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NSA chief warns Chinese cyber attacks could shut U.S. infrastructure
https://www.marygreeley.com NSA chief warns Chinese cyber attacks could shut U.S. infrastructure http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/11/21/us-usa-security-nsa-idUSKCN0J420Q20141121 “Copyright …

By: Mary Greeley

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NSA chief warns Chinese cyber attacks could shut U.S. infrastructure – Video

China and “probably one or two” other countries have the ability to invade and possibly shut down computer systems of U.S. power utilities, aviation networks and financial companies, Admiral Mike Rogers, the director of the U.S. National Security Agency, said on Thursday.

Testifying to the House of Representatives Intelligence Committee on cyber threats, Rogers said digital attackers have been able to penetrate such systems and perform “reconnaissance” missions to determine how the networks are put together.

“What concerns us is that access, that capability, can be used by nation-states, groups or individuals to take down that capability,” he said.

Rogers said China was one of the countries with that capability, but that there were others.

“There’s probably one or two others,” he said, declining to elaborate in a public setting.

Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman Hong Lei said the Chinese government “forbids” cyber hacking and that it is often a victim of such attacks that originate from the United States.

“The Chinese government resolutely cracks down on these activities. This reality is irrefutable,” Hong told reporters at a regular press briefing on Friday.

Rogers testified two days after a bill to overhaul the NSA’s bulk collection of telephone records failed in the Senate. Privacy advocates will probably now have to start over to pass a law to reform U.S. surveillance rules.

He said at the hearing that telephone companies are still providing those records to the NSA, but under stricter rules than when the program was exposed in 2013 by former contractor Edward Snowden.

Rogers said the agency, anticipating passage of a new law, would wait before moving forward with technological changes. He said the agency, and telephone companies, would rather wait and see what might be included in any new law.

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NSA chief warns Chinese cyber attacks could shut U.S. infrastructure

The U.S. National Security Agency is planning no major changes in its domestic telephone records collection program after a bill to rein in those efforts failed in the Senate this week, the agencys director said.

The NSA will continue to collect U.S. telephone records in bulk, while operating under some restrictions President Barack Obama put on the program back in January, Admiral Michael Rogers, the NSAs director, said during a House of Representatives hearing on cybersecurity Thursday. The NSA would rather wait to see what specific changes to the program Congress will require before making major changes, he told the House Intelligence Committee.

The NSA had hoped to get direction from Congress in the short term, but the agency may have to re-evaluate the telephone records program if were unable to gain consensus in the window that we thought, Rogers said. I dont have an answer to that in my own mind.

The NSA should take steps to end its bulk collection of U.S. phone records even though the USA Freedom Act, a bill that would have left the data in the hands of telecom carriers, failed in the Senate this week, said Representative Adam Schiff, a California Democrat. Theres nothing in statute that requires the government to gather bulk data, so you could move forward on your own with making the technological changes, Schiff said. You dont have to wait for the USA Freedom Act.

Theres no reason for the NSA to wait for congressional approval to put additional limits on the program if you think this is the correct policy, Schiff added. Why continue to gather the bulk metadata if [Obama administration officials] dont think this is the best approach?

But Rogers defended the phone records program, saying it has provided valuable antiterrorism intelligence to federal investigators.

The program operates under court and congressional oversight, and since January the NSA has needed approval from the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court before querying the database of collected phone records, he said. Obama in January largely left the program intact while Congress debates it, Rogers said.

I dont think Ive heard the president or the [director of national intelligence] say that the access to the data is not of value, Rogers said. What I think Ive heard is, the question gets to be who should hold the data.

The public has several misconceptions about NSA surveillance programs, said Representative Mike Rogers, the Intelligence Committees chairman and a Michigan Republican. The NSA is not penetrating U.S. computer networks, he said.

The NSA is not on American domestic networks, but the Russians, the Chinese, the Iranians, and multiple other bad actors are, Representative Rogers said.

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NSA director: No changes in telephone record collection coming

President Xi Jinping arrives in Fiji today as he seeks to broaden Chinas economic and strategic clout in the South Pacific, building on trade ties that flourished after then-army chief Frank Bainimarama staged a coup almost eight years ago.

The Fiji trip — the first state visit by a Chinese leader — will bookend Xis 11th foreign sojourn since he became president in March 2013, doling out billions of dollars to countries from Tanzania to Costa Rica and Sri Lanka. China seized the advantage when Fijis ties with neighbor Australia cooled after the putsch in December 2006, and total trade has since quadrupled.

