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Louisiana Barrier Islands: A Vanishing Resource – USGS …

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Jun 022016

“The barrier islands of Louisiana are eroding at an extreme rate. In places up to 100 feet of shoreline are disappearing every year. Though it has long been assumed that this erosion was due to the area’s rapid rate of relative sea level rise, recent studies by the U.S. Geological Survey show that other coastal processes, such as the longshore redistribution of sediments, are responsible for this erosion.”

– Dr. Jeffrey H. List, U.S. Geological Survey

Louisiana’s barrier islands are eroding so quickly that according to some estimates they will disappear by the end of this century. Although there is little human habitation on these islands, their erosion may have a severe impact on the environment landward of the barriers. As the islands disintegrate, the vast system of sheltered wetlands along Louisiana’s delta plain are exposed to increasingly open Gulf conditions. Through the processes of increasing wave attack, salinity intrusion, storm surge, tidal range, and sediment transport, removal of the barrier islands may significantly accelerate deterioration of wetlands that have already experienced the greatest areal losses in the U.S. Because these wetlands are nurseries for many species of fish and shellfish, the loss of the barrier islands and the accelerated loss of the protected wetlands may have a profound impact in the billion dollar per year fishing industry supported by Louisiana’s fragile coastal environment.

The USGS, in cooperation with Louisiana State University, documented the long-term historical record of bathymetric and shoreline change along the Louisiana coast. For example, historical data over the past 100 years indicate that the shoreline at Bayou Lafourche has eroded back about 3 kilometers. The pattern of long-term, large-scale bathymetric change is key information in determining the processes of barrier island evolution and in formulating predictions of future changes. USGS scientists have assembled bathymetric surveys from data from the 1880’s, the 1930’s, and the late 1980’s, and are in the process of assembling a similar survey in 1993 following the passage of Hurricane Andrew. This base of information will be used to evaluate the contribution of catastrophic events to the long-term evolution of this coastal area.

Experience suggests that the most cost-effective means for the preservation of Louisiana’s barrier islands may be to renourish them while permitting their landward migration. Placement of hard, fixed structures appears to be a less effective strategy for preserving barrier islands in the face of historically high rates of shoreline and bathymetric change. On East Island of the Isles Dernieres chain, appropriate placement of sediment helped to preserve the island even as Hurricane Andrew passed over it. Any proposal to renourish barrier islands will need to consider where the necessary materials will be found and how naturally-occurring processes will affect the materials. Results of USGS studies are critical to managers charged with making optimal use of limited funds for erosion mitigation.

Related Publications:

Subsurface Controls on Historical Subsidence Rates and Associated Wetland Loss in Southcentral Louisiana Originally published in Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies Transactions

Primary Causes of Wetland Loss at Madison Bay, Terrebonne Parish, Louisiana – USGS Open File Report 03-060 USGS Coastal & Marine Geology Program

Environmental Atlas of the Lake Pontchartrain Basin – USGS Open File Report 02-206 USGS Coastal & Marine Geology Program

Related Links:

Lake Pontchartrain Basin Foundation non-profit organization

University of New Orleans New Orleans, Louisiana

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Put in Bay, Put in Bay Hotel, Put in Bay Lodging, Put-in-Bay Ohio

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May 262016

Welcome to Put-in-Bay 2016 and your complete Put in Bay Ohio information source for hotels, lodging, ferryboats, golf carts, camping, boating and home rentals, all located at Put-in-Bay, South Bass Island, Ohio. We are your one-stop shop for Put-in-Bay Reservations and finding out what is on this year’s Calendar of Events.

There is no doubt that Put-in-Bay Ohio is one of the most unique places you will ever visit. Our tiny two by four mile island is dotted with historic homes, the nation’s third tallest monument, quaint restaurants and local pubs. Beautiful water surrounds Put in Bay where you will find the best walleye and perch fishing in the United States.

May 09, 2016 – Put-in-Bay, OH – The NFL Draft Day is now behind us and the Cleveland Browns are looking forward to a great rebuilding season with some top-notch draft picks… (click for details)

May 16, 2016 – Put-in-Bay, OH – It’s that time of year! Entries are now open for the 2016 “Best of the Bay” Awards. Each year, we let you, the island visitor, choose your favorite lodgins, foods, and attractions. (click for entry)

Over 2 million people annually discover the magic of the Bass Islands of Lake Erie. Put-in-Bay Ohio on South Bass Island is the crown jewel of the Lake Erie islands of Ohio. This website will provide you with all the information you need to plan that special Put in Bay getaway with your family or friends. now offers our summer vacation visitors the convenience of a mobile-enhanced website. We are the first and only Put-in-Bay mobile web presence! We have entertainment schedules, a Put-in-bay calendar of events, Jet Express ferry schedules, bars and dining info, shopping lists, and Put in Bay attractions locations. All of which is conveniently located here on our new Mobile Website. Download the Official 2016 Put in Bay Island Visitor Guide & Vacation Planner before you visit!

Beginning in April of each year, visitors flock to Put-in-Bay Ohio for an island retreat. Shopping, boating, perch fishing, walleye fishing, great restaurants (and food reviews), The Roundhouse Bar, and a vibrant nightlife offer something for everyone. Family vacations can be a great learning experience for the kids starting with the ferry to Put in Bay and the many historical events that have taken place on the island.

While exploring, you will learn about the many family activities Put-in-Bay has to offer as well as all the services you may need for your Lake Erie island getaway. We have all the information you need for a great family visit to Put in Bay.

Putinbay, Nicknamed the “Key West of the North” offers an exciting nightlife with live musical entertainment to satisfy all generations. Strolling Barbershop singers, bagpipers, steel drums and Ohio’s best entertainers (such as Pat Dailey and Mike “Mad Dog” Adams) are frequently seen on Put-in-Bay island.

Relax, you’re on island time, explore and be sure to register for our free Put-in-Bay weekend giveaway and monthly newsletter via e-mail where we keep you informed of Put-in-Bay island events.

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Welcome to the Chincoteague Island, Virginia First …

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May 122016

Are you ready for a change from the big city beach resorts? In Chincoteague there are no high rises, board walks, or traffic jams. Chincoteague Island is a serene, yet fun filled, tourist destination. Chincoteague Island is Virginia’s only resort Island. Located on Virginias Eastern Shore, Chincoteague is within easy reach from all major cities on the mid-Atlantic seaboard. Chincoteague is the gateway to the Virginia portion of Assateague Island, home of the famous Chincoteague Wild Ponies. Chincoteague offers a relaxed atmosphere and the beauty of unspoiled nature. From relaxing on the beach to viewing a spectacular sunset over the Chincoteague Bay, there is never a shortage of things to do in Chincoteague. We hope that you will fall in love with our Island, the way so many others already have.

Chincoteague Island gained national fame in 1961 when Twentieth Century Fox premiered the movie Misty of Chincoteague. The movie was based on author Marguerite Henry’s award-winning children’s book Misty of Chincoteague, which she wrote in 1947 while staying at Miss Molly’s Inn on Chincoteague Island. The book and movie helped to forever transition Chincoteague Island from a small fishing village into a world-class tourist destination.

Featured Businesses – Click on pictures below for more information.

Plan Your Chincoteague Vacation: Places To Stay Places To Eat Places To Shop Things To Do Interactive Chincoteague Map

Area Information: Specials and Discounts Local Events Calendar 2015 Pony Swim Guide Chincoteague Newsletter Where is Chincoteague? Chincoteague Photos Chincoteague News Chincoteague Articles Movie Showtimes Local Services Advertise With Us Local Area Links Viewing Rocket Launches

Connect With Chincoteague:

May 7: Chincoteague Seafood Festival

May 7: Chinco De Mayo

May 7: Earth Day Festival

May 14: Migratory Bird Celebration

May 20 – 21: Saltwater Brew ‘n’ Que

June 24 – 25: Chincoteague Carnival

View Full Event Calendar

Next Rocket Launch From NASA’s Wallops Flight Facility: Mission: RockOn!IX Date: June 23, 2016 Backup launch day is June 24 Time: 6 – 10 a.m. Type: Terrier-Improved Orion suborbital More information

Chincoteague News:

Rocket launches to the ISS from Wallops Island, VA will continue through 2024. Click here to learn more

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has approved a new Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) that will guide management of Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge for the next 15 years. Click here to learn more

Registration for summer camps at Chincoteague Bay Field Station is open! Click here to learn more.

Chincoteague Bay Field Station is looking for families with middle school-aged students to join their Creekwatchers group! Contact Elise Trelegan / 757-824-5636.

More Chincoteague News

More Chincoteague Articles

Welcome to the Chincoteague Island, Virginia First …

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Chincoteague Island – Virginia Is For Lovers

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May 122016

Chincoteague Island, at the northeastern tip of Virginia’s Eastern Shore, is part of Accomack County. It’s known worldwide for wild ponies Marguerite Henry wrote about in the novel, “Misty of Chincoteague,” later made into a film.

Chincoteague Island, a tiny fishing town off Virginia’s Eastern Shore, is steps away from the Atlantic Ocean by bridge to Assateague Island. The famous Chincoteague ponies live in the Chincoteague National WildlifeRefuge on Assateague Island, easily reached by bike or car from town. The Chincoteague Refuge is Virginia’s entrance to an undeveloped 37-mile-long beach. The National Park Service and Refuge offer ranger-led programs seasonally. Spring and fall bird migrations are popular events but the biggest event for the area is held each July when the Chincoteague Volunteer Fire Company’s Pony Swim and Auction brings scores of spectators to the island town. Saltwater cowboys have been rounding up ponies and swimming them across the channel from Assateague Island to Chincoteague Island for auction since 1926.

Visitors to Chincoteague love to dig clams, watch oystermen and compete in saltwater fishing tournaments for cash prizes. “Patriot Oysters,” so named when Abe Lincoln sent a Union ship to protect the island’s seafood trade, are a must when dining on the island. Water lovers enjoy kayaking, charter fishing and nature cruising. The Chamber hosts events year-round and a lively art scene plays out in galleries and at the restored Island Theatre. Next door on Wallops Island you can see rockets launched into space from the NASA Wallops Visitors Center.

With its variety of old-fashioned charms, Chincoteague has been called America’s #1 Beach Town; a “slam-dunk” for grandchildren and one of America’s best island towns.

Coastal Living Magazine voted Chincoteague Island “America’s Happiest Seaside Town”.

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Chincoteague Island – Virginia Is For Lovers

Tangier Island Virginia: A Chesapeake Bay Island

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May 122016

Tangier Island Virginia is located 12 miles west of the historical waterfront community of Onancock Virginia on the Eastern Shore of Virginia. A different way of life; absolutely. Tangier Island residents have no vehicles to travel about on the Island. Transportation on the Island consists of Golf Carts and Bikes. Visitors can rentbikes and Gold Carts at Four Brothers Crab House & Ice Cream Deck upon arriving on the Island. Tangier Islanders take pride in their Chesapeake Bay heritage and have maintained a simpler way of life to some. On the other hand, lifestyles of Tangier Island are diminishing due to the waterman of the Chesapeake Bay struggling today to keep alive working the waters of the Chesapeake Bay. Due to tight regulations and restrictions placed by the Commonwealth of Virginia many Tangier Island youths will have to seek employment off of Tangier Island, as independent Tangiermen working the waters of the Chesapeake Bay is much different from days gone by.

