Greek Islands : Gavdos Paradise on Earth
Read my article about Gavdos and many more self-improvement and freedom tips in my blog . Click here http://www.freedomcertainty.com Listen to my music here …
By: Ilias Pavlakis
Greek Islands : Gavdos Paradise on Earth
Read my article about Gavdos and many more self-improvement and freedom tips in my blog . Click here http://www.freedomcertainty.com Listen to my music here …
By: Ilias Pavlakis
The organization seeking damages in the involuntarily commitment of a Marine veteran from Chesterfield County two years ago says it will decide later today whether to appeal a federal court ruling that the detention of Brandon Raub was warranted.
Rutherford Institute founder John W. Whitehead, meanwhile, issued a sevenpage statement this morning decrying the decision from U.S. District Judge Henry W. Hudson and linking it to other maneuvers by the government that have managed to disembowel freedom of speech, rendering it with little more meaning than the right to file a lawsuit against government officials.
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Chesterfield Marines threats trump his First Amendment rights, a federal judge rules
FREEDOM WON 28 years ago. Freedoms lost last week.
Media organizations and netizens mark the 28th anniversary of the EDSA People Power Revolt with a Black Tuesday campaign to protest the Cyber Libel provision of Republic Act 10175, or the Cybercrime Prevention Act.
The Supreme Court last week declared the Cyber Libel provision of R.A. 10175 as constitutional, effectively expanding the coverage of the countrys 80-year old libel law into the digital domain.
Media and online groups have protested the ruling, saying the decision reverses what already appeared to be a libertarian trend in the courts in the interpretation of libel laws.
Libel is defined in Article 323 of the Revised Penal Code as a criminal offense, punishable with both a prison term and damages. Media and lawyers groups have been pushing for the decriminalization of libel, saying the law has been used to harass and cow the Philippine press.
In addition, the Philippines is unique in that an allegedly libelous statement is presumed to be malicious until proven otherwise by the accused. This implies that the accused is already presumed to be guilty until he proves himself innocent before the courts.
Exactly a week ago today, Tuesday, the Supreme Court ruled on the constitutionality of R.A. 10175s cyber libel provision, which recognizes that libel can be committed online, but only by the original authors and producers of the material. Not included in the crime of cyber libel are those who receive or respond to the material.
At the same time the Tribunal struck down several provisions of the law as unconstitutional, particularly the take-down clause which would have allowed the government to deny or restrict access to digital hardware and material even without a warrant, and the real-time collection of traffic data.
The decision came exactly a week before the nation commemorates the 28th anniversary of the EDSA People Power Revolt, when press freedom was restored in the country.
Media organizations have pointed out that the Cybercrime Act and the SC ruling on the law effectively reverses many of the freedoms gained in EDSA by unduly restricting freedom of expression and freedom of the press even in the internet.
See more here:
Freedom won, freedoms lost; Black Tuesday on EDSA anniv
This article appeared on The Blaze on February 21, 2014. Until the Supreme Court ruled in the 2008 case of District of Columbia v. Heller that the Second Amendment protects the right to armed self-defense, many lower courts gave this important provision short shrift.
Read the rest here:
The Second Amendment Case the Supreme Court Must Take
Published February 13, 2014
Last year, the Ohio National Guard conducted a training drill in which a fictitious school custodian, angry about gun control, unleashed chemical weapons. (Ohio National Guard)
The Ohio National Guard has seen the enemy and it is a school janitor who supports the Second Amendment?
The Guards 52nd Civil Support Team held a training drill last year in southern Ohio which pitted members against a sinister janitor and a chemistry teacher sidekick who concocted chemical weapons in two makeshift labs, unleashing them on middle school students before killing himself. Inside the lair of the creepy custodian, identified as Mr. Wart, agents found several statements about protecting Gun Rights and Second Amendment rights on a chalkboard as well as on tables, according to the training packet.
Fortunately, none of it actually happened. Critics say it is telling that a government groups chosen bogeyman would be Second Amendment supporters.
They were characterizing gun owners and Second Amendment supporters as white extremists,” Chad Baus, of the Buckeye Firearms Association, told FoxNews.com. “It was a month after Sandy Hook. There was a large debate where gun owners were being blamed. I think the timing of it was extremely important here.
– Chad Baus, Buckeye Firearms Association
According to the drill, Mr. Wart and the unnamed chemistry teacher were producing ricin and sulfur mustard. Another clue to their motivation was a printed CNN article found among instructions for making the deadly toxins. In the article, a real story from March 2011, National Rifle Association leader Wayne LaPierre accused the Obama administration of trying to weaken the Constitutions Second Amendment.
Other evidence found near Mr. Wart included the name and contact information of William Pierce, an infamous (and now dead) neo-Nazi.
Malibu, CA (PRWEB) February 14, 2014
In a case being held in the Supreme Court of Texas, Harrison Barnes PLC, and its founder, Harrison Barnes, are currently in a court battle involving the First Amendment. The most influential scholar in the United States on the subject, Erwin Chemerinsky, has submitted an amicus brief in support of Harrison Barnes.
In Kinney vs. Barnes, on February 6, 2014, Erwin Chemerinsky and Professor Lyrissa Barnett Lidsky, among others, submitted an amicus brief to the Texas Supreme Court. According to court documents, the amicus brief urged the court to rule in favor of Harrison Barnes in the lawsuit. Professor Erwin Chemerinsky has argued in front of courts including the United States Supreme Court regarding issues of free speech and injunctions in defamation cases. He also wrote a widely cited law review article on the subject, Injunctions in Defamation Cases, 57 Syracuse L. Rev. 157 (2007).
