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Cato @ Liberty

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Jul 262015
 

You Ought to Have a Look is a feature from the Center for the Study of Science posted by Patrick J. Michaels and Paul C. (Chip) Knappenberger. While this section will feature all of the areas of interest that we are emphasizing, the prominence of the climate issue is driving a tremendous amount of web traffic. Here we post a few of the best in recent days, along with our color commentary.

In case you missed it the House Natural Resources Committee, this week, held a hearing examining the Administrations determination of the social cost of carbonthat is, how much future damage (out to the year 2300) the Administration deems is caused by the climate change that results from each emitted (metric) ton of carbon dioxide.

As you may imagine from this description, determining a value of the social cost of carbon is an extremely contentious issue, made more so by the fact that the Obama Administration requires that the social cost of carbon, or SCC, be included in the cost/benefit analysis of all federal actions (under National environmental Protection Act, NEPA) and proposed regulations.

Years ago, we warned about how powerful a tool the SCC was in the Administrations hands and have worked to raise the level of public awareness. To summarize our concerns:

The administrations SCC is a devious tool designed to justify more and more expensive rules and regulations impacting virtually every aspects of our lives, and it is developed by violating federal guidelines and ignoring the best science.

The more people know about this the better.

Our participation in the Natural Resources Committee hearing helped further our goal.

That the hearing was informative, contentious, and well-attended by both the committee members and the general public is a testament to the fact that we have been at least partly successful elevating the SCC from an esoteric wonky subject to one that is, thankfully, starting getting the attention it deserves.

In this edition of You Ought to Have a Look, we highlight excerpts from the hearing witnesses, which along with our Dr. Patrick Michaels, included Dr. Kevin Dayaratna (from The Heritage Foundation), Scott Segal (from the Policy Resolution Group) and Dr. Michael Dorsey (from US Climate Plan). The full written submissions by the witness are available here.

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Cato @ Liberty

Online Library of Liberty

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Jul 242015
 

Today the OLL has 1,697 titles, 467 authors, and 1,186 essays in 24 categories

News and Announcements [Archive]:

The Philosophic Radical George Grote (1794-1871) wrote this defence of democratic reform of the British electoral system in 1821. He noted the special problem posed by the concentration of political benefits being concentrated in a few hands and the costs being dispersed over very many

In the course of putting together a multi-volume collection of over 240 Leveller Tracts I came across some very interesting title pages which used typography and occasionally woodcuts to add graphical force to the political and economic arguments being made by the authors. The pamphlets were

This was the second work by George Grote on parliamentary reform. It was published on the eve of the passage of the First Reform Act of 1832 which largely achieved the goals of the Philosophic Radicals around James Mill.

In this months Liberty Matters online discussion we reassess the economic ideas of John Stuart Mill as found in his classic work Principles of Political Economy (1st ed. 1848, 7th ed. 1871) and other writings. In the Lead Essay by Steven Kates of the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology it is

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Online Library of Liberty

Positive and Negative Liberty (Stanford Encyclopedia of …

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Jul 242015
 

Imagine you are driving a car through town, and you come to a fork in the road. You turn left, but no one was forcing you to go one way or the other. Next you come to a crossroads. You turn right, but no one was preventing you from going left or straight on. There is no traffic to speak of and there are no diversions or police roadblocks. So you seem, as a driver, to be completely free. But this picture of your situation might change quite dramatically if we consider that the reason you went left and then right is that you’re addicted to cigarettes and you’re desperate to get to the tobacconists before it closes. Rather than driving, you feel you are being driven, as your urge to smoke leads you uncontrollably to turn the wheel first to the left and then to the right. Moreover, you’re perfectly aware that your turning right at the crossroads means you’ll probably miss a train that was to take you to an appointment you care about very much. You long to be free of this irrational desire that is not only threatening your longevity but is also stopping you right now from doing what you think you ought to be doing.

