Journal of Regenerative Medicine Journal of Regenerative Medicine (JRGM) is a peer-reviewed scholarly journal and aims to publish the most complete and reliable source of information on the discoveries and current developments in the mode of original articles, review articles, case reports, short communications, etc. in all areas of stem cells and regenerative medicine and making them available online freelywithout any restrictions or any other subscriptions to researchers worldwide. Journal of Regenerative Medicine focuses on the topics include regenerative medicine therapies, stem cell applications, tissue engineering, gene and cell therapies, translational medicine and tissue regeneration. The Journal is using Editorial Manager System for quality in review process. Editorial Manager is an online manuscript submission, review and tracking system. Review processing is performed by the editorial board members ofJournal Regenerative Medicine or outside experts; at least two independent reviewers approval followed by editor approval is required for acceptance of any citable manuscript. Authors may submit manuscripts and track their progress through the system, hopefully to publication. Reviewers can download manuscripts and submit their opinions to the editor. Editors can manage the whole submission/review/revise/publish process. Interested authors can submit manuscript through Online Submission System or Editorial Manager or send as an e-mail attachment to the Editorial Office firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com
In biology, regeneration is the process of renewal, restoration, and growth that makes genomes, cells, organisms, and ecosystems resilient to natural fluctuations or events that cause disturbance or damage. Every species is capable of regeneration, from bacteria to humans. Regeneration can either be complete where the new tissue is the same as the lost tissue, or incomplete where after the necrotic tissue comes fibrosis. At its most elementary level, regeneration is mediated by the molecular processes of gene regulation. Regeneration in biology, however, mainly refers to the morphogenic processes that characterize the phenotypic plasticity of traits allowing multi-cellular organisms to repair and maintain the integrity of their physiological and morphological states. Above the genetic level, regeneration is fundamentally regulated by asexual cellular processes. Regeneration is different from reproduction. For example, hydra perform regeneration but reproduce by the method of budding.
Stem cells are undifferentiated cells, hat can differentiate into specialized cells and can divide to produce more stem cells. They are found in multicellular organisms. In mammals, there are two broad types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells, which are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, and adult stem cells, which are found in various tissues. In adult organisms, stem cells and progenitor cells act as a repair system for the body, replenishing adult tissues. In a developing embryo, stem cells can differentiate into all the specialized cellsectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm – but also maintain the normal turnover of regenerative organs, such as blood, skin, or intestinal tissues.
Tissue repair and regeneration following injury or disease are often thought to recapitulate embryonic development by using similar molecular and cellular pathways. In addition, many embryonic tissues, such as the spinal cord, heart, and limbs, have some regenerative potential and may utilize mechanisms that can be exogenously activated in adult tissues. For example, BMP signaling regulates nervous system development, and SMAD reactivation plays a critical role in adult nerve regeneration and repair in animal models of spinal cord injury. While similar molecular pathways are utilized during embryogenesis and adult tissue regeneration, recent reports suggest the mechanisms by which these developmental programs are reactivated and maintained may vary in adult tissues. Adult fish and amphibians have a remarkable capacity for tissue regeneration, while mammals have a limited regenerative capacity.
Rejuvenation is a medical discipline focused on the practical reversal of the aging process. Rejuvenation is distinct from life extension. Life extension strategies often study the causes of aging and try to oppose those causes in order to slow aging. Rejuvenation is the reversal of aging and thus requires a different strategy, namely repair of the damage that is associated with aging or replacement of damaged tissue with new tissue. Rejuvenation can be a means of life extension, but most life extension strategies do not involve rejuvenation.
Molecular and Cellular Engineering uses engineering principles to understand and construct cellular and molecular circuits with useful properties. At the molecular level, proteins can be engineered to elicit specific ligand-receptor interactions, which can then be used for the rational design of targeted drug therapies. At the cellular level, metabolic engineering can create cellular biosensors that can monitor the environment for toxins or other specific molecules. Molecular and Cellular engineering can also be used to enhance the cellular production of pharmaceuticals, the delivery of beneficial genes to a particular cell type, and the production of tissues or tissue matrices for therapeutic purposes. This area of research also promises to help the scientific community unlock the mysteries of cellular metabolism, and how alterations in metabolism can lead to a myriad of human disease processes.
Tissue engineering is emerging as a significant potential alternative or complementary solution, whereby tissue and organ failure is addressed by implanting natural, synthetic, or semisynthetic tissue and organ mimics that are fully functional from the start, or that grow into the required functionality. Initial efforts have focused on skin equivalents for treating burns, but an increasing number of tissue types are now being engineered, as well as biomaterials and scaffolds used as delivery systems. A variety of approaches are used to coax differentiated or undifferentiated cells, such as stem cells, into the desired cell type. Notable results include tissue-engineered bone, blood vessels, liver, muscle, and even nerve conduits. As a result of the medical and market potential, there is significant academic and corporate interest in this technology.
