tor together, however.

Tor tries to prevent attackers from learning what destination websites you connect to. However, by default, it does not prevent somebody watching your Internet traffic from learning that you’re using Tor. If this matters to you, you can reduce this risk by configuring Tor to use a Tor bridge relay rather than connecting directly to the public Tor network. Ultimately the best protection is a social approach: the more Tor users there are near you and the more diverse their interests, the less dangerous it will be that you are one of them. Convince other people to use Tor, too!

Be smart and learn more. Understand what Tor does and does not offer. This list of pitfalls isn’t complete, and we need your help identifying and documenting all the issues.

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Offshore Companies – Sovereign Man

 Offshore Companies  Comments Off on Offshore Companies – Sovereign Man
Aug 082015

To set up an offshore company or relocate your existing business overseas is a crucial step toward internationalizing yourself and your assets. Search for offshore company and youll find thousands of websites promising a quick company formation in Panama or the British Virgin Islands, with a range of other benefits for the jurisdiction in question.

There is a current misconception that offshore business is about evading taxes and hiding money from the government, which is certainly not the case.

There are 100% legitimate ways to structure your business interests overseas and realize significant benefits from an asset protection standpoint as well as tax-standpoint.

Want an example? In the last few years companies such as Google, Apple and a multitude of other companies have cut theirtaxes by billions of dollars in completelylegitimate ways.

You too can do this.

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First of all, you dont have to start a company offshore to save on taxes. If youre an American, just moving out of the US is a terrific first step. As a US expat, about $100,000 in overseas income is tax exempt, meaning that if you live outside the US you dont have to pay any taxes at all on the first $100,000 or soof foreign sourced income (you still have to file your tax report though). However, the real tax advantage from running an offshore company as a US citizen doesnt come from direct tax savings. It comes from tax deferment, meaning you postpone the payment of taxes into the future. If you run a business overseas and reinvest profits within the company you can defer taxes indefinitely. Lets say you have a profitable company overseas. Now imagine that instead of paying taxes on your profits every year you can reinvest that capital in your offshore company every year for 30 years, and only pay taxes if you decide to sell the company after 30 years. Being able to reinvest your capital tax-free combined with the power of compound interest makes this a truly exceptional opportunity.

Its a great idea to structure your business overseas, especially one thats online-based. If you incorporate your foreign business properly, it provides a legal way to defer tax payments (similarly to an IRA), as well as enabling much reduced liability. An online business has no limits as to how and where it can do business, so why should you let your business be limited by a jurisdiction that is based on the old, geographically limited model? Starting an offshore online business is a great way to build streams of income outside of your home country. Why would you want to have income streams outside of your country? Well, when inflation runs rampant in a country, having an income stream overseas in a stronger currency can potentially be a lifesaver. If hyperinflation would find its way to your country, which is a real risk with central banks all around the world printing new money 24/7, earning only a small part of your income in a different country is invaluable. An internet business based overseas, coupled with an offshore bank account, is the perfect medium through which you can do this.

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Offshore Companies – Sovereign Man

First Amendment to the United States Constitution …

 First Amendment  Comments Off on First Amendment to the United States Constitution …
Jul 022015

Thomas Jefferson wrote with respect to the First Amendment and its restriction on the legislative branch of the federal government in an 1802 letter to the Danbury Baptists (a religious minority concerned about the dominant position of the Congregationalist church in Connecticut):

Believing with you that religion is a matter which lies solely between Man & his God, that he owes account to none other for his faith or his worship, that the legitimate powers of government reach actions only, & not opinions, I contemplate with sovereign reverence that act of the whole American people which declared that their legislature should “make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof,” thus building a wall of separation between Church & State. Adhering to this expression of the supreme will of the nation in behalf of the rights of conscience, I shall see with sincere satisfaction the progress of those sentiments which tend to restore to man all his natural rights, convinced he has no natural right in opposition to his social duties.[9]

In Reynolds v. United States (1878) the Supreme Court used these words to declare that “it may be accepted almost as an authoritative declaration of the scope and effect of the amendment thus secured. Congress was deprived of all legislative power over mere [religious] opinion, but was left free to reach [only those religious] actions which were in violation of social duties or subversive of good order.” Quoting from Jefferson’s Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom the court stated further in Reynolds:

In the preamble of this act […] religious freedom is defined; and after a recital ‘that to suffer the civil magistrate to intrude his powers into the field of opinion, and to restrain the profession or propagation of principles on supposition of their ill tendency, is a dangerous fallacy which at once destroys all religious liberty,’ it is declared ‘that it is time enough for the rightful purposes of civil government for its officers to interfere [only] when [religious] principles break out into overt acts against peace and good order.’ In these two sentences is found the true distinction between what properly belongs to the church and what to the State.

