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Jeremy Benthams Attack on Natural Rights | Libertarianism.org

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Jul 222015
 

June 26, 2012 essays

Smith discusses the utilitarianism of Jeremy Bentham and why it so alarmed the defenders of natural rights.

In my last four essays, I discussed the ideas of Thomas Hodgskin. No discussion of Hodgskin would be complete without considering his great classic, The Natural and Artificial Right of Property Contrasted (1832). But in order to understand and appreciate this book, we need to know something about the doctrine that Hodgskin was criticizing, namely, the utilitarianism of Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832). I shall therefore devote this essay to Bentham and then resume my discussion of Hodgskin in the next essay.

Natural-rights theory was the revolutionary doctrine of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, being used to justify resistance to unjust laws and revolution against tyrannical governments. This was the main reason why Edmund Burke attacked natural rightsor abstract rights, as he called themso vehemently in his famous polemic against the French Revolution, Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790). Burke later condemned the French Constitution of 1791, which exhibited a strong American influence, as a digest of anarchy.

Similarly, Jeremy Bentham, in his criticism of the French Declaration of Rights (1789), called natural rights anarchical fallacies, because (like Burke) he believed that no government can possibly meet the standards demanded by the doctrine of natural rights. Earlier, a liberal critic of the American Revolution, the English clergyman Josiah Tucker, had argued that the Lockean system of natural rights is an universal demolisher of all governments, but not the builder of any.

The fear that defenders of natural rights would foment a revolution in Britain, just as they had in America and France, alarmed British rulers, causing them to institute repressive measures. It is therefore hardly surprising that natural-rights theory went underground, so to speak, during the long war with France. Even after peace returned in 1815 a cloud of suspicion hung over this way of thinking. Natural rights were commonly associated with the French Jacobins Robespierre and others who had instigated the Reign of Terror so a defender of natural rights ran the risk of being condemned as a French sympathizer, a Jacobin, or (worst of all) an anarchist.

Thus did British liberalism don a new face after 1815, as an atmosphere of peace resuscitated the movement for political and economic reforms, and as many middle-class liberals embraced a non-revolutionary foundation for economic and civil liberties. The premier theory in this regard, which would become known as utilitarianism, was developed by Jeremy Bentham and popularized by his Scottish protg James Mill (the father of John Stuart Mill) and by many other disciples.

Bentham did not originate the utilitarian principle of the greatest happiness for the greatest number; we find similar expressions in a number of eighteenth-century philosophers, such as Hutcheson, Helvetius and Beccaria. For our purpose, the most significant feature of Benthams utilitarianism was its unequivocal rejection of natural rights.

Natural rights, according to Bentham, are simple nonsense: natural and imprescriptible rights, rhetorical nonsense, nonsense upon stilts So-called moral and natural rights are mischievous fictions and anarchical fallacies that encourage civil unrest, disobedience and resistance to laws, and revolution against established governments. Only political rights, those positive rights established and enforced by government, have any determinate and intelligible meaning. Rights are the fruits of the law, and of the law alone. There are no rights without lawno rights contrary to the lawno rights anterior to the law.

The significance of Bentham does not lie in his advocacy of social utility, or the general welfare, or the common goodfor this idea, by whatever name it was called, was regarded by many earlier classical liberals as the purpose of legislation, in contradistinction to its standard.

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Jeremy Benthams Attack on Natural Rights | Libertarianism.org

Libertarianism in the United States – Wikipedia, the free …

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Jun 202015
 

Libertarianism in the United States is a movement promoting individual liberty and minimized government.[1][2] The Libertarian Party, asserts the following to be core beliefs of libertarianism:

Libertarians support maximum liberty in both personal and economic matters. They advocate a much smaller government; one that is limited to protecting individuals from coercion and violence. Libertarians tend to embrace individual responsibility, oppose government bureaucracy and taxes, promote private charity, tolerate diverse lifestyles, support the free market, and defend civil liberties.[3][4]

Through 20 polls on this topic spanning 13 years, Gallup found that voters who are libertarian on the political spectrum ranged from 17%- 23% of the US electorate.[5] This includes members of the Republican Party (especially Libertarian Republicans), Democratic Party, Libertarian Party, and Independents.