This story gives us two contrasting ways of thinking of liberty. On the one hand, one can think of liberty as the absence of obstacles external to the agent. You are free if no one is stopping you from doing whatever you might want to do. In the above story you appear, in this sense, to be free. On the other hand, one can think of liberty as the presence of control on the part of the agent. To be free, you must be self-determined, which is to say that you must be able to control your own destiny in your own interests. In the above story you appear, in this sense, to be unfree: you are not in control of your own destiny, as you are failing to control a passion that you yourself would rather be rid of and which is preventing you from realizing what you recognize to be your true interests. One might say that while on the first view liberty is simply about how many doors are open to the agent, on the second view it is more about going through the right doors for the right reasons.

In a famous essay first published in 1958, Isaiah Berlin called these two concepts of liberty negative and positive respectively (Berlin 1969).[1] The reason for using these labels is that in the first case liberty seems to be a mere absence of something (i.e. of obstacles, barriers, constraints or interference from others), whereas in the second case it seems to require the presence of something (i.e. of control, self-mastery, self-determination or self-realization). In Berlin’s words, we use the negative concept of liberty in attempting to answer the question What is the area within which the subject a person or group of persons is or should be left to do or be what he is able to do or be, without interference by other persons?, whereas we use the positive concept in attempting to answer the question What, or who, is the source of control or interference that can determine someone to do, or be, this rather than that? (1969, pp. 12122).

It is useful to think of the difference between the two concepts in terms of the difference between factors that are external and factors that are internal to the agent. While theorists of negative freedom are primarily interested in the degree to which individuals or groups suffer interference from external bodies, theorists of positive freedom are more attentive to the internal factors affecting the degree to which individuals or groups act autonomously. Given this difference, one might be tempted to think that a political philosopher should concentrate exclusively on negative freedom, a concern with positive freedom being more relevant to psychology or individual morality than to political and social institutions. This, however, would be premature, for among the most hotly debated issues in political philosophy are the following: Is the positive concept of freedom a political concept? Can individuals or groups achieve positive freedom through political action? Is it possible for the state to promote the positive freedom of citizens on their behalf? And if so, is it desirable for the state to do so? The classic texts in the history of western political thought are divided over how these questions should be answered: theorists in the classical liberal tradition, like Constant, Humboldt, Spencer and Mill, are typically classed as answering no and therefore as defending a negative concept of political freedom; theorists that are critical of this tradition, like Rousseau, Hegel, Marx and T.H. Green, are typically classed as answering yes and as defending a positive concept of political freedom.

In its political form, positive freedom has often been thought of as necessarily achieved through a collectivity. Perhaps the clearest case is that of Rousseau’s theory of freedom, according to which individual freedom is achieved through participation in the process whereby one’s community exercises collective control over its own affairs in accordance with the general will. Put in the simplest terms, one might say that a democratic society is a free society because it is a self-determined society, and that a member of that society is free to the extent that he or she participates in its democratic process. But there are also individualist applications of the concept of positive freedom. For example, it is sometimes said that a government should aim actively to create the conditions necessary for individuals to be self-sufficient or to achieve self-realization. The negative concept of freedom, on the other hand, is most commonly assumed in liberal defences of the constitutional liberties typical of liberal-democratic societies, such as freedom of movement, freedom of religion, and freedom of speech, and in arguments against paternalist or moralist state intervention. It is also often invoked in defences of the right to private property, although some have contested the claim that private property necessarily enhances negative liberty (Cohen, 1991, 1995).

After Berlin, the most widely cited and best developed analyses of the negative concept of liberty include Hayek (1960), Day (1971), Oppenheim (1981), Miller (1983) and Steiner (1994). Among the most prominent contemporary analyses of the positive concept of liberty are Milne (1968), Gibbs (1976), C. Taylor (1979) and Christman (1991, 2005).

Many liberals, including Berlin, have suggested that the positive concept of liberty carries with it a danger of authoritarianism. Consider the fate of a permanent and oppressed minority. Because the members of this minority participate in a democratic process characterized by majority rule, they might be said to be free on the grounds that they are members of a society exercising self-control over its own affairs. But they are oppressed, and so are surely unfree. Moreover, it is not necessary to see a society as democratic in order to see it as self-controlled; one might instead adopt an organic conception of society, according to which the collectivity is to be thought of as a living organism, and one might believe that this organism will only act rationally, will only be in control of itself, when its various parts are brought into line with some rational plan devised by its wise governors (who, to extend the metaphor, might be thought of as the organism’s brain). In this case, even the majority might be oppressed in the name of liberty.