Some parts of our bodies can repair themselves quite well after injury, but others dont repair at all. We certainly cant regrow a whole leg or arm, but some animals Can regrow – or regenerate – whole body parts. Regeneration means the regrowth of a damaged or missing organ part from the remaining tissue. As adults, humans can regenerate some organs, such as the liver. If part of the liver is lost by disease or injury, the liver grows back to its original size, though not its original shape. And our skin is constantly being renewed and repaired. Unfortunately many other human tissues dont regenerate, and a goal in regenerative medicine is to find ways to kick-start tissue regeneration in the body, or to engineer replacement tissues.
Translational science is a multidisciplinary form of science that bridges the recalcitrant gaps that sometimes exist between fundamental science and applied science, necessitating something in between to translate knowledge into applications. The term is most often used in the health sciences and refers to the translation of bench science, conducted only in a lab, to bedside clinical practice or dissemination to population-based community interventions.Translational Medicines: Translational medicine, also called translational medical science, preclinical research, evidence-based research, or disease-targeted research, area of research that aims to improve human health and longevity by determining the relevance to human disease of novel discoveries in the biological sciences. Translational medicine seeks to coordinate the use of new knowledge in clinical practice and to incorporate clinical observations and questions into scientific hypotheses in the laboratory. Thus, it is a bidirectional concept, encompassing so-called bench-to-bedside factors, which aim to increase the efficiency by which new therapeutic strategies developed through basic research are tested clinically, and bedside-to-bench factors, which provide feedback about the applications of new treatments and how they can be improved. Translational medicine facilitates the characterization of disease processes and the generation of novel hypotheses based on direct human observation.
Translational science is a multidisciplinary form of science that bridges the recalcitrant gaps that sometimes exist between fundamental science and applied science, necessitating something in between to translate knowledge into applications. The term is most often used in the health sciences and refers to the translation of bench science, conducted only in a lab, to bedside clinical practice or dissemination to population-based community interventions.
Nanomedicine may be defined as the monitoring, repair, construction and control of human biological systems at the molecular level, using engineered nanodevices and nanostructures.Basic nanostructured materials, engineered enzymes, and the many products of biotechnology will be enormously useful in near-term medical applications. However, the full promise of nanomedicine is unlikely to arrive until after the development of precisely controlled or programmable medical nanomachines and nanorobots.
Discovered centuries ago, regeneration is a fascinating biological phenomenon that continues to intrigue. The study of regeneration promises to inform how adult tissues heal and rebuild themselves such that this process may someday be stimulated in a clinical setting. Although mammals are limited in their ability to regenerate, closely and distantly related species alike can perform astonishing regenerative feats. Many different animals representing almost all phyla harness an innate ability to rebuild missing adult structures lost to injury. However, it is unclear which aspects of regeneration are conserved and which are unique to a given context. One aspect of regeneration that appears to be shared is the use of stem/progenitor cells to replace missing tissues.
Regenerative medicine is an emerging branch of medicine with the goal of restoring organ and/or tissue function for patients with serious injuries or chronic disease in which the bodies own responses are not sufficient enough to restore functional tissue. New and current Regenerative Medicines can use stem cells to create living and functional tissues to regenerate and repair tissue and organs in the body that are damaged due to age, disease and congenital defects. Stem cells have the power to go to these damaged areas and regenerate new cells and tissues by performing a repair and a renewal process, restoring functionality. Regenerative medicine has the potential to provide a cure to failing or impaired tissues.
Cellular therapy, also called live cell therapy, cellular suspensions, glandular therapy, fresh cell therapy, siccacell therapy, embryonic cell therapy, and organotherapy – refers to various procedures in which processed tissue from animal embryos, fetuses or organs, is injected or taken orally. Products are obtained from specific organs or tissues said to correspond with the unhealthy organs or tissues of the recipient. Proponents claim that the recipient’s body automatically transports the injected cells to the target organs, where they supposedly strengthen them and regenerate their structure. The organs and glands used in cell treatment include brain, pituitary, thyroid, adrenals, thymus, liver, kidney, pancreas, spleen, heart, ovary, testis, and parotid. Several different types of cell or cell extract can be given simultaneously – some practitioners routinely give up to 20 or more at once.
Gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses genes to treat or prevent disease. In the future, this technique may allow doctors to treat a disorder by inserting a gene into a patients cells instead of using drugs or surgery. Researchers are testing several approaches to gene therapy, including: Replacing a mutated gene that causes disease with a healthy copy of the gene; Inactivating, or knocking out, a mutated gene that is functioning improperly;Introducing a new gene into the body to help fight a disease. Although gene therapy is a promising treatment option for a number of diseases (including inherited disorders, some types of cancer, and certain viral infections), the technique remains risky and is still under study to make sure that it will be safe and effective. Gene therapy is currently only being tested for the treatment of diseases that have no other cures.
Immunotherapy, also called biologic therapy, is a type of cancer treatment designed to boost the body’s natural defense to fight the cancer. It uses materials either made by the body or in a laboratory to improve, target, or restore immune system function. It is not entirely clear how immunotherapy treats cancer. However, it may work in the following ways: Stopping or slowing the growth of cancer cells; Stopping cancer from spreading to other parts of the body; Helping the immune system work better at destroying cancer cells.There are several types of immunotherapy, including monoclonal antibodies, non-specific immunotherapies, and cancer vaccines.
Biomaterials are being used for the healthcare applications from ancient times. But subsequent evolution has made them more versatile and has increased their utility. Biomaterials have revolutionized the areas like bioengineering and tissue engineering for the development of novel strategies to combat life threatening diseases. Together with biomaterials, stem cell technology is also being used to improve the existing healthcare facilities. These concepts and technologies are being used for the treatment of different diseases like cardiac failure, fractures, deep skin injuries, etc. Introduction of nanomaterials on the other hand is becoming a big hope for a better and an affordable healthcare. Technological advancements are underway for the development of continuous monitoring and regulating glucose levels by the implantation of sensor chips. Lab-on-a-chip technology is expected to modernize the diagnostics and make it more easy and regulated. Other area which can improve the tomorrows healthcare is drug delivery. Micro-needles have the potential to overcome the limitations of conventional needles and are being studied for the delivery of drugs at different location in human body. There is a huge advancement in the area of scaffold fabrication which has improved the potentiality of tissue engineering. Most emerging scaffolds for tissue engineering are hydrogels and cryogels. Dynamic hydrogels have huge application in tissue engineering and drug delivery. Furthermore, cryogels being supermacroporous allow the attachment and proliferation of most of the mammalian cell types and have shown application in tissue engineering and bioseparation.
Human Pathological Conditions, provides fundamental information concerning common diseases and disorders of each body system. For each system, the disease or disorder is highlighted including: description, etiology, signs and symptoms, diagnostic procedures, treatment, management, prognosis, and prevention.
Diagnostic imaging lets doctors look inside your body for clues about a medical condition. A variety of machines and techniques can create pictures of the structures and activities inside your body. The type of imaging your doctor uses depends on your symptoms and the part of your body being examined. They include: X-rays, CT scans, Nuclear medicine scans, MRI scans, Ultrasound. Many imaging tests are painless and easy. Some require you to stay still for a long time inside a machine. This can be uncomfortable. Certain tests involve exposure to a small amount of radiation. For some imaging tests, doctors insert a tiny camera attached to a long, thin tube into your body. This tool is called a scope. The doctor moves it through a body passageway or opening to see inside a particular organ, such as your heart, lungs, or colon. These procedures often require anesthesia.
Stem cell transplantation is a procedure that is most often recommended as a treatment option for people with leukemia, multiple myeloma, and some types of lymphoma. It may also be used to treat some genetic diseases that involve the blood. During a stem cell transplant diseased bone marrow (the spongy, fatty tissue found inside larger bones) is destroyed with chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy and then replaced with highly specialized stem cells that develop into healthy bone marrow. Although this procedure used to be referred to as a bone marrow transplant, today it is more commonly called a stem cell transplant because it is stem cells in the blood that are typically being transplanted, not the actual bone marrow tissue.
The law has a lot to say about personal decision-making. For example, people have the legal right to make their own health care decisions. However, poor health can jeopardize peoples ability to exercise their legal rights. Safeguarding these rights requires advance thinking and planning. Sudden or chronic illness can cause profound weakness and confusion, which makes people vulnerable and can lead to the unwilling loss of control. Conducting personal affairs, making wishes known, and making sure those wishes are respected may be impossible for people who are physically or mentally impaired. Nevertheless, adults of any age can take steps to protect themselves against losing control over their life, and such steps are especially important for older people.
Journal of Regenerative Medicine is organizing & supporting4th International Conference on Tissue Science and Regenerative Medicine during July 27-29, 2015 Rome, Italy with the theme ofScientific Systems Regenerating Medicine”.