In the 1950s many with classical liberal beliefs in the United States began to describe themselves as “libertarian.”[6] Academics as well as proponents of the free market perspectives note that free-market libertarianism has spread beyond the U.S. since the 1970s via think tanks and political parties[7][8] and that libertarianism is increasingly viewed worldwide as a free market position.[9][10] However, libertarian socialist intellectuals Noam Chomsky, Colin Ward, and others argue that the term “libertarianism” is considered a synonym for social anarchism by the international community and that the United States is unique in widely associating it with free market ideology.[11][12][13]

Arizona United States Senator Barry Goldwater’s libertarian-oriented challenge to authority had a major impact on the libertarian movement,[14] through his book The Conscience of a Conservative and his run for president in 1964.[15] Goldwater’s speech writer, Karl Hess, became a leading libertarian writer and activist.[16]

The Vietnam War split the uneasy alliance between growing numbers of self-identified libertarians, anarchist libertarians, and more traditional conservatives who believed in limiting liberty to uphold moral virtues. Libertarians opposed to the war joined the draft resistance and peace movements and organizations such as Students for a Democratic Society. They began founding their own publications, like Murray Rothbard’s The Libertarian Forum[17][18] and organizations like the Radical Libertarian Alliance.[19]

The split was aggravated at the 1969 Young Americans for Freedom convention, when more than 300 libertarians organized to take control of the organization from conservatives. The burning of a draft card in protest to a conservative proposal against draft resistance sparked physical confrontations among convention attendees, a walkout by a large number of libertarians, the creation of libertarian organizations like the Society for Individual Liberty, and efforts to recruit potential libertarians from conservative organizations.[20] The split was finalized in 1971 when conservative leader William F. Buckley, Jr., in a 1971 New York Times article, attempted to divorce libertarianism from the freedom movement. He wrote: “The ideological licentiousness that rages through America today makes anarchy attractive to the simple-minded. Even to the ingeniously simple-minded.”[21]

In 1971, David Nolan and a few friends formed the Libertarian Party.[22] Attracting former Democrats, Republicans and independents, it has run a presidential candidate every election year since 1972. Over the years, dozens of libertarian political parties have been formed worldwide. Educational organizations like the Center for Libertarian Studies and the Cato Institute were formed in the 1970s, and others have been created since then.[23]

Philosophical libertarianism gained a significant measure of recognition in academia with the publication of Harvard University professor Robert Nozick’s Anarchy, State, and Utopia in 1974. The book won a National Book Award in 1975.[24] According to libertarian essayist Roy Childs, “Nozick’s Anarchy, State, and Utopia single-handedly established the legitimacy of libertarianism as a political theory in the world of academia.”[25]

Texas congressman Ron Paul’s 2008 and 2012 campaigns for the Republican Party presidential nomination were largely libertarian. Paul is affiliated with the libertarian-leaning Republican Liberty Caucus and founded the Campaign for Liberty, a libertarian-leaning membership and lobbying organization.

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Libertarianism in the United States – Wikipedia, the free …

Download Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine in Ophthalmology PDF – Video

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Apr 132015
 



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The Libertarian Mind: A Manifesto for Freedom

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Apr 132015
 

Libertarianism the philosophy of personal and economic freedom has deep roots in Western civilization and in American history, and its growing stronger. Two long wars, chronic deficits, the financial crisis, the costly drug war, the campaigns of Ron Paul and Rand Paul, the growth of executive power under Presidents Bush and Obama, and the revelations about NSA abuses have pushed millions more Americans in a libertarian direction. The Libertarian Mind, by David Boaz, the longtime executive vice president of the Cato Institute, is the best available guide to the history, ideas, and growth of this increasingly important political movement.

