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Regenerative Medicine – Biolife Solutions, Inc.

 Regenerative Medicine  Comments Off on Regenerative Medicine – Biolife Solutions, Inc.
Oct 092015

Regenerative Medicine is the process of engineering living, functional cell and tissue-based therapies and administering these to patients to repair or replace tissue or organ function lost due to age, disease, damage, or congenital defects. Target diseases include cancers, diabetes, heart disease, ALS and target disorders include spinal/movement, hearing loss, vision loss, and neurological (i.e., stroke).

Nearly all currently available and development stage regenerative medicine products and therapies utilize biopreservation processes and products in the acquisition of source material, isolation and manipulation of specific cells, and storage and shipment of a final product dose to a patient location. System optimization is critical and biopreservation economics greatly impact product commercialization potential through shelf life impact on distribution, and clinical dose efficacy following preservation.

This market is comprised of nearly 700 commercial companies and numerous other hospital-based transplant centers developing and delivering cellular therapies such as stem cells isolated from bone marrow, peripheral and umbilical cord blood as well as engineered tissue-based products. MedMarket Diligence, LLC, estimates that the current worldwide market for regenerative medicine products and services is growing at 20 percent annually. We expect pre-formulated biopreservation media products such as our HypoThermosol and CryoStor to continue to displace home-brew cocktails, creating demand for clinical grade preservation reagents that will grow at greater than the overall end market rate.

We have shipped our proprietary biopreservation media products to over 200 regenerative medicine customers. We estimate that our products are now incorporated into 30 to 40 regenerative medicine cell- or tissue-based products in pre-clinical and clinical trial stages of development. While this market is still in an early stage, we have secured a valuable position as a supplier of critical reagents to numerous regenerative medicine companies and university based centers.

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Regenerative Medicine – Biolife Solutions, Inc.

Regenerative Medicine – Colorado Clinic

 Regenerative Medicine  Comments Off on Regenerative Medicine – Colorado Clinic
Sep 282015

Colorado Clinic offers multiple regenerative medicine stem cell treatments. These treatments are provided as an outpatient by a Double Board Certified Doctor. Each treatment maintains minimal risk, with the possibility of providing repair and healing of injured tendons, ligaments, cartilage and muscle.

Click on the Treatments on the Left Tabs for more information.

Stem Cell Treatments at Colorado Clinic

Traditional therapies for osteoarthritis, ligament injury and tendonitis maintain certain commonalities. They help provide excellent pain relief, however, they do not alter the condition or help with the healing process. They act as an excellent band aid, but they do not REPAIR the problem!

The newest treatments for helping repair the damage involve Regenerative Medicine. The therapies are cutting edge and include stem cells, platelets, growth factors and cytokines.

Here is an example of what regenerative medicine offers. When a football player sustains a rotator cuff tendon injury, it may heal by itself in six to 10 weeks. Healing of damaged tendons or ligaments may occur naturally. However, it does not reach 100% strength like it was before.

With regenerative medicine, this situation may be very different. Healing of the rotator cuff injury may occur much faster, and it may reach 100% normal strength. This can help prevent future injury and get patients back on the field faster.

Regenerative treatments may permit patients to avoid or delay the need for surgery when it comes to all sorts of injury. The most common of these is degenerative arthritis. Joint replacement surgery is not without risk, therefore, stem cell treatments may help repair some of the cartilage damage while providing substantial pain relief.

With minimal risk, outpatient stem cell treatments offer a substantial upside. Make your appointment at Colorado Clinic today!

Amniotic Stem Cell Injections

Life comes from birth. Its one of the most commonly accepted rules in our society. But can the birth process offer even more? As research and science evolved over time, studies have shown that amniotic stem cells can have a revolutionary effect on the human recovery process.

First, lets look at what amniotic stem cells are. Stem cells are the basic components (cells) of our human body. One of their most amazing characteristic is that they can become almost any type of cell, from muscle to bone or skin cell.

Amniotic stem cells are obtained from the amniotic fluid, which is produced during a caesarean birth. During pregnancy, the amniotic fluid protects the fetus and it feeds it with the necessary supplements needed to sustain life and development. A while back, this fluid was normally discarded, but once researchers got to understand its amazing therapeutic benefits, now its collected and stored because of its high concentration of pluripotent stem cells.

Amniotic derived stem cell fluid comes from consenting donors and is processed at an FDA regulated lab. It is checked for all sorts of diseases prior to being accepted for use in others.

Although stem cells have been used for decades, regenerative therapy is fairly new, and sometimes pushes the boundaries of human imagination and perception. Following the use of amniotic stem cell injections, more evidence reveals exciting results in muscle repair and pain relief which has made amniotic stem cells possibly the holy grail in treatment.

Amniotic stem cell injections offer the ability to heal damaged tissue naturally. The tissue regeneration and repair properties of the amniotic stem cell fluid are an effective anti-inflamatory that relieves pain and contains natural growth factors that assist in healthy tissue growth. Moreover, the hyaluronic acid that is also in amniotic fluid is an important component of the joint fluid that helps cartilage growth. Amniotic fluid is also a great source of stem cells, found in a much higher concentration than the adult bone marrow. And just like when one uses their own stem cells, the use of amniotic fluid doesnt cause rejection or allergic reaction when injected into a patient.

Amniotic stem cell injections have been getting more attention since they have been openly used by prominent athletes with impressive results and even a few saved careers! The ability to safely and effectively treat painful and debilitating injuries and conditions of the knees, elbows, and shoulders without lengthy rehabilitation or recovery time isnt just appealing to professional athletes, but to anyone who wants relief from pain and to return to their favorite activities.

Initial small studies are showing that amniotic stem cell injections work well for the following indications: 1) Tendonitis 2) Ligament Injury 3) Arthritis 4) Sports Medicine Injuries 5) Cartilage Defects

Dr. Sisson at Colorado Clinic is an expert in regenerative medicine treatments. Call the practice today for an appointment!

Bone Marrow Derived Stem Cell Injections for Musculoskeletal Problems

What are Bone Marrow Derived Stem Cell Injections?

There are many types of stem cell injections that are currently in research mode. One type of stem cell injection currently used for many types of degenerative conditions is the bone marrow derived stem cell injection. This type of stem cell treatment is excellent for degenerative disc disease, joint arthritis, ligament injuries, spinal arthritis, and tendonitis. Studies have shown that therapy using regenerative treatment, such as bone marrow stem cell injections, work well for degenerative conditions.

Bone Marrow Derived Stem Cell Collection and Injection

Bone marrow derived stem cell injections are an outpatient procedure where a patients bone marrow is harvested. It is then processed and injected into the area of concern in the same setting. In bone marrow derived stem cell injections, collection is done in an outpatient procedure which takes about 30 minutes. The bone marrow derived stem cells are collected using a catheter and local anesthetic.

The bone marrow derived stem cells are removed from the body in the blood, circulated through a machine with the filtered blood, and returned to the patients body in the same procedure. The stem cells are filtered out of the blood using the aspheresis machine, which retains only the stem cells.

What is the Future of Bone Marrow Derived Stem Cell Injections?

The future of bone marrow derived stem cell injections is a bright one. There are two types of bone marrow stem cells that can be derived from the tissue composing the middle of the bones, mesenchymal, and hematopoietic stem cells. It is the hematopoietic stem cells that differentiate back into blood cells among other things, and the mesenchymal cells that differentiate into skeletal and vertebral tissues.

Bone marrow derived stem cell injections are showing excellent results for tendonitis, ligament injuries and degenerative arthritis. This can help produce great results for athletes and individuals who desire to avoid or delay the need for joint replacement surgery.