Kinney previously worked for Barnes in a legal recruiting firm, but was terminated after it was discovered Kinney was involved in an unethical kickback scheme, according to page 3 of these court documents. Several years after Kinneys termination, critical posts were made online attacking Harrison Barnes and his companies using the screen name Albert. Through litigation and investigation, Barnes discovered that Kinney was Albert, as mentioned on page 2 and 3 of these court documents. Kinney hired an attorney to remain anonymous, but, he eventually released the information, according to page 3 of these court documents.
After finding these comments and the true identity of the poster, Harrison Barnes felt that they were defamatory in nature and filed suit against Kinney in California state court for anonymously maligning Barnes and his companies online, according to these court documents. In August of 2009, a news item that was not defamatory in nature was posted on JD Journal, a Company owned by Harrison Barnes. The allegations made in the suit were mentioned in the publication, including the relationship and history between Harrison Barnes and Kinney, Kinneys termination, Kinneys creating a business designed to compete with Barnes firm, and Kinneys decision to post things that were malignant in nature about Harrison Barnes and his companies online, according to the article and court documents.
Kinney responded to this article on JD Journal by claiming that it constituted actionable defamation. Then a lawsuit was filed by Barnes against Kinney seeking injunctive relief for defamation, according to page 4 of these court documents.
Kinney vs. Barnes is expected to be ruled on soon by the Texas Supreme Court.
Attorneys at Harrison Barnes PLC have a large amount of experience in defamation, internet, and First Amendment law, as well as general litigation, employment law, release estate transactions and litigation, bankruptcy, divorce and family law and criminal law. Defending the rights of their clients is what Harrison Barnes PLC is focused on.
Harrison Barnes PLC is proud of the work they do and the clients that they have helped. Their first commitment is to their clients, which has made them a preferred firm for litigation in Malibu. Facing a great opportunity or a major crisis, you need to trust the experience, creativity, and dedication we provide. We are proud to be lawyers, says founder Harrison Barnes.
About Harrison Barnes PLC:
February 13, 2014 2:00 AM
Feb. 10 To the Editor:
We are writing with regard to Article 23, which will be on the ballot at the Town of Rye election on March 11. The article proposes beach activity permits for commercial activities on Rye’s beaches.
We are in favor of public access to these beaches, but to ensure access, safety and enjoyment of the beaches for everyone, there has to be some town control over commercial beach activities. No controls on commercial beach usage will only increase the negative impact on everyone’s safe enjoyment of the beaches. At Jenness State Beach and at Wallis Sands State Beach, the state of New Hampshire requires a special use permit for anyone seeking to use those beaches for commercial activity. If this is something that the state requires, and it has worked, why can’t the town of Rye have a similar requirement?
The town of Rye, like all other towns, has an extensive list of controls for what can and cannot be done in town. There are zoning regulations, speed limits, parking restrictions, limits on the numbers of people that are permitted in public spaces, permit requirements for road and bicycle races, and even for fires on the beach. Zoning regulations, for instance, are not in place to prohibit persons from building in town; but when they do want to build, the restrictions are in place to set parameters as to what can be built in order to preserve the beauty of the town, enhance safety and not encroach on the rights of others. These other restrictions or permit requirements are not in place to prohibit the public from doing any of the above but to ensure that when they do choose to do one of these things, they must do so safely and not interfere with others.
Similar to the above examples, Article 23 would require a permit for commercial activities on Rye town beaches. Its purpose is not to prohibit all commercial activities on the beach; rather, its purpose is to ensure that when commercial activities are conducted, they will be done in a manner that does not interfere with the safe, enjoyable use of the beaches for everyone. The article only deals with commercial activity; it contains no restrictions whatsoever on the right to surf on Rye’s beaches.
Proponents of Article 23, including us, are not attempting to put any commercial activities out of business. Instead, what we do advocate is for the town of Rye to have a minimum amount of control as to what commercial businesses can and cannot do on Rye’s beaches. A permitting process will greatly help to ensure that the public’s right to access and enjoy the beaches will not be hampered. We encourage Rye voters to vote for Article 23 on March 11.
Brenda and Frank McDermott
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We support permits for commercial activity at Rye beaches
Happy Tuesday, View fans. Heres a look at what Ive been reading this morning.
Why its completely accurate to call Ireland a tax haven.
Because thats what it is. This article comes from todays Irish Times: U.S. multinationals reported paying tax rates of 2.2 per cent in Ireland during 2011, according to a new study. A research paper by Prof. James Stewart, associate professor in finance at Trinity College Dublin, also challenges government claims that effective corporation tax rates in Ireland are just below the headline rate of 12.5 per cent. Instead, the study suggests Irelands effective tax rate for American firms is similar to jurisdictions regarded as tax havens such as Bermuda, based on latest U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis statistics.
What to make of Stanley Fischers time at Citigroup.
Fischer, the nominee for Federal Reserve vice chairman, worked for Citigroup Inc. from 2002 to 2005. Felix Salmon of Reuters makes the case for why we should be happy that he did: Fischer left Citi before it imploded, but he was there while it was manufacturing many of the toxic subprime products which ended up proving all but fatal. Mortgage products werent Fischers area, but he did work very closely with Robert Rubin, who was blithely unconcerned about the risks being built up. Thats an incredibly important and valuable lesson to learn: you cant trust wise men like Rubin to see whats going on in front of their face. And when bank CEOs tell the Fed board that they have everything under control, Fischer will know better than most just how little those statements can be trusted.
What to expect when Fed Chairman Janet Yellen testifies today before Congress.