Boaz has updated the book with new information on the threat of government surveillance; the policies that led up to and stemmed from the 2008 financial crisis; corruption in Washington; and the unsustainable welfare state. The Libertarian Mind is the ultimate resource for the current, burgeoning libertarian movement.

He is a provocative commentator and a leading authority on domestic issues such as education choice, drug legalization, the growth of government, and the rise of libertarianism. Boaz is the former editor of New Guard magazine and was executive director of the Council for a Competitive Economy prior to joining Cato in 1981. The earlier edition of The Libertarian Mind, titled Libertarianism: A Primer, was described by the Los Angeles Times as a well-researched manifesto of libertarian ideas. His other books include The Politics of Freedom and the Cato Handbook for Policymakers.

His articles have been published in the Wall Street Journal, the New York Times, the Washington Post, the Los Angeles Times, National Review, and Slate, and he wrote the entry on libertarianism at the Encyclopedia Britannica. He is a frequent guest on national television and radio shows, and has appeared on ABCs Politically Incorrect with Bill Maher, CNNs Crossfire, NPRs Talk of the Nation and All Things Considered, The McLaughlin Group, Stossel, The Independents, Fox News Channel, BBC, Voice of America, Radio Free Europe, and other media.

Virginia: April 16 Hampden-Sydney College: The Libertarian Mind with Author David Boaz April 18 Young Americans for Liberty state convention, Blacksburg: http://www.yaliberty.org/convention/state/2015/va

Texas: April 22 Southern Methodist University: http://oneil.cox.smu.edu/events April 22 Americas Future Foundation, Dallas, TX: https://www.facebook.com/events/433923173452893/

Missouri April 30 St. Louis http://www.cato.org/events/cato-institute-policy-forum-st-louis-april July 7 or 8 Kansas City Public Library

Nevada July 8-11 FreedomFest, Las Vegas

Washington D.C. July 26 31 Washington D.C. Cato University http://www.cato.org/cato-university/2015

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The Libertarian Mind: A Manifesto for Freedom

Download Analytical Use of Fluorescent Probes in Oncology Nato Science Series A PDF – Video

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Apr 112015
 



Download Analytical Use of Fluorescent Probes in Oncology Nato Science Series A PDF
Browse And Download This Book now. Download now at- http://bit.ly/1JoYLzT and Registration First.

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Officer Denies First Amendment Rights – Video

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Apr 112015
 



Officer Denies First Amendment Rights
What the hell is the difference, it matters not what I give for a description, I will still be called every name in the book for posting this video. Hey, I have an idea, you all go to hell…

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Synopsis | Tax Havens And Offshore Finance By Richard Anthony Johns – Video

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Apr 032015
 



Synopsis | Tax Havens And Offshore Finance By Richard Anthony Johns
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Another SEO book by David Amerland? – Video

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Apr 022015
 



Another SEO book by David Amerland?
Yes – Another book by +David Amerland!* I just got a word of another book David's about to release. Apparently it's an alternate version of his last book, version that hasn't hit the shelves…

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Another SEO book by David Amerland? – Video

Rahman holds up Rosmah as example of free speech

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Mar 282015
 

Umno minister ignores Zunar harrassment, but cites Perkasa and Isma for ‘high blood pressure’

KUALA LUMPUR: Ignoring police actions against cartoonist Zunar, an Umno minister has held up criticism of Rosmah Mansor, the prime ministers wife, as an example of how free speech was existent in Malaysia.

Speaking at a students conference today, Abdul Rahman Dahlan said: What (is it that) you want to talk about that you cant? You want to talk about government inefficiency, corruption, scandals? You can talk about almost anything in this country, Malaysiakini reported.

In this day and age, everyone can talk, he was quoted as saying. You can even talk about the wife of the prime minister, and Rosmah has not done anything to you (in retaliation).

However, Abdul Rahman, who is housing minister, did not mention the series of police actions and frequent harrassment of political cartoonist Zunar (Zulkiflee Anwar Ulhaque), who has been one of Rosmahs most prominent critics and whose cartoon books frequently focus on Rosmah and Najib, linking them to political scandals and financial mismanagement.