Dr. Sisson at Colorado Clinic is at the forefront of regenerative medicine treatments with stem cells. You will be in good hands!

PRP Therapy at Colorado Clinic

The Facts about PRP Injections

Platelet-rich (PRP) therapy is a form of therapy that is used for damage that occurs within the tendons, ligaments, and joints. This type of therapy works by stimulating repair within the areas that are damaged, while also providing pain relief for the area where the therapy is used. PRP therapy has been around for quite some time, but has only recently become a more common method of treatment for musculoskeletal conditions.

Due to the ease of application, and the very few side-effects present with PRP therapy, it is commonly replacing other treatments that are more invasive, such as surgical procedures.

What exactly is PRP Therapy?

PRP therapy is often called platelet-rich plasma therapy, and this type of therapy is provided in the form of an injection. Initially, about 30-60cc of blood is drawn from the patients arm. It is placed into a centrifuge machine and separates into several layers. The middle layer contains concentrated platelets and growth factors and is used in the treatment for injection into the problem area.

Your blood is composed of several different parts, and when the blood is put into a medical machine that spins it at a fast rate, the platelets are separated from the blood, collected, and then put into a vial in a concentrated amount. The collected platelets are then injected into the area that is damaged, which provides the pain relief and repairing effects for the area. This allows the patient to get the platelets and growth factors needed for healing, while also using the bodys own resources, which eliminates the possibility of side-effects occurring due to the body rejecting the injection that is made.

The platelets that are removed from the blood are the same ones within the blood that stick to one another when we are injured and the blood clots. While the blood as a whole is known to have great healing powers, the platelets are one of the most effective healing components of the blood. When injected into the different damaged areas of the body, they are able to call in stem cells, and also allow for regeneration of the soft tissue.

How does PRP Therapy Work?

When the PRP injection is made, the solution goes directly into the area that is damaged, and also into the areas surrounding the damage. The therapy is known to provide pain relief within a week for patients in up to 80% of cases, due to the ability ofthe injections to stimulate healing in the area at a much faster rate than what your body is able to provide. Platelet rich plasma also contains significant amounts of growth factors, and even severe damage can be healed over time with the use of this form of therapy.

Where can PRP be Used?

PRP therapy can be used in all of the joints within the body, and even areas of soft tissue that are damaged such as the shoulder, elbow, achilles, etc. This may include tendonitis, ligament injury or degenerative arthritis.

Platelet-rich plasma therapy at Colorado Clinic is offered by the top pain management and regenerative medicine doctor in Northern Colorado, Dr. Sisson. He has extensive experience with regenerative medicine including PRP therapy, make your appointment today!

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Regenerative Medicine – Colorado Clinic


 Regenerative Medicine  Comments Off on MetroMD
Sep 232015

MetroMD Institute of Regenerative Medicine provides consumers and Healthcare Providers opportunities to benefit from uniquely effective services and products belonging to a new branch of Twenty-First Century medicine called Regenerative Medicine.

The evidenced-based, new technologies of Regenerative Medicine address health & Cosmetic problems currently unresolved by conventional medical-surgical approaches.

Adult HGH Therapy Pediatric HGH Therapy

Testosterone Replacement Therapy Estrogen Therapy Progesterone Therapy Human Chorionic Gonadotropin

Platelet Rich Plasma Growth Factor Therapy

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Super Drip Beauty Drip Hangover Drip Recovery Drip Hydration Drip Immunity Drip Skinny Drip Vitamin B12 Shot B Complex Shot Vitamin C shot (Recommended in Drip Form) Glutathione Shot

MetroMD is the premier acne specialist in Los Angeles, Hollywood and Beverly Hills. Their acne treatments are designed to get rid of acne and the left over signs of acne. Many people come to MetroMD after having tried everything. Every skincare line, peel, mask, food, etc. However, MetroMD before and after has developed a 3[]

Stem cell therapy is the utilization of stem cells to prevent or treat a condition or a disease. A weekend warrior is a person who tries to fit in all the fitness activities of the week into a session or two usually on the weekend. In most cases, they do more that their bodies can[]

Treating Dwarfism With HGH by @AlexMartinMD we treat dwarfism with growth hormone therapy?Get the answers from Alex Martin, MD as he explains in todays video Treating Dwarfism With HGH by @AlexMartinMD was last modified: September 16th, 2015 by Carlos Manuel

How to Use Stem Cells to Repair Ankle Injuries Subscribe to our podcast, Regenerate Your Body on iTunes Alex Martin MD explains how to use stem cells to repair injuries of the ankle including the achilles tendon How to Use Stem Cells to Repair Ankle Injuries was last modified: September 16th, 2015 by Carlos[]

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HGH, or Human Growth Hormone, is a form of hormone replacement therapy that has become increasingly popular in the last decade. As the science improves and the cost of HGH goes down, its availability has increased. There are tens of thousands of people who are using HGH therapy for its many applications weight[]

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Most of us have heard of host of ways to grow taller at some point of time in our lives. A good height is a blessing from nature and growing taller may be a benefit in the world today. However, Nature has made no man similar, some lack good height, whilst some appear different[]

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Hormones Hormones are the biochemicals which regulate our bodies. They are produced by the endocrine glands and work over time, gradually effecting many of the bodys processes. Hormones are basically small chemical messengers which travel through the bodys bloodstreams to various organs and tissues. Even though they are small, they are certainly powerful and[]

Botox has already made its ways to Salon for smoothing wrinkles and to treating those frown lines near the eyes. However, Botox works much more beyond just the facial rejuvenation. See how. Mend migraines Lately, FDA gives nod for Botox injections for preventing migraines. Nearly 12% of Americans suffer from chronic headaches that cause tingling[]

Sermorelin and HGH therapy pricing or cost is often and common question that comes up in the clinic. Sermorelin is the human growth hormone that can be safely administered for a number of deficiencies. This hormone has been engineered to stimulate the secretion of hormones in thehypothalamus. The released amino acids then stimulate growth[]

HGH for Child Growth Deficiency: Informational | Dr. Alex Martin | MetroMD Can HGH help with Child Growth Deficiencies? Absolutely, just ask Dr. Alex Martin as he shows the clear choice in child growth therapy.Schedule a consultation today SHARE this video. Please Subscribe to keep in Touch and to learn[]

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Americans who have developed excessive fat in certain regions of their body can get rid of those fat deposits via the liposuction method. This treatment proves to be highly beneficial to both men and women and does not cost much.Liposuction inBeverly Hillsis done under experienced doctors. All you need to do is quickly make[]

Nature has made no man or woman similar in personalities or in physical outlook. Some are blessed with good growth and development, height wise, some are unfortunately, short heighted. Human Growth Deficiency occurs when a person is short in nature caused by abnormal condition slow or delayed growth. An adult person is said[]

Whether you feel insecure about your height or your growth has been stunted due to a medical condition or HGH deficiency, many people are turning toHuman Growth Hormone therapy, or HGH therapy, to help increase their height. HGH is a hormone that naturally occurs in our body and is essential to allowing us to grow[]

A lot of men today are taking HGH, human growth hormone. Whether its because they want to gain muscle or get more energy, HGH is a viable solution to these problems. HGH doctors are becoming more popular every year, since so many people are looking to take HGH. These doctors are licensed to give[]

Human Growth Hormone (HGH) injections come in different varieties and dosages. The doctor will show a patienthow to inject HGH, but the dosage depends on the purpose of the therapy and the result of the patients blood work. Hormone therapy may be given to slow signs of aging, for growth issues or to improve[]