It also continues Xis message of soft power as he balances an expanding military and claims to territory in the western Pacific against a growing economic interdependence. As host this year of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, Xi sought to cast China as both a partner and player in the region.

For Xi, he has presided over a diversification of Chinas diplomatic links, a more proactive foreign policy and the creation of deeper links beyond the Asian region, said Kerry Brown, director of the University of Sydneys China Studies Centre. Whether there is any real depth in these relationships beyond self interest it is hard to say. But at least China is less lonely now than it was a few years ago.

Two men fish as Fiji gets ready for the elections in Suva, the capital of Fiji, on Sept. 15, 2014. China has provided about $330 million in aid to Fiji since 2006, Lowy Institute calculations show. Close

Two men fish as Fiji gets ready for the elections in Suva, the capital of Fiji, on… Read More

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Two men fish as Fiji gets ready for the elections in Suva, the capital of Fiji, on Sept. 15, 2014. China has provided about $330 million in aid to Fiji since 2006, Lowy Institute calculations show.

Xis visit follows that of the leader of another rising Asian power, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi, who pledged $5 million to promote small business in Fiji and a $70 million line of credit for a power plant.

We have shared interests in peace and cooperation in our inter-linked ocean regions, Modi told reporters after meeting Bainimarama Nov. 19. We are also aware that the relationship has at times been adrift, and that our cooperation should be much stronger than it is.

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Xis Pacific Islands Tour Set to Deepen China Ties Further South

Nov 202014

Otago Peninsula farmers have been asked to check beaches for any signs of a missing Dunedin businessman.

Kevin Zhang (50), a real estate agent and business owner, was reported missing last Tuesday. His white Toyota Starlet was discovered near the Karetai track the same morning.

Senior Constable Lox Kellas, of Portobello, said local farmers had been asked to check beaches daily, alongside regular police checks.

Checks with Immigration New Zealand showed Mr Zhang had not left the country, and his bank accounts remained untouched.

About 100 searchers, including dozens of people from the local Chinese community, searched along the Otago coastline on Saturday morning.

Police will review the search on Monday.

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Farmers to check beaches for man

The regulation of Google’s search results has come up from time to time over the past decade, and although the idea has gained some traction in Europe (most recently with right to be forgotten laws), courts and regulatory bodies in the US have generally agreed that Google’s search results are considered free speech. That consensus was upheld last Thursday, when a San Francisco Superior Court judge ruled in favor of Google’s right to order its search results as it sees fit.

The owner ofa website called CoastNews,S. Louis Martin, argued that Google was unfairly putting CoastNews too far down in search results, while Bing and Yahoo were turning up CoastNews in the number one spot. CoastNews claimed that violated antitrust laws. It also took issue withGoogle’s refusal to deliver ads to its website after CoastNews posted photographs of a nudist colony in the Santa Cruz mountains.

Google then filed an anti-SLAPP motion against the plaintiff. Anti-SLAPP regulations in California allow courts to throw out lawsuits at an early stage if they’re intended to stifle free speech rights.In this case, the judge agreed[PDF] that Google was permitted by the First Amendment to organize its search results as it saw fit.

Defendant has met its burden of showing that the claims asserted against it arise from constitutionally protected activity, the judge’s order read.

More powerful companies have also taken issue with Google’s ordering of search results to no avail. Back in 2011, a Senate antitrust subcommittee began an investigation of Google’s search results under the premise that Google’s size could lead to anticompetitive behavior. The FTC also launched an investigation into Google’s practices, but the company came away unscathed after the 19-month-long ordeal.

In 2012, Google commissioned a white paper by prominent UCLA law professor Eugene Volokh and attorney Donald Falk in which the two concluded that Google’s search engine is protected by the First Amendment because it “uses sophisticated computerized algorithms, but those algorithms themselves inherently incorporate the search engine company engineers’ judgments about what material users are likely to find responsive to these queries.”

Ars contacted Volokh regarding this recent ruling, and he said that if anything, the search engine’s status as protected by the First Amendment is stronger today than it was before. This is especially true given a recent ruling in a case involving Chinese search engine Baidu, which was sued in America by pro-democracy activists for censoring political speech from US users. Nevertheless, the Manhattan US District judge in that case ruled that the search engine could organize its search results as it liked because it was protected by the First Amendment.