Life on Tangier Island is quiet and serene, residents are warm and friendly. Tangier Island, itself, is a nature’s wonderland. Visiting Tangier Island is stepping back in time. The atmosphere is tranquil, and the Chesapeake Bay breeze that blows offers sweet memories as you travel throughout the Island. We suggest that you do not leave the island before you visit the Tangier History Museum.

Tangier Island Transportation by boat, from Onancock, Virginia and Crisfield, Maryland, is available to visitors and residents, alike

Willie Crockett is a well known Tangierman for his artwork, sculpture, and poetry. His honest portrayals of the Chesapeake Bay through is artwork is know internationally. At any given day, (“except when the fishing is right on the Bay” according to Willie) you can find him at his studio and art gallery in Onancock Virginia. Many visitors enjoy stopping in the Studio & Gallery just to meet this world renown wildlife artist…..

The natives speak in a unique manner, that of beautiful Elizabethan English. This identifiable dialect denotes a true “Tangierman”. Remember this when Wallace or Shirley say, “Welcome to Tangier Island and our home.” Guests at Shirley’s Bay View Inn, the Sunset Inn, and the Chesapeake House are in awe of the natural beauty of Tangier Island and the wildlife that surrounds this Chesapeake Bay island. The natural beauty of Tangier Island is enjoyed by all. Upon arriving on Tangier Island there are eco tours, sunset cruises, and more……

Crime Rate: “0”………..*There lies a land in Chesapeake Bay, Its history unfolds from John Smith’s Day, Tangier Island its given name, Captain John Smith founded its fame, A land of Indians for many a year, A way of life – – one need not fear. *Exert from the home page of Shirley’s Bay View Inn

“Tangier Island is alcohol free”

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Tangier Island Virginia: A Chesapeake Bay Island

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The official web site of Tangier Island: Tangier Island …

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May 122016

Water Trails

Tangier Island Transportation Joyce Marie II – Onancock, Virginia Steven Thomas, Crisfield, Maryland Chesapeake Breeze, Reedville, Va. R L Charters – Ches. Bay Western Shore Sharon Kay III, Crisfield, Md.

Tangier Island Restaurants Fisherman’s Corner Four Brothers Crab House & Ice Cream Deck

Tangier Island Bed and Breakfasts

Tangier Island Escape Vacation Rental ‘A Watermans Hideaway Vacation Rental Hilda Crockett’s Chesapeake House BB Bay View Inn Bed and Breakfast Island Girl Vacation Retreat Mimosa Cottage

Tangier Island Parks Marina

1882 Colonial Manor Inn Onancock Virginia ___________________________________

Tangier Island Buggy Tours

Chesapeake Bay Crab Shanty Adventures

Tangier Island Eco Tours, Sunset Tours, Crabbing, or

A Pictorial View of Tangier Island. Photos provided by: Neil Kaye and Virginia Taylor Click Here

Additional Tangier Island Photographs


Schooner Serenity and Schooner Alliance


Various Tangier Videos as shown here!

Tangier Island – Medical

A Waterman’s Life

Tangier Island Video By: University of Richmond Video

Camping and Kayaking on Tangier Island


He was known as “Dr Copter” Mainland Doctor Dr David Nichols

While coming over on the Joyce Marie II or the Sharon Kay III, ask the Boat Captains about the afternoon and evening Tours. Also available tour information at the Fisherman’s Corner Restaurant and Hilda Crockett’s Chesapeake House.

The Biggest* Sports Town in America *Per Capita —- See Tangier Island Video on You Tube

Tangier Island Museum Tangier Island History

A Chesapeake Bay Virginia’ Northern Neck Bed and Breakfast

Fisherman’s Corner: Variety – Order from Menu Four Brother’s Crab House & Ice Cream Deck – Ice Cream, Pizzas, Sandwiches, Crab Cakes & more.

Hilda Crockett’s Chesapeake House – Family Style All You Can Eat. (Same Menu Daily) Lorraine’s on Tangier – Variety – Order from Menu – Waterfront Restaurant – Great Sandwiches.

All offer great Seafood and Crab Cakes

Contact us Direct for Details

Please send us your Comments!

Chesapeake Bay Bed and Breakfasts Eastern Shore of Virginia Bed and Breakfasts

Miss Mollys Inn Bed and Breakfast Click Here or Above to submit a request for information regarding travel to Tangier, accommodations, restaurants, tours, eco tours, sunset cruises, and more.

Where time stopped-still some twenty years ago! One visitor to Tangier Island states, “The most unbelievable sunsets you can ever imagine; no doubt, the next thing to heaven. It is truly a great experience, getting back to the roots of your being.”

No cars, no trains; the only transportation to Tangier Island is by boat or by small airplane. When you arrive, plan to leisurely stroll around the island. Bike and Golf Cart Rental transportation is available: Contact or call 757 891 2999. Obtain information regarding boat transportation, restaurants, and Bed & Breakfasts, museum, kayaking, and more by going to:

The Tangier-Onancock Ferry (Joyce Marie), the Steven Thomas open for transportation to Tangier in May of each year thru September and transportation to and from Tangier is available year round via the Sharon Kay III. Also, there is Off-Season Accommodations at the Mimosa Cottage, the Bay View Inn and Doug and Patsy’s Place, the Island Girl Get-a-Way. “Lorraine’s on Tangier” welcomes all to come and join delicious foods all year round. Tangier is a great place to visit even during the tourist “Off Season”. It’s quiet, relaxing, and most enjoyable. Enjoy the museum, kayaking, walks on the beach, and beautiful sunrises and sunsets. Contact Us

Eastern Shore of Virginia Real Estate to include but not limited to both seaside and bayside waterfront real estate provided by the Chesapeake Bay Samlpler

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The official web site of Tangier Island: Tangier Island …

Islands Fresh Mex Grill – Mexican Restaurant Wilmington nc

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May 052016

Islands Menu

When you walk into the Islands Fresh Mex Grill, the atmosphere hits you like a warm tropical breeze. We are a fresh and fun Mexican restaurant with a touch of the Caribbean. All of these wonderful things are incorporated in our food, atmosphere and customer service….

The fresh, variety of menu items have been carefully developed to give our patrons an innovative selection with quality ingredients, at an affordable price. We want the Islands Fresh Mex Grill to be your #1 choice for lunch, dinner, and drinks.

When you walk into the Islands Fresh Mex Grill, the atmosphere hits you like a warm tropical breeze. We are a fresh and fun Mexican restaurant with a touch of the Caribbean. All of these wonderful things are incorporated in our food, atmosphere and customer service. The Islands Fresh Mex Grill is in Wilmington, NC and specializes in made to order burritos, tacos, salads, nachos, quesadillas, enchiladas and other fresh-mex favorites.

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Home – Ohio River Islands – U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

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Apr 282016

Around the Refuge

There are activities year-round at Ohio River Islands National Wildlife Refuge including wildlife viewing, photography, fishing and hunting. Learn more on our Visitor Activities page.

The refuge is a natural area. Be mindful of poison ivy, thorny plants, ticks, bees, and mosquitoes. Observe wildlife from a safe and respectful distance. Binoculars allow you to view wildlife closely without disturbing them. Learn more tips and points of interest on our Plan Your Visit page.

Forty species of native freshwater mussels live within the refuge waters on the Ohio River. This includes six federally endangered mussel species: fanshell, pink mucket, sheepnose, spectaclecase, snuffbox, and rayed bean. Mussels are important to the health of a river ecosystem. They are filter feeders, which helps reduce silt, sediment, and pollutants in the water.

Learn more

Page Photo Credits All photos courtesy of USFWS unless otherwise noted., Paden Island – Kent Mason

Last Updated: Apr 14, 2016

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Home – Ohio River Islands – U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

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Vanuatu calls for action from UN on … – Islands Business

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Apr 132016

Sep 13, 2015, Samisoni Pareti

2015 September

ATTENDING a Pacific trade and investment seminar in Fiji last month, the official delegate from the Cook Islan…

Sep 13, 2015, Samisoni Pareti

2015 September

LIKE flotsam, the power of the published word via newspapers seems to have floated across the …

Sep 13, 2015, Netani Rika

2015 September

PASTORS out over $21m debt THREE church ministers are embroiled in controversy with their employer after they…

Sep 13, 2015, Samisoni Pareti

2015 September

PNG accuses Forum of misleading island nations HOPES for a free trade agreement between the isl…

Sep 14, 2015, Dennis Rounds

2015 September

A COMPANY of Republic of Fiji Military Forces (RFMF) soldiers has joined local police investigations into alle…


2015 September

FIFTY years of self-government and free association with New Zealand has raised more questions than answers as…

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Vanuatu calls for action from UN on … – Islands Business

Islands (The xx song) – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Mar 082016

“Islands” is a song recorded by English indie pop band The xx for their self-titled debut studio album. Written by band-members Jamie Smith, Oliver Sim, Romy Madley Croft and then-member Baria Qureshi, “Islands” is a dark and simple indie pop track. It also contains influences from house music and features instrumentation from guitars and synthesizers. Croft and Sim, who provided vocals in the track, sing about themes related to loyalty and love. “Islands” was released on 26 October 2009 as the third single from the album by Young Turks in 7-inch single and digital download formats. In March 2010, the song was re-released as a 12-inch single.

Upon its release, “Islands” received critical acclaim from music critics, many of whom praised Croft and Sim’s vocal delivery. It was ranked at number 28 by music publication NME on their list of “150 Best Tracks of the Past 15 Years”. The song became the band’s highest peaking single in the United Kingdom after it reached number 34 on the UK Singles Chart. It also peaked at number three on the UK Indie Chart. An accompanying music video for “Islands” was directed by Saam Farahmand, and consists of numerous tracking shots that show six dancers performing a dance routine around the members of the band. Every different shot features a slight change in the expression, gestures, and movement of the dancers and band-members. Critics complimented the concept of the video, and felt it was representative of The xx’s musical style. The band performed the song live at the iTunes Festival in 2010 and it was also included on the setlist of their 2010 and 2013 tour.

A cover version of “Islands” was recorded by Colombian singer-songwriter Shakira for inclusion in her ninth studio album Sale el Sol (2010). The cover followed a very similar instrumentation to the original version, but featured a faster tempo and more house elements. Shakira performed the cover live at the 2010 Glastonbury Festival in Pilton, Somerset.