The Benefits of HGH for Women Human growth hormone (HGH), is a natural hormone found in a womans body. As you age, there is a decline in the amount of the growth hormone, which causes a hormonal imbalance. Fortunately, when there is a decline in HGH, women can take a supplement to increase the[]

Medical advancements have made possible today the use of the natural supplement for increased energy levels and endurance in the human body with the proven application of Human Growth Hormone (HGH). Increased HGH levels in the body help stay young longer and strengthen the immune system. You can witness the increased energy and endurance[]






Regenerative Medicine Journals | Stem Cell Articles List

 Regenerative Medicine  Comments Off on Regenerative Medicine Journals | Stem Cell Articles List
Aug 152015

Journal of Regenerative Medicine Journal of Regenerative Medicine (JRGM) is a peer-reviewed scholarly journal and aims to publish the most complete and reliable source of information on the discoveries and current developments in the mode of original articles, review articles, case reports, short communications, etc. in all areas of stem cells and regenerative medicine and making them available online freelywithout any restrictions or any other subscriptions to researchers worldwide. Journal of Regenerative Medicine focuses on the topics include regenerative medicine therapies, stem cell applications, tissue engineering, gene and cell therapies, translational medicine and tissue regeneration. The Journal is using Editorial Manager System for quality in review process. Editorial Manager is an online manuscript submission, review and tracking system. Review processing is performed by the editorial board members ofJournal Regenerative Medicine or outside experts; at least two independent reviewers approval followed by editor approval is required for acceptance of any citable manuscript. Authors may submit manuscripts and track their progress through the system, hopefully to publication. Reviewers can download manuscripts and submit their opinions to the editor. Editors can manage the whole submission/review/revise/publish process. Interested authors can submit manuscript through Online Submission System or Editorial Manager or send as an e-mail attachment to the Editorial Office

In biology, regeneration is the process of renewal, restoration, and growth that makes genomes, cells, organisms, and ecosystems resilient to natural fluctuations or events that cause disturbance or damage. Every species is capable of regeneration, from bacteria to humans. Regeneration can either be complete where the new tissue is the same as the lost tissue, or incomplete where after the necrotic tissue comes fibrosis. At its most elementary level, regeneration is mediated by the molecular processes of gene regulation. Regeneration in biology, however, mainly refers to the morphogenic processes that characterize the phenotypic plasticity of traits allowing multi-cellular organisms to repair and maintain the integrity of their physiological and morphological states. Above the genetic level, regeneration is fundamentally regulated by asexual cellular processes. Regeneration is different from reproduction. For example, hydra perform regeneration but reproduce by the method of budding.

Stem cells are undifferentiated cells, hat can differentiate into specialized cells and can divide to produce more stem cells. They are found in multicellular organisms. In mammals, there are two broad types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells, which are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, and adult stem cells, which are found in various tissues. In adult organisms, stem cells and progenitor cells act as a repair system for the body, replenishing adult tissues. In a developing embryo, stem cells can differentiate into all the specialized cellsectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm – but also maintain the normal turnover of regenerative organs, such as blood, skin, or intestinal tissues.

Tissue repair and regeneration following injury or disease are often thought to recapitulate embryonic development by using similar molecular and cellular pathways. In addition, many embryonic tissues, such as the spinal cord, heart, and limbs, have some regenerative potential and may utilize mechanisms that can be exogenously activated in adult tissues. For example, BMP signaling regulates nervous system development, and SMAD reactivation plays a critical role in adult nerve regeneration and repair in animal models of spinal cord injury. While similar molecular pathways are utilized during embryogenesis and adult tissue regeneration, recent reports suggest the mechanisms by which these developmental programs are reactivated and maintained may vary in adult tissues. Adult fish and amphibians have a remarkable capacity for tissue regeneration, while mammals have a limited regenerative capacity.

Rejuvenation is a medical discipline focused on the practical reversal of the aging process. Rejuvenation is distinct from life extension. Life extension strategies often study the causes of aging and try to oppose those causes in order to slow aging. Rejuvenation is the reversal of aging and thus requires a different strategy, namely repair of the damage that is associated with aging or replacement of damaged tissue with new tissue. Rejuvenation can be a means of life extension, but most life extension strategies do not involve rejuvenation.

Molecular and Cellular Engineering uses engineering principles to understand and construct cellular and molecular circuits with useful properties. At the molecular level, proteins can be engineered to elicit specific ligand-receptor interactions, which can then be used for the rational design of targeted drug therapies. At the cellular level, metabolic engineering can create cellular biosensors that can monitor the environment for toxins or other specific molecules. Molecular and Cellular engineering can also be used to enhance the cellular production of pharmaceuticals, the delivery of beneficial genes to a particular cell type, and the production of tissues or tissue matrices for therapeutic purposes. This area of research also promises to help the scientific community unlock the mysteries of cellular metabolism, and how alterations in metabolism can lead to a myriad of human disease processes.

Tissue engineering is emerging as a significant potential alternative or complementary solution, whereby tissue and organ failure is addressed by implanting natural, synthetic, or semisynthetic tissue and organ mimics that are fully functional from the start, or that grow into the required functionality. Initial efforts have focused on skin equivalents for treating burns, but an increasing number of tissue types are now being engineered, as well as biomaterials and scaffolds used as delivery systems. A variety of approaches are used to coax differentiated or undifferentiated cells, such as stem cells, into the desired cell type. Notable results include tissue-engineered bone, blood vessels, liver, muscle, and even nerve conduits. As a result of the medical and market potential, there is significant academic and corporate interest in this technology.

Some parts of our bodies can repair themselves quite well after injury, but others dont repair at all. We certainly cant regrow a whole leg or arm, but some animals Can regrow – or regenerate – whole body parts. Regeneration means the regrowth of a damaged or missing organ part from the remaining tissue. As adults, humans can regenerate some organs, such as the liver. If part of the liver is lost by disease or injury, the liver grows back to its original size, though not its original shape. And our skin is constantly being renewed and repaired. Unfortunately many other human tissues dont regenerate, and a goal in regenerative medicine is to find ways to kick-start tissue regeneration in the body, or to engineer replacement tissues.

Translational science is a multidisciplinary form of science that bridges the recalcitrant gaps that sometimes exist between fundamental science and applied science, necessitating something in between to translate knowledge into applications. The term is most often used in the health sciences and refers to the translation of bench science, conducted only in a lab, to bedside clinical practice or dissemination to population-based community interventions.Translational Medicines: Translational medicine, also called translational medical science, preclinical research, evidence-based research, or disease-targeted research, area of research that aims to improve human health and longevity by determining the relevance to human disease of novel discoveries in the biological sciences. Translational medicine seeks to coordinate the use of new knowledge in clinical practice and to incorporate clinical observations and questions into scientific hypotheses in the laboratory. Thus, it is a bidirectional concept, encompassing so-called bench-to-bedside factors, which aim to increase the efficiency by which new therapeutic strategies developed through basic research are tested clinically, and bedside-to-bench factors, which provide feedback about the applications of new treatments and how they can be improved. Translational medicine facilitates the characterization of disease processes and the generation of novel hypotheses based on direct human observation.

Translational science is a multidisciplinary form of science that bridges the recalcitrant gaps that sometimes exist between fundamental science and applied science, necessitating something in between to translate knowledge into applications. The term is most often used in the health sciences and refers to the translation of bench science, conducted only in a lab, to bedside clinical practice or dissemination to population-based community interventions.