Newspapers, guidebooksand, for that matter, Ars Technicahave a First Amendment right to choose which stories are worth publishing, and which businesses are worth covering, Volokh wrote to Ars in an e-mail. Likewise, Google (a modern heir of the guidebook) can choose which pages to prominently display (and thus implicitly recommend as relevant and interesting) to readers and which pages arent worth displaying so prominentlyor arent worth displaying at all.

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Court agrees that Googles search results qualify as free speech

Kor Kian Beng

The Straits Times

Publication Date : 13-11-2014

China and Japan have crossed swords again over the disputed Diaoyu/Senkaku islands, just days after the first summit by their top leaders which gave hope for improvement in their rocky ties.

A spokesman for China’s embassy in Japan yesterday criticised Japanese foreign minister Fumio Kishida for his remarks that Japan has not changed its position that the East China Sea islands administered by Tokyo but claimed by Beijing are not in dispute.

According to Japanese media reports, Kishida also said at a press conference on Tuesday that maritime tensions between both countries were caused by China’s air defence identification zone in the East China Sea and activities by Chinese fishermen in the waters nearby.

“We express serious concern and opposition to comments from the Japanese,” said the spokesman for the Chinese Embassy.

“Diaoyu islands are Chinese territory. The meaning and spirit of the four-point consensus reached by both sides days ago are clear.”

The territorial dispute, which sparked turmoil in bilateral ties after Japan nationalised some of the islands in Sept 2012, was a key part of a four-point agreement reached by both sides last Friday.

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China, Japan spar again over islands



Cycling from Marina Del Ray to Redondo – Food, Beaches, Houses, Sceneries
Nov 1, 2014: This time we discuss made in U.S.A and the Chinese housing bubble. Saw a breathtaking sunset and ate escolar fillet, branzino, ceviche, and huge…

By: Kalin Nacheff

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Cycling from Marina Del Ray to Redondo – Food, Beaches, Houses, Sceneries – Video

PUBLIC RELEASE DATE:

6-Nov-2014

Contact: Kirsty Doole kirsty.doole@oup.com 01-865-355-439 Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is pleased to announce the launch of Regenerative Biomaterials (RB), published in association with the Chinese Society for Biomaterials (CSBM).

Prof. Xingdong Zhang, President of CSBM and Editor-in-Chief of RB, said: “We are very delighted that the Chinese Society for Biomaterials finally has an official, international journal, through the joint efforts of the Society and Oxford University Press. Biomaterials, the rapid-growing high-tech materials, are necessities to safeguard people’s health as pharmaceuticals do. While regenerative medicine has become a major component of modern medicine, biomaterials used for the regeneration and repair of tissues or organs have become a main direction for the development of the current biomaterials. Regenerative biomaterials, which could be interpreted as the biomaterials able to regenerate a living tissue or organ and thus permanently heal the damaged tissue or organ, are leading to a revolutionary change to contemporary biomaterials science and engineering and will promote the progress of modern medicine”.

Regenerative Biomaterials aims to provide a leading international forum for the publication of original research papers, reviews, clinical case reports, and commentaries on the topics relevant to the development of advanced regenerative biomaterials. The journal will cover novel regenerative technologies and therapeutic approaches for the regeneration and repair of damaged tissues and organs.

Kimi Zeng, Assistant Consultant, Oxford University Press, commented: “Oxford University Press aims to work with the highest quality China-based English journals, to help Chinese authors publish in international journals, and to disseminate the best scholarship to the widest possible audience. We are excited about this promising new journal and this partnership will continue to strengthen the excellent science publishing programme at OUP”.

RB gives preference to articles addressing biomaterials for communications among various disciplines involved with biomaterials, nanotechnologies, stem cell biology, regenerative medicine, and clinical medicine.

The journal will be officially launched in November 2014 and it will be open access online. Visit the website for more information, submission guidelines, and sign up to receive tables of contents by email or RSS: http://rb.oxfordjournals.org

###

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Oxford University Press launches new journal Regenerative Biomaterials

A powerful typhoon is expected to approach the Ogasawara and Izu islands south of Tokyo by Thursday night, the Meteorological Agency said Wednesday, with a throng of suspected Chinese coral poaching vessels spotted in waters off the Pacific islands.

Japanese officials remain vigilant against the ships, with Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga saying that Tokyo will not allow Chinese crew members to come ashore due to Typhoon Nuri.

