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Libertarianism – RationalWiki

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Jun 202015
 

Libertarians secretly worried that ultimately someone will figure out the whole of their political philosophy boils down to ‘get off my property.’ News flash: This is not really a big secret to the rest of us.

Libertarianism is, at its simplest, the antonym of authoritarianism.[2] The term has been around since the beginning of the 20th century or earlier and was primarily used for self-identification with anarcho-syndicalism and labor movements. In the USA, the term was adopted by the Foundation for Economic Education think tank in the 1950’s[3] to describe a political and social philosophy that advocates laissez-faire capitalism as a panacea for virtually everything. Non-libertarians view this as synonymous with oligarchic plutocracy after the fashion of the American Gilded Age, while the reality-based community tends to realize that one cannot just yank economic theories out of the air and magically expect them to work.

This anti-government phenomenon is found primarily in the United States, likely due to Americans’ extensive experience with dysfunctional government, coupled with their unawareness of the existence of other countries. Historically, and almost everywhere other than America still today, the term has been associated with libertarian socialism and anarchism. The adoption of the libertarian label by advocates of free market economics is an ironic example of their tendency to take credit for other people’s ideas.

The US political party most aligned with libertarianism is the Libertarian Party, “America’s Third Largest Party,”[4] whose candidate obtained 1.3 million, or 0.99% of the popular vote in the 2012 Presidential election.[5] This, compared to 0.32% of the popular vote[6] in the 2004 Presidential election, was considered by many libertarians to be “an improvement.”

There is also an “Objectivist Party,” formed as a spin-off from the Libertarian Party by those who thought that the party’s 2008 presidential candidate, Bob Barr, was too left-wing,[7] and a Boston Tea Party (no connection other than ideological to that other tea party) formed as a spin-off by those who thought the Libertarian Party had become too right-wing on foreign policy and civil liberties after the LP deleted much of its platform in 2006.

Basically everyone agrees with libertarians on something, but they tend to get freaked out just as quickly by the ideologys other stances.

The dominant form of libertarianism (as found in the US) is an ideology based largely on Austrian school economics, which relies on axioms, rather than empirical analysis to inform economic and social policy. That said, the branch of libertarianism that has had the most success in influencing public policy is primarily informed by the Chicago school.

Proponents of libertarianism frequently cite the “Non-Aggression Principle” (NAP) as the moral basis of their ideology. The NAP states that everyone is free to do whatever they want with their lives and property, so long as it does not directly interfere with the freedom of others to do the same. Under this rule, you may only use “force” in response to prior inappropriate force against the life and/or property of yourself or others. Compare and contrast with John Stuart Mill’s “The Harm Principle.” The critical difference is that libertarians completely oppose the preemptive use of force. By contrast, Mill and other classical liberals believe that the preemptive use of force to prevent likely future harm can be justified. Under any logical scrutiny it becomes evident that the precise definition of aggression is highly subjective, supposes a strict libertarian view of property,[11] and hence the non-aggression principle can be used in almost any way its user intends, by changing the definition of aggression to suit their particular opinion/agenda. For example throwing someone in prison for massive tax evasion is seen as an act of aggression by the state, whereas selling someone cigarettes knowing they will kill them is not seen as aggression.

Libertarians frequently oppose taxation (as taxes are “theft of property by force”) for anything aside from a small wish list that libertarians like. The main exceptions are civil courts to handle contract disputes (including fraud) and to handle suits of harm (such as dumping of hazardous chemicals on your land; as opposed to dumping hazardous chemicals on public land, which isn’t an issue for libertarians, because every single person who doesn’t own the land and resources to allow for complete self-sufficiency deserves anything bad that happens to them), criminal courts, police, and an army. As one moves down the ideological spectrum towards the extremes, more and more things normally handled by the police and criminal courts are instead handled by civil courts, and eventually even the civil courts are privatized, i.e., anarcho-capitalism. Government, libertarians believe, is the biggest (and possibly the only) threat to freedom.