Aki Ito and Jeff Kearns of Bloomberg News have a good roundup. Joseph LaVorgna, chief U.S. economist at Deutsche Bank Securities Inc., predicts Yellen will indicate she plans to press on with a strategy to trim monthly bond buying by $10 billion. Jared Bernstein, former chief economist to Vice President Joe Biden, suggests asking her this question: What data would prompt the Fed to slow or suspend its unwinding of monetary support?
Spotting a stock-market bubble isnt only about the data.
Jason Voss of the CFA Institute has a good list of favorite anecdotal indicators. Having worked as a professional money manager through two market bubbles — dot-com and real estate — I can attest that qualitative signs are often more persuasive than the quantitative signs, he writes. Among them: Art sales are front page news. Relatives ask you crazy investment questions like whether swaptions are good for their retirement accounts. And stock splits lead to pops in share prices.
Pawn stars for the rich and famous (and not so famous).
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Members of the surfing community listen to lengthy debate about commercial activity on Rye town beaches at the town’s deliberative session on Saturday.Joey Cresta photo
February 01, 2014 5:43 PM
RYE Debates about public beach access dominated the town deliberative session on Saturday.
The nearly 7-hour meeting gave residents a chance to debate and alter warrant articles that will appear on the ballot next month. There are 28 articles on the warrant, but most of the attention focused on three dealing with commercial beach activities.
Townspeople have grappled with the growing popularity of Rye’s beaches and the problems that come with it: congestion, noise, lack of parking, alcohol consumption and disorderly or disruptive behavior. In particular, some residents are concerned that commercial activities like surf camps are taking over the beach.
It’s been obvious to me that the frequency and the types of commercial activities occurring on our beaches have been increasing, said Michael Labrie, a longtime beach commissioner and the chairman of the Beach Use Ordinance Committee.
The committee spent the bulk of last year studying the issue and crafting an ordinance that would give the town some semblance of control over a potential explosion in commercial endeavors on the beach. The result of the committee’s efforts is Article 23, which proposes a permitting process that beach businesses must go through before they can lawfully operate in Rye.
We forged a compromise that is very reasonable and was very sensitive to the interests of both sides, as well as protecting our town from the liability associated with some of these activities, Labrie said.
However, it was clear several members of the committee on both sides of the issue were not satisfied with the end result. Committee member Tyler McGill, who co-owns Summer Sessions Surf Shop with his brother Ryan, proposed a pair of amendments to the ordinance.
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Battle over beaches heats up in Rye
The New York Times, whistling past the financial graveyard, paused over the weekend to smear the Mises Institute, Ron Paul, our other scholars, hardcore libertarianism, and me. Why? Because our ideas and our youth movement are gaining real traction. It is in effect a compliment. They have never faced opposition like ours before, and Ron Pauls tremendous resonance with young people has only made things worse from the Timess point of view.
The Times wants opponents who play the game, who accept the presuppositions of the regime, and who are willing to confine themselves to the narrow range of debate to which the Times would prefer to confine the American people.
The purpose of articles like the one over the weekend, it should be unnecessary to point out, is not to shed light. It is to demonize and destroy a school of thought that the regime considers threatening.
The article, for instance, notes that Ron spoke on the topic Do We Live in a Police State? earlier this month at a Mises Institute event, and that another speaker (me) spoke on American Fascism. The lecture titles are evidently supposed to be self-refuting, although you can listen to Rons remarks and read mine and decide for yourself. Its little wonder that the Times would want to ridicule the idea that American society could resemble a police state, given that papers cover-ups of the regimes surveillance of American citizens.
The rest of the article is an attempt to distort the philosophy of libertarianism and to demonize Ron and other prominent exponents of that philosophy.
The whole exercise reminds me of the time, not long ago, in which a state-endorsed hate group took a swipe at Murray Rothbard (1926-1995), known in his day as Mr. Libertarian. The writer summarized Murrays career in a single sentence about of all things lesbians during the Progressive Era.
Now consider: Rothbards 1,000-page treatise Man, Economy, and State was an extraordinary contribution to the field of economics; his two-volume history of economic thought has been praised by scholars across the board; his study of the Panic of 1819, published by Columbia University Press, received rave reviews in the scholarly journals and is still considered definitive; his Ethics of Liberty is a philosophical defense of self-ownership and the nonaggression principle, and so on.
And so on hardly does Rothbard justice: we havent mentioned his textbook on money and banking, his classic What Has Government Done to Our Money?, his four-volume history of colonial America, the scholarly journals he edited, the voluminous correspondence he kept up with the major thinkers of his day, and well, and so on.
And a critic tried to reduce this man this man! to one unfavorable sentence.
It used to be easy to do this: how, apart from driving to the library, was someone to discover Rothbard for himself? But today, discovering Rothbard is just a click away. And once you discover him his scholarship, his knowledge, the encouragement he gave to students, and his refusal to compromise his principles even when doing so would have meant career advancement you understand why the state wants to minimize or demonize him. No wonder the most popular piece of libertarian apparel is our Rothbard Enemy of the State T-shirt.
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We Win the NY Times Prize
According to a recent Bloomberg report, Liberty Global pl c. ( LBTYA ), a leading cable TV operator in Europe and Latin America, may consider a decision to spin off its Latin American operations. Liberty Global’s Latin American operations include VTR Internet and wireless businesses in Chile and its 60% share in Liberty Cablevision of Puerto Rico.
Liberty Global is trying to extensively penetrate the European region with its bundled video, voice and Internet (data) services. The European markets are still relatively untapped for this unique triple-play offering.
Currently, the company is negotiating to acquire full control of Ziggo N.V., the largest cable MSO (multi service operator) in Netherlands. At present, Liberty Global holds a 28.5% stake in Ziggo. The financial terms on which the two entities are currently negotiating for the remaining 71.5% stake of Ziggo are yet to be disclosed. Ziggo competes with telecom operators such as Royal KPN N.V. and Vodafone Group plc. ( VOD ).