Nanomedicine may be defined as the monitoring, repair, construction and control of human biological systems at the molecular level, using engineered nanodevices and nanostructures.Basic nanostructured materials, engineered enzymes, and the many products of biotechnology will be enormously useful in near-term medical applications. However, the full promise of nanomedicine is unlikely to arrive until after the development of precisely controlled or programmable medical nanomachines and nanorobots.

Discovered centuries ago, regeneration is a fascinating biological phenomenon that continues to intrigue. The study of regeneration promises to inform how adult tissues heal and rebuild themselves such that this process may someday be stimulated in a clinical setting. Although mammals are limited in their ability to regenerate, closely and distantly related species alike can perform astonishing regenerative feats. Many different animals representing almost all phyla harness an innate ability to rebuild missing adult structures lost to injury. However, it is unclear which aspects of regeneration are conserved and which are unique to a given context. One aspect of regeneration that appears to be shared is the use of stem/progenitor cells to replace missing tissues.

Regenerative medicine is an emerging branch of medicine with the goal of restoring organ and/or tissue function for patients with serious injuries or chronic disease in which the bodies own responses are not sufficient enough to restore functional tissue. New and current Regenerative Medicines can use stem cells to create living and functional tissues to regenerate and repair tissue and organs in the body that are damaged due to age, disease and congenital defects. Stem cells have the power to go to these damaged areas and regenerate new cells and tissues by performing a repair and a renewal process, restoring functionality. Regenerative medicine has the potential to provide a cure to failing or impaired tissues.

Cellular therapy, also called live cell therapy, cellular suspensions, glandular therapy, fresh cell therapy, siccacell therapy, embryonic cell therapy, and organotherapy – refers to various procedures in which processed tissue from animal embryos, fetuses or organs, is injected or taken orally. Products are obtained from specific organs or tissues said to correspond with the unhealthy organs or tissues of the recipient. Proponents claim that the recipient’s body automatically transports the injected cells to the target organs, where they supposedly strengthen them and regenerate their structure. The organs and glands used in cell treatment include brain, pituitary, thyroid, adrenals, thymus, liver, kidney, pancreas, spleen, heart, ovary, testis, and parotid. Several different types of cell or cell extract can be given simultaneously – some practitioners routinely give up to 20 or more at once.

Gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses genes to treat or prevent disease. In the future, this technique may allow doctors to treat a disorder by inserting a gene into a patients cells instead of using drugs or surgery. Researchers are testing several approaches to gene therapy, including: Replacing a mutated gene that causes disease with a healthy copy of the gene; Inactivating, or knocking out, a mutated gene that is functioning improperly;Introducing a new gene into the body to help fight a disease. Although gene therapy is a promising treatment option for a number of diseases (including inherited disorders, some types of cancer, and certain viral infections), the technique remains risky and is still under study to make sure that it will be safe and effective. Gene therapy is currently only being tested for the treatment of diseases that have no other cures.

Immunotherapy, also called biologic therapy, is a type of cancer treatment designed to boost the body’s natural defense to fight the cancer. It uses materials either made by the body or in a laboratory to improve, target, or restore immune system function. It is not entirely clear how immunotherapy treats cancer. However, it may work in the following ways: Stopping or slowing the growth of cancer cells; Stopping cancer from spreading to other parts of the body; Helping the immune system work better at destroying cancer cells.There are several types of immunotherapy, including monoclonal antibodies, non-specific immunotherapies, and cancer vaccines.

Biomaterials are being used for the healthcare applications from ancient times. But subsequent evolution has made them more versatile and has increased their utility. Biomaterials have revolutionized the areas like bioengineering and tissue engineering for the development of novel strategies to combat life threatening diseases. Together with biomaterials, stem cell technology is also being used to improve the existing healthcare facilities. These concepts and technologies are being used for the treatment of different diseases like cardiac failure, fractures, deep skin injuries, etc. Introduction of nanomaterials on the other hand is becoming a big hope for a better and an affordable healthcare. Technological advancements are underway for the development of continuous monitoring and regulating glucose levels by the implantation of sensor chips. Lab-on-a-chip technology is expected to modernize the diagnostics and make it more easy and regulated. Other area which can improve the tomorrows healthcare is drug delivery. Micro-needles have the potential to overcome the limitations of conventional needles and are being studied for the delivery of drugs at different location in human body. There is a huge advancement in the area of scaffold fabrication which has improved the potentiality of tissue engineering. Most emerging scaffolds for tissue engineering are hydrogels and cryogels. Dynamic hydrogels have huge application in tissue engineering and drug delivery. Furthermore, cryogels being supermacroporous allow the attachment and proliferation of most of the mammalian cell types and have shown application in tissue engineering and bioseparation.

Human Pathological Conditions, provides fundamental information concerning common diseases and disorders of each body system. For each system, the disease or disorder is highlighted including: description, etiology, signs and symptoms, diagnostic procedures, treatment, management, prognosis, and prevention.

Diagnostic imaging lets doctors look inside your body for clues about a medical condition. A variety of machines and techniques can create pictures of the structures and activities inside your body. The type of imaging your doctor uses depends on your symptoms and the part of your body being examined. They include: X-rays, CT scans, Nuclear medicine scans, MRI scans, Ultrasound. Many imaging tests are painless and easy. Some require you to stay still for a long time inside a machine. This can be uncomfortable. Certain tests involve exposure to a small amount of radiation. For some imaging tests, doctors insert a tiny camera attached to a long, thin tube into your body. This tool is called a scope. The doctor moves it through a body passageway or opening to see inside a particular organ, such as your heart, lungs, or colon. These procedures often require anesthesia.

Stem cell transplantation is a procedure that is most often recommended as a treatment option for people with leukemia, multiple myeloma, and some types of lymphoma. It may also be used to treat some genetic diseases that involve the blood. During a stem cell transplant diseased bone marrow (the spongy, fatty tissue found inside larger bones) is destroyed with chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy and then replaced with highly specialized stem cells that develop into healthy bone marrow. Although this procedure used to be referred to as a bone marrow transplant, today it is more commonly called a stem cell transplant because it is stem cells in the blood that are typically being transplanted, not the actual bone marrow tissue.

The law has a lot to say about personal decision-making. For example, people have the legal right to make their own health care decisions. However, poor health can jeopardize peoples ability to exercise their legal rights. Safeguarding these rights requires advance thinking and planning. Sudden or chronic illness can cause profound weakness and confusion, which makes people vulnerable and can lead to the unwilling loss of control. Conducting personal affairs, making wishes known, and making sure those wishes are respected may be impossible for people who are physically or mentally impaired. Nevertheless, adults of any age can take steps to protect themselves against losing control over their life, and such steps are especially important for older people.

Journal of Regenerative Medicine is organizing & supporting4th International Conference on Tissue Science and Regenerative Medicine during July 27-29, 2015 Rome, Italy with the theme ofScientific Systems Regenerating Medicine”.

Regenerative Medicine Journals | Stem Cell Articles List

Stem cell therapy – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 Regenerative Medicine  Comments Off on Stem cell therapy – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Aug 152015

This article is about the medical therapy. For the cell type, see Stem cell.

Stem cell therapy is the use of stem cells to treat or prevent a disease or condition.

Bone marrow transplant is the most widely used stem cell therapy, but some therapies derived from umbilical cord blood are also in use. Research is underway to develop various sources for stem cells, and to apply stem cell treatments for neurodegenerative diseases and conditions, diabetes, heart disease, and other conditions.