Specifically, libertarians are against the use of taxes to deal with externalities, commons, or free rider problems. The frequent answers to these problems involve the extensive use of civil suits to deal with (negative) externalities, and the privatization of all commons, which allows for civil suits to handle harms to this shared “private” property. Of course, these answers are woefully inadequate in practice.[12]

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Libertarianism – RationalWiki

Accepting Cryptocurrency Solves Common Transactions Problems for Merchants

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Apr 082015
 

Boston, MA (PRWEB) April 07, 2015

According to a new white paper published by New Hampshire-based e-commerce company Ziftr, merchants of all sizes can overcome common transaction problems by accepting cryptocurrency. These problems, which are often associated with credit card transactions, include:

Cryptocurrency is an emerging payment technology that benefits both consumers and merchants in many key ways, said Bob Wilkins, CEO of Ziftr. At Ziftr, were focused on bringing cryptocurrency into the mainstream with our cryptocurrency/credit card payment platform, ziftrPAY, and a suite of tools that integrate with ziftrPAY to provide the ideal shopping experience for consumers and increase profit margins for merchants.

Highlights from the Ziftr white paper:

To read the full Ziftr white paper, click here: http://bit.ly/Merchant-WP

Ziftr is currently onboarding ziftrPAY merchants, with the goal of reaching a critical mass in time for Black Friday/Cyber Monday 2015. Merchants that are interested in learning more about ziftrPAY can visit http://www.ziftrPAY.com for more information.

About Ziftr

Established in 2008 and based in Milford, New Hampshire, Ziftr is revolutionizing the online shopping experience by bringing cryptocurrency into the mainstream for both consumers and merchants. To accomplish this goal, Ziftr has developed the following tools and applications: ziftrCOIN, a digital coin that functions like a coupon; ziftrPAY, a one-stop cryptocurrency/credit card payment platform and customer loyalty program; ziftrWALLET, a multicoin digital wallet; and ziftrSHOP, a worldwide online marketplace where consumers will be able to conduct transactions using credit cards and cryptocurrency.

Ziftr is a product of myVBO, a full-service design, marketing and development company that helps businesses turn their ambitions into realities.

For more information about Ziftr, visit http://www.ziftr.com.

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Accepting Cryptocurrency Solves Common Transactions Problems for Merchants

Boston-based Liberty Mutual to bring 5,000 jobs to new campus in Dallas suburb of Plano

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Apr 082015
 

PLANO, Texas Liberty Mutual Insurance expects to have 5,000 employees working at its new campus in the Dallas suburb of Plano by the end of 2017.

The nation’s third-largest insurer told employees Tuesday about the new campus, the Dallas Morning News (http://bit.ly/1a2tPZr ) reported.

Liberty Mutual vice president John Cusolito said that while the company’s headquarters will stay in Boston, the new Plano campus will consolidate a variety of operations now located around the country.

“We are reviewing which nearby operations will bring the most sense to bring onto this campus,” he said.

The new campus will be built in the $2 billion Legacy West development, which is under construction. Toyota Motor Co. is building its new North American headquarters there, and FedEx Office is building its new national headquarters there as well. Between the three major companies, almost 12,000 jobs will be located in the area.

Along with the office space, the 240-acre Legacy West project includes hundreds of new apartments and homes, retail space, restaurants and a luxury hotel.

The first of FedEx’s workers will move into its new building later this year. Toyota will start occupying its campus, which is under construction, in 2017.

Liberty Mutual will begin moving workers in January to Plano, where it has rented temporary office space. The company has more than 50,000 employees and operations in 30 countries.

Along with its home office in Boston, Liberty Mutual also has a large concentration of between 4,000 and 5,000 employees at facilities in New Hampshire.

___

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Boston-based Liberty Mutual to bring 5,000 jobs to new campus in Dallas suburb of Plano

DevCore Boston 2015 l Bitcoin Law for Developers l James Gatto & Marco Santori, Pillsbury – Video

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Apr 022015
 



DevCore Boston 2015 l Bitcoin Law for Developers l James Gatto Marco Santori, Pillsbury
DevCore is a series of workshops set to host around the world for all developers interested in deepening their technical expertise to support the future development of Bitcoin Core. DevCore…

By: Bitcoin Foundation

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DevCore Boston 2015 l Bitcoin Law for Developers l James Gatto & Marco Santori, Pillsbury – Video