Liberty Global has become the largest cable TV operator in Germany after its acquisition of UnityMedia GmbHand Kabel Baden-Wuerttemberg GmbH & Co KG. The company already has a strong presence in the Dutch cable-TV market through its UPC Broadband Holding BV unit, which is the second largest cable MSO in the country. The company currently holds a 58.4% stake in the Belgian cable TV operator Telenet Group Holding NV.
In Jun 2013, Liberty Global acquired a 100% stake in the British cable MSO, Virgin Media. In the U.K., the merged entity poses serious competitive threat to British Sky Broadcasting Group plc and BT Group plc. ( BT ). British Sky Broadcasting Group is the largest pay-TV operator in the U.K. and is partially controlled by News Corp. ( NWSA ). Currently, Liberty Global carries a Zacks Rank #2 (Buy).
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Liberty Global to Revamp Businesses – Analyst Blog
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Author and Page information by Anup Shah This Page Last Updated Monday, January 07, 2013 This page: http://www.globalissues.org/article/54/tax-avoidance-and-havens-undermining-democracy. To print all information e.g. expanded side notes, shows alternative links, use the print version:
We might not like the idea of paying taxes, but without it, democracies will struggle to function, and will be unable to provide public services. This affects both rich and poor nations, alike.
Individuals and companies all have to pay taxes. But some of the worlds wealthiest individuals and multinational companies, able to afford ingenious lawyers and accountants, have figured out ways to avoid paying enormous amounts of taxes. While we can get into serious trouble for evading payment of taxes, even facing jail in some countries, some companies seem to be able to get away with it. In addition, if governments need to, they tax the population further to try and make up for the lost revenues from businesses that have evaded the tax man (or woman).
Why would companies do this, especially when some of them portray themselves as champions of the consumer? The reasons are many, as this article will explore. In summary, companies look for ways to maximize shareholder value. Multinational companies are in particular well-placed to exploit tax havens and hide true profits thereby avoiding tax. Poor countries barely have resources to address these many have smaller budgets than the multinationals they are trying to deal with.
Yet, companies and influential individuals also pour lots of money into shaping a global system that they will hope to benefit from. If the right balance cant be achieved, not only will attempts to avoid taxation and other measures undermine capitalism (which they claim they support) they will also undermine democracy (for even responsible governments may find it hard to meet the needs of their population).
Corporations and corporate-funded think tanks, media and other institutions are often the ones that loudly cry at the shame of welfare and the sin of living off the government and how various social programs should be cut back due to their costs. What is less discussed though is the amount of welfare that corporations receive.
Corporate welfare is the break that corporations get both legally and illegally through things like subsidies, government (i.e. public) bailouts, tax incentives and so on. Corporations can influence various governments to foster a more favorable environment for them to invest in. Often, under the threat of moving elsewhere, poorer countries are forced to lower or even nearly eliminate certain corporate taxes to these large foreign investors.
This distorts markets in favor of the big players. As such influence spreads globally, it contributes to a form of globalization that seems less like true free market capitalism that they talk of, but more like a modern form of the unequal mercantilism that prevailed during colonial and imperial times.
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When we talk about crime, we think of the violations of law caused by individuals, some of which are horrendous. However, almost rarely talked about (especially in corporate-owned media) is the level of crime caused by corporations. Such crime includes evasion of taxes, fraud, ignoring environmental regulations, violating labor rights, supporting military and other oppressive regimes to prevent dissent from workers, including violent crime against workers, and so on.
We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles. You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind: Encyclopaedia Britannica articles are written in a neutral, objective tone for a general audience. You may find it helpful to search within the site to see how similar or related subjects are covered. Any text you add should be original, not copied from other sources. At the bottom of the article, feel free to list any sources that support your changes, so that we can fully understand their context. (Internet URLs are best.) Your contribution may be further edited by our staff, and its publication is subject to our final approval. Unfortunately, our editorial approach may not be able to accommodate all contributions.
First Amendment,amendment (1791) to the Constitution of the United States, part of the Bill of Rights, which reads,
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
The clauses of the amendment are often called the establishment clause, the free exercise clause, the free speech clause, the free press clause, the assembly clause, and the petition clause.
The First Amendment, like the rest of the Bill of Rights, originally restricted only what the federal government may do and did not bind the states. Most state constitutions had their own bills of rights, and those generally included provisions similar to those found in the First Amendment. But the state provisions could be enforced only by state courts.
In 1868, however, the Fourteenth Amendment was added to the U.S. Constitution, and it prohibited states from denying people liberty without due process. Since then, the U.S. Supreme Court has gradually interpreted this to apply most of the Bill of Rights to state governments. In particular, from the 1920s to the 40s the Supreme Court applied all the clauses of the First Amendment to the states. Thus, the First Amendment now covers actions by the federal, state, and local governments. The First Amendment also applies to all branches of government, including legislatures, courts, juries, and executive officials and agencies. This includes public employers, public university systems, and public school systems.
The First Amendment, however, applies only to restrictions imposed by the government, since the First and Fourteenth amendments refer only to government action. As a result, if a private employer fires an employee because of the employees speech, there is no First Amendment violation. There is likewise no violation if a private university expels a student for what the student said, if a commercial landlord restricts what bumper stickers are sold on property it owns, or if an Internet service provider refuses to host certain Web sites.
Legislatures sometimes enact laws that protect speakers or religious observers from retaliation by private organizations. For example, Title VII of the federal Civil Rights Act of 1964 bans religious discrimination even by private employers. Similarly, laws in some states prohibit employers from firing employees for off-duty political activity. But such prohibitions are imposed by legislative choice rather than by the First Amendment.