With the ability of scientists to isolate and culture embryonic stem cells, and with scientists’ growing ability to create stem cells using somatic cell nuclear transfer and techniques to create induced pluripotent stem cells, controversy has crept in, both related to abortion politics and to human cloning. Additionally, efforts to market treatments based on transplant of stored umbilical cord blood have proven controversial.

For over 30 years, bone-marrow has been used to treat cancer patients with conditions such as leukaemia and lymphoma; this is the only form of stem cell therapy that is widely practiced.[1][2][3] During chemotherapy, most growing cells are killed by the cytotoxic agents. These agents, however, cannot discriminate between the leukaemia or neoplastic cells, and the hematopoietic stem cells within the bone marrow. It is this side effect of conventional chemotherapy strategies that the stem cell transplant attempts to reverse; a donor’s healthy bone marrow reintroduces functional stem cells to replace the cells lost in the host’s body during treatment. The transplanted cells also generate an immune response that helps to kill off the cancer cells; this process can go too far, however, leading to graft vs host disease, the most serious side effect of this treatment.[4]

Another stem cell therapy called Prochymal, was conditionally approved in Canada in 2012 for the management of acute graft-vs-host disease in children who are unresponsive to steroids.[5] It is an allogenic stem therapy based on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from the bone marrow of adult donors. MSCs are purified from the marrow, cultured and packaged, with up to 10,000 doses derived from a single donor. The doses are stored frozen until needed.[6]

The FDA has approved five hematopoietic stem cell products derived from umbilical cord blood, for the treatment of blood and immunological diseases.[7]

In 2014, the European Medicines Agency recommended approval of Holoclar, a treatment involving stem cells, for use in the European Union. Holoclar is used for people with severe limbal stem cell deficiency due to burns in the eye.[8]

Research has been conducted to learn whether stem cells may be used to treat brain degeneration, such as in Parkinson’s, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Alzheimer’s disease.[9][10][11]

Healthy adult brains contain neural stem cells which divide to maintain general stem cell numbers, or become progenitor cells. In healthy adult animals, progenitor cells migrate within the brain and function primarily to maintain neuron populations for olfaction (the sense of smell). Pharmacological activation of endogenous neural stem cells has been reported to induce neuroprotection and behavioral recovery in adult rat models of neurological disorder.[12][13][14]

Stroke and traumatic brain injury lead to cell death, characterized by a loss of neurons and oligodendrocytes within the brain. A small clinical trial was underway in Scotland in 2013, in which stem cells were injected into the brains of stroke patients.[15]

Clinical and animal studies have been conducted into the use of stem cells in cases of spinal cord injury.[16][17][18]

The pioneering work[19] by Bodo-Eckehard Strauer has now been discredited by the identification of hundreds of factual contradictions.[20] Among several clinical trials that have reported that adult stem cell therapy is safe and effective, powerful effects have been reported from only a few laboratories, but this has covered old[21] and recent[22] infarcts as well as heart failure not arising from myocardial infarction.[23] While initial animal studies demonstrated remarkable therapeutic effects,[24][25] later clinical trials achieved only modest, though statistically significant, improvements.[26][27] Possible reasons for this discrepancy are patient age,[28] timing of treatment[29] and the recent occurrence of a myocardial infarction.[30] It appears that these obstacles may be overcome by additional treatments which increase the effectiveness of the treatment[31] or by optimizing the methodology although these too can be controversial. Current studies vary greatly in cell procuring techniques, cell types, cell administration timing and procedures, and studied parameters, making it very difficult to make comparisons. Comparative studies are therefore currently needed.

Stem cell therapy for treatment of myocardial infarction usually makes use of autologous bone marrow stem cells (a specific type or all), however other types of adult stem cells may be used, such as adipose-derived stem cells.[32] Adult stem cell therapy for treating heart disease was commercially available in at least five continents as of 2007.[citation needed]

Possible mechanisms of recovery include:[9]

It may be possible to have adult bone marrow cells differentiate into heart muscle cells.[9]

The first successful integration of human embryonic stem cell derived cardiomyocytes in guinea pigs (mouse hearts beat too fast) was reported in August 2012. The contraction strength was measured four weeks after the guinea pigs underwent simulated heart attacks and cell treatment. The cells contracted synchronously with the existing cells, but it is unknown if the positive results were produced mainly from paracrine as opposed to direct electromechanical effects from the human cells. Future work will focus on how to get the cells to engraft more strongly around the scar tissue. Whether treatments from embryonic or adult bone marrow stem cells will prove more effective remains to be seen.[33]

In 2013 the pioneering reports of powerful beneficial effects of autologous bone marrow stem cells on ventricular function were found to contain “hundreds” of discrepancies.[34] Critics report that of 48 reports there seemed to be just 5 underlying trials, and that in many cases whether they were randomized or merely observational accepter-versus-rejecter, was contradictory between reports of the same trial. One pair of reports of identical baseline characteristics and final results, was presented in two publications as, respectively, a 578 patient randomized trial and as a 391 patient observational study. Other reports required (impossible) negative standard deviations in subsets of patients, or contained fractional patients, negative NYHA classes. Overall there were many more patients published as having receiving stem cells in trials, than the number of stem cells processed in the hospital’s laboratory during that time. A university investigation, closed in 2012 without reporting, was reopened in July 2013.[35]

One of the most promising benefits of stem cell therapy is the potential for cardiac tissue regeneration to reverse the tissue loss underlying the development of heart failure after cardiac injury.[36]

Initially, the observed improvements were attributed to a transdifferentiation of BM-MSCs into cardiomyocyte-like cells.[24] Given the apparent inadequacy of unmodified stem cells for heart tissue regeneration, a more promising modern technique involves treating these cells to create cardiac progenitor cells before implantation to the injured area.[37]

The specificity of the human immune-cell repertoire is what allows the human body to defend itself from rapidly adapting antigens. However, the immune system is vulnerable to degradation upon the pathogenesis of disease, and because of the critical role that it plays in overall defense, its degradation is often fatal to the organism as a whole. Diseases of hematopoietic cells are diagnosed and classified via a subspecialty of pathology known as hematopathology. The specificity of the immune cells is what allows recognition of foreign antigens, causing further challenges in the treatment of immune disease. Identical matches between donor and recipient must be made for successful transplantation treatments, but matches are uncommon, even between first-degree relatives. Research using both hematopoietic adult stem cells and embryonic stem cells has provided insight into the possible mechanisms and methods of treatment for many of these ailments.[citation needed]

Fully mature human red blood cells may be generated ex vivo by hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which are precursors of red blood cells. In this process, HSCs are grown together with stromal cells, creating an environment that mimics the conditions of bone marrow, the natural site of red-blood-cell growth. Erythropoietin, a growth factor, is added, coaxing the stem cells to complete terminal differentiation into red blood cells.[38] Further research into this technique should have potential benefits to gene therapy, blood transfusion, and topical medicine.

Hair follicles also contain stem cells, and some researchers predict research on these follicle stem cells may lead to successes in treating baldness through an activation of the stem cells progenitor cells. This treatment is expected to work by activating already existing stem cells on the scalp. Later treatments may be able to simply signal follicle stem cells to give off chemical signals to nearby follicle cells which have shrunk during the aging process, which in turn respond to these signals by regenerating and once again making healthy hair.

In 2004, scientists at King’s College London discovered a way to cultivate a complete tooth in mice[39] and were able to grow bioengineered teeth stand-alone in the laboratory. Researchers are confident that the tooth regeneration technology can be used to grow live teeth in human patients.