DevCore Boston 2015 l Open Discussion on R&D Goals & Challenges l Bitcoin Foundation – Video

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Apr 012015
 



DevCore Boston 2015 l Open Discussion on R D Goals Challenges l Bitcoin Foundation
DevCore is a series of workshops set to host around the world for all developers interested in deepening their technical expertise to support the future development of Bitcoin Core. DevCore…

By: Bitcoin Foundation

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DevCore Boston 2015 l Open Discussion on R&D Goals & Challenges l Bitcoin Foundation – Video

Secrets Section. Boston Shooting Grievous Headwound. Illuminati Freemason Symbolism. – Video

 Illuminati  Comments Off on Secrets Section. Boston Shooting Grievous Headwound. Illuminati Freemason Symbolism. – Video
Mar 292015
 



Secrets Section. Boston Shooting Grievous Headwound. Illuminati Freemason Symbolism.
http://news.yahoo.com/boston-cop-coma-since-being-shot-face-suspect-122447112.html An Investigative look into the Boston Shooting involving an officer being shot in the face. All symbolizing…

By: TheGroxt1

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Secrets Section. Boston Shooting Grievous Headwound. Illuminati Freemason Symbolism. – Video

DevCore Boston 2015 l Bitcoin + Stanards l C4 + Bitcoin Foundation – Video

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Mar 272015
 



DevCore Boston 2015 l Bitcoin + Stanards l C4 + Bitcoin Foundation
DevCore is a series of workshops set to host around the world for all developers interested in deepening their technical expertise to support the future development of Bitcoin Core. DevCore…

By: Bitcoin Foundation

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DevCore Boston 2015 l Bitcoin + Stanards l C4 + Bitcoin Foundation – Video

Finding my inner Bitcoin Prt.1 – Video

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Mar 272015
 



Finding my inner Bitcoin Prt.1
Finding my inner Bitcoin I took a trip to NY, NY from Boston, hoping to Find my inner Bitcoin. Go to my playlist “Finding my inner Bitcoin” to see all videos automatically.

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Finding my inner Bitcoin Prt.1 – Video

Ziftr Launches ziftrPAY, a Cryptocurrency Payment Platform and Customer Loyalty Program

 Cryptocurrency  Comments Off on Ziftr Launches ziftrPAY, a Cryptocurrency Payment Platform and Customer Loyalty Program
Mar 252015
 

Boston, MA (PRWEB) March 24, 2015

New Hampshire-based e-commerce company Ziftr today announced the launch of ziftrPAY, a one-stop cryptocurrency/credit card payment platform and customer loyalty program.

The benefits of ziftrPAY include the following:

As part of ziftrPAYs customer loyalty program, all merchants will receive free ziftrCOIN digital coupons to give to their shoppers to incentivize them to use cryptocurrency, a low-cost, low-risk alternative to credit cards. When spent within Ziftrs network of ziftrPAY merchants, each ziftrCOIN will have a minimum redemption value of $1.

ziftrPAY is more than just a payment platform, its also a customer loyalty program, said Bob Wilkins, CEO of Ziftr. The Ziftr team has been developing e-commerce products for over six years now, so we have a solid understanding of what merchants want and need. We know they need ways to incentivize customers and establish brand loyalty, and the ziftrCOIN digital coupons are there to help them do just that.

Along with the launch of the ziftrPAY website, Ziftr is working to onboard the first group of ziftrPAY merchants, with the goal of reaching a critical mass of ziftrPAY merchants in time for Black Friday/Cyber Monday 2015.

Ziftrs ultimate goal is to bring cryptocurrency into the mainstream by making it easy for consumers to spend and easy for merchants to accept. ziftrPAY is one component of this strategy, along with ziftrCOIN, ziftrWALLET, and ziftrSHOP.

Merchants that are interested in learning more about ziftrPAY can visit http://www.ziftrPAY.com for more information.

About Ziftr

Established in 2008 and based in Milford, New Hampshire, Ziftr is revolutionizing the online shopping experience by bringing cryptocurrency into the mainstream for both consumers and merchants. To accomplish this goal, Ziftr has developed the following tools and applications: ziftrCOIN, a digital coin that functions like a coupon; ziftrPAY, a one-stop cryptocurrency/credit card payment platform and customer loyalty program; ziftrWALLET, a multicoin digital wallet; and ziftrSHOP, a worldwide online marketplace where consumers will be able to conduct transactions using credit cards and cryptocurrency.