The Japan Coast Guard has been urging Chinese fishing vessels near the Ogasawara Islands to stay away from the typhoons path, Suga said at a daily press conference.

Many of the ships that had swarmed off the remote islands began leaving the area in a southeasterly direction on Wednesday as Coast Guard patrol ships warned them to go south to get out of the typhoons path, according to the Coast Guard.

The Coast Guard will allow the vessels to be moored off the islands within Japanese territorial waters if they are likely to suffer physical damage from the typhoon. But even in such a case, it plans to inspect the vessels on the spot and monitor them so their crew members would not come ashore.

As of 6 p.m., the typhoon was heading north-northeast toward the Ogasawara and Izu islands with an atmospheric pressure of 955 hectopascals at its center and packing winds of up to 216 kph. It is expected to weaken to an extratropical depression off Japans eastern Pacific coast by Friday morning, according to the agency.

Japan has been boosting surveillance by dispatching patrol boats, planes and police officers, as more than 200 foreign ships were observed poaching precious red coral. Lawmakers from the Liberal Democratic Party drew up a resolution on Wednesday urging the government to take necessary steps, including lodging a strong protest with China.

We cannot help but feel outrage at the barbaric act of pulling out coral by the roots, said the resolution.

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Typhoon Nuri nears Ogasawara, Izu chains; government vigilant against alleged Chinese poaching ships

HONG KONG It was almost like stepping back in time. A quarter of a century after helping to lead the Tiananmen Square protestsin Beijing, Zhuo Fengsuo found himself back in a familiar situation Tuesday as he paid an emotional visit to Hong Kong’spro-democracy protests.

“The atmosphere feels very much like Tiananmen Square 25 years ago,” he said, talking amid the tents, umbrellas, artworkand banners that mark Hong Kong’s main protest site. “This feels like a carnival of freedom for Chinese people.”

One of the 21 most-wanted student leaders after the Tiananmen protests, Zhou was turned in by his own sister, spending a year in jailand another year in a re-education program, before immigrating to the United States and settling in San Francisco.

In June, he slipped back into China, visiting a detention center where several old friends and other activistswere being held, and even driving through Tiananmen Square on the eve of the 25th anniversary of the bloody crackdown onthe protests he helped lead.

Shortly afterward, police turned up at his hotel room and arrested him again. After about 16 hours of interrogation, hewas put on a plane back to the United States. But this week, he was back in China on a much happier mission, reliving memoriesthat had inspired his life. He said he was happy, excited and relieved that the ideals he struggled for remained alivein his country.

“I see the hope, I see the proof that the Chinese people love freedom, they enjoy it, they can talk, they can express themselvesfreely, truthfully and they can be really peaceful and powerful at the same time. That’s very similar,” he said. “To me, it’s like back to the future it’s coming back, but it is also the future of Hong Kong, the future of China.”

Zhou was a 21-year-old physics student at Beijing’s Tsinghua University before joining the Tiananmen protests. He ended up gettinga business degree in the United States and working in finance, before founding a group that works on behalf of Chinese politicalprisoners.

Zhou clearly feels a deep bond with Hong Kong, a city where about 100,000 people turned out this year as they do everyyear to commemorate the Tiananmen Square massacre, even though many of those who attended the annual rally were not even bornat the time.

“I am hopeful that the ideal here, what is unfolding here, will some day happen in China,” he said. “I am not sure when,but I know that what is happening here will be an important moment.” A future generation of Chinese people, he predicted,would one day look to Hong Kong “for ideas and inspiration.”

Zhou slipped into China this summer under a new scheme allowing for a 72-hour visa-free transit stay. It took more thana day for the authorities to realize he was there, even though he showed his passport at the detention center he visited.

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WorldViews: This feels like a carnival of freedom: 25 years later, a Tiananmen veteran visits Hong Kong



messin around in BTER Chinese Cryptocurrency Exchange October 2014
Recommended CryptoCoin Exchanges CHINA: BTer https://bter.com/ref/108587 USA: Cryptsy https://www.cryptsy.com/users/register?refid=64662 SWISS: SWISSCEX http…

By: CryptoMoneyExchange.org

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messin around in BTER Chinese Cryptocurrency Exchange October 2014 – Video



Rockminer New R-Box 100-140 Gh/s Bitcoin Miner Operational Guide (Chinese Language)
This video will teach you how to setup the Rockminer New R-Box. Everything you need to know. Language is in Chinese with English subtitles.