“Islands” was written by The xx band-members Jamie Smith, Oliver Sim, Romy Madley Croft and then-member Baria Qureshi, for the English indie pop band’s self-titled debut album (2009).[3] According to the sheet music published at by Universal Music Publishing Group, the song is composed in the key of C# minor and has a metronome of 123 beats per minute.[4] Sim and Croft provide vocals in the track, and their range spans from G#3 to E4.[4] Similar to the band’s usual style of production, “Islands” is dark and “nocturnal” in nature and follows a “simple, effective” beat.[1] It features instrumentation from guitars which “twirl like dance floor partners in the background” and synthesisers that “play like a musical shadow”.[1] According to BBC Music’s Lou Thomas, the song features house rhythms and a melody similar to that of Tom Petty’s 1989 song “I Won’t Back Down”.[5] Lyrically, “Islands” is a “psycho-geographical love song”[6] and contains themes of loyalty, which are heard in lines like “I am yours now, so I dont ever have to leave”.[1] The duo’s vocals were described as “girl-boy”,[2] with Croft’s vocal delivery taking on a “pleasant soft-pop vibe”.[7] Sim momentarily interrupts the verses with “four short thumbings”.[7] A “typically heartfelt and bed-cuddly” refrain “I am yours now” is repeated throughout the song, and UK-based online publication Muso’s Guide regarded it as “the closest thing The xx has produced to a hook”.[2]

The song was released as the third single from xx on 26 October 2009 by Young Turks in 7-inch single and digital download formats.[8] A minimalistic and “sexy” track named “Do You Mind?” was included as the B-side to “Islands”, and is composed of “untypically brash drums”.[2] On 15 March 2010, Young Turks released a 12-inch single version “Islands”, which contained various remixes of the song.[9]

The song received critical acclaim. Lou Thomas from BBC Music said there is a “sense of quiet triumph” in what he felt was a musical reference to “I Won’t Back Down” by Tom Petty in the song’s melody, “despite the incongruity”.[5] The Muso’s Guide review of “Islands” approved of the song’s release as a single and complimented Croft and Sim’s vocal delivery, saying they “provide a superb introduction to what the band is all about”.[2] They particularly appreciated its “I am yours now” refrain, naming it “a typically heartfelt and bed-cuddly line that makes The xx the perfect alternative lovers band”.[2] Emily Mackay from NME called the song “gorgeous” and felt it was “the perfect soundtrack for wandering aimlessly along rainy London streets”.[6] Andrew Gaerig from Pitchfork Media chose “Islands” as one of the highlights from the album and complimented Croft’s vocals and Sim’s involvement.[7] In 2011, NME ranked “Islands” at number 28 on their list of “150 Best Tracks of the Past 15 Years”, naming it the band’s “finest moment thus far”.[1]

In the United Kingdom, “Islands” reached number 34 on the singles chart and is The xx’s highest-peaking single in the region to date.[10] Its total stay inside the top 40 of the chart lasted for eight weeks.[10] “Islands” was more successful on the UK Indie chart and peaked at number three.[11] The song also peaked at number 16 on Ultratop chart of the Dutch-speaking Flanders region of Belgium, and stayed on the chart for a total of two weeks.[12]

The accompanying music video for “Islands” was directed by Saam Farahmand, who had previously worked with artists like Simian Mobile Disco and Klaxons.[13] It premiered on MTV on 21 April 2010.[14] Composed of a series of tracking shots, the video shows Croft, Sim, and Smith “listlessly” sitting on a couch with six dancers performing a choreographed dance routine behind them.[14] The dancers carry out the same routine with every next tracking shot, but a slight change in their expressions, gestures, and movement takes place.[13][14] Similarly, the band-members repeatedly change their positions and facial expressions “with differing fervour”.[13] Near to the end of the video, the pattern begins modifying and “the comfortable habits get broken up/break up” as the dancers and band-members leave one by one.[13] The backdrop, which consists of several small “X” letters, also catches fire.[13]

The video received positive reviews from critics. Katie Hasty from HitFix praised the choreography, calling it “eye-popping”, and labelled the video as “classy, contained, and borderline claustrophobic”.[13] She complimented Farahmand for directing a risky concept and commented that the tracking shots were like “an inhale and exhale with each new take”.[13] Furthermore, she felt that the video was representative of The xx’s sound, calling it “morose and hypnotic, just like the band, the aural equivalent of a mumblecore movie”, and opined that the end of the video showed how “love goes”.[13] Chris Ryan from MTV also found the video similar to the band’s musical style, and commented that the slight changes in its pattern “suggest unrest under the surface — much like the band’s pristine, subtly menacing sound”.[14] He also noted that while “it’s often hard to imagine what visuals would go well” with The xx’s songs, the music video for “Islands” “trumps anything we could have ever imagined”.[14]

On 2 October 2009, The xx performed “Islands” live on British music television show Later… with Jools Holland, along with “Night Time”.[15] The song was included on the setlist of their 2010 tour, and was also performed at the ITunes Festival held at The Roundhouse in London in the same year; the band later released a digital EP of their performance.[16] “Islands” was also included on the setlist of the band’s 2013 tour, and a more rock-oriented version of the song was performed.[17]

“Islands” was played during the closing monologue of the fourteenth episode of the sixth season of American television medical drama Grey’s Anatomy, entitled “Valentine’s Day Massacre”.[18] It was also a part of the soundtrack of the tenth episode of the second season of comedy-drama television series Parenthood, entitled “Happy Thanksgiving”.[19]

Colombian singer-songwriter Shakira recorded a cover version of “Islands” for inclusion in her ninth studio album Sale el Sol, which was released on October 19, 2010.[25] Although there was initial speculation that the cover would be entitled “Explore”,[26][27] it appeared on the final tracklist of the album using its original name.[25] In comparison to the original version, Shakira’s cover of “Islands” follows a largely similar and “fairly faithful” instrumentation,[28] but features a faster tempo, “hopeful-sounding” vocals,[29] and “pseudo-house” elements.[30] Prior to Shakira recording the cover of “Islands”, Croft had briefly met her at the London BBC Studios; the former talked about her meeting, saying “We were sitting on a wall outside the BBC and she came up and her bodyguards parted and it was little Shakira, and she says, “Hi!” And I was like, Wow! I found out recently that shes a big fan of The Cure and stuff”.[28]

Shakira’s cover of “Islands” drew generally favourable reception from critics. Stephen Thomas Erlewine from AllMusic felt it was a highlight on the album, and commented that Shakira “finds warmth within the art pop of The xx, whose “Islands” is a shimmering peak here”.[25][31] Mikael Wood from Entertainment Weekly appreciated the cover, and opined that “[Shakira] discovers the beating heart inside that band’s subdued electro-goth jam”.[32] Becky Bain from Idolator called Shakira’s version of “Islands” “sunnier than the original” and regarded it as “brilliantly subdued”, complimenting the singer’s overall reworking of the original track.[29] In 2011, Stereogum included the cover on their list of “The 10 Best xx Covers”.[33] Shakira’s cover of “Islands” appeared on the US Billboard Latin Digital Songs chart, peaking at number 39 for one week.[34]

In June 2010, Shakira performed the cover live at the Glastonbury Festival in Pilton, Somerset.[35] Alex Needham from The Guardian called the performance “a slinky cover” that “is a nod to the indie kids”.[35] Maria Schurr from PopMatters felt the performance was “less intimate than the original”, but “managed to amplify the tremendous pop sensibilities embedded beneath Romy Madley Croft”s and Oliver Sim’s hushed coos”.[36] She concluded by saying that “as great as The xx are, its probably safe to say that Shakira can cut a rug better”.[36]

Islands (The xx song) – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Falkland Islands – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 Islands  Comments Off on Falkland Islands – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Mar 062016

The Falkland Islands (; Spanish: Islas Malvinas [malinas]) are an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean on the Patagonian Shelf. The principal islands are about 300 miles (480km) east of South America’s southern Patagonian coast, at a latitude of about 52S. The archipelago, with an area of 4,700 square miles (12,000km2), comprises East Falkland, West Falkland and 776 smaller islands. As a British overseas territory, the Falklands have internal self-governance, and the United Kingdom takes responsibility for their defence and foreign affairs. The islands’ capital is Stanley on East Falkland.

Controversy exists over the Falklands’ discovery and subsequent colonisation by Europeans. At various times, the islands have had French, British, Spanish, and Argentine settlements. Britain reasserted its rule in 1833, although Argentina maintains its claim to the islands. In April 1982, Argentine forces temporarily occupied the islands. British administration was restored two months later at the end of the Falklands War.

The population (2,932 inhabitants in 2012)[A] primarily consists of native-born Falkland Islanders, the majority of British descent. Other ethnicities include French, Gibraltarian and Scandinavian. Immigration from the United Kingdom, the South Atlantic island of Saint Helena, and Chile has reversed a population decline. The predominant (and official) language is English. Under the British Nationality (Falkland Islands) Act 1983, Falkland Islanders are British citizens.

The islands lie on the boundary of the subantarctic oceanic and tundra climate zones, and both major islands have mountain ranges reaching 2,300 feet (700m). They are home to large bird populations, although many no longer breed on the main islands because of competition from introduced species. Major economic activities include fishing, tourism and sheep farming, with an emphasis on high-quality wool exports. Oil exploration, licensed by the Falkland Islands Government, remains controversial as a result of maritime disputes with Argentina.

The Falkland Islands take their name from the Falkland Sound, a strait separating the archipelago’s two main islands. The name “Falkland” was applied to the channel by John Strong, captain of an English expedition which landed on the islands in 1690. Strong named the strait in honour of Anthony Cary, 5th Viscount of Falkland, the Treasurer of the Navy who sponsored their journey.[7] The Viscount’s title originates from the town of Falkland, Scotland, whose name comes from “folkland” (land held by folk-right). The name was not applied to the islands until 1765, when British captain John Byron of the Royal Navy, claimed them for King George III as “Falkland’s Islands”.[9] The term “Falklands” is a standard abbreviation used to refer to the islands.

The Spanish name for the archipelago, Islas Malvinas, derives from the French les Malouines the name given to the islands by French explorer Louis-Antoine de Bougainville in 1764. Bougainville, who founded the islands’ first settlement, named the area after the port of Saint-Malo (the point of departure for his ships and colonists).[11] The port, located in the Brittany region of western France, was in turn named after St. Malo (or Maclou), the Christian evangelist who founded the city.