Such justifications of oppression in the name of liberty are no mere products of the liberal imagination, for there are notorious historical examples of their endorsement by authoritarian political leaders. Berlin, himself a liberal and writing during the cold war, was clearly moved by the way in which the apparently noble ideal of freedom as self-mastery or self-realization had been twisted and distorted by the totalitarian dictators of the twentieth century most notably those of the Soviet Union so as to claim that they, rather than the liberal West, were the true champions of freedom. The slippery slope towards this paradoxical conclusion begins, according to Berlin, with the idea of a divided self. To illustrate: the smoker in our story provides a clear example of a divided self, for she is both a self that desires to get to an appointment and a self that desires to get to the tobacconists, and these two desires are in conflict. We can now enrich this story in a plausible way by adding that one of these selves the keeper of appointments is superior to the other: the self that is a keeper of appointments is thus a higher self, and the self that is a smoker is a lower self. The higher self is the rational, reflecting self, the self that is capable of moral action and of taking responsibility for what she does. This is the true self, for rational reflection and moral responsibility are the features of humans that mark them off from other animals. The lower self, on the other hand, is the self of the passions, of unreflecting desires and irrational impulses. One is free, then, when one’s higher, rational self is in control and one is not a slave to one’s passions or to one’s merely empirical self. The next step down the slippery slope consists in pointing out that some individuals are more rational than others, and can therefore know best what is in their and others’ rational interests. This allows them to say that by forcing people less rational than themselves to do the rational thing and thus to realize their true selves, they are in fact liberating them from their merely empirical desires. Occasionally, Berlin says, the defender of positive freedom will take an additional step that consists in conceiving of the self as wider than the individual and as represented by an organic social whole a tribe, a race, a church, a state, the great society of the living and the dead and the yet unborn. The true interests of the individual are to be identified with the interests of this whole, and individuals can and should be coerced into fulfilling these interests, for they would not resist coercion if they were as rational and wise as their coercers. Once I take this view, Berlin says, I am in a position to ignore the actual wishes of men or societies, to bully, oppress, torture in the name, and on behalf, of their real selves, in the secure knowledge that whatever is the true goal of man … must be identical with his freedom (Berlin 1969, pp. 13233).

Those in the negative camp try to cut off this line of reasoning at the first step, by denying that there is any necessary relation between one’s freedom and one’s desires. Since one is free to the extent that one is externally unprevented from doing things, they say, one can be free to do what one does not desire to do. If being free meant being unprevented from realizing one’s desires, then one could, again paradoxically, reduce one’s unfreedom by coming to desire fewer of the things one is unfree to do. One could become free simply by contenting oneself with one’s situation. A perfectly contented slave is perfectly free to realize all of her desires. Nevertheless, we tend to think of slavery as the opposite of freedom. More generally, freedom is not to be confused with happiness, for in logical terms there is nothing to stop a free person from being unhappy or an unfree person from being happy. The happy person might feel free, but whether they are free is another matter (Day, 1970). Negative theorists of freedom therefore tend to say not that having freedom means being unprevented from doing as one desires, but that it means being unprevented from doing whatever one might desire to do.

Some theorists of positive freedom bite the bullet and say that the contented slave is indeed free that in order to be free the individual must learn, not so much to dominate certain merely empirical desires, but to rid herself of them. She must, in other words, remove as many of her desires as possible. As Berlin puts it, if I have a wounded leg there are two methods of freeing myself from pain. One is to heal the wound. But if the cure is too difficult or uncertain, there is another method. I can get rid of the wound by cutting off my leg (1969, pp. 13536). This is the strategy of liberation adopted by ascetics, stoics and Buddhist sages. It involves a retreat into an inner citadel a soul or a purely noumenal self in which the individual is immune to any outside forces. But this state, even if it can be achieved, is not one that liberals would want to call one of freedom, for it again risks masking important forms of oppression. It is, after all, often in coming to terms with excessive external limitations in society that individuals retreat into themselves, pretending to themselves that they do not really desire the worldly goods or pleasures they have been denied. Moreover, the removal of desires may also be an effect of outside forces, such as brainwashing, which we should hardly want to call a realization of freedom.