In theory, stem cells taken from the patient could be coaxed in the lab into turning into a tooth bud which, when implanted in the gums, will give rise to a new tooth, and would be expected to be grown in a time over three weeks.[40] It will fuse with the jawbone and release chemicals that encourage nerves and blood vessels to connect with it. The process is similar to what happens when humans grow their original adult teeth. Many challenges remain, however, before stem cells could be a choice for the replacement of missing teeth in the future.[41][42]

Research is ongoing in different fields, alligators which are polyphyodonts grow up to 50 times a successional tooth (a small replacement tooth) under each mature functional tooth for replacement once a year.[43]

Heller has reported success in re-growing cochlea hair cells with the use of embryonic stem cells.[44]

Since 2003, researchers have successfully transplanted corneal stem cells into damaged eyes to restore vision. “Sheets of retinal cells used by the team are harvested from aborted fetuses, which some people find objectionable.” When these sheets are transplanted over the damaged cornea, the stem cells stimulate renewed repair, eventually restore vision.[45] The latest such development was in June 2005, when researchers at the Queen Victoria Hospital of Sussex, England were able to restore the sight of forty patients using the same technique. The group, led by Sheraz Daya, was able to successfully use adult stem cells obtained from the patient, a relative, or even a cadaver. Further rounds of trials are ongoing.[46]

In April 2005, doctors in the UK transplanted corneal stem cells from an organ donor to the cornea of Deborah Catlyn, a woman who was blinded in one eye when acid was thrown in her eye at a nightclub. The cornea, which is the transparent window of the eye, is a particularly suitable site for transplants. In fact, the first successful human transplant was a cornea transplant. The absence of blood vessels within the cornea makes this area a relatively easy target for transplantation. The majority of corneal transplants carried out today are due to a degenerative disease called keratoconus.

The University Hospital of New Jersey reports that the success rate for growth of new cells from transplanted stem cells varies from 25 percent to 70 percent.[47]

In 2014, researchers demonstrated that stem cells collected as biopsies from donor human corneas can prevent scar formation without provoking a rejection response in mice with corneal damage.[48]

In January 2012, The Lancet published a paper by Steven Schwartz, at UCLA’s Jules Stein Eye Institute, reporting two women who had gone legally blind from macular degeneration had dramatic improvements in their vision after retinal injections of human embryonic stem cells.[49]

Diabetes patients lose the function of insulin-producing beta cells within the pancreas.[50] In recent experiments, scientists have been able to coax embryonic stem cell to turn into beta cells in the lab. In theory if the beta cell is transplanted successfully, they will be able to replace malfunctioning ones in a diabetic patient.[51]

Human embryonic stem cells may be grown in cell culture and stimulated to form insulin-producing cells that can be transplanted into the patient.

However, clinical success is highly dependent on the development of the following procedures:[9]

Clinical case reports in the treatment orthopaedic conditions have been reported. To date, the focus in the literature for musculoskeletal care appears to be on mesenchymal stem cells. Centeno et al. have published MRI evidence of increased cartilage and meniscus volume in individual human subjects.[52][53] The results of trials that include a large number of subjects, are yet to be published. However, a published safety study conducted in a group of 227 patients over a 3-4 year period shows adequate safety and minimal complications associated with mesenchymal cell transplantation.[54]

Wakitani has also published a small case series of nine defects in five knees involving surgical transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells with coverage of the treated chondral defects.[55]

Stem cells can also be used to stimulate the growth of human tissues. In an adult, wounded tissue is most often replaced by scar tissue, which is characterized in the skin by disorganized collagen structure, loss of hair follicles and irregular vascular structure. In the case of wounded fetal tissue, however, wounded tissue is replaced with normal tissue through the activity of stem cells.[56] A possible method for tissue regeneration in adults is to place adult stem cell “seeds” inside a tissue bed “soil” in a wound bed and allow the stem cells to stimulate differentiation in the tissue bed cells. This method elicits a regenerative response more similar to fetal wound-healing than adult scar tissue formation.[56] Researchers are still investigating different aspects of the “soil” tissue that are conducive to regeneration.[56]

Culture of human embryonic stem cells in mitotically inactivated porcine ovarian fibroblasts (POF) causes differentiation into germ cells (precursor cells of oocytes and spermatozoa), as evidenced by gene expression analysis.[57]

Human embryonic stem cells have been stimulated to form Spermatozoon-like cells, yet still slightly damaged or malformed.[58] It could potentially treat azoospermia.

In 2012, oogonial stem cells were isolated from adult mouse and human ovaries and demonstrated to be capable of forming mature oocytes.[59] These cells have the potential to treat infertility.

Destruction of the immune system by the HIV is driven by the loss of CD4+ T cells in the peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues. Viral entry into CD4+ cells is mediated by the interaction with a cellular chemokine receptor, the most common of which are CCR5 and CXCR4.1 Because subsequent viral replication requires cellular gene expression processes, activated CD4+ cells are the primary targets of productive HIV infection.[60] Recently scientists have been investigating an alternative approach to treating HIV-1/AIDS, based on the creation of a disease-resistant immune system through transplantation of autologous, gene-modified (HIV-1-resistant) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (GM-HSPC).[61]

On January 23, 2009, the US Food and Drug Administration gave clearance to Geron Corporation for the initiation of the first clinical trial of an embryonic stem cell-based therapy on humans. The trial aimed evaluate the drug GRNOPC1, embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, on patients with acute spinal cord injury. The trial was discontinued in November 2011 so that the company could focus on therapies in the “current environment of capital scarcity and uncertain economic conditions”.[62] In 2013 biotechnology and regenerative medicine company BioTime (NYSEMKT:BTX) acquired Geron’s stem cell assets in a stock transaction, with the aim of restarting the clinical trial.[63]

Scientists have reported that MSCs when transfused immediately within few hours post thawing may show reduced function or show decreased efficacy in treating diseases as compared to those MSCs which are in log phase of cell growth(fresh), so cryopreserved MSCs should be brought back into log phase of cell growth in invitro culture before these are administered for clinical trials or experimental therapies, re-culturing of MSCs will help in recovering from the shock the cells get during freezing and thawing. Various clinical trials on MSCs have failed which used cryopreserved product immediately post thaw as compared to those clinical trials which used fresh MSCs.[64]

There is widespread controversy over the use of human embryonic stem cells. This controversy primarily targets the techniques used to derive new embryonic stem cell lines, which often requires the destruction of the blastocyst. Opposition to the use of human embryonic stem cells in research is often based on philosophical, moral or religious objections.[103] There is other stem cell research that does not involve the destruction of a human embryo, and such research involves adult stem cells, amniotic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells.

Stem cell research and treatment was practiced in the People’s Republic of China. The Ministry of Health of the People’s Republic of China has permitted the use of stem cell therapy for conditions beyond those approved of in Western countries. The Western World has scrutinized China for its failed attempts to meet international documentation standards of these trials and procedures.[104]

State-funded companies based in the Shenzhen Hi-Tech Industrial Zone treat the symptoms of numerous disorders with adult stem cell therapy. Development companies are currently focused on the treatment of neurodegenerative and cardiovascular disorders. The most radical successes of Chinese adult stem cell therapy have been in treating the brain. These therapies administer stem cells directly to the brain of patients with Cerebral Palsy, Alzheimer’s, and brain injuries.

Since 2008 many centres and doctors tried a diversity of methods; in Lebanon proliferative and non-proliferative, in-vivo and in-vitro techniques were used. The Regenerative Medicine also took place in Jordan and Egypt.