At the twentieth session of the United Nations General Assembly, the Fourth Committee determined that, in all languages other than Spanish, all UN documentation would designate the territory as Falkland Islands (Malvinas). In Spanish, the territory was designated as Islas Malvinas (Falkland Islands). The nomenclature used by the United Nations for statistical processing purposes is Falkland Islands (Malvinas).[14]

Although Fuegians from Patagonia may have visited the Falkland Islands in prehistoric times,[15] the islands were uninhabited at the time of their discovery by Europeans. Claims of discovery date back to the 16th century, but no consensus exists on whether these early explorers discovered the Falklands or other islands in the South Atlantic.[17][B] The first recorded landing on the islands is attributed to English captain John Strong, who, en route to Peru’s and Chile’s littoral in 1690, discovered the Falkland Sound and noted the islands’ water and game.[20]

The Falklands remained uninhabited until the 1764 establishment of Port Louis on East Falkland by French captain Louis Antoine de Bougainville, and the 1766 foundation of Port Egmont on Saunders Island by British captain John MacBride.[C] Whether or not the settlements were aware of each other’s existence is debated by historians.[23] In 1766, France surrendered its claim on the Falklands to Spain, which renamed the French colony Puerto Soledad the following year. Problems began when Spain discovered and captured Port Egmont in 1770. War was narrowly avoided by its restitution to Britain in 1771.

Both the British and Spanish settlements coexisted in the archipelago until 1774, when Britain’s new economic and strategic considerations led it to voluntarily withdraw from the islands, leaving a plaque claiming the Falklands for King George III. Spain’s Viceroyalty of the Ro de la Plata became the only governmental presence in the territory. West Falkland was left abandoned, and Puerto Soledad became mostly a prison camp. Amid the British invasions of the Ro de la Plata during the Napoleonic Wars in Europe, the islands’ governor evacuated the archipelago in 1806; Spain’s remaining colonial garrison followed suit in 1811, except for gauchos and fishermen who remained voluntarily.

Thereafter, the archipelago was visited only by fishing ships; its political status was undisputed until 1820, when Colonel David Jewett, an American privateer working for the United Provinces of the River Plate, informed anchored ships about Buenos Aires’ 1816 claim to Spain’s territories in the South Atlantic.[28][D] Since the islands had no permanent inhabitants, in 1823 Buenos Aires granted German-born merchant Luis Vernet permission to conduct fishing activities and exploit feral cattle in the archipelago.[E] Vernet settled at the ruins of Puerto Soledad in 1826, and accumulated resources on the islands until the venture was secure enough to bring settlers and form a permanent colony.[32] Buenos Aires named Vernet military and civil commander of the islands in 1829, and he attempted to regulate sealing to stop the activities of foreign whalers and sealers. Vernet’s venture lasted until a dispute over fishing and hunting rights led to a raid by the American warship USS Lexington in 1831,[F] when United States Navy commander Silas Duncan declared the dissolution of the island’s government.

Buenos Aires attempted to retain influence over the settlement by installing a garrison, but a mutiny in 1832 was followed the next year by the arrival of British forces who reasserted Britain’s rule. The Argentine Confederation (headed by Buenos Aires Governor Juan Manuel de Rosas) protested Britain’s actions,[G] and Argentine governments have continued since then to register official protests against Britain.[H] The British troops departed after completing their mission, leaving the area without formal government. Vernet’s deputy, the Scotsman Matthew Brisbane, returned to the islands that year to restore the business, but his efforts ended after, amid unrest at Port Louis, gaucho Antonio Rivero led a group of dissatisfied individuals to murder Brisbane and the settlement’s senior leaders; survivors hid in a cave on a nearby island until the British returned and restored order. In 1840, the Falklands became a Crown colony, and Scottish settlers subsequently established an official pastoral community. Four years later, nearly everyone relocated to Port Jackson, considered a better location for government, and merchant Samuel Lafone began a venture to encourage British colonisation.[44]

Stanley, as Port Jackson was soon renamed, officially became the seat of government in 1845. Early in its history, Stanley had a negative reputation due to cargo-shipping losses; only in emergencies would ships rounding Cape Horn stop at the port.[46] Nevertheless, the Falklands’ geographic location proved ideal for ship repairs and the “Wrecking Trade”, the business of selling and buying shipwrecks and their cargoes. Aside from this trade, commercial interest in the archipelago was minimal due to the low-value hides of the feral cattle roaming the pastures. Economic growth began only after the Falkland Islands Company, which bought out Lafone’s failing enterprise in 1851,[I] successfully introduced Cheviot sheep for wool farming, spurring other farms to follow suit.[49] The high cost of importing materials, combined with the shortage of labour and consequent high wages, meant the ship repair trade became uncompetitive. After 1870, it declined as the replacement of sail ships by steamships was accelerated by the low cost of coal in South America; by 1914, with the opening of the Panama Canal, the trade effectively ended. In 1881, the Falkland Islands became financially independent of Britain. For more than a century, the Falkland Islands Company dominated the trade and employment of the archipelago; in addition, it owned most housing in Stanley, which greatly benefited from the wool trade with the UK.[49]

In the first half of the 20th century, the Falklands served an important role in Britain’s territorial claims to subantarctic islands and a section of Antarctica. The Falklands governed these territories as the Falkland Islands Dependencies starting in 1908, and retained them until their dissolution in 1985. The Falklands also played a minor role in the two world wars as a military base aiding control of the South Atlantic. In the First World War Battle of the Falkland Islands in December 1914, a Royal Navy fleet defeated an Imperial German squadron. In the Second World War, following the December 1939 Battle of the River Plate, the battle-damaged HMS Exeter steamed to the Falklands for repairs. In 1942, a battalion en route to India was redeployed to the Falklands as a garrison amid fears of a Japanese seizure of the archipelago. After the war ended, the Falklands economy was affected by declining wool prices and the political uncertainty resulting from the revived sovereignty dispute between the United Kingdom and Argentina.[46]

Simmering tensions between the UK and Argentina increased during the second half of the century, when Argentine President Juan Pern asserted sovereignty over the archipelago. The sovereignty dispute intensified during the 1960s, shortly after the United Nations passed a resolution on decolonisation which Argentina interpreted as favourable to its position. In 1965, the UN General Assembly passed Resolution 2065, calling for both states to conduct bilateral negotiations to reach a peaceful settlement of the dispute. From 1966 until 1968, the UK confidentially discussed with Argentina the transfer of the Falklands, assuming its judgement would be accepted by the islanders. An agreement on trade ties between the archipelago and the mainland was reached in 1971 and, consequently, Argentina built a temporary airfield at Stanley in 1972. Nonetheless, Falklander dissent, as expressed by their strong lobby in the UK Parliament, and tensions between the UK and Argentina effectively limited sovereignty negotiations until 1977.

Concerned at the expense of maintaining the Falkland Islands in an era of budget cuts, the UK again considered transferring sovereignty to Argentina in the early Thatcher government.[57] Substantive sovereignty talks again ended by 1981, and the dispute escalated with passing time. In April 1982, the disagreement became an armed conflict when Argentina invaded the Falklands and other British territories in the South Atlantic, briefly occupying them until a UK expeditionary force retook the territories in June.[59] After the war, the United Kingdom expanded its military presence, building RAF Mount Pleasant and increasing the size of its garrison. The war also left some 117 minefields containing nearly 20,000 mines of various types, including anti-vehicle and anti-personnel mines.[61] Due to the large number of deminer casualties, initial attempts to clear the mines ceased in 1983.[61][J]

Based on Lord Shackleton’s recommendations, the Falklands diversified from a sheep-based monoculture into an economy of tourism and, with the establishment of the Falklands Exclusive Economic Zone, fisheries.[K] The road network was also made more extensive, and the construction of RAF Mount Pleasant allowed access to long haul flights. Oil exploration has also begun, with indications of possible commercially exploitable deposits in the Falklands basin.[64] Landmine clearance work restarted in 2009, in accordance with the UK’s obligations under the Ottawa Treaty, and Sapper Hill Corral was cleared of mines in 2012, allowing access to an important historical landmark for the first time in 30 years.[65][66] Argentina and the UK re-established diplomatic relations in 1990; relations have since deteriorated as neither has agreed on the terms of future sovereignty discussions.[67] Disputes between the governments have led “some analysts [to] predict a growing conflict of interest between Argentina and Great Britain… because of the recent expansion of the fishing industry in the waters surrounding the Falklands”.

The Falkland Islands are a self-governing British Overseas Territory.[69] Under the 2009 Constitution, the islands have full internal self-government; the UK is responsible for foreign affairs, retaining the power “to protect UK interests and to ensure the overall good governance of the territory”.[70] The Monarch of the United Kingdom is the head of state, and executive authority is exercised on the monarch’s behalf by the Governor, who in turn appoints the islands’ Chief Executive on the advice of members of the Legislative Assembly.[71] Both the Governor and Chief Executive serve as the head of government. Governor Colin Roberts was appointed in April 2014;[73] Chief Executive Keith Padgett was appointed in March 2012.[74] The UK minister responsible for the Falkland Islands since 2012, Hugo Swire, administers British foreign policy regarding the islands.[75]

The Governor acts on the advice of the islands’ Executive Council, composed of the Chief Executive, the Director of Finance and three elected members of the Legislative Assembly (with the Governor as chairman).[71] The Legislative Assembly, a unicameral legislature, consists of the Chief Executive, the Director of Finance and eight members (five from Stanley and three from Camp) elected to four-year terms by universal suffrage.[71] All politicians in the Falkland Islands are independent; no political parties exist on the islands.[76] Since the 2013 general election, members of the Legislative Assembly have received a salary and are expected to work full-time and give up all previously held jobs or business interests.[77]

Due to its link to the UK, the Falklands are part of the overseas countries and territories of the European Union.[78] The islands’ judicial system, overseen by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, is largely based on English law, and the constitution binds the territory to the principles of the European Convention on Human Rights.[70] Residents have the right of appeal to the European Court of Human Rights and the Privy Council.[80][81] Law enforcement is the responsibility of the Royal Falkland Islands Police (RFIP), and military defence of the islands is provided by the United Kingdom.[82] A British military garrison is stationed on the islands, and the Falkland Islands government funds an additional company-sized light infantry Falkland Islands Defence Force.[83] The territorial waters of the Falklands extend to 200 nautical miles (370km) from its coastal baselines, based on the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea; this border overlaps with the maritime boundary of Argentina.[84]

The United Kingdom and Argentina both claim the Falkland Islands. The UK’s position is that the Falklanders have not indicated a desire for change, and that there are no pending issues to resolve concerning the islands.[86] The UK bases its position on its continuous administration of the islands since 1833 (except for 1982) and the islanders’ “right to self-determination as set out in the UN Charter”.[87] Argentine policy maintains that Falkland Islanders do not have a right to self-determination, claiming that in 1833 the UK expelled Argentine authorities (and settlers) from the Falklands with a threat of “greater force” and, afterwards, barred Argentines from resettling the islands.[88][89] Argentina posits that it acquired the Falklands from Spain when it achieved independence in 1816, and that the UK illegally occupied them in 1833.[88]

In 2009, British prime minister Gordon Brown had a meeting with Argentine president Cristina Fernndez de Kirchner, and said that there would be no further talks over the sovereignty of the Falklands.[90] In March 2013, the Falkland Islands held a referendum on its political status, with 99.8 percent of voters favoured remaining under British rule.[91][92] Argentina does not recognise the Falkland Islands as a partner in negotiations;[93] consequently, it dismissed the Falkland Islands’ sovereignty referendum.[94]

The Falkland Islands have a land area of 4,700 square miles (12,000km2) and a coastline estimated at 800 miles (1,300km).[95] Two main islands, West Falkland and East Falkland, and about 776 smaller islands constitute the archipelago. The islands are predominantly mountainous and hilly,[97] with the major exception the depressed plains of Lafonia (a peninsula forming the southern part of East Falkland). The Falklands are continental crust fragments resulting from the break-up of Gondwana and the opening of the South Atlantic that began 130 million years ago. The islands are located in the South Atlantic Ocean, on the Patagonian Shelf, about 300 miles (480km) east of Patagonia in southern Argentina.