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Ziftr Launches ziftrPAY, a Cryptocurrency Payment Platform and Customer Loyalty Program

Supreme Court skeptical of specialty license plate case

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Mar 242015
 

The case marks the first time the justices will consider the First Amendment implications of the program, similar to other programs across the county, and whether the speech depicted on the plates is government speech or the speech of the driver.

In Texas, individuals can choose to have standard issue plates, or pay a fee and design a plate that is subject to the approval of the state. It can be rejected if state officials find it offensive.

READ: Supreme Court takes on specialty license plates

In court, Texas Solicitor General Scott A. Keller stressed the messages on the licenses plates constitute government speech. He said the state “etches its name onto each license plate” and that the law gives Texas the “sole control and final approval authority over everything that appears on a license plate.”

Mary-Rose Papandrea, a constitutional law professor at Boston College Law School, said that “in general the free speech clause of the First Amendment does not apply when the government is speaking.”

“The only check on what the government can say is the political process, ” she said.

But Keller ran into skeptical questions.

Chief Justice John Roberts, for example, expressed doubt that the license plate program constitutes government speech. He said there is no coherent government message but instead it seems like they are “only doing this to get the money.”

Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg pointed to one plate that says “Mighty fine Burgers”.

“Is it government speech to say ‘Mighty fine Burgers’ to advertise a product?” she asked.

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Supreme Court skeptical of specialty license plate case

Free Speech Outside the Abortion Clinic

 Free Speech  Comments Off on Free Speech Outside the Abortion Clinic
Mar 222015
 

The Supreme Court has given pro-life advocates free rein, even if it distresses patients. But getting people to listen is more complicated.

When Kelsey McLain, then a 25-year-old in the midst of the first trimester of her pregnancy, arrived at the abortion clinic closest to her home, her car couldnt get past the entrance of the parking lot. Protestors loomed toward the front of her vehicle. The group of 12 wielded signs covered in photos of aborted fetuses with the word murder printed across them in big block letters. McLains mother was behind the wheel, and with her foot on the brake, she gave the road blockers a choice of moving or getting run over.

The encounter didnt end after the protesters moved off to the side. As McLain got out of the car, louder shouts greeted her, accusing her of turning her back, of not wanting to know the truth. She felt growing anger but resisted the urge to lash out. She dashed inside the clinic, her mother close behind. It wasnt what I needed to deal with that day, McLain recalls.

In the clinics waiting room, McLain noticed that many of the patients seemed rattled. At that point, all they knew was that there were people outside and they were screaming at them. They didnt know their motivations or if they were good or bad people. As a woman with a self-proclaimed interest in reproductive rights, McLain had thought she was prepared for what she was going to face when she arrived at the clinic. But she, too, felt jarred. Protesters are always going to be a scary thing, no matter how much knowledge you have about them, she says.

Today, McLain witnesses pro-life activism on a weekly basis, when she volunteers as a clinic escort. Her role is to offer patients moral and physical support as they make their way past protestors, some of them quietly praying, others approaching the women with an intensity that that borders on harassment. She says protesters are quick to remind escorts and clinic staff that theyre legally entitled to be there. They comment to us that they have great lawyers, and they know their rights, and if we ever violate their right to free speech, theyll sue us, she says.

In June 2014, the Supreme Court unanimously struck down a Massachusetts law forbidding protesters from standing within 35 feet of the entrance to a reproductive health care facility. After that decision came down, the demand for escorts like McLain sharply increased, says Marty Walz, the recently retired CEO of the Planned Parenthood League of Massachusetts. The protesters definitely have greater access to our patients, right up to the front door, Walz says. And they take advantage of it. When the buffer zone was in place, the Boston clinic used escorts only on Friday and Saturdayits busiest days. Now, every day, a swarm of people descends on the building. Along with the patients, the protesterswho now number anywhere from 20 to 80 each day and the pedestrians, there are 20 to 30 additional escorts at the Boston clinic.