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Carnival Liberty – Official Site

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Jul 212015
 

If youre looking to vacation on one of the most amazing ships at sea, feel free its Carnival Liberty! And Carnival Liberty just so happens to be packed with some of the latest, greatest features youll find anywhere.

For instance, guess which was the first ship to serve up gourmet Guy Fieri burgers daily. And which one debuted what is perhaps the worlds greatest sports bar, which combines live sports on TV, lively competition through the latest EA SPORTS titles not to mention great drinks. Its the same ship with tacos and burritos on Lido deck, made fresh while you wait, plus two great bars one rum-slinging, one tequila-wielding dueling for your heart.

This, however, is just the beginning of what to expect from the ship youd call one great vacation spot. Wed agree we just happen to call it Carnival Liberty.

So homey, so comfy, you’ll probably think about moving in.

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Carnival Liberty – Official Site

Liberty County, Texas – Official Site

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Jul 212015
 

LIBERTY COUNTY

Welcome to the Liberty County web site. Please feel free to browse the home of Liberty County on the web!

Liberty County is home to some of the kindest, friendliest, hardest working folks anywhere. Something is always happening here in Liberty County. Our proximity to Houston, lower cost of living, great schools, strong economy, and the world-class hospitality of communities like Cleveland, Liberty, and Dayton make Liberty County a wonderful place to raise a family or locate a business.

If you have any comments or suggestions on the content or use of this website, please emaildiane.hartfield@co.liberty.tx.us or dede.taylor@co.liberty.tx.us

Liberty County Housing Guidelines

The Liberty County Courthouse is located at 1923 Sam Houston St., Liberty, Texas 77575.

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Liberty (department store) – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Jun 032015
 

Liberty is a department store on Regent Street, based in the West End shopping district of Central London. The department store sells a wide range of luxury goods including womens, mens and childrens fashion, cosmetics and fragrances, jewellery, accessories, homeware, furniture, stationery and gifts. Liberty is known for its floral and graphic prints. The store’s current Managing Director is Ed Burstell.

Libertys third and fourth floors showcase innovative designs from famous gifting and homeware brands. The third floors central atrium is home to the Liberty Haberdashery department and is dedicated to the Liberty Art Fabrics collection, which introduces new designs and reused updated prints each season.

Arthur Lasenby Liberty was born in Chesham, Buckinghamshire in 1843. He was employed by Messrs Farmer and Rogers in Regent Street in 1862, the year of the International Exhibition at Kensington in London. By 1874, inspired by his 10 years of service, Arthur decided to start a business of his own, which he did the next year.

With a 2,000 loan from his future father-in-law, Arthur Liberty accepted the lease of half a shop at 218a Regent Street with only three staff members.

The shop opened during 1875 selling ornaments, fabric and objets d’art from Japan and the East. Within eighteen months Arthur Liberty had repaid the loan and acquired the second half of 218 Regent Street. As the business grew, neighbouring properties were bought and added.

In 1885, 142144 Regent Street was acquired and housed the ever-increasing demand for carpets and furniture. The basement was named the Eastern Bazaar, and was the vending place for what was described as “decorative furnishing objects”. He named the property Chesham House after the place in which he grew up. The store became the most fashionable place to shop in London and Liberty fabrics were used for both clothing and furnishings. Some of its clientele was exotic, and included famous Pre-Raphaelite artists.

In 1884 Liberty introduced the costume department into the Regent Street store, directed by Edward William Godwin (183386). Godwin was a distinguished architect. He was a founding member of the Costume Society in 1882. He and Arthur Liberty created in-house apparel to challenge the fashions of Paris.

In November 1885, Liberty brought forty-two villagers from India to stage a living village of Indian artisans. Liberty’s specialized in Oriental goods, in particular imported Indian silks, and the aim of the display was to generate both publicity and sales for the store. However, it was a disaster commercially and publicly, with concern about the way the villagers were put on display.