The Falklands are situated approximately at latitude 5140 5300 S and longitude 5740 6200 W. The archipelago’s two main islands are separated by the Falkland Sound, and its deep coastal indentations form natural harbours.[102] East Falkland houses Stanley (the capital and largest settlement), the UK military base at RAF Mount Pleasant, and the archipelago’s highest point: Mount Usborne, at 2,313 feet (705m). Outside of these significant settlements is the area colloquially known as “Camp”, which is derived from the Spanish term for countryside (Campo).

The climate of the islands is cold, windy and humid maritime. Variability of daily weather is typical throughout the archipelago. Rainfall is common over half of the year, averaging 610 millimetres (24in) in Stanley, and sporadic light snowfall occurs nearly all year.[97] The temperature is generally between 21.1 and 11.1C (70.0 and 12.0F) in Stanley, but can vary to 9C (48F) early in the year and 1C (30F) in July. Strong westerly winds and cloudy skies are common.[97] Although numerous storms are recorded each month, conditions are normally calm.

The Falkland Islands are a biogeographical part of the mild Antarctic zone, with strong connections to the flora and fauna of Patagonia in mainland South America.[106] Land birds make up most of the Falklands’ avifauna; 63 species breed on the islands, including 16 endemic species. There is also abundant arthropod diversity on the islands. The Falklands’ flora consists of 163 native vascular species. The islands’ only native terrestrial mammal, the warrah, was hunted to extinction by European settlers.

The islands are frequented by marine mammals, such as the southern elephant seal and the South American fur seal, and various types of cetaceans; offshore islands house the rare striated caracara. The Falklands are also home to five different penguin species and a few of the largest albatross colonies on the planet.[111] Endemic fish around the islands are primarily from the genus Galaxias. The Falklands are treeless and have a wind-resistant vegetation predominantly composed of a variety of dwarf shrubs.

Virtually the entire land area of the islands is used as pasture for sheep.[2] Introduced species include reindeer, hares, rabbits, Patagonian foxes, brown rats and cats. The detrimental impact several of these species have caused to native flora and fauna has led authorities to attempt to contain, remove or exterminate invasive species such as foxes, rabbits and rats. Endemic land animals have been the most affected by introduced species. The extent of human impact on the Falklands is unclear, since there is little long-term data on habitat change.[106]

The economy of the Falkland Islands is ranked the 222nd largest out of 229 in the world by GDP (PPP), but ranks 10th worldwide by GDP (PPP) per capita.[2] The unemployment rate was 4.1 percent in 2010, and inflation was last calculated at 1.2 percent rate in 2003.[2] Based on 2010 data, the islands have a high Human Development Index of 0.874 and a moderate Gini coefficient for income inequality of 34.17. The local currency is the Falkland Islands pound, which is pegged to the British pound sterling.[116]

Economic development was advanced by ship resupplying and sheep farming for high-quality wool.[117] The main sheep breeds in the Falkland Islands are Polwarth and Corriedale.[118] During the 1980s, although synthetic fibres and ranch underinvestment hurt the sheep-farming sector, the government established a major revenue stream with the establishment of an exclusive economic zone and the sale of fishing licenses to “anybody wishing to fish within this zone”. Since the end of the Falklands War in 1982, the islands’ economic activity has increasingly focused on oil field exploration and tourism.

The port city of Stanley has regained the islands’ economic focus, with an increase in population as workers migrate from Camp. Fear of dependence on fishing licences and threats from overfishing, illegal fishing and fish market price fluctuations have increased interest on oil drilling as an alternative source of revenue; exploration efforts have yet to find “exploitable reserves”. Development projects in education and sports have been funded by the Falklands government, without aid from the United Kingdom.

The primary sector of the economy accounts for most of the Falkland Islands’ gross domestic product, with the fishing industry alone contributing between 50% and 60% of annual GDP; agriculture also contributes significantly to GDP and employs about a tenth of the population.[122] A little over a quarter of the workforce serves the Falkland Islands government, making it the archipelago’s largest employer.[123] Tourism, part of the service economy, has been spurred by increased interest in Antarctic exploration and the creation of direct air links with the United Kingdom and South America.[124] Tourists, mostly cruise ship passengers, are attracted by the archipelago’s wildlife and environment, as well as activities such as fishing and wreck diving; the majority are based in accommodation found in Stanley.[125] The islands’ major exports include wool, hides, venison, fish and squid; its main imports include fuel, building materials and clothing.[2]

The Falkland Islands are a homogeneous society, with the majority of inhabitants descended from Scottish and Welsh immigrants who settled the territory in 1833.[L] The 2006 census listed some Falklands residents as descendants of French, Gibraltarians and Scandinavians.[127] That census indicated that one-third of residents were born on the archipelago, with foreign-born residents assimilated into local culture.[128] The legal term for the right of residence is “belonging to the islands”.[71] The British Nationality Act of 1983 gave British citizenship to Falkland Islanders.

A significant population decline affected the archipelago in the twentieth century, with many young islanders moving overseas in search of education, a modern lifestyle, and better job opportunities,[129] particularly to the British city of Southampton, which came to be nicknamed “Stanley north”.[130] In recent years, the island’s population decline has steadied, thanks to immigrants from the United Kingdom, Saint Helena, and Chile. In the 2012 census, a majority of residents listed their nationality as Falkland Islander (59 percent), followed by British (29 percent), Saint Helenian (9.8 percent), and Chilean (5.4 percent).[1] A small number of Argentines also live on the islands.[132]

The Falkland Islands have a low population density. According to the 2012 census, the average daily population of the Falklands was 2,932, excluding military personnel serving in the archipelago and their dependents.[M] A 2012 report counted 1,300 uniformed personnel and 50 British Ministry of Defence civil servants present in the Falklands.[123] Stanley (with 2,121 residents) is the most-populous location on the archipelago, followed by Mount Pleasant (369 residents, primarily air-base contractors) and Camp (351 residents).[1] The islands’ age distribution is skewed towards working age (2060). Males outnumber females (53 to 47 percent), and this discrepancy is most prominent in the 2060 age group.[127] In the 2006 census most islanders identified themselves as Christian (67.2 percent), followed by those who refused to answer or had no religious affiliation (31.5 percent). The remaining 1.3 percent (39 people) were adherents of other faiths.[127]

Education in the Falkland Islands, which follows England’s system, is free and compulsory for residents aged between 5 and 16 years.[134] Primary education is available at Stanley, RAF Mount Pleasant (for children of service personnel) and a number of rural settlements. Secondary education is only available in Stanley, which offers boarding facilities and 12 subjects to General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) level. Students aged 16 or older may study at colleges in England for their GCE Advanced Level or vocational qualifications. The Falkland Islands government pays for older students to attend institutions of higher education, usually in the United Kingdom.[134]

Falklands culture is “based on the British culture brought with the settlers from the British Isles”, although it has been influenced by the cultures of Hispanic South America. Some terms and place names used by the islands’ former Gaucho inhabitants are still applied in local speech. The Falklands’ predominant and official language is English, with the foremost dialect being British English; nonetheless, inhabitants also speak Spanish and other languages. According to naturalist Will Wagstaff, “the Falkland Islands are a very social place, and stopping for a chat is a way of life”.

The islands have two weekly newspapers: Teaberry Express and The Penguin News, and television and radio broadcasts generally feature programming from the United Kingdom. Wagstaff describes local cuisine as “very British in character with much use made of the homegrown vegetables, local lamb, mutton, beef, and fish”. Common between meals are “home made cakes and biscuits with tea or coffee”. Social activities are, according to Wagstaff, “typical of that of a small British town with a variety of clubs and organisations covering many aspects of community life”.

Articles relating to the Falkland Islands

Coordinates: 5141S 5910W / 51.683S 59.167W / -51.683; -59.167

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Falkland Islands – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Geographia: Islands – Timeless Myths

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Feb 292016

Crete was the largest island in the Aegean Sea, south of the Cyclades. There were many cities built at the time of Bronze Age civilisation, especially in Cnossus (Knossos, ), Phaestus (Phaistos, ), and Mallia, where great palaces were built. The civilisation in Crete was known as Minoan civilisation, named after the mythical ruler, Minos.

The Minoan civilisation was more advanced in technology, economy, art and culture than the society found in mainland Greece, between 3000 and 1500 BC. Crete also enjoyed foreign trades with Egypt, Phoenicians in Palestine and the Hittites in Asia Minor.

Crete was the sources of many myths, particularly about Zeus, his mistress Europa and his son Minos, as well as Daedalus, Minos’ inventor.

Before the war between the Titans and the Olympians, Zeus was brought up in Crete, to hide from his father Cronus. Rhea, Zeus’ mother, was angry that her husband was swallowing each of her children when the baby was born. Zeus was her baby, and to prevent Cronus from swallowing the infant, she hid Zeus in a cave at Mount Dicte. Rhea then presented Cronus with a stone wrapped in swaddling cloth, pretending it was her newborn son, which Cronus immediately swallowed. The infant Zeus was fed from the milk of the goat Amalthea. The Curetes were Cretan spirits or daimones, and were usually described and depicted as youths. The Curetes clashed their spears against their shields in their war dance, so that Zeus’ cries were drowned out by their noise. See the Creation.

When Zeus abducted Europa, the daughter of King Agenor of Sidon, the amorous god brought the maiden to Crete where she was seduced and she became the mother of Minos, Rhadamanthys and Sarpedon. Europa married Asterius (or Asterion), the king of Crete and the son of Tectamus and the unnamed daughter of Cretheus.

Tectamus was the son of Dorus and grandson of Hellen. Tectamus had migrated from Thessaly, and became king of Crete.

However much of the myths surrounding the island, they mostly involved with Minos. Minos had married Pasiphae, daughter of the sun god Helius, and he had many children. Minos became the father of four sons, Catreus, Deucalion, Androgeus and Glaucus (Glaucos); and of four daughters, Acacallis, Xenodice, Ariadne and Phaedra.

See the House of Minos for the genealogy of Crete.