Originally, the First Amendment applied only to the federal government, and some states continued official state religions after ratification. Massachusetts, for example, was officially Congregationalist until the 1830s.[10] In Everson v. Board of Education (1947), the U.S. Supreme Court incorporated the Establishment Clause (i.e., made it apply against the states). In the majority decision, Justice Hugo Black wrote:

The “establishment of religion” clause of the First Amendment means at least this: Neither a state nor the Federal Government can set up a church. Neither can pass laws which aid one religion, aid all religions, or prefer one religion to another … in the words of Jefferson, the [First Amendment] clause against establishment of religion by law was intended to erect ‘a wall of separation between church and State’ … That wall must be kept high and impregnable. We could not approve the slightest breach.[11]

In Torcaso v. Watkins (1961), the Supreme Court ruled that the Constitution prohibits states and the federal government from requiring any kind of religious test for public office. In the Board of Education of Kiryas Joel Village School District v. Grumet (1994),[12] Justice David Souter, writing for the majority, concluded that “government should not prefer one religion to another, or religion to irreligion.”[13] In a series of cases in the first decade of the 2000sVan Orden v. Perry (2005), McCreary County v. ACLU (2005), and Salazar v. Buono (2010)the Court considered the issue of religious monuments on federal lands without reaching a majority reasoning on the subject.[14]

Everson used the metaphor of a wall of separation between church and state, derived from the correspondence of President Thomas Jefferson. It had been long established in the decisions of the Supreme Court, beginning with Reynolds v. United States in 1879, when the Court reviewed the history of the early Republic in deciding the extent of the liberties of Mormons. Chief Justice Morrison Waite, who consulted the historian George Bancroft, also discussed at some length the Memorial and Remonstrance against Religious Assessments by James Madison, who drafted the First Amendment; Madison used the metaphor of a “great barrier.”[15]

Justice Hugo Black adopted Jefferson’s words in the voice of the Court.[16] The Court has affirmed it often, with majority, but not unanimous, support. Warren Nord, in Does God Make a Difference?, characterized the general tendency of the dissents as a weaker reading of the First Amendment; the dissents tend to be “less concerned about the dangers of establishment and less concerned to protect free exercise rights, particularly of religious minorities.”[17]

Beginning with Everson, which permitted New Jersey school boards to pay for transportation to parochial schools, the Court has used various tests to determine when the wall of separation has been breached. Everson laid down the test that establishment existed when aid was given to religion, but that the transportation was justifiable because the benefit to the children was more important. In the school prayer cases of the early 1960s, (Engel v. Vitale and Abington School District v. Schempp), aid seemed irrelevant; the Court ruled on the basis that a legitimate action both served a secular purpose and did not primarily assist religion. In Walz v. Tax Commission (1970), the Court ruled that a legitimate action could not entangle government with religion; in Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971), these points were combined into the Lemon test, declaring that an action was an establishment if:[18]

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First Amendment to the United States Constitution …

Libertarianism in the United States – Wikipedia, the free …

 Misc  Comments Off on Libertarianism in the United States – Wikipedia, the free …
Jun 202015

Libertarianism in the United States is a movement promoting individual liberty and minimized government.[1][2] The Libertarian Party, asserts the following to be core beliefs of libertarianism:

Libertarians support maximum liberty in both personal and economic matters. They advocate a much smaller government; one that is limited to protecting individuals from coercion and violence. Libertarians tend to embrace individual responsibility, oppose government bureaucracy and taxes, promote private charity, tolerate diverse lifestyles, support the free market, and defend civil liberties.[3][4]

Through 20 polls on this topic spanning 13 years, Gallup found that voters who are libertarian on the political spectrum ranged from 17%- 23% of the US electorate.[5] This includes members of the Republican Party (especially Libertarian Republicans), Democratic Party, Libertarian Party, and Independents.