The freedoms of speech, press, assembly, and petitiondiscussed here together as freedom of expressionbroadly protect expression from governmental restrictions. Thus, for instance, the government may not outlaw antiwar speech, speech praising violence, racist speech, procommunist speech, and the like. Nor may the government impose special taxes on speech on certain topics or limit demonstrations that express certain views. Furthermore, the government may not authorize civil lawsuits based on peoples speech, unless the speech falls within a traditionally recognized First Amendment exception. This is why, for example, public figures may not sue for emotional distress inflicted by offensive magazine articles, unless the articles are not just offensive but include statements that fall within the false statements of fact exception.
The free expression guarantees are not limited to political speech. They also cover speech about science, religion, morality, and social issues as well as art and even personal gossip.
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First Amendment (United States Constitution) — Encyclopedia …
Prevent yourself from the rapid onset of aging!
In this article, we will look at a huge contributing factor to the aging process. What can it inform us about the aging process and can it give us any hints on how to slow the ravage that time has on our health? The factor that we will learn more about today is cortisol, which is a hormone in control of a large number of the vital ongoing functions of our body. When levels of cortisol are too low or too high, the process of aging begins to accelerate.
The Adrenal Gland
The adrenal glands are responsible for cortisol secretion, and the adrenal glands are located above the kidneys. These glands are known for receiving the highest rates of blood flow among all of the other tissues of the body. Also, the adrenal glands contain the highest levels of Vitamin C: more than any other bodily tissues!
Both adrenals are made up of two different functional parts. The outside part, which is known as the cortex, releases hormone types of adenal steroids such as aldosterone, DHEA (precursor to sex hormones), and cortisol. The inner part, known as the medulla, releases adrenalin and norepinephrine. These last two hormones, also referred to as catecholamines, are well known as the ¤½flight/fight¤ hormones.
The Significance of the Adrenal Circadian Rhythm
The adrenal glands do not release their steroidal hormones at a balanced rate throughout the day. Steroidal hormones are secreted in a cyclical manner. The highest rate of secretion is early in the day and the lowest level of secretion occurs at night. This daily cycle is referred to as the circadian rhythm. An abnormal circadian rhythm that causes adrenal hormones to be released in a suboptimal fashion can lead to negative effects upon numerous vital functions of the body, among which are immune system health and the production of sufficient levels of energy.
Production of Energy
Adrenal function which is abnormal can negatively affect the ability of your cells to make energy to perform the normal tasks of life. People who have trouble getting out of bed in the morning, have slumps of energy as they go through their day, or are simply just always exhausted often have undiagnosed abnormal rhythms of adrenal hormone.
Insufficient levels of adrenal hormone and abnormal rhythms have a negative effect upon the normal healing of tissue. This impairment of the ability to repair muscle contributes to a higher incidence of tissue breakdown which eventually leads to joint and muscle injury or to chronic pain. It has been realized for a long time that taking too many steroids can lead to weakened hip muscles and shoulder girdle muscles. What is not quite so obvious is that the opposite idea is also true: bad posture (like sitting too much), also lead to weak shoulder and hip muscles. This promotes an excessive secretion of cortisol and catecholamines. But why? The Neanderthal-like position, where the hips and shoulders of flexed, is similar to the Fight/Flight response that a person assumes when fighting or running. This flexion position causes the body to secrete cortisol and catecholamines. Notice that there is a key focus in martial arts of keeping the spine straight, warding off the artificial energy boost that the catecholamines create.
Another aside in this discussion about rapid aging: the jutted chin position also leads to quicker aging, of the cognitive faculties in particular. When one’s chin is positioned forward, or when the head is positioned in a downward tilt, spinal cord signals start to terminate midbrain; this form of short-circuiting that does not reach the cortex creates a mental state more conducive to reflexive responses that aid the fight/flight mechanism.
However, when the head is upright, impulses travel along the spinal cord and send messages to the brain to formulate proteins in the gray matter cells. If the signal is blocked from the cortex, then this stimulative effect does not occur and proteins in the brain start to dissipate. As they do, the negative charges held by the protein dissipate as well. As these negative charges fade, the brain cells become less negative, and as they reach action potential they may begin to fire off randomly. These uncontrolled neuron firings can cause seizures, pain, spasms, and tics.
…also, the jutted chin position tends to bring about quicker aging, of the cognitive faculties in particular.
As the cells of the brain slowly lose proteins, they begin to atrophy and shrink. This atrophy happens every day that the cells do not receive spinal cord stimulus. Essentially, this means that if you do not use your brain, you start to lose your brain. Martial arts regimens which involve total body contortion and movement also are beneficial to the brain for this reason. If one fails to move a particular muscle or joint, the corresponding cellular protein will begin to atrophy and become less functional. This also lends evidence to the efficacy of the chiropractic and osteopathic art of vertebrae mobilization, which will allow the vertebrae to move with more freedom.
Adrenal rhythm also determines an individual’s ability to build up their bones. If nighttime cortisol levels remain high and morning levels do not come back to normal, bones do not heal very well, and the process of osteoporosis can occur even when one takes calcium supplements. In fact, higher levels of cortisol lead to the leaching of calcium from the bone which eventually causes bone demineralization. Consuming supplements of calcium during abnormal cortisol rhythms often produces no results and can sometimes even have harmful effects if leached bone calcium is deposited in an improper location.