But he had also offended the sea god Poseidon, for refusing to sacrifice the bull (Cretan Bull) that the god had sent to the king. Poseidon caused Pasiphae to fall in love with the Cretan Bull, so that she became the mother of monster that had the man’s body but with the head of bull; the monster was called the Minotaur (“Minos’ Bull”). Here, the myth of Theseus of Athens becomes entwined with that of Minos. Beneath the myth of Minos, another player is involved with the ruler of Crete: Daedalus, the great inventor.

Daedalus became involved with Pasiphae copulating with the Crete Bull that produced the offspring Minotaur; he was the one who constructed the maze-like Labyrinth, which only he could escape. Daedalus earned Minos’ displeasure when the inventor disclosed the secret on how to escape the Labyrinth to Theseus through Ariadne, daughter of Minos, resulting in his confinement in the Labyrinth. Daedalus had escaped when constructed a winged device. Minos tried to capture the fugitive inventor, but in Sicily, the daughter of Daedalus’ new patron killed the king while he was taking a bath.

With Minos’ death, Crete was divided between his two sons, Catreus and Deucalion. Idomeneus, son of Deucalion, was a former suitor of Helen, and he brought 80 ships to Troy. Though he was one of oldest men, he distinguished himself in the war. Idomeneus safely returned home after the war, he was banished by his wife Meda and her lover Leucus.

For more detail accounts of Europa, Minos and his descendants, I would suggest that you read the new Minoan Crete page.

Minos (founder of Cnossus).

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Geographia: Islands – Timeless Myths

Islands, Maryland

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Feb 292016

ISLANDS There are hundreds of islands in Maryland. While most are inhabited, several islands, such as Assateague Island and Poplar Island, are reserved as parks and wildlife refuges.

Over time, the number of islands in Maryland has decreased. Rising sea levels have caused many islands in the Chesapeake Bay, including Sharps Island and Three Sisters Island, to disappear. Others, such as Smith Island, are in danger of being flooded.

Assateague Island National Park Seashore (Worcester County), May 2015. Photo by Sarah A. Hanks.

















Assateague Island National Park Seashore (Worcester County), May 2015. Photo by Sarah A. Hanks.

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Islands, Maryland

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Caribbean Islands | Caribbean hotels & villas, Caribbean …

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Feb 292016

CARIBBEAN.COM | HOTELS | VILLAS | ACTIVITIES | Top Caribbean Tours Dreaming of the Caribbean? Check out these exciting tours and attractions. Top Caribbean Hotels Browse a selection of top hotels in The Bahamas and the Caribbean. Top Bermuda Resorts Dreaming of Bermuda? Browse this exquisite collection of beautiful Bermuda resorts and hotels. Top Aruba Hotels Planning a trip to Aruba? Check out these exciting Aruba hotels and beachfront resorts. Top Cayman Islands Hotels Browse a selection of top beach front hotels and resorts in the Cayman Islands. Top Bahamas Resorts Planning your trip to The Bahamas? Browse a selection of Bahamas resorts and hotels. Top Anguilla Hotels Planning a trip to Anguilla? Check out these exciting Anguilla hotels and beachfront resorts. Top Antigua and Barbuda Hotels Browse a selection of top beach front hotels and resorts in Antigua and Barbuda. Top Barbados Resorts Planning your trip to Barbados? Browse a selection of Barbados resorts and hotels. Top Jamaica Hotels Planning a trip to Jamaica? Check out these exciting Jamaica hotels and beachfront resorts. Top Curacao Hotels Browse a selection of top beach front hotels and resorts in Curacao. Top Dominica Resorts Planning your trip to Dominica? Browse a selection of Dominica hotels. Top St Barts Hotels Planning a trip to St Barts? Check out these exotic St Barts resorts. Top St Kitts and Nevis Hotels Browse a selection exclusive hotels and resorts in St Kitts and Nevis. Top St Lucia Hotels Planning a trip to St Lucia? Browse a selection of exquisite St Lucia hotels. Vacation Packages Canada-Jamaica Planning a trip from Canada to Jamaica? Check out these Jamaica hotel packages. Top Turks and Caicos Hotels Browse a selection exclusive hotels and resorts in the Turks and Caicos. Top USVI Hotels Planning a trip to St Thomas, St Croix or St John? Browse a selection of USVI hotels. Bahamas Vacation Guides [NEW] Want to know the hot spots in Nassau and Freeport? These locally produced visitor guides provide local knowledge on shopping, dining, activities and entertainment.

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Island – definition of island by The Free Dictionary

 Islands  Comments Off on Island – definition of island by The Free Dictionary
Feb 292016

noun isle, inch (Scot. & Irish), atoll, holm (dialect), islet, ait or eyot (dialect), cay or key a day trip to the island of Gozo Islands and island groups Achill, Admiralty, Aegean, Aegina, Alcatraz, Aldabra, Alderney, Aleutian, Alexander, Amboina, Andaman, Andaman and Nicobar, Andreanof, Andros, Anglesey, Anguilla, Anticosti, Antigua, Antilles, Antipodes, Aran, Arran, Aru or Arru, Aruba, Ascension, Auckland, Azores, Baffin, Bahamas, Balearic, Bali, Banaba, Bangka, Banks, Baranof, Barbados, Barbuda, Bardsey, Barra, Basilan, Basse-Terre, Batan, Belau, Belle, Benbecula, Bermuda, Biak, Billiton, Bioko, Bohol, Bonaire, Bonin, Bora Bora, Borneo, Bornholm, Bougainville, British, Bute, Butung, Caicos, Caldy, Calf of Man, Campobello, Canary, Canna, Canvey, Cape Breton, Capri, Caroline, Cayman, Ceb, Ceylon, Channel, Chatham, Cheju, Chichagof, Chilo, Chios, Choiseul, Christmas, Cocos, Coll, Colonsay, Coney, Cook, Corfu, Corregidor, Corsica, Crete, Cuba, Curaao, Cyclades, Cyprus, Cythera, Delos, D’Entrecasteaux, Diomede, Disko, Diu, Djerba or Jerba, Dodecanese, Dominica, Dry Tortugas, Easter, Eigg, Elba, Ellesmere, Espritu Santo, Euboea, Faeroes, Faial or Fayal, Fair, Falkland, Falster, Farquhar, Fernando de Noronha, Fiji, Flannan, Flinders, Flores, Florida Keys, Foula, Foulness, Franz Josef Land, French West Indies, Frisian, Fyn, Galpagos, Gambier, Gigha, Gilbert, Gotland, Gothland, or Gottland, Grand Bahama, Grand Canary, Grande-Terre, Grand Manan, Greater Antilles, Greater Sunda, Greenland, Grenada, Grenadines, Guadalcanal, Guam, Guernsey, Hainan or Hainan Tao, Handa, Hawaii, Hayling, Heard and McDonald, Hebrides, Heimaey, Heligoland, Herm, Hispaniola, Hokkaido, Holy, Hong Kong, Honshu, Hormuz or Ormuz, Howland, Ibiza, Icaria, Iceland, Imbros, Iona, Ionian, Ireland, Ischia, Islay, Isle Royale, Ithaca, Iwo Jima, Jamaica, Jan Mayen, Java, Jersey, Jolo, Juan Fernndez, Jura, Kangaroo, Kauai, Keos, Kerrera, Kiritimati, Kodiak, Kos or Cos, Kosrae, Krakatoa or Krakatau, Kuril or Kurile, Kyushu or Kiushu, La Palma, Labuan, Lakshadweep, Lampedusa, Lanai, Lavongai, Leeward, Lemnos, Lesbos, Lesser Antilles, Levks, Leukas, or Leucas, Lewis with Harris or Lewis and Harris, Leyte, Liberty, Lindisfarne, Line, Lipari, Lismore, Lolland or Laaland, Lombok, Long, Longa, Lord Howe, Luing, Lundy, Luzon, Mackinac, Macquarie, Madagascar, Madeira, Madura, Maewo, Mah, Mainland, Majorca, Maldives, Mal, Malta, Man, Manhattan, Manitoulin, Maraj, Margarita, Marie Galante, Marinduque, Marquesas, Marshall, Martinique, Masbate, Mascarene, Matsu or Mazu, Maui, Mauritius, May, Mayotte, Melanesia, Melos, Melville, Mersea, Micronesia, Mindanao, Mindoro, Minorca, Miquelon, Molokai, Moluccas, Montserrat, Mount Desert, Muck, Mull, Mykonos, Nantucket, Nauru, Naxos, Negros, Netherlands Antilles, Nevis, New Britain, New Caledonia, Newfoundland, New Georgia, New Guinea, New Ireland, New Providence, New Siberian, Nicobar, Niue, Norfolk, North, North Uist, Nusa Tenggara, Oahu, Oceania, Okinawa, Orkneys or Orkney, Palawan, Palmyra, Panay, Pantelleria, Pros, Patmos, Pelagian, Pemba, Penang, Pescadores, Philae, Philippines, Phoenix, Pitcairn, Polynesia, Ponape, Pribilof, Prince Edward, Prince of Wales, Principe, Qeshm or Qishm, Queen Charlotte, Queen Elizabeth, Quemoy, Raasay, Ramsey, Rarotonga, Rathlin, Runion, Rhodes, Rhum, Rialto, Roanoke, Robben, Rockall, Rona, Ross, Ryukyu, Saba, Safety, Saipan, Sakhalin, Salamis, Saltee, Samar, Samoa, Samos, Samothrace, San Cristbal, San Juan, San Salvador, Santa Catalina, Sao Miguel, Sao Tom, Sardinia, Sark, Savaii, Scalpay, Schouten, Scilly, Sea, Seil, Seram or Ceram, Seychelles, Sheppey, Shetland, Sicily, Singapore, Sjlland, Skikoku, Skokholm, Skomer, Skye, Skyros or Scyros, Society, Socotra, South, Southampton, South Georgia, South Orkney, South Shetland, South Uist, Spitsbergen, Sporades, Sri Lanka, St. Croix, St. Helena, St. John, St. Kilda, St. Kitts or St. Christopher, St. Lucia, St. Martin, St. Tudwal’s, St. Vincent, Staffa, Staten, Stewart, Stroma, Stromboli, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Sumba or Soemba, Sumbawa or Soembawa, Summer, Sunda or Soenda, Tahiti, Taiwan, Tasmania, Tenedos, Tenerife, Terceira, Thanet, Thsos, Thera, Thousand, Thursday, Timor, Tiree, Tobago, Tokelau, Tombo, Tonga, Tortola, Tortuga, Trinidad, Tristan da Cunha, Trobriand, Truk, Tsushima, Tuamotu, Tubuai, Turks, Tutuila, Tuvalu, Ulva, Unimak, Upolu, Ushant, Vancouver, Vanua Levu, Vanuatu, Vestmannaeyjar, Victoria, Virgin, Visayan, Viti Levu, Volcano, Walcheren, Walney, West Indies, Western, Wight, Windward, Wrangel, Yap, Youth, Zante, Zanzibar

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Island – definition of island by The Free Dictionary

About Our Islands | US Virgin Islands

 Islands  Comments Off on About Our Islands | US Virgin Islands
Feb 292016

Each of our three major islands has a unique character all its own. St. Croix’s Danish influence is perfect for visitors who prefer a laid-back experience. The historic towns of Frederiksted and Christiansted offer quaint shops, charming pastel buildings and refreshing cultural diversity. From horseback riding near 18th-century sugar mills to playing golf on one of the island’s three scenic golf courses, you’re sure to find something to suit your tastes.