In the 1950s many with classical liberal beliefs in the United States began to describe themselves as “libertarian.”[6] Academics as well as proponents of the free market perspectives note that free-market libertarianism has spread beyond the U.S. since the 1970s via think tanks and political parties[7][8] and that libertarianism is increasingly viewed worldwide as a free market position.[9][10] However, libertarian socialist intellectuals Noam Chomsky, Colin Ward, and others argue that the term “libertarianism” is considered a synonym for social anarchism by the international community and that the United States is unique in widely associating it with free market ideology.[11][12][13]

Arizona United States Senator Barry Goldwater’s libertarian-oriented challenge to authority had a major impact on the libertarian movement,[14] through his book The Conscience of a Conservative and his run for president in 1964.[15] Goldwater’s speech writer, Karl Hess, became a leading libertarian writer and activist.[16]

The Vietnam War split the uneasy alliance between growing numbers of self-identified libertarians, anarchist libertarians, and more traditional conservatives who believed in limiting liberty to uphold moral virtues. Libertarians opposed to the war joined the draft resistance and peace movements and organizations such as Students for a Democratic Society. They began founding their own publications, like Murray Rothbard’s The Libertarian Forum[17][18] and organizations like the Radical Libertarian Alliance.[19]

The split was aggravated at the 1969 Young Americans for Freedom convention, when more than 300 libertarians organized to take control of the organization from conservatives. The burning of a draft card in protest to a conservative proposal against draft resistance sparked physical confrontations among convention attendees, a walkout by a large number of libertarians, the creation of libertarian organizations like the Society for Individual Liberty, and efforts to recruit potential libertarians from conservative organizations.[20] The split was finalized in 1971 when conservative leader William F. Buckley, Jr., in a 1971 New York Times article, attempted to divorce libertarianism from the freedom movement. He wrote: “The ideological licentiousness that rages through America today makes anarchy attractive to the simple-minded. Even to the ingeniously simple-minded.”[21]

In 1971, David Nolan and a few friends formed the Libertarian Party.[22] Attracting former Democrats, Republicans and independents, it has run a presidential candidate every election year since 1972. Over the years, dozens of libertarian political parties have been formed worldwide. Educational organizations like the Center for Libertarian Studies and the Cato Institute were formed in the 1970s, and others have been created since then.[23]

Philosophical libertarianism gained a significant measure of recognition in academia with the publication of Harvard University professor Robert Nozick’s Anarchy, State, and Utopia in 1974. The book won a National Book Award in 1975.[24] According to libertarian essayist Roy Childs, “Nozick’s Anarchy, State, and Utopia single-handedly established the legitimacy of libertarianism as a political theory in the world of academia.”[25]

Texas congressman Ron Paul’s 2008 and 2012 campaigns for the Republican Party presidential nomination were largely libertarian. Paul is affiliated with the libertarian-leaning Republican Liberty Caucus and founded the Campaign for Liberty, a libertarian-leaning membership and lobbying organization.

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Libertarianism in the United States – Wikipedia, the free …

How To Get Free Bitcoin With freebitco in – Video

 Bitcoin  Comments Off on How To Get Free Bitcoin With freebitco in – Video
Apr 132015

How To Get Free Bitcoin With freebitco in
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FREE Video Sharing Software – SEO Marketing Application – Traffic & Rankings – Get Noticed! – Video

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Apr 132015

FREE Video Sharing Software – SEO Marketing Application – Traffic Rankings – Get Noticed!
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FREE Video Sharing Software – SEO Marketing Application – Traffic & Rankings – Get Noticed! – Video

FREE Bitcoin Lottery Generator – Video

 Bitcoin  Comments Off on FREE Bitcoin Lottery Generator – Video
Apr 122015

FREE Bitcoin Lottery Generator
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Pierre Teilhard De Chardin | Designer Children | Prometheism | Euvolution | Transhumanism