By: Eyeboot

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Rockminer New R-Box 100-140 Gh/s Bitcoin Miner Operational Guide (Chinese Language) – Video

Chinas appears to have made headway in the so-called reclamation of disputed areas in the South China Sea, a project to create new land masses using reefs in areas claimed by both Beijing and its neighbors. According to Taiwan and Hong Kong news sources, Chinas naval chief has been surveying islands located in disputed maritime territories, angering nations locked in territorial disputes with China such as the Philppines.

According to Taiwans Want China Times, which cited briefing given in Taipei by Lee Hsiang-chou, the director general of Taiwans National Security Bureau, Chinese admiral Wu Shengli, the commander of the Peoples Liberation Army Navy, completed a survey of five islands in the archipelago known as Spratly Islands. The Spratlys are claimed by multiple Southeast Asian countries, including the Philippines, Brunei and Malaysia. Lee called Wus visit to the islands unprecedented even for China, a nation that continues to assert claims in the area by setting up oil rigs, military outposts and other structures.

Hong Kong news source Takungpao wrote that Wu spent a week surveying the islands and reported that the approval for the mission came directly from Chinas President Xi Jinping. Chinas government has been actively developing its presence in the area. A BBC report in September revealed Chinas efforts in churning out island masses in the disputed waters with factory-like efficiency, turning many of the reefs in the area into new pieces of land to claim. Aerial photographs taken by the Philippine Navy show the massive amount of development that has been done since January, with millions of tons of rock and sand being dredged up from the seafloor. Chinas presence has made other countries in the area worried that new land masses could signal attempts at developing air bases and other military facilities.

During the briefing, Lee also reported that admiral Wu was also overseeing troop drills on a part of the Spratly archipelago the Chinese call Yongshu Island. Known by the Philippines as Fiery Cross Reef, the site is home to about 100 Chinese troops and is the countrys home base for their efforts in the area.

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Chinese Navy Chief Conducts 'Unprecedented' Survey Of Spratly Islands

Oct 132014

Bitcoin Group hopes to raise $20 million. Photo: Reuters

Melbourne-basedBitcoinGroup is hoping to list on the Australian Securities Exchange in November, making it one of the firstbitcoincompanies to float on an official stock exchange as governments across the world crack down on the largely unregulated digital currency sector.

BitcoinGroup, which currently manages an arbitrage fund, is hoping to raise $20 million at 20 a share from investors as part of its plan to morph the company into a consolidated payment network.

BitcoinGroup boss and founder Sam Lee currently manages a fund that capitalises onbitcoinmarket inefficiencies.

The company built an automated cyptocurrencytrading engine that moves money between majorbitcoinexchanges when prices deviate from the historical average, and has rewarded investors with 704 per cent gains since June 2013.

Advertisement

Twenty-six-year-old Mr Lee has netted the support of Chinese millionaire Allan Gao, who made his fortunes through manufacturing, supplying and fitting fire-safety equipment in China.

Mr Gao has funded the lion’s share of the company’s pre-initial public offering expenses, including legal and broking fees.

Bitcoin’s listing plans come at a critical time in the digital currency industry, as a Senate inquiry into the regulation ofbitcoinchaired by senator Sam Dastyari opens for submissions to develop a regulatory framework around the cryptocurrency.

Thebitcoinindustry is still seen as highly speculative and fraught with investor risk. The currency has soared as high as more than $US1000 a unit from less than $US1 just two years ago.

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Bitcoin hopeful eyes ASX listing



Bitcoin is still not dead — Facebook Payments? — Chinese Bitcoin Ebay — Russia Ban Again
Sponsored by http://CoinHD.com — Get paid in Bitcoin to watch Youtube Vids! Donate: https://blockchain.info/address/1LAYuQq6f11HccBgbe6bx8DiwKwzuYkPR3 Subscribe: http://patreon.com/madbitcoins…

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Bitcoin is still not dead — Facebook Payments? — Chinese Bitcoin Ebay — Russia Ban Again – Video

BERLIN (AP) German Chancellor Angela Merkel has called for free speech in Hong Kong to be protected and criticized the harsh sentence recently handed to a Chinese Muslim scholar.

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Merkel raises human rights ahead of China summit

For many analysts, the idea that one might link China and ethics in the same breath in talking of information freedom might seem strange. In cyberspace, it is a country known more for its i-dictatorship rather than its e-democracy.

Yet, as surely as China has moved from peoples communes in agriculture to private household production or from banning private property to embracing it, China is also well down the path toward information freedom.

It may yet have several very big obstacles to cross, not the least continued censorship and punishment for dissemination of politically unorthodox ideas. But China is on that path, even if it would be a brave person who might predict the arrival time for the journeys end. Will it be in this decade or the next one?

As long as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) remains in power, its default position would appear to be one of information dictatorship and continued suppression of ideas that challenge key CCP orthodoxies.

The degree and character of censorship has changed massively in the last three decades. In spite of this widespread liberalization, the CCP is not giving up easily on this last bastion of dictatorship the control of information. In fact, since Xi Jinping came to power in November 2012, the screws have been tightened further.

One of the best indicators of this has been the issue of regulations concerning re-registration of all journalists in China dependent on their familiarity with CCP ideology. The regulations on journalists couple with a prohibition on Chinese news outlets from carrying news items from any other media source, especially foreign ones, without special dispensation.

So what basis is there for any hope that the CCP might tear down the remaining obstacles to information freedom in this secret state? One answer lies in understanding the trajectory of Chinas innovation policy and the related policy of CCP control of education, especially the universities.

The countrys leaders have staked the future of the CCP on a promise of national resurgence and leadership in science and technology. The trajectory of innovation policy in China has been impressive, as have been the necessary enabling departures from Communist orthodoxy.

One of the most significant was official recognition beginning in the middle of the first decade of this century that the private sector, not the government, was the key to establishing a thriving national innovation system.

A second evolution was the recognition that such a system depends on a vibrant and creative relationship between university-based research and the private sector.

The rest is here:
Can China Innovate Without Freedom of Information?



Ai Weiwei a symbol of free speech in Hong Kong
Kristie Lu Stout speaks to Chinese artist and activist Ai Weiwei about the pro-democracy demonstrations in Hong Kong. More from CNN at To license this and other CNN/HLN. Kristie Lu Stout…

By: TheFlashNews7

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Ai Weiwei a symbol of free speech in Hong Kong – Video

BERKELEY

What if activists from the Free Speech Movement 50 years ago had been able to use Twitter? One could imagine the real-time alerts drawing an even bigger crowd faster as student Jack Weinberg was being arrested on Oct. 1, 1964, for setting up a table at Sproul Plaza despite the ban on on-campus political activities. And people near and far would have surely seen the videos recorded by smartphones, uploaded to YouTube and spread via Facebook of Mario Savio standing on top of a police car, calling on students to stand up for their First Amendment rights.

Kweku Opoku-Agyemang, a Development Impact Lab Postdoctoral Fellow at UC Berkeleys Blum Center for Developing Economies, explains how the use of mobile technology that automates survey-taking can help expand the political power of the general public in Ghana. (UC Berkeley video produced by Roxanne Makasdjian and Phil Ebiner)

The communication tools of today have changed social movements since the Free Speech Movement. Whether it is an online petition via Change.org or survey software that makes it easier for users to register their opinions for elected officials, more options are available for expressing views than ever before.

Reported efforts by Chinese officials to censor news of the current pro-democracy protests in Hong Kong by disrupting access to Instagram and removing references to the demonstrations illustrate the degree to which social media is seen as a threat.

How technology aids social change

Social media, purely as a logistical organizing mechanism, has transformed the ability of people to congregate and protest because of the speed and ease with which information is shared, said Camille Crittenden, director of the Data and Democracy Initiative at the Center for Information Technology Research in the Interest of Society (CITRIS). Compared with the 1960s, youre going to be able to organize more quickly, and youre going to be able to document the event more comprehensively.

Clay Shirky, professor of new media at New York University and author of Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing Without Organizations, wrote a 2011 policy paper in the magazine Foreign Affairs about the political power of social media. Shirky used as an example the 2001 impeachment trial of Philippine President Joseph Estrada for corruption. Less than two hours after news was announced that Estrada might escape punishment, text messages summoned thousands of Filipinos to gather in Manila.

Over the next several days, the crowd swelled to more than a million people. The publics ability to coordinate such a massive and rapid response close to 7 million text messages were sent that week so alarmed the countrys legislators that they reversed course and allowed damning evidence against Estrada to be presented, Shirky wrote. Within days, Estrada was ousted.

The event marked the first time that social media had helped force out a national leader, wrote Shirky.

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Cybertools offer new channels for free speech, but grassroots organizing still critical



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Pierre Teilhard De Chardin




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