Two-thirds of St. John is a national park. Its comfortable pace is perfect for enjoying the island’s world-renowned beaches such as Trunk Bay, Cinnamon Bay and Salt Pond Bay. A nature lover’s favorite, St. John offers hiking, camping, specialty shopping and breathtaking views. If you take just a few hours to visit this island, you’ll find it well worth the trip.

St. Thomas boasts one of the most beautiful harbors in the world. As the most visited port in the Caribbean, downtown Charlotte Amalie offers elegant dining, exciting nightlife, duty-free shopping and even submarine rides. Though it’s full of energy, especially in Charlotte Amalie, this island also possesses numerous sublime natural splendors, such as stunning views of the Caribbean from 1,500 feet above sea level.

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Islands Restaurant – 131 Photos – Burgers – Carlsbad …

 Islands  Comments Off on Islands Restaurant – 131 Photos – Burgers – Carlsbad …
Feb 292016

After a long journey to Carlsbad to buy a car, we needed a break to refuel our energy. We decided to stop by and have Islands as our dinner. Upon entering the door, the hostess opened the door to let us inside to get away from the windy and cold outside.

Once seated, our waitress walked past us several times and did not ask us what we wanted to drink. A couple of passes more, she stopped by and asked what we wanted to drink. We ordered and asked for their Cheddar Fries (pretty much just their fries topped with melted cheddar and scallions and comes with sides of ranch for dipping; pretty darn good).

Moments later, she came back with the fries and asked if we were ready to order. We said our group (around 5) was and proceeded to place our orders one by one. I opted for their Hula Burger cooked medium well.

The orders came out momentarily, but one. We asked the waitress where it was and she went back to check. Took her a little bit of time, but it came out. When looking at my order, I noticed that there was mustard in my burger, which mustard usually doesn’t bother me, but for some reason, in this burger, I usually don’t like it. When I do come to Islands, I like to order this burger, so I knew right away it was off. I’m also not the type of person who likes to send back food in thoughts of someone spitting in my food. Not saying that this place would, in hearing horror stories from my friends, I just can’t find myself to do it. So I proceeded to eat it the way it was.

Time and time again, our groups cups were running low of drinks, which we kept having to ask the employee to bring more for us. Not only that, she didn’t check up on us very often to see if we needed anything (like drinks).

Normally I would give Islands a three star rating, but because of the service, it was docked one. Must have been an off day here. Islands usually isn’t like this for me.

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Islands Restaurant – 131 Photos – Burgers – Carlsbad …

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50 Best Island Vacations – Vacation Idea

 Islands  Comments Off on 50 Best Island Vacations – Vacation Idea
Feb 292016

Island Vacation Guide Insider Tips & Ideas

Read our editors favorite tips and tricks for getting great deals, packages and specials; when to travel to avoid crowds, lesser-known destination and how to choose the best island vacation for you.

Some have the means to get away to a secluded island several times of year, while others save up for special occasions like anniversaries, honeymoons and family reunions. Here are some of the top reasons to plan an island getaway and ideas on where to go.

Photo: Hotel Monte Mulini

Create fun memories, whether you want to learn something new like scuba diving or take many sunset walks on the beach. Choose a destination with an overwater restaurant and unique honeymoon suites. Couples enjoy getting massages together and many unique spas offer specially designed couples spa suites. Some of the top resorts in the world are located on an island. Private island vacation ideas include Peter Island Resort in the British Virgin Islands, Cayo Espanto in Belize, Kamalame Cay in the Bahamas and Soneva Fushi in the Maldives. Pricing at Kamalame Cay is all-inclusive: meals, snorkeling gear and sea kayaks. There are many resorts for families and couples on Barbados, including Sandy Lane Resort, The Crane Resort and The Fairmont Royal Pavilion.

While most travelers agree that some of the best destinations include Hawaii, French Polynesia and the Caribbean, which spot you choose will depend on your interests and budget. If you live on the East Coast, getting to the Caribbean or Florida will take less time than flying to the Pacific. If you are on the West Coast, Maui, Oahu, Kauai and the Big Island of Hawaii are all great choices. Private island resorts on the Great Barrier Reef in Australia should not be overlooked either – they offer awesome scuba diving, snorkeling and secluded sandy beaches.

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50 Best Island Vacations – Vacation Idea

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Caribbean – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 Islands  Comments Off on Caribbean – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Feb 172016

Caribbean Area 2,754,000km2 (1,063,000sqmi) Land area 239,681km2 (92,541sqmi) Population (2009) 39,169,962[1] Density 151.5/km2 (392/sqmi) Ethnic groups Afro-Caribbean, White Caribbean, Indo-Caribbean, Chinese Caribbean,Middle Eastern-Caribbean,[2]Arawak (Kalinago, Tano) Demonym Caribbean, Caribbean person, West Indian Languages Spanish, English, French, Dutch, French Creole, English Creole, Caribbean Hindustani, among others Government 13 sovereign states 17 dependent territories Largest cities List of metropolitan areas in the West Indies Santo Domingo Havana Port-au-Prince Santiago de los Caballeros Kingston Santiago de Cuba San Juan Holgun Cap-Hatien Fort-de-France Port of Spain Internet TLD Multiple Calling code Multiple Time zone UTC-5 to UTC-4

The Caribbean ( or ; Spanish: Caribe; Dutch: Caraben(helpinfo); Caribbean Hindustani: (Kairibiyana); French: Carabe or more commonly Antilles) is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean), and the surrounding coasts. The region is southeast of the Gulf of Mexico and the North American mainland, east of Central America, and north of South America.

Situated largely on the Caribbean Plate, the region comprises more than 700 islands, islets, reefs, and cays. (See the list.) These islands generally form island arcs that delineate the eastern and northern edges of the Caribbean Sea.[3] The Caribbean islands, consisting of the Greater Antilles on the north and the Lesser Antilles on the south and east (including the Leeward Antilles), are part of the somewhat larger West Indies grouping, which also includes the Lucayan Archipelago (comprising The Bahamas and Turks and Caicos Islands) north of the Greater Antilles and Caribbean Sea. In a wider sense, the mainland countries of Belize, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana are also included.

Geopolitically, the Caribbean islands are usually regarded as a subregion of North America[4][5][6][7][8] and are organized into 30 territories including sovereign states, overseas departments, and dependencies. From December 15, 1954, to October 10, 2010 there was a country known as the Netherlands Antilles composed of five states, all of which were Dutch dependencies.[9] While from January 3, 1958, to May 31, 1962, there was also a short-lived country called the Federation of the West Indies composed of ten English-speaking Caribbean territories, all of which were then British dependencies. The West Indies cricket team continues to represent many of those nations.

The region takes its name from that of the Caribs, an ethnic group present in the Lesser Antilles and parts of adjacent South America at the time of the Spanish conquest.[10]

The two most prevalent pronunciations of “Caribbean” are KARR–BEE-n, with the primary accent on the third syllable, and k-RIB-ee-n, with the accent on the second. The former pronunciation is the older of the two, although the stressed-second-syllable variant has been established for over 75 years.[11] It has been suggested that speakers of British English prefer KARR–BEE-n while North American speakers more typically use k-RIB-ee-n,[12] although not all sources agree.[13] Usage is split within Caribbean English itself.[14]

The word “Caribbean” has multiple uses. Its principal ones are geographical and political. The Caribbean can also be expanded to include territories with strong cultural and historical connections to slavery, European colonisation, and the plantation system.

The geography and climate in the Caribbean region varies: Some islands in the region have relatively flat terrain of non-volcanic origin. These islands include Aruba (possessing only minor volcanic features), Barbados, Bonaire, the Cayman Islands, Saint Croix, the Bahamas, and Antigua. Others possess rugged towering mountain-ranges like the islands of Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, Dominica, Montserrat, Saba, Saint Kitts, Saint Lucia, Saint Thomas, Saint John, Tortola, Grenada, Saint Vincent, Guadeloupe, Martinique, and Trinidad & Tobago.

Definitions of the terms Greater Antilles and Lesser Antilles often vary. The Virgin Islands as part of the Puerto Rican bank are sometimes included with the Greater Antilles. The term Lesser Antilles is often used to define an island arc that includes Grenada but excludes Trinidad and Tobago and the Leeward Antilles.

The waters of the Caribbean Sea host large, migratory schools of fish, turtles, and coral reef formations. The Puerto Rico trench, located on the fringe of the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea just to the north of the island of Puerto Rico, is the deepest point in all of the Atlantic Ocean.[16]

The region sits in the line of several major shipping routes with the Panama Canal connecting the western Caribbean Sea with the Pacific Ocean.

The climate of the area is tropical to subtropical in Cuba, The Bahamas and Puerto Rico. Rainfall varies with elevation, size, and water currents (cool upwellings keep the ABC islands arid). Warm, moist tradewinds blow consistently from the east creating rainforest/semidesert divisions on mountainous islands. Occasional northwesterlies affect the northern islands in the winter. The region enjoys year-round sunshine, divided into ‘dry’ and ‘wet’ seasons, with the last six months of the year being wetter than the first half.

Hurricane Season is from June to November, but they occur more frequently in August and September and more common in the northern islands of the Caribbean.Hurricanes that sometimes batter the region usually strike northwards of Grenada and to the west of Barbados. The principal hurricane belt arcs to northwest of the island of Barbados in the Eastern Caribbean.

Water temperatures vary from 31C (88F) to 22C (72F) all around the year. The air temperature is warm, in the 20s and 30s C (70s, 80s, and 90s F) during the year, only varies from winter to summer about 25 degrees on the southern islands and about 1020 degrees difference can occur in the northern islands of the Caribbean. The northern islands, like the Bahamas, Cuba, Puerto Rico, and The Dominican Republic, may be influenced by continental masses during winter months, such as cold fronts.

Aruba: Latitude 12N

Puerto Rico: Latitude 18N

Cuba: at Latitude 22N

Greater Antilles

Lesser Antilles

All islands at some point were, and a few still are, colonies of European nations; a few are overseas or dependent territories:

The British West Indies were united by the United Kingdom into a West Indies Federation between 1958 and 1962. The independent countries formerly part of the B.W.I. still have a joint cricket team that competes in Test matches, One Day Internationals and Twenty20 Internationals. The West Indian cricket team includes the South American nation of Guyana, the only former British colony on the mainland of that continent.

In addition, these countries share the University of the West Indies as a regional entity. The university consists of three main campuses in Jamaica, Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago, a smaller campus in the Bahamas and Resident Tutors in other contributing territories such as Trinidad.