Immune health and Cortisol Levels
High levels of cortisol inhibit the immune system. It also suppresses the immune reactions of the mucous membranes located across the body. High levels of cortisol lead to fewer surface antibodies on the mucous membranes, which are known as secretory IgAa. These SigAa assist the immune system by filtering viruses, bacteria, toxins, and plasmids. Then high levels of cortisol lead to a weakening of the defense mechanisms of the serosal and mucosal membranes, people are more likely to suffer from issues like earaches, pink eye, bronchitis, chronic coughing, sore throat, coughing, ulcers of the stomach, inflammation of the gallbladder, duodenal ulcers, vaginal infections, acid reflux, and bladder and kidney infections.
A girl we will name “Cynthia” went to see six doctors in the last month. She had received prescription for antibacterial eye drops from an ophthalmologist, cream to resolve her vaginal itching and burning from her gynecologist, cough medicine from her general practitioner, and H-2 blocker to medicate stomach acid build-up from a gastroenterologist. She had also been prescribed an antibiotic to alleviate her sinus infection from an ear, nose, and throat doctor, and finally she had gone to a rapid care clinic to acquire another antibiotic to sooth her experience of burning urination and alleviate the pressure upon her bladder. When she came to us, we told her that every one of her symtoms could be categorized as an irritation of the mucous membrane. After four weeks of corrective measures to resolve her incorrect cortisol levels and rhythm using herbs and diet, Cynthia had no more issues with any of her mucous membranes. She used herbs and diet successfully as natural alternatives to hormone replacement therapy.
Low Cortisol and Its Effect Upon the Immune System
Low cortisol has the opposite effect upon the immune system. Low levels of cortisol lead to over-response of the immune system. The immune system becomes way too aggressive and begins to attack not only antagonistic orgasms, but it also begins to develop reactions to benign agents of the environment. It can also begin to attack endogenous systems as well, hindering our body’s ability to function properly. Autoimmune disorders like Rheumatoid arthritis, Sjorgrens syndrome (mucosal and physiological lack of fluids), and lupus can appear when one has low levels of cortisol.
Quality of Sleep
Quality cycles of REM sleep require low levels of cortisol during the nigh. High levels create a disruption of REM sleep which causes sleep to be less refreshing and restorative. It leaves a person feeling fatigued and groggy as they awaken in the morning. Fatigue upon waking is often misinterpreted by both doctor and patient as biological depression. It this depression does not react to medications that are directed toward norepinephrine and serotonin metabolism, it may be time to consider evaluating levels of nighttime
A dramatic case of how a disrupted circadian rhythm can affect an individual is vividly illustrated by the case of Melissa. She was a child who confused parents and teachers because of the unpredictable extremes of her behavior and the vast variations in her grades which ranged from passing to failing even in the same subject. They thought perhaps she was merely unmotivated, but psych testing showed that she was an extraordinarily motivated girl. Everyone attempted to make sense of her pattern of passing and failing grades, attempting to attribute it to the personality or style of the teacher, the gener of the teacher, or even a potential rebellious streak. Things only became worse when she entered high school. Her parents told us that it was incredibly difficult to rouse Melissa from bed in the morning. When she did finally get up, she appeared lethargic and incredibly irritable. The report card for her first semester of math class showed that she was often late for class, always forgot supplies, did not talk in class, and rarely turned in her homework. Strangely though, a couple of weeks after the next semester began, the instructor told her parents Melissa was among the smartest mathematics students that the instructor had ever had the opportunity to teach. Also, she seemed to love helping others that had trouble with math. Did Melissa change classes? She did not. She was working from the same textbook and taking instruction from the same teacher. The difference was that her first semester class was the first class of the day. She went to math class after lunch. In the second semester, Melissa now took gym first thing in the morning. The same issues began to appear. She was not participating; she kept forgetting her uniform. A cortisol test revealed that her morning levels of cortisol were only of the amount the she required to be functional at that time of the morning. A lot of adults that have those low levels of cortisol are able to apply for disability because of their inability to be functional when working. In Melissa’s case, being woken up and asked to get dressed was like awakening a normal person at two in the morning and expecting them to be completely functional. At noon, Melissa’s level of cortisol was in a normal range. Correction of her cortisol rhythm so that it peaked in the morning and was at its lowest around midnight caused incredible changes to develop in her performance, energy, and personality. By the beginning of her sophomore year, she was going to meetings of the student council before school officially even began.
For exactly how long did Melissa suffer from a reversed cortisol rhythm? Her mom and dad told us that she was an amazing baby. She would not become irritable at night and did not want to go to bed at 8 like other babies. She also would never be terribly unhappy in the morning either, unlike her younger sister. It should be noted that Melissa’s mom worked third shift at a very high-stress job when she was pregnant with her daughter. It is incredibly possible that Melissa was born with her circadian cortisol rhythm out of sync.
Regeneration of the Skin
The skin undergoes regeneration mostly at night. High levels of cortisol lead to skin the does not regenerate as effectively. A standard cortisol rhythm is a requirement to maintain healthy skin. It is especially important in preventing such conditions as acne in adulthood.
People that have skin conditions often have high levels of copper and low levels of zinc. Excess levels of copper cause norepinephrine and adrenalin to be synthesized from dopamine. Dopamine is the reward chemical of the brain and is linked to good feelings and is active during positive stimulus and is deprived through negative stimulus. This elevated level of adrenaline normally leads to an increased level of cortisol. Lower levels of dopamine increase risk of early Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s as well.
Skin conditions like eczema are often correlated with intolerance to gliaden, which is a compound found in gluten grains. This issue is also made worse by the presence of high levels of copper.
Cortisol and Thyroid Function
Cellular levels of cortisol control the activation of the thyroid hormone. Adrenal hormonal imbalance often leads to symptoms associated with hypothyroidism like problems losing weight, decreased body temperature, and fatigue. If Thyroid hormonal treatment only results in temporary yet significant relief of hypothyroidism symptoms, check your cortisol rhythm and levels.