Stem cell treatment is currently being practiced at a clinical level in Mexico. An International Health Department Permit (COFEPRIS) is required. Authorized centers are found in Tijuana, Guadalajara and Cancun. Currently undergoing the approval process is Los Cabos. This permit allows the use of stem cell.

In 2005, South Korean scientists claimed to have generated stem cells that were tailored to match the recipient. Each of the 11 new stem cell lines was developed using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology. The resultant cells were thought to match the genetic material of the recipient, thus suggesting minimal to no cell rejection.[105]

As of 2013, Thailand still considers Hematopoietic stem cell transplants as experimental. Kampon Sriwatanakul began with a clinical trial in October 2013 with 20 patients. 10 are going to receive stem cell therapy for Type-2 Diabetes and the other 10 will receive stem cell therapy for emphysema. Chotinantakul’s research is on Hematopoietic cells and their role for the hematopoietic system function in homeostasis and immune response.[106]

Today, Ukraine is permitted to perform clinical trials of stem cell treatments (Order of the MH of Ukraine 630 “About carrying out clinical trials of stem cells”, 2008) for the treatment of these pathologies: pancreatic necrosis, cirrhosis, hepatitis, burn disease, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, critical lower limb ischemia. The first medical institution granted the right to conduct clinical trials became the “Institute of Cell Therapy”(Kiev).

Other countries where doctors did stem cells research, trials, manipulation, storage, therapy: Brazil, Cyprus, Germany, Italy, Israel, Japan, Pakistan, Philippines, Russia, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, India and many others.

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About Regenerative Medicine Research at the Texas Heart …

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Jul 222015

Dr.DorisTayloris involved in both laboratory and clinical studies using cell therapy to treat disease. Almost5 million Americans are living with heart failure and more than half a million new cases are diagnosed annually. Almost 50,000 people die each year while awaiting a heart transplant and, for a decade or more, only about 2,200 heart transplants have been performed in the entire United States. The need is dwarfed by the availability of donor organs.

This is one of the reasons there is such hope placed in the promising field of regenerative medicine. The groundbreaking work of Dr. Taylor and her team has demonstrated the ability in the lab to strip organs, including the heart, of their cellular make-up leaving a decellularized “scaffold.” The heartcan then be re-seeded with cells that, when supplied with blood and oxygen, regenerate the scaffold into a functioning heart. Dr. Taylor calls this using nature’s platform to create a bioartificial heart.

The hope is that this research is an early step toward being able to grow a fully functional human heart in the laboratory. Dr. Taylor has demonstrated that the process works for other organs as well, such as kidney, pancreas, lung, and liver where she has already tested the same approachopening a door in the field of organ transplantation.

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regenerative medicine |

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Jun 302015

regenerative medicine,cartilage: bronchus repair using bioartificial tissue transplantationHospital Clinic of Barcelona/APthe application of treatments developed to replace tissues damaged by injury or disease. These treatments may involve the use of biochemical techniques to induce tissue regeneration directly at the site of damage or the use of transplantation techniques employing differentiated cells or stem cells, either alone or as part of a bioartificial tissue. Bioartificial tissues are made by seeding cells onto natural or biomimetic scaffolds (see tissue engineering). Natural scaffolds are the total extracellular matrixes (ECMs) of decellularized tissues or organs. In contrast, biomimetic scaffolds may be composed of natural materials, such as collagen or proteoglycans (proteins with long chains of carbohydrate), or built from artificial materials, such as metals, ceramics, or polyester polymers. Cells used for transplants and bioartificial tissues are almost always autogeneic (self) to avoid rejection by the patients immune system. The use of allogeneic (nonself) cells carries a high risk of immune rejection and therefore requires tissue matching between donor and recipient and involves the administration of immunosuppressive drugs.

A variety of autogeneic and allogeneic cell and bioartificial tissue transplantations have been performed. Examples of autogeneic transplants using differentiated cells include blood transfusion with frozen stores of the patients own blood and repair of the articular cartilage of the knee with the patients own articular chondrocytes (cartilage cells) that have been expanded in vitro (amplified in number using cell culture techniques in a laboratory). An example of a tissue that has been generated for autogeneic transplant is the human mandible (lower jaw). Functional bioartificial mandibles are made by seeding autogeneic bone marrow cells onto a titanium mesh scaffold loaded with bovine bone matrix, a type of extracellular matrix that has proved valuable in regenerative medicine for its ability to promote cell adhesion and proliferation in transplantable bone tissues. Functional bioartificial bladders also have been successfully implanted into patients. Bioartificial bladders are made by seeding a biodegradable polyester scaffold with autogeneic urinary epithelial cells and smooth muscle cells.

Another example of a tissue used successfully in an autogeneic transplant is a bioartificial bronchus, which was generated to replace damaged tissue in a patient affected by tuberculosis. The bioartificial bronchus was constructed from an ECM scaffold of a section of bronchial tissue taken from a donor cadaver. Differentiated epithelial cells isolated from the patient and chondrocytes derived from mesenchymal stem cells collected from the patients bone marrow were seeded onto the scaffold.

There are few clinical examples of allogeneic cell and bioartificial tissue transplants. The two most common allogeneic transplants are blood-group-matched blood transfusion and bone marrow transplant. Allogeneic bone marrow transplants are often performed following high-dose chemotherapy, which is used to destroy all the cells in the hematopoietic system in order to ensure that all cancer-causing cells are killed. (The hematopoietic system is contained within the bone marrow and is responsible for generating all the cells of the blood and immune system.) This type of bone marrow transplant is associated with a high risk of graft-versus-host disease, in which the donor marrow cells attack the recipients tissues. Another type of allogeneic transplant involves the islets of Langerhans, which contain the insulin-producing cells of the body. This type of tissue can be transplanted from cadavers to patients with diabetes mellitus, but recipients require immunosuppression therapy to survive.

Cell transplant experiments with paralyzed mice, pigs, and nonhuman primates demonstrated that Schwann cells (the myelin-producing cells that insulate nerve axons) injected into acutely injured spinal cord tissue could restore about 70 percent of the tissues functional capacity, thereby partially reversing paralysis.

embryonic stem cell: scientists conducting research on embryonic stem cellsMauricio LimaAFP/Getty ImagesStudies on experimental animals are aimed at understanding ways in which autogeneic or allogeneic adult stem cells can be used to regenerate damaged cardiovascular, neural, and musculoskeletal tissues in humans. Among adult stem cells that have shown promise in this area are satellite cells, which occur in skeletal muscle fibres in animals and humans. When injected into mice affected by dystrophy, a condition characterized by the progressive degeneration of muscle tissue, satellite cells stimulate the regeneration of normal muscle fibres. Ulcerative colitis in mice was treated successfully with intestinal organoids (organlike tissues) derived from adult stem cells of the large intestine. When introduced into the colon, the organoids attached to damaged tissue and generated a normal-appearing intestinal lining.

In many cases, however, adult stem cells such as satellite cells have not been easily harvested from their native tissues, and they have been difficult to culture in the laboratory. In contrast, embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can be harvested once and cultured indefinitely. Moreover, ESCs are pluripotent, meaning that they can be directed to differentiate into any cell type, which makes them an ideal cell source for regenerative medicine.

Studies of animal ESC derivatives have demonstrated that these cells are capable of regenerating tissues of the central nervous system, heart, skeletal muscle, and pancreas. Derivatives of human ESCs used in animal models have produced similar results. For example, cardiac stem cells from heart-failure patients were engineered to express a protein (Pim-1) that promotes cell survival and proliferation. When these cells were injected into mice that had experienced myocardial infarction (heart attack), the cells were found to enhance the repair of injured heart muscle tissue. Likewise, heart muscle cells (cardiomyocytes) derived from human ESCs improved the function of injured heart muscle tissue in guinea pigs.