Islands in and near the Caribbean

Maritime boundaries between the Caribbean (island) nations

The Caribbean islands are remarkable for the diversity of their animals, fungi and plants, and have been classified as one of Conservation International’s biodiversity hotspots because of their exceptionally diverse terrestrial and marine ecosystems, ranging from montane cloud forests to cactus scrublands. The region also contains about 8% (by surface area) of the world’s coral reefs[22] along with extensive seagrass meadows,[23] both of which are frequently found in the shallow marine waters bordering island and continental coasts off the region.

For the fungi, there is a modern checklist based on nearly 90,000 records derived from specimens in reference collections, published accounts and field observations.[24] That checklist includes more than 11250 species of fungi recorded from the region. As its authors note, the work is far from exhaustive, and it is likely that the true total number of fungal species already known from the Caribbean is higher. The true total number of fungal species occurring in the Caribbean, including species not yet recorded, is likely far higher given the generally accepted estimate that only about 7% of all fungi worldwide have been discovered.[25] Though the amount of available information is still small, a first effort has been made to estimate the number of fungal species endemic to some Caribbean islands. For Cuba, 2200 species of fungi have been tentatively identified as possible endemics of the island;[26] for Puerto Rico, the number is 789 species;[27] for the Dominican Republic, the number is 699 species;[28] for Trinidad and Tobago, the number is 407 species.[29]

Many of the ecosystems of the Caribbean islands have been devastated by deforestation, pollution, and human encroachment. The arrival of the first humans is correlated with extinction of giant owls and dwarf ground sloths.[30] The hotspot contains dozens of highly threatened animals (ranging from birds, to mammals and reptiles), fungi and plants. Examples of threatened animals include the Puerto Rican amazon, two species of solenodon (giant shrews) in Cuba and the Hispaniola island, and the Cuban crocodile.

The region’s coral reefs, which contain about 70 species of hard corals and between 500700 species of reef-associated fishes[31] have undergone rapid decline in ecosystem integrity in recent years, and are considered particularly vulnerable to global warming and ocean acidification.[32] According to a UNEP report, the caribbean coral reefs might get extinct in next 20 years due to population explosion along the coast lines, overfishing, the pollution of coastal areas and global warming.[33]

Some Caribbean islands have terrain that Europeans found suitable for cultivation for agriculture. Tobacco was an important early crop during the colonial era, but was eventually overtaken by sugarcane production as the region’s staple crop. Sugar was produced from sugarcane for export to Europe. Cuba and Barbados were historically the largest producers of sugar. The tropical plantation system thus came to dominate Caribbean settlement. Other islands were found to have terrain unsuited for agriculture, for example Dominica, which remains heavily forested. The islands in the southern Lesser Antilles, Aruba, Bonaire and Curaao, are extremely arid, making them unsuitable for agriculture. However, they have salt pans that were exploited by the Dutch. Sea water was pumped into shallow ponds, producing coarse salt when the water evaporated.[34]

The natural environmental diversity of the Caribbean islands has led to recent growth in eco-tourism. This type of tourism is growing on islands lacking sandy beaches and dense human populations.[35]

The Martinique amazon, Amazona martinicana, is an extinct species of parrot in the Psittacidae family.

At the time of European contact, the dominant ethnic groups in the Caribbean included the Tano of the Greater Antilles and northern Lesser Antilles, the Island Caribs of the southern Lesser Antilles, and smaller distinct groups such as the Guanajatabey of western Cuba and the Ciguayo of western Hispaniola. The population of the Caribbean is estimated to have been around 750,000 immediately before European contact, although lower and higher figures are given. After contact, social disruption and epidemic diseases such as smallpox and measles (to which they had no natural immunity)[36] led to a decline in the Amerindian population.[37] From 1500 to 1800 the population rose as slaves arrived from West Africa[38] such as the Kongo, Igbo, Akan, Fon and Yoruba as well as military prisoners and captured slaves from Ireland, who were deported during the Cromwellian reign in England.[39] Immigrants from Britain, Italy, France, Spain, the Netherlands, Portugal and Denmark also arrived, although the mortality rate was high for both groups.[40]

The population is estimated to have reached 2.2 million by 1800.[41] Immigrants from India, China, and other countries arrived in the 19th century.[42] After the ending of the Atlantic slave trade, the population increased naturally.[43] The total regional population was estimated at 37.5 million by 2000.[44]

The majority of the Caribbean has populations of mainly Africans in the French Caribbean, Anglophone Caribbean and Dutch Caribbean, there are minorities of mixed-race and European peoples of Dutch, English, French, Italian and Portuguese ancestry. Asians, especially those of Chinese and Indian descent, form a significant minority in the region and also contribute to multiracial communities. All of their ancestors arrived in the 19th century as indentured laborers.

The Spanish-speaking Caribbean have primarily mixed race, African, or European majorities. Puerto Rico has a European majority with a mixture of European-African (mulatto), and a large West African minority. One third of Cuba’s (largest Caribbean island) population is of African descent, with a sizable Mulatto (mixed AfricanEuropean) population, and European majority. The Dominican Republic has the largest mixed race population, primarily descended from Europeans, West Africans, and Amerindians.

Larger islands such as Jamaica, have a very large African majority, in addition to a significant mixed race, Chinese, Europeans, Indian, Lebanese, Latin American, and Syrian populations. This is a result of years of importation of slaves and indentured labourers, and migration. Most multi-racial Jamaicans refer to themselves as either mixed race or Brown. The situation is similar for the Caricom states of Belize, Guyana, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad and Tobago has a multi-racial cosmopolitan society due to the arrival of the Africans, Indians, Chinese, Syrians, Lebanese, Native Amerindians and Europeans. This multi-racial mix has created sub-ethnicities that often straddle the boundaries of major ethnicities and include Chindian, Mulatto and Dougla.

Spanish, English, French, Dutch, Haitian Creole, and Papiamento are the predominant official languages of various countries in the region, though a handful of unique creole languages or dialects can also be found from one country to another.

Christianity is the predominant religion in the Caribbean (84.7%).[45] Other religious groups in the region are Hinduism, Islam, Buddhist, Rastafari, and Afro-American religions such as Santera and Vodou.

Caribbean societies are very different from other Western societies in terms of size, culture, and degree of mobility of their citizens.[46] The current economic and political problems the states face individually are common to all Caribbean states. Regional development has contributed to attempts to subdue current problems and avoid projected problems. From a political and economic perspective, regionalism serves to make Caribbean states active participants in current international affairs through collective coalitions. In 1973, the first political regionalism in the Caribbean Basin was created by advances of the English-speaking Caribbean nations through the institution known as the Caribbean Common Market and Community (CARICOM)[47] which is located in Guyana.

Certain scholars have argued both for and against generalizing the political structures of the Caribbean. On the one hand the Caribbean states are politically diverse, ranging from communist systems such as Cuba toward more capitalist Westminster-style parliamentary systems as in the Commonwealth Caribbean. Other scholars argue that these differences are superficial, and that they tend to undermine commonalities in the various Caribbean states. Contemporary Caribbean systems seem to reflect a “blending of traditional and modern patterns, yielding hybrid systems that exhibit significant structural variations and divergent constitutional traditions yet ultimately appear to function in similar ways.”[48] The political systems of the Caribbean states share similar practices.

The influence of regionalism in the Caribbean is often marginalized. Some scholars believe that regionalism cannot exist in the Caribbean because each small state is unique. On the other hand, scholars also suggest that there are commonalities amongst the Caribbean nations that suggest regionalism exists. “Proximity as well as historical ties among the Caribbean nations has led to cooperation as well as a desire for collective action.”[49] These attempts at regionalization reflect the nations’ desires to compete in the international economic system.[49]

Furthermore, a lack of interest from other major states promoted regionalism in the region. In recent years the Caribbean has suffered from a lack of U.S. interest. “With the end of the Cold War, U.S. security and economic interests have been focused on other areas. As a result there has been a significant reduction in U.S. aid and investment to the Caribbean.”[50] The lack of international support for these small, relatively poor states, helped regionalism prosper.

Following the Cold War another issue of importance in the Caribbean has been the reduced economic growth of some Caribbean States due to the United States and European Union’s allegations of special treatment toward the region by each other. [clarification needed]

The United States under President Bill Clinton launched a challenge in the World Trade Organization against the EU over Europe’s preferential program, known as the Lom Convention, which allowed banana exports from the former colonies of the Group of African, Caribbean and Pacific states (ACP) to enter Europe cheaply.[51] The World Trade Organization sided in the United States’ favour and the beneficial elements of the convention to African, Caribbean and Pacific states has been partially dismantled and replaced by the Cotonou Agreement.[52]

During the US/EU dispute, the United States imposed large tariffs on European Union goods (up to 100%) to pressure Europe to change the agreement with the Caribbean nations in favour of the Cotonou Agreement.[53]

Farmers in the Caribbean have complained of falling profits and rising costs as the Lom Convention weakens. Some farmers have faced increased pressure to turn towards the cultivation of illegal drugs, which has a higher profit margin and fills the sizable demand for these illegal drugs in North America and Europe.[54][55]

The European Union has also taken issue with US based taxation extended to US companies via the Caribbean countries.[when?] The United States has not been in favor of shutting off the practice yet, mainly due to the higher costs that would be passed on to US companies via taxation.[citation needed] Caribbean countries have largely countered the allegations by the OECD by signing more bilateral information sharing deals with OECD members, thus reducing the dangerous aspects of secrecy, and they have strengthened their legislation against money laundering and on conditions under which companies can be based in their nations.[citation needed] The Caribbean nations have also started to more closely cooperate in the Caribbean Financial Action Task Force and other instruments to add oversight of the offshore industry.

One of the most important associations that deal with regionalism amongst the nations of the Caribbean Basin has been the Association of Caribbean States (ACS). Proposed by CARICOM in 1992, the ACS soon won the support of the other countries of the region. It was founded in July 1994. The ACS maintains regionalism within the Caribbean on issues unique to the Caribbean Basin. Through coalition building, like the ACS and CARICOM, regionalism has become an undeniable part of the politics and economics of the Caribbean. The successes of region-building initiatives are still debated by scholars, yet regionalism remains prevalent throughout the Caribbean.

The President of Venezuela, Hugo Chavez launched an economic group called the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas (ALBA), which several eastern Caribbean islands joined. In 2012, the nation of Haiti, with 9 million people, became the largest CARICOM nation that sought to join the union.[56]

Here are some of the bodies that several islands share in collaboration:

Coordinates: 143132N 754906W / 14.52556N 75.81833W / 14.52556; -75.81833

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Caribbean – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Georgia Barrier Islands – Georgia Island Beaches

 Islands  Comments Off on Georgia Barrier Islands – Georgia Island Beaches
Feb 142016

The segment of the Georgia Barrier Islands runs along