Stress and Gluten Intolerance.
In many patients, the digestive develops inflammation within a half hour of eating grains that contain gluten, such as rye, spelt, barley, and oats. This intestinal response has been compared to have a sore throat that was thirty feet long. We call this condition colic when it occurs in infants. It is assumed that children eventually stop being allergic to gluten. In reality, the body just learns to react to this inflammation with a secretion of cortisol. In a lot of patients, a biological substance that is similar to morphine is also emitted in an effort to alleviate the inflammation and hide the pain.
This substance is then absorbed into the blood where it is transported up to the brain. Here, it stimulates receptors for morphine and a person can develop a physiological addiction to dairy and grain products that produce the inflammatory response. If one watches the patterns of behavior and symptoms of people who eat dairy and grain products, he or she can take note of the wildly apparent up and down phases of drug use and drug withdrawal. These similarities become even more apparent when the individual attempts to stop eating gluten or dairy.
High Levels of Cortisol and Low Levels of Libido
When we use up a lot of cortisol, we hinder our ability to produce other hormones. To produce extra cortisol in the body to respond to inflammation and pain, your body converts energy normally reserved for the manufacture of sex hormones into the development of more cortisol. Progesterone in particular is singled out for cannibalization so that more cortisol can be manufactured.
This lower level of progesterone causes us to have less progesterone than the male hormone testosterone or the feminine hormone estrogen, and this leads to issues of testosterone dominance and estrogen dominance. Both of these issues are connected with a higher level of aggression, violence, and irritability. Dominance of feminine hormones can also lead to uterine fibroids(benign uterine tumors), PMS, and higher risks for breast and uterine cancers, in addition to clots and heavy flow. Deficiency of progesterone causes one to be at greater risk for miscarriage.
The hormone progesterone is also vitally essential to maintain testosterone so that it does not transform into DHT (which is an essential male hormone which can cause major issues when it is present in the body in excess). Low levels of progesterone will eventually lead to low levels of testosterone, balding, high levels DHT, prostate enlargement and decreased libido.
Decreased levels of testosterone and cortisol also can make migraines occur more frequently.
What Causes Imbalance of Cortisol?
Among the factors and activities that increase levels of cortisol are:
1. Not eating breakfast.
2. Missing meals
3. Consuming a greater value of carbs than proteins over the course of five hours.
4. Being positioned in a flexed or slouched posture in which the chin is pushed forward.
5. Going to sleep after 10 pm
6. Undergoing emotional stress
7. Experiencing pain
Increased levels of cortisol and an enhanced flight/fight response are useful adaptations when one experiences infrequent stress or brief bouts of stress. The problem arises when one begins to experience chronic stress and cortisol levels rise often and stay at elevated levels for too long. When this occurs, precursor hormones begin to be used up. After a long period of elevated cortisol, the body may lose its ability to generate cortisol effectively. The experience of a low level of cortisol is how our body makes us slow down. Beneficially, low levels of cortisol can also have an effect on the aging process, slowing down aging processes associated with high cortisol levels. The problem is that low cortisol levels present a separate list of processes which enhance the aging process, such as making one more susceptible to diseases of the autoimmune system.
Means by Which to Slow Down the Process of Aging:
Have protein for breakfast by 8am and again every 5 waking hours.
Levels of cortisol begin to climb after a person does not eat after five hours. As we fast in our sleep, levels of cortisol rise until we are stirred to rise from bed with energy. If an individual eats a meal after 8pm, then the level of peak cortisol may occur later than would be desirable, and easy rousing may become more difficult. They will be more likely to feel tired when they wake up and may find that they lack a proper functional level of energy before much later in the day.
On the other hand, if a person does not eat by 8am or so, the morning level of cortisol continues to elevate and may leave the normal range. When this occurs at any point in the day it becomes difficult to bring cortisol back into a low range suitable for rapid eye movement sleep. For this reason, fatigue tends to be self-perpetuation.
Some people who have a tendency to miss breakfast do it thoughtlessly as a means to induce a brief bout of starvation so that cortisol is secreted. Doing this elevates low levels of cortisol to normal. The problem with this method is that starvation has the effect of adrenalin stimulation, which also contributes to physical deterioration.
Remember that there will be interruptions to sleep is we do not have an adequate store of glycogen to fuel the brain the whole night. Stores of glycogen are restored after every incidence in which we consume protein or eat a meal with a low glycemic index. Eating protein in five hour intervals is crucial. Each time that we neglect to eat a meal, stores of glycogen within the liver become more depleted. This also occurs when we miss a meal or over-consume carbohydrates during any period of five hours Habitual meal skipping and the consumption of excess sugar and starch can lead to sleep disruption. Among people who have totally eradicated their glycogen supply in this manner, it may be necessary to consume a small snack around time for bed for a number of days, or perhaps weeks, until stores of glycogen in the liver are restored so that the brain has enough nutrition to make it through the night.
There is a lot of confusion over which foods boost stores of glycogen. This confusion originated in the 70s when coaches commonly encouraged athletes to load up on carbohydrates before they participated in athletic events. In fact, one of the most common diet fads during this era was to only consumer fruit before lunchtime. The practice of consuming inadequate amounts of protein actually had the opposite effect, leading to depletion of glycogen and contributing to negative alterations of the cortisol rhythm. Hypotheses during this era that foods that were highly glycemic would lead to increased stores of glycogen were incorrect, and a whole generation of dieters and athletes were plagued with exhaustion and fatigue in consequence. There is still a belief in carbo-loading with effects athletes and patients today.