During the 1890s Arthur Lasenby Liberty built strong relationships with many English designers. Many of these designers, including Archibald Knox, practised the artistic styles known as Arts and Crafts and Art Nouveau, and Liberty helped develop Art Nouveau through his encouragement of such designers. The company became associated with this new style, to the extent that in Italy, Art Nouveau became known as the Stile Liberty, after the London shop.

The store became one of the most prestigious in London.

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Liberty (department store) – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

2006 JEEP LIBERTY White Bear Lake, MN 24141 – Video

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Apr 142015
 



2006 JEEP LIBERTY White Bear Lake, MN 24141
877-325-6047 | http://www.polarchevmazda.com 2006 JEEP LIBERTY White Bear Lake, MN Stock# 24141 866-440-4438 polarchev.com/ For more information on this vehicle and our full inventory, call.

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2004 Mercury Grand Marquis for sale in Liberty, KY 42539 at – Video

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Apr 142015
 



2004 Mercury Grand Marquis for sale in Liberty, KY 42539 at
This 2004 Mercury Grand Marquis is for sale in Liberty, KY 42539 at Discount Auto Sales . Contact Discount Auto Sales at http://www.discountautosalesandrentals.com or http://www.carsforsale.com…

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The Liberty Brothers Interview 9-11 author Rebekah Roth – Video

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Apr 142015
 



The Liberty Brothers Interview 9-11 author Rebekah Roth
Some incredible new insight into 9-11 from an aviation insider and author Rebekah Roth.

By: The Liberty Brothers Radio Show

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The Liberty Brothers Interview 9-11 author Rebekah Roth – Video

Starcraft II: Wings of Liberty ZERG LS ARCHIVE – Video

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Apr 142015
 



Starcraft II: Wings of Liberty ZERG LS ARCHIVE
archive from a match zerg gold league — Watch live at http://www.twitch.tv/luk700102.

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Starcraft II: Wings of Liberty ZERG LS ARCHIVE – Video

GTA IV | Liberty Gaming LCPDFR Patrol #1 (Official) – Video

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Apr 142015
 



GTA IV | Liberty Gaming LCPDFR Patrol #1 (Official)
Enjoy the video? Subscribe! Please Read Description Help Me Reach 100 Subs! Liberty Gaming Official Website: libertygaming.wix.com/lsrpclan…

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GTA IV | Liberty Gaming LCPDFR Patrol #1 (Official) – Video

2008 Jeep Liberty Butler PA Pittsburgh, PA #15G220A – Video

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Apr 142015
 



2008 Jeep Liberty Butler PA Pittsburgh, PA #15G220A
http://www.autotrader.com/fyc/vdp.jsp?vin=1J8GN28K18W276867 Call or visit for a test drive of this vehicle today! Phone: 888-620-9807 Year: 2008 Make: Jeep Model: Liberty Trim: Sport Engine:…

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Bundys Liberty Stand Still Frightens Establishment – Video

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Apr 142015
 



Bundys Liberty Stand Still Frightens Establishment
On the 1 year anniversary, the media and the government are still spinning the Bundy Ranch standoff misrepresenting the issues that led up to it and lying about what happened. Related: THE…

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Homes for sale 130 Windsor Rd North Liberty IA 52317 Ruhl&Ruhl Realtors – Video

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Apr 142015
 



Homes for sale 130 Windsor Rd North Liberty IA 52317 Ruhl Ruhl Realtors
For complete property details or to apply for a mortgage visit: http://www.ruhlhomes.com/property/130-Windsor-Rd-North-Liberty-IA-52317_189448 $280000, 4 bedrooms, 3 full baths PROPERTY…

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Homes for sale 130 Windsor Rd North Liberty IA 52317 Ruhl&Ruhl Realtors – Video

2009 Jeep Liberty Used Cars Philadelphia NJ – Video

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Apr 142015
 



2009 Jeep Liberty Used Cars Philadelphia NJ
http://www.autodirectcars.com This 2009 Jeep Liberty is available from Auto Direct Cars LLC. For details, call us at 866-520-4592.