Derivatives of human ESCs are likely to produce similar results in humans, although these cells have not been used clinically and could be subject to immune rejection by recipients. The question of immune rejection was bypassed by the discovery in 2007 that adult somatic cells (e.g., skin and liver cells) can be converted to ESCs. This is accomplished by transfecting (infecting) the adult cells with viral vectors carrying genes that encode transcription factor proteins capable of reprogramming the adult cells into pluripotent stem cells. Examples of these factors include Oct-4 (octamer 4), Sox-2 (sex-determining region Y box 2), Klf-4 (Kruppel-like factor 4), and Nanog. Reprogrammed adult cells, known as induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, are potential autogeneic sources for cell transplantation and bioartificial tissue construction. Such cells have since been created from the skin cells of patients suffering from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Alzheimer disease and have been used as human models for the exploration of disease mechanisms and the screening of potential new drugs. In one such model, neurons derived from human iPS cells were shown to promote recovery of stroke-damaged brain tissue in mice and rats, and, in another, cardiomyocytes derived from human iPS cells successfully integrated into damaged heart tissue following their injection into rat hearts. These successes indicated that iPS cells could serve as a cell source for tissue regeneration or bioartificial tissue construction.

Scaffolds and soluble factors, such as proteins and small molecules, have been used to induce tissue repair by undamaged cells at the site of injury. These agents protect resident fibroblasts and adult stem cells and stimulate the migration of these cells into damaged areas, where they proliferate to form new tissue. The ECMs of pig small intestine submucosa, pig and human dermis, and different types of biomimetic scaffolds are used clinically for the repair of hernias, fistulas (abnormal ducts or passageways between organs), and burns.

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Market Access Strategies for Advanced Therapies – Video

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Apr 142015

Market Access Strategies for Advanced Therapies
Moderator: Jason Kolbert, Senior Managing Director, Maxim Group Speakers: Brian Abraham, Senior Director, Market Access Reimbursement, NUO Therapeutics John Doyle, Dr.P.H., SVP …

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Regenerative Medicine Symposium set for April 24 at GRU

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Apr 142015

AUGUSTA, Ga. – Scientists and physicians from the region interested in regenerative and reparative medicine techniques, such as helping aging stem cells stay focused on making strong bone, will meet in Augusta April 24 to hear updates from leaders in the field and strategize on how to move more research advances to patients.

The daylong Regenerative Medicine and Cellular Therapy Research Symposium, sponsored by the Georgia Regents University Institute for Regenerative and Reparative Medicine, begins at 8 a.m. in Room EC 1210 of the GRU Health Sciences Building.

“We think this is a terrific opportunity for basic scientists and physicians to come together and pursue more opportunities to work together to get better prevention and treatment strategies to patients,” said Dr. William D. Hill, stem cell researcher and symposium organizer.

Dr. Arnold I. Caplan, Director of the Skeletal Research Center at Case Western Reserve University and a pioneer in understanding mesenchymal stem cells, which give rise to bone, cartilage, muscle, and more, will give the keynote address at 8:45 a.m. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy is under study for a variety of conditions including multiple sclerosis, osteoarthritis, diabetes, emphysema, and stroke.

Other keynotes include:

The GRU Institute for Regenerative and Reparative Medicine has a focus on evidence-based approaches to healthy aging with an orthopaedic emphasis. “As you age, the bone is more fragile and likely to fracture,” Hill said. “We want to protect bone integrity before you get a fracture as well as your bone’s ability to constantly repair so, if you do get a fracture, you will repair it better yourself.”

Bone health is a massive and growing problem with the aging population worldwide. “What people don’t need is to fall and wind up in a nursing home,” said Dr. Mark Hamrick, MCG bone biologist and Research Director of the GRU institute. “This is a societal problem, a clinical problem, and a potential money problem that is going to burden the health care system if we don’t find better ways to intervene.”

The researchers are exploring options such as scaffolding to support improved bone repair with age as well as nutrients that impact ongoing mesenchymal stem cell health, since these stem cells, which tend to decrease in number and efficiency with age, are essential to maintaining strong bones as well as full, speedy recovery.

Dr. Carlos Isales, endocrinologist and Clinical Director of the GRU institute, is looking at certain nutrients, particularly amino acids, and how some of their metabolites produce bone damage while others prevent or repair it. Isales is Principal Investigator on a major Program Project grant from the National Institutes of Health exploring a variety of ways to keep aging mesenchymal stem cells healthy and focused on making bone. “I think the drugs we have reduce fractures, but I think there are better ways of doing that,” Isales said. “We are always thinking translationally,” said Hill.


Regenerative Medicine Symposium set for April 24 at GRU

Nadia Rosenthal: Stanford Childx Conference – Video

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Apr 122015

Nadia Rosenthal: Stanford Childx Conference
Nadia Rosenthal discusses regenerative medicine at the inaugural Childx Conference, 2015. Childx is a dynamic, TED-style conference designed to inspire innovation that improves pediatric and…

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U.S. Stem Cell Clinic: Meet Kristin Comella – Video

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Apr 122015

U.S. Stem Cell Clinic: Meet Kristin Comella
Ms. Comella has over 15 years experience in corporate entities with expertise in regenerative medicine, training and education, research, product development, and senior management. Ms. Comella…

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Histogenics – Video

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Apr 112015

Elissa Cote, VP, Marketing External Relations (NASDAQ: HSGX) Headquarters: Waltham, MA Histogenics is a regenerative medicine company focused on developing and commercializing products …

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Capricor Therapeutics – Video

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Apr 112015

Capricor Therapeutics
Linda Marban, Ph.D., CEO (NASDAQ: CAPR) Headquarters: Los Angeles, CA Capricor Therapeutics is a clinical stage biotechnology company focused on the treatment of fibrotic and inflammatory…

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Asterias Biotherapeutics – Video

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Apr 112015

Asterias Biotherapeutics
Pedro Lichtinger, President CEO (NYSEMKT: AST) Headquarters: Menlo Park, CA Asterias develops products based on its core technology platforms of pluripotent stem cells and allogeneic dendritic.

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AGTC – Video

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Apr 112015

Susan Washer, President CEO (NASDAQ: AGTC) Headquarters: Gainesville, FL AGTC is developing cures for rare eye diseases, offering hope to patients with unmet medical needs. With a highly…

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Cellular Biomedicine Group – Video

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Apr 112015

Cellular Biomedicine Group
William Cao, Ph.D., CEO (NASDAQ: CBMG) Headquarters: Palo Alto, CA Cellular Biomedicine Group is a U.S./China biomedicine company that develops cell therapies for certain cancerous diseases…

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Voyager Therapeutics – Video

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Apr 112015

Voyager Therapeutics
Steve Paul, M.D., CEO (Private) Headquarters: Cambridge, MA Voyager Therapeutics is developing life-changing gene therapies for fatal and debilitating diseases of the central nervous system….

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ViaCyte – Video

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Apr 112015

Paul Laikind, Ph.D., President CEO (Private) Headquarters: San Diego, CA ViaCyte's clinical development stage diabetes therapy, (VC-01), combines a highly engineered cell product (PEC-01…

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Audentes Therapeutics – Video

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Apr 112015

Audentes Therapeutics
Dawn Blessing, VP, Corporate Development (Private) Headquarters: San Francisco, CA Audentes is a biotechnology company committed to the development and commercialization of innovative new…

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