In January, police seized more than 150 copies of a cartoon collection in a raid on his offices. In earlier raids, police seized more than 500 copies of his books in an action that also included bookshop raids across the country. He has also been arrested under the Sedition Act. Early this month police seized copies of his latest cartoon collection while they were being delivered to the book launch.

While also ignoring other police actions against free speech, such as arrests of activists ordered by the Inspector-General of Police based on remarks made on Twitter, Abdul Rahman also made a sarcastic response to the statements of Malay and Islamist rights pressure groups Isma and Perkasa.

He said: I think I will have high blood pressure if I think about Perkasa and Isma all the time.

Abdul Rahman then praised the prime minister, Najib Razak, and advised the students at the conference: I always believe the person you should listen to and take heed of is the prime minister himself. Nothing else matters.

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Rahman holds up Rosmah as example of free speech

Synopsis | Our Arctic Province: Alaska And The Seal Islands – Video

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Mar 192015
 



Synopsis | Our Arctic Province: Alaska And The Seal Islands
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Synopsis | Travels On The Continent, Sicily, And The Lipari Islands (1829) – Video

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Mar 142015
 



Synopsis | Travels On The Continent, Sicily, And The Lipari Islands (1829)
THE SYNOPSIS OF YOUR FAVORITE BOOK =— Where to buy this book? ISBN: 9781104513382 Book Synopsis of Travels on the Continent, Sicily, and the Lipari Islands (1829) by Richard Duppa…

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Synopsis | Brandishing The First Amendment: Commercial Expression In America – Video

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Mar 142015
 



Synopsis | Brandishing The First Amendment: Commercial Expression In America
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Why science denial is about much more than corporate interests

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Mar 142015
 

Its not An Inconvenient Truth yet. But for a movie focused on climate change, Sony Pictures Classics Merchants of Doubt based on the widely read book of the same name by historians Naomi Oreskes and Erik Conway, and directed by Robert Kenner (Food, Inc.) is already generating a huge volume of discussion. It seems poised to become a must-watch film in the climate debate.

The film, which opens today in Washington, D.C., explores along history of challenges tothe science behind a variety of environmental and public health risks. Smoking. CFCs. Acid rain. Climate change. In many cases, these challenges were linked to corporate interests thus the tobacco industry, for many years, questionedthe emerging science of smokings risks.

Merchants of Doubtis certainly landing in the right news cycle. It comes out in the wake of reports includingby The Washington Post about energyinterests funding of climate skeptic researcher Willie Soon, of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. In a statementposted on the Web site of the Heartland Institute, a conservative think tank, Soon responded thathe had been the subject of attacks in the media, but acknowledged that his research had been partly supported by some energy producers something he said had long been a matter of public record. Soon added that in submitting my academic writings I have always complied with what I understood to be disclosure practices in my field generally, consistent with the level of disclosure made by many of my Smithsonian colleagues.

It all plays into a common narrative: That industry doesnt want government regulations, so it tries tocast doubt on the science behind them. Many of those who go to see Merchants of Doubt will, I suspect, go with such a narrative in their minds.

But the film itself presents a more complex picture. True, Merchants of Doubt focuses a great deal on the role of industry in supporting scientific argumentsthat are consistent with less regulation. But it alsoshows that denial of science on issues like climate change is about much more than that. Its aboutcertain deep seated beliefs and ideologies particularly those championing the free market and individual liberty (which we tend to call libertarianism).

None of this is about the science, says Oreskes, a Harvard historian and co-author of the book behind the film, in the movie. All of this is a political debate about the role of government.

In another segment, the film follows libertarian-leaningSkeptic magazine founder Michael Shermer as he tries to convince his ideological compatriots that climate change isnt just something that liberals made up. Shermer concludes that the whole issue has become tribal. Indeed, you can see the emotion on screen at one point as Shermer is challenged from the audience at a libertarian gathering, where hes gone to present the case for climate change being real.