Quickly Control Pain
The occurrence of pain is the single most significant thing that can happen that spikes levels of cortisol in the body. One migraine can lead secreted levels of cortisol to become elevated to multiple times the normal baseline. It should be obvious that those who suffer from chronic pain will quickly start to show symptoms and signs that represent an excess of cortisol. Mental and physical fatigue occur, patients gain weight around their middles, and reports of muscle weakness abound (more weakness than is to be expected from merely a lack of physical activity, alone). Quick bruising, digestive complications, restless sleep, bloating, and a higher instance of infections of the mucous membranes (bronchitis, sinusitis, bladder infection, etc.) also occur. Chronic pain sufferers can not find alleviation from these symptoms until their pain is taken care of.
Fall Asleep by Ten at Night
Ben Franklin truly understood the importance of following the natural rhythm of the body when he suggested that those who go to sleep early and wake up early find themselves more wise, healthy, and wealthy. An individual is more likely to feel refreshed after five hours rest between ten pm and three a.m. than with five hours or more of sleep that does not begin until three am.
Also, remember that some beneficial functions of the immune system do not begin until a person has rested for seven or more hours without disruption. The immune system suffers when sleep deprivation takes its toll.
Fix Your Circadian Rhythm
After it has been established that one’s circadian rhythm has been disrupted, there are multiple approaches to therapy that a patient may choose. The goal of therapy regimens is to correct inopportune elevations and depressions of cortisol during different periods of the day. Herbal supplements can be of assistance, but they must be used precisely and carefully. Deglycerinized licorice has the effect of lowering cortisol, but whole root of licorice boosts cortisol. The compound phosphorylated serine has the effect of elevating depressed levels of IgA (which controls mucosal immunity) back to baseline. It does this presumably through the lowering of cortisol which leads to the suppression of SigA.
Taking phosphorylated serine at 6 pm in an effort to lower elevated nighttime cortisol can be the secret recipe to a perfect night of sleep.
Elevated Cortisol Today Leads to a Lack of Cortisol Later
There is an unfortunate pattern that eventually leads to an imbalance of cortisol later in life. Lifestyle patterns and choices today can lead to prolonged or periodic high levels of cortisol. After a period of time, the overspending of cortisol leads to a theft of pregnenolone. This hormone is the progenitor hormone from which cortisol and other sex hormones are created. When too much cortisol is summoned, the body subverts pregnenolone from its standard function creating testosterone, estrogen, and DHEA to manufacture additional cortisol.
In every single moment in our lives, we make decisions based on our posture, bedtime, control of pain, and response to stress whether our bodies will manufacture unhealthy stress hormones or vital sexual hormones. If we choose stress, we choose to age more rapidly. If we choose sexual hormones, we will feel younger and healthier.
When too much cortisol is emitted, the speed of catabolism increases. Catabolism is a function of the body which proceeds to break down tissues in every area of the body. This effect dramatically increases the speed of aging. Processes of catabolism weaken bone, blood vessels, muscles, and ligaments. One of the cyclical effects of catabolism is that it encourages bleeding, bone diseases, and poor posture, which further stimulates cortisol production. Excess levels of cortisol also contribute to glaucoma and cataracts and can lead to dangerously high blood sugar, intraocular pressure, and blood pressure. Secreting an excess level of cortisol also weakens the skin which leads to thin skin, easily bruised skin, and skin prone to stretch marks. High levels of cortisol at night disrupt normal REM sleep and cause us to remain fatigued and groggy long after we awaken.
Low levels of cortisol has a negative effect too. Low levels of cortisol when we awaken make it difficult to pop out of bed as we were meant to do. Any time that cortisol lowers below baseline in any period of the day it leads to a slump of energy.
It is not uncommon for people to often unconsciously and sometimes consciously seek an energy boost to produce an increase in the level of active cortisol. Among activities that raise levels of cortisol are consuming a starch or sugar carbohydrate snack, skipping a meal, or undergoing an activity which elevates levels of cortisol, included behaviors which are quite risky. We feel that inappropriate behavior is often an adaptive measure which serves to elevate levels of cortisol and adrenalin to a baseline or greater state in order to make up for having cortisol levels that are too low.
The problem is that many of these tactics which lead to an elevated level of cortisol cause us to produce too much cortisol and propagate an imbalance.
Efforts to correct abnormal cortisol levels and rhythms are quite effective.
People should be happy to find that belly fat, lethargy, and stretch marks can all be alleviated when cortisol rhythms are corrected. Irritation and/or infection of the mucous membranes can often be resolved just by going by through these lifestyle changes:
1. Fall asleep by ten pm.
2. Eat protein by 7 am
3. Eat less starch and sugar
4. Consume meals that feature low glycemic index once every five hours. For example, eat meals in which quick-digesting starches and sugars do not exceed the mass of meats that are digested slowly such as eggs, poultry, and fish. For better effects, entirely skip starches and sugars (especially gluten grains) and choose vegetables that are uncooked or lightly cooked.
5. If you have a gluten intolerance avoid all grains. Give children grains of sprouts to delay or avoid gluten intolerance.
6. Sustain proper posture and do not sit or enter the flexion position for prolonged periods of time.
7. Manage pain.
8. Keep your stress in check. (by following the initial seven rules it should be much easier to accomplish guideline eight.)
Maintaining a standard circadian rhythm will help you preserve precursors of adrenalin and cortisol, leading to a marked delay of the process of aging. Restoring a disrupted circadian rhythm to normal and restoring reserves of adrenal hormones can encourage a reversal of many issues that a patient may feel they will be plagued with for the rest of their lives.
Article comes from the NOHA NEWS, Volume 27, Number One
Winter issue pages three to six.
Winter 2002, pages 3-6.
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