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2009 Jeep Liberty Used Cars Philadelphia NJ – Video

Contact Liberty Technology Solutions

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Apr 142015
 

Liberty Technology Solutions is the Delaware Valleys leading provider of IT Support Networks, Business Telephone Systems and Business Technology Solutions. At Liberty we are committed to providing best-in-class IT Support and Telecom Services.

Liberty provides everything from Managed IT Network Services, VOIP Business Telephone Systems, Network Security, CCTV Camera and Monitoring Systems. We have our own Infrastructure Cabling technicians and support all of your carriers service needs. We provide a one stop shop for all of your Technology service and consulting needs.

If your business is in Philadelphia or South Jersey Liberty steps up to the plate to support all of your technology needs.

Liberty Technology Solutions is your local Business IP Telephone System resource, whether you are looking for a traditional Digital Phone System, a Voice-Over IP (VoIP) Telephone System, or a Hosted Telephone System.

We have been supporting South Jersey and Philadelphia for over 17 years. Liberty has the solutions for you.

As one of Philadelphias and South Jerseys premier local providers of Business Technology Solutions, you can rest assured that your organizations technology is fast, reliable, and efficient. Libertys Network Monitoring enables us to take a proactive approach to customer service. Our IT consultants are standing at your front door before you even know that your business is having a problem.

At Liberty Technology Solutions we offer services from all of the regions major carriers including: Comcast, Verizon, Netcarrier, Windstream, and many more. We are not just consultants but we are partners in getting your business the support it needs. Liberty works closely with your carrier to monitor your T1 PRI so that we can resolve any problems you have in a timely manner. Local, Long-Distance, or International, let Liberty find you the best solution.

Let Liberty be your Security Consultant. We will meet with you and consulate your business needs and provide you with an array of options that fit your security profile. Our Camera Systems can be viewed locally and remotely using several different devices. Network Monitoring is key to good security so we monitor your camera system to make sure the recording is always working and backed up to several servers.

Liberty is an all in one solution for your Technology needs, were there from start to finish making your life easier. We offer cabling for all of our systems.

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Liberty scholarships get more attractive

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Apr 142015
 

Philadelphia, PA (SportsNetwork.com) – Football teams usually like to have a running back with a downhill style, but on the FCS level, all of the teams are not moving along a level playing field.

The number of football scholarships offered vary up to the maximum of 63, and some are partial scholarships and some are not. The Ivy and Pioneer leagues are two conferences that don’t have scholarships but play scholarship programs, and Georgetown even refuses to offer them while playing in a Patriot League in which the other programs have them.

The next advantage has arrived, too. Liberty University reportedly will become the first FCS program to provide “cost of attendance” dollars to their student-athletes. FootballScoop.com said the Big South Conference university, located in Lynchburg, Virginia, has begun to inform them the decision will be implemented this year.

Under the NCAA measure approved in January and set to begin Aug. 1, the cost of attendance of a scholarship will go beyond tuition, fees, books and room and board to include expenses such as academic-related supplies, transportation and other similar items. The value of those benefits can differ by the school, but at the five power conferences that pushed for them – the Atlantic Coast, Big Ten, Big 12, Pac-12 and Southeastern conferences – they have been estimated up to about $2,000 annually per full scholarship.

The cost of attendance dollars are becoming an attractive recruiting tool, especially for a program like Liberty, which would be an exception on the FCS level because most schools are not expected to provide the incentive, at least not initially.

It is not surprising, however, that Liberty would be looking more like an FBS program. The private evangelical university, founded by the late Jerry Falwell Sr., is pursuing a move up from the FCS level, although neither of the FBS conferences that appear to be the best fit, Conference USA and the Sun Belt, have yet to extend an invitation.

Liberty ranked first in the Big South and fifth in the FCS in attendance average last season, drawing an average of 17,016 to six home games. The Flames, under former Kansas and Buffalo head coach Turner Gill, who was brought to Liberty to help guide it to the higher level, appeared in the FCS playoffs for the first time, beating James Madison in the first round, and finishing 9-5 as the Big South co-champ.

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Liberty scholarships get more attractive




Pierre Teilhard De Chardin | Designer Children | Prometheism | Euvolution | Transhumanism