So whatreallydrives attacks on certain bodies of environmental and public health science? Is there a root cause?To address that question in the context of Merchants of Doubt, Icalled the woman behind it all Oreskes. In our conversation, I asked Oreskes whom Ive known for a long time about my concern. And she brought up what I considered a very goodanalogy to help both address it and also explain it.

Thats the chicken and egg thing, she explained. Theres two stories to be told: One is the supply of disinformation, and the other is the demand, why do people accept it, and buy it. Our book is definitely a supply side story, because we stumbled across a supply side story. I think the demand side is also important to understand.

Supply and demand.It fits the situation nicely.Supply in this context would refer to the volume of arguments and claims in the public arena that challenge mainstream science with respect to environmental or public health risks. For many of these issues, these claims take a similar form. Scientists have asserted the existence of a risk say, smoking causes lung cancer and the claims in question then sow doubt about this conclusion. (Hence the film and book title.)

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Why science denial is about much more than corporate interests

Synopsis | Papers On Presidential Disability And The Twenty-Fifth Amendment: By Six Medical – Video

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Mar 132015
 



Synopsis | Papers On Presidential Disability And The Twenty-Fifth Amendment: By Six Medical
THE SYNOPSIS OF YOUR FAVORITE BOOK =— Where to buy this book? ISBN: 9780819169204 Book Synopsis of Papers on Presidential Disability and the Twenty-fif…

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What 'dark net' drug buyers say about their dealers

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Mar 132015
 

The now-defunct Silk Road site, with drugs for sale (AP)

But what is actually on the dark net? Despite all this noise, relatively little is known. It is, of course, incredibly difficult to research. What we do know is that 2.5 million people use the Tor Browser each day. Tor can be used to browse anything online, and is much-used by civil liberties activists, journalists, and suprisise surprise law enforcement themselves. A decent fraction use Tor to get into the dark net, where there are an estimated 60 thousand or so websites an uncensored blend of the good, the bad, and the very very ugly.

The busiest sites on the dark net are probably the notorious and numerous anonymous markets. Here, anything can be bought and sold: class A narcotics ordered with a click, paid for with the crypto-currency Bitcoin, and delivered direct to your home. For my book, The Dark Net, I spent a lot of time on these sites, trying to work out how and why they worked and even going through the process of buying a small amount of cannabis from one known as Silk Road 2.0.

It turns out the key to their success is not clever encryption, or Bitcoin, or even Tor. It’s good old-fashioned customer service. Every visitor to the site, after using his or her drug, leaves a piece of written feedback about the gear and gives a score out of 5. It’s a little surreal, but users take it pretty seriously, because it creates the genuinely informed competition and choice which keeps the market ticking over:

Decent coke at a reasonable price. Stealthy packaging. 5/5

First order was lost…I got a reship and now im very happy…Heaven is one of the best dealers on the road!!! Very friendly and good communication too. I will be back soon 😉 5/5

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Synopsis | Offshore Finance Centers And Tax Havens: The Rise Of Global Capital – Video

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Mar 132015
 



Synopsis | Offshore Finance Centers And Tax Havens: The Rise Of Global Capital
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Synopsis | Marketing Digital. Posicionamiento Seo, Sem Y Redes Sociales – Video

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Mar 132015
 



Synopsis | Marketing Digital. Posicionamiento Seo, Sem Y Redes Sociales
THE SYNOPSIS OF YOUR FAVORITE BOOK =— Where to buy this book? ISBN: 9781492326663 Book Synopsis of Marketing Digital. Posicionamiento Seo, Sem y Redes Sociales by Miguel a Arias…

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Synopsis | Hate Speech, Sex Speech, Free Speech By Nicholas Wolfson – Video

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Mar 132015
 



Synopsis | Hate Speech, Sex Speech, Free Speech By Nicholas Wolfson
THE SYNOPSIS OF YOUR FAVORITE BOOK =— Where to buy this book? ISBN: 9780275957704 Book Synopsis of Hate Speech, Sex Speech, Free Speech by Nicholas Wol…

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The economics of bad science why its all about supply and demand

 Misc  Comments Off on The economics of bad science why its all about supply and demand
Mar 132015
 

Its not An Inconvenient Truth yet. But for a movie focused on climate change, Sony Pictures Classics Merchants of Doubt based on the widely read book of the same name by historians Naomi Oreskes and Erik Conway, and directed by Robert Kenner (Food, Inc.) is already generating a huge volume of discussion. It seems poised to become a must-watch film in the climate debate.