This growing horde of people has made the atmosphere outside the clinic tenser, more chaotic, and in general, a lot less comfortable for the patients, says Sarah Cyr-Mutty, the community relations coordinator at the Boston clinic and a regular clinic escort. No one wants to drive up to their doctors office and see over 100 people standing outside.

The activists are now able to walk right up to patientspraying, pleading, and handing out flyers. They can follow women up to the clinics doors, which means that once the patients are in the waiting room, they can still hear the chants from outside. As such, Cyr-Mutty says that the patients she escorts through the clinics doors now are often in need of more consoling than they were before the Courts decision. Whether theyre just a presence outside, or theyre really trying to interact with them, its always really upsetting to the patient.

But apart from the commotion, its not clear how much has changed since the Supreme Courts ruling in McCullen v. Coakley nine months ago. Theres no evidence that activists are succeeding in changing womens minds. What is succeeding is the one thing the Supreme Court intended: People who believe abortion is murder are able to share that message with those who least want to hear it.

It is no accident that public streets and sidewalks have developed as venues for the exchange of ideas, wrote Chief Justice John Roberts in the Courts opinion. Even today, they remain one of the few places where a speaker can be confident that he is not simply preaching to the choir. With respect to other means of communication, an individual confronted with an uncomfortable message can always turn the page, change the channel, or leave the Web site. Not so on public streets and sidewalks.

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Free Speech Outside the Abortion Clinic

Sons of liberty Ending | Declaration Of Independence Scene | 1080p 60fps – Video

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Mar 152015
 



Sons of liberty Ending | Declaration Of Independence Scene | 1080p 60fps
Sons of Liberty is a three-part American television miniseries dramatizing the early American Revolution events in Boston, Massachusetts, the start of the Revolutionary War, and the negotiations…

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Sons of liberty Ending | Declaration Of Independence Scene | 1080p 60fps – Video

DevCore Boston 2015 l What Satoshi Didn’t Know l Gavin Andresen, Bitcoin Foundation – Video

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Mar 132015
 



DevCore Boston 2015 l What Satoshi Didn't Know l Gavin Andresen, Bitcoin Foundation
DevCore is a series of workshops set to host around the world for all developers interested in deepening their technical expertise to support the future dev…

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DevCore Boston 2015 l What Satoshi Didn’t Know l Gavin Andresen, Bitcoin Foundation – Video

The Sun wins 10 awards in NENPA contest

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Feb 232015
 

BOSTON — The Sun and its staff were honored with 10 awards, including four first-place awards, by the New England Newspaper and Press Association on Saturday night.

The awards were presented at the annual NENPA banquet at the Boston Seaport Hotel.

Judges from across the country pored over more than 3,000 entries in the New England Better Newspaper Contest, the region’s largest writing, photography and multimedia contest. The Sun is in the highly competitive class of newspapers with a circulation of 30,000 or more.

The award winners are:

* Business/Economic Reporting, first place: Grant Welker, for his continuing coverage of the Market Basket family feud.

* Spot News Story, first place: Given to John Collins, Hiroko Sato, former staffers Lyle Moran and Rick Sobey, and summer intern Andy Mal, for their coverage of a July fire on Branch Street in Lowell that killed seven people.

* Right to know, first place: For a series of stories and editorials on the public’s right to know and First Amendment issues. The Sun’s entry included coverage of the Brame case, a fatal accident involving a Westford police officer, a secret payment given to a retiring Westford fire chief, and both stories and editorials about government limiting access to public meetings and records.

* Humor Columnist, first place: Given to Dan Phelps, for columns on Nashua schools banning tag and on the Dracut political scene.

* Crime and Courts Reporting, second place: Enterprise Editor Christopher Scott, reporters Rob Mills, Grant Welker and Lisa Redmond, and Moran, for wall-to-wall coverage of the death of Alyssa Brame in a Lowell cellblock.

* Editorial Writing, second place: Sun Editor Jim Campanini

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The Sun wins 10 awards in NENPA contest

Reddit exodus illustrates state of free speech online

 Free Speech  Comments Off on Reddit exodus illustrates state of free speech online
Feb 192015
 

WASHINGTON POST

Some users are finding fault with Reddits failure to protect absolute free speech.

Reddit, the long-time haven of weirdos, perverts and miscreants the internet over, has been, from its beginning, the mainstream bulwark for free speech online.

A beginner’s guide to Reddit

Reddit’s opinionated audience grows

But in a strange twist that perfectly illustrates the current culturewide debate around online speech, a group of disgruntled users have begun an exodus off the site – claiming, against all odds, that Reddit is censoring them as a matter of corporate policy.

This is, for the record, the same Reddit that defended Violentacrez, the Texas man who ran forums on beating women and sexualising underage girls. The Reddit that allowed rampant speculation about the Boston bombing, even when it became dangerous. The Reddit that, just this past fall, supported a booming trade in stolen celebrity nude photos, and still, even now, hosts a variety of racist, misogynistic, homophobic and otherwise “NSFL” content that I dare not link to from here.

If this isn’t enough free speech, what is?

To understand that question (let alone the answer to it), you have to start with a working knowledge of Reddit’s labyrinthine depths. The site is, for the uninitiated, basically a social news service divided into tens of thousands of themed forums, called subreddits. Users submit links, photos and in-jokes to the forums, which are voted up or down by other users. The forums themselves are run by volunteer moderators, or mods, who can basically make and enforce rules as they see fit. In general, corporate Reddit – Advance Media-owned Reddit, US$50-million-funding-round Reddit, only-35-employees Reddit – doesn’t step in unless the company is at risk of being sued.

The core philosophy, co-founder Alexis Ohanian explained in a book on Reddit’s early days, was “giving the people what they want.” Whatever they want. Accordingly, each forum looks a little different. In r/aww – one of my personal favourites – mods ban slurs, harassing comments and anything “sad.” In r/thefappening, where users shared the celebrity nudes that ruled September’s news cycle, slurs and harassing comments were basically the norm. (And that was, on its own, pretty sad.)

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Reddit exodus illustrates state of free speech online

Liberty Mutual eyes Texas hub

 Liberty  Comments Off on Liberty Mutual eyes Texas hub
Feb 102015
 

Boston-based Liberty Mutual, which is reportedly looking at building a new hub for 4,000 employees in Texas, says it has no plans to relocate its Bay State staffers.

News outlets in Texas began reporting last week that the insurance giant has its sights set on building a large office complex in Plano, the same Dallas metro area where Toyota recently moved its headquarters and State Farm built an office campus. The Dallas Morning News reported Liberty Mutuals Plano development would consolidate operations from multiple locations.

But the insurance giant yesterday denied that its moving its local staffers elsewhere.

Boston is where we began over 100 years ago and today is headquarters for our operations in 30 countries around the world, spokesman John Cusolito said. We are pleased to call Boston our home and will continue to grow our workforce in the city and throughout the commonwealth.

Liberty Mutual expanded its home office campus in the Back Bay two years ago by adding a new 22-story, $300 million office buil-ding. The company has multimillion-dollar tax credit agreements in place with both the state and city to maintain a certain number of jobs here.

In 2010, the state granted Liberty Mutual a $22.5 million investment tax credit in exchange for expanding its Massachusetts workforce from 2,438 to 3,038 employees. And the city gave the company a $24 million tax break in exchange for a commitment to create at least 600 new jobs over 20 years.

Greg Biggs, managing director of prominent Texas commercial real estate firm JLL, told the Herald, The market rumor is that they are looking to put a large commitment here. Its a very entrepreneurial environment and community here. Businesses come here and they feel like theyre wanted by the community and by the municipalities.

Liberty Mutual has more than 5,100 employees in Massachusetts, with 2,500 in its Boston offices. The company employs more than 45,000 people in more than 900 offices worldwide.

As a Fortune 100 company, Liberty routinely reviews our office locations and operations to ensure that we are best positioned to meet the needs of our customers and our employees, Cusolito said.

A spokeswoman for Mayor Martin J. Walsh said he hasnt heard Liberty Mutual is downsizing in Boston and would be shocked if that were the case.

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Liberty Mutual eyes Texas hub

Illuminati (Buch) Wikipedia

 Illuminati  Comments Off on Illuminati (Buch) Wikipedia
Feb 072015
 

Illuminati (Buch) Autor Dan Brown Sprache Deutsch Genre Thriller Serie Robert Langdon (Nr. 1) Originaltitel Angels & Demons Verlag Bastei Lbbe Datum der Verffentlichung Mrz 2003 Medientyp Hardcover, Taschenbuch, E-Book, Hrbuch Seiten 736 Seiten ISBN 3-404-14866-5

Illuminati ist der deutsche Titel eines im Mrz 2003 erschienenen Thrillers von Dan Brown (englischer Originaltitel: Angels & Demons, 2000) mit einer weltweiten Auflage von acht Millionen Exemplaren.

Die Handlung dreht sich um einen angeblichen Versuch des Illuminatenordens, eines laut dem Roman seit Jahrhunderten bis heute bestehenden Geheimbundes, die katholische Kirche zu zerstren. Das tatschliche Motiv ist jedoch die ideologische Annherung der katholischen Kirche an die Wissenschaft durch den verstorbenen Papst. Ferner geht es um Verschwrung, Verrat, das Konklave und die bis jetzt noch erhaltenen Regeln des Vatikans. Die Handlung spielt in der Gegenwart an einem einzigen Tag. Orte der Handlung sind Boston, die Schweiz (Forschungsinstitut CERN), Italien (Rom) und vor allem die Vatikanstadt.

In erster Linie geht es um die Beziehung zwischen Wissenschaft und Religion, die als schon seit Urzeiten verfeindet dargestellt werden. Zwar habe es schon immer Menschen gegeben, die beide vereinen wollten, doch die Kluft sei zu tief gewesen. Brown argumentiert durch seine Hauptfiguren, beide knnten und sollten miteinander in Frieden existieren.

Der ber 700 Seiten umfassende Roman weist einen langgezogenen Spannungsbogen auf. Er beruht vor allem darauf, dass ein Auftragsmrder aktiv ist und der Vatikan durch eine angekndigte Explosion zerstrt werden soll. Die Erzhlperspektive ist die der Dritten Person (Auktoriale Erzhlsituation).

Der Physiker und ehemalige Theologe Leonardo Vetra wird ermordet in seinem Bro im CERN aufgefunden. Sein Kopf ist nach hinten verdreht und ein Auge fehlt. Auf seiner Brust ist ein Ambigramm mit der Aufschrift Illuminati eingebrannt. Maximilian Kohler, der Generaldirektor des CERN, lsst daraufhin Robert Langdon, einen Symbolologen der Universitt Harvard, einfliegen und kurze Zeit spter trifft auch Vetras Adoptivtochter Vittoria ein, die als Physikerin und Meeresbiologin ebenfalls im CERN beschftigt ist. Sie erklrt den Herren, dass ihr Vater, der die Vereinigung von Religion und Wissenschaft anstrebte, Antimaterie schuf und so im Teilchenbeschleuniger den Urknall in kleinerem Ausma nachbildete. Auf Vittorias Wunsch hatten Vater und Tochter gemeinsam ein Viertelgramm der Antimaterie hergestellt, die beim Kontakt mit Materie alles im Umkreis von rund einem Kilometer vernichten wrde. Im unterirdischen Labor stellt Vittoria schockiert fest, dass die Illuminati mit Leonardos Auge den Retina-Scanner berwunden und den Behlter mit der Antimaterie gestohlen haben, dessen Magnetfeld nur fr 24 Stunden mit Energie versorgt wird.

Als das CERN die Nachricht erhlt, dass die Illuminati durch Infiltration im Vatikan eingedrungen und die Antimaterie versteckt haben, fliegen Langdon und Vittoria nach Rom. Nun wird deutlich, welche Ausmae die drohende Explosion htte. Die Illuminati wrden mit dem Hauptsitz der katholischen Kirche nicht nur ihren Erzfeind vernichten, sondern auch alle Kardinle, die sich gerade zum Konklave in der Sixtinischen Kapelle versammeln. Nachdem die beiden Wissenschaftler Oberst Olivetti, den Kommandanten der Schweizergarde, und den Camerlengo Carlo Ventresca ber die Gefahr aufgeklrt haben, meldet sich ein Assassine, der im Auftrag der Illuminati die vier Favoriten der Papstwahl (i preferiti) entfhrt hat. Ab 20 Uhr soll zu jeder vollen Stunde einer der vier Kardinle irgendwo in Rom auf einem Altar der Wissenschaft ermordet werden. Zustzlich nimmt der Assassine Kontakt mit dem BBC-Reporter Gunther Glick auf, um die Medien als rechten Arm des Terrorismus zu benutzen.

In Galileo Galileis Werk Diagramma della Verit, das im vatikanischen Geheimarchiv liegt, finden Langdon und Vittoria die ersten Hinweise auf den Pfad der Erleuchtung, der ber die vier Elemente zum geheimen Versammlungsort der Illuminati fhren soll. Langdon vermutet Santis irdnes Grab zunchst im Pantheon, doch gemeint ist ein Grab, das vom Baumeister Raffael geschaffen wurde. Es befindet sich in der Chigi-Kapelle in der Kirche Santa Maria del Popolo. Wegen des Irrtums kommen Langdon und Vittoria ebenso wie Olivettis Schweizergarde zu spt. Kardinal Ebner aus Frankfurt wurde bereits mit Erde erstickt und trgt das Brandzeichen EARTH. Mittlerweile hat auch Glick zusammen mit seiner Videografin erkannt, dass es Interessanteres zu berichten gibt als das Konklave. Die in der Chigi-Kapelle aufgestellte Skulptur Habakuk und der Engel verweist auf den nchsten Schauplatz der Mordserie.

Auf dem Petersplatz dient die Plakette West Ponente neben dem Obelisken als Verbindung zum Element Luft. Dort legt der Assassine den Kardinal Lamass aus Paris mit zerstochenen Lungen und dem Brandmal AIR ab. Langdon und Vittoria konnten den Mord wieder nicht verhindern und werden von der BBC gefilmt. Nun berichten weltweit alle Medien ber die Unruhen im Vatikan und verbreiten das Gercht, dass der verstorbene Papst mit Heparin vergiftet wurde. Vittoria untersucht zusammen mit dem Camerlengo, der vom Heiligen Vater aufgezogen wurde, den Leichnam, dessen schwarze Zunge den Mord besttigt. Langdon findet gleichzeitig mit einer Liste von Berninis Werken heraus, dass die Verzckung der Heiligen Theresa der nchste Wegweiser ist.

Als Langdon und Vittoria in der Kirche Santa Maria della Vittoria ankommen, hat der Assassine dort bereits ein groes Feuer entzndet, ber dem Kardinal Guidera aus Barcelona an Ketten hngt und bei lebendigem Leib verbrennt. Auf seiner Brust prangt das Mal FIRE. Als Vittoria den ebenfalls ermordeten Oberst Olivetti entdeckt, wird sie vom Assassinen entfhrt. Langdon gert unter einen steinernen Sarkophag, aus dem ihn die Feuerwehr rettet. In der Zwischenzeit hat der Camerlengo das Konklave unterbrochen, um sich mit einer emotionalen Ansprache an die Medien zu wenden, in der er den Erfolg der Wissenschaft als Pyrrhussieg darstellt, bei dem die Menschen die religise Orientierung verloren haben.

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Illuminati (Buch) Wikipedia

07 Small Victories – Sons of Liberty – Hans Zimmer & Lorne Balfe – Video

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07 Small Victories – Sons of Liberty – Hans Zimmer Lorne Balfe
Sons of Liberty is a three-part American television miniseries dramatizing the early American Revolution events in Boston, Massachusetts, the start of the Revolutionary War, and the negotiations…

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Steven Pinker’s "Why free speech is fundamental" – Video

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Steven Pinker's “Why free speech is fundamental”
First published as an editorial in the Boston Globe, January 27th, 2015. Author is Harvard Professor and award winning writer, Steven Pinker. http://www.bostonglobe.com/ http://stevenpinker.com…

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Steven Pinker’s "Why free speech is fundamental" – Video




Pierre Teilhard De Chardin | Designer Children | Prometheism | Euvolution | Transhumanism