The film, which opens today in Washington, D.C., explores along history of challenges tothe science behind a variety of environmental and public health risks. Smoking. CFCs. Acid rain. Climate change. In many cases, these challenges were linked to corporate interests thus the tobacco industry, for many years, questionedthe emerging science of smokings risks.

Merchants of Doubtis certainly landing in the right news cycle. It comes out in the wake of reports includingby The Washington Post about energyinterests funding of climate skeptic researcher Willie Soon, of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. In a statementposted on the Web site of the Heartland Institute, a conservative think tank, Soon responded thathe had been the subject of attacks in the media, but acknowledged that his research had been partly supported by some energy producers something he said had long been a matter of public record. Soon added that in submitting my academic writings I have always complied with what I understood to be disclosure practices in my field generally, consistent with the level of disclosure made by many of my Smithsonian colleagues.

It all plays into a common narrative: That industry doesnt want government regulations, so it tries tocast doubt on the science behind them. Many of those who go to see Merchants of Doubt will, I suspect, go with such a narrative in their minds.

But the film itself presents a more complex picture. True, Merchants of Doubt focuses a great deal on the role of industry in supporting scientific argumentsthat are consistent with less regulation. But it alsoshows that denial of science on issues like climate change is about much more than that. Its aboutcertain deep seated beliefs and ideologies particularly those championing the free market and individual liberty (which we tend to call libertarianism).

None of this is about the science, says Oreskes, a Harvard historian and co-author of the book behind the film, in the movie. All of this is a political debate about the role of government.

In another segment, the film follows libertarian-leaningSkeptic magazine founder Michael Shermer as he tries to convince his ideological compatriots that climate change isnt just something that liberals made up. Shermer concludes that the whole issue has become tribal. Indeed, you can see the emotion on screen at one point as Shermer is challenged from the audience at a libertarian gathering, where hes gone to present the case for climate change being real.

So whatreallydrives attacks on certain bodies of environmental and public health science? Is there a root cause?To address that question in the context of Merchants of Doubt, Icalled the woman behind it all Oreskes. In our conversation, I asked Oreskes whom Ive known for a long time about my concern. And she brought up what I considered a very goodanalogy to help both address it and also explain it.

Thats the chicken and egg thing, she explained. Theres two stories to be told: One is the supply of disinformation, and the other is the demand, why do people accept it, and buy it. Our book is definitely a supply side story, because we stumbled across a supply side story. I think the demand side is also important to understand.

Supply and demand.It fits the situation nicely.Supply in this context would refer to the volume of arguments and claims in the public arena that challenge mainstream science with respect to environmental or public health risks. For many of these issues, these claims take a similar form. Scientists have asserted the existence of a risk say, smoking causes lung cancer and the claims in question then sow doubt about this conclusion. (Hence the film and book title.)

Original post:
The economics of bad science why its all about supply and demand

Synopsis | Studyguide For Why Nato Endures By Thies, Wallace J., Isbn 9780521767293 – Video

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Mar 122015
 



Synopsis | Studyguide For Why Nato Endures By Thies, Wallace J., Isbn 9780521767293
THE SYNOPSIS OF YOUR FAVORITE BOOK =— Where to buy this book? ISBN: 9781428889514 Book Synopsis of Studyguide for Why NATO Endures by Thies, Wallace J., ISBN 9780521767293 by…

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Synopsis | Studyguide For Why Nato Endures By Thies, Wallace J., Isbn 9780521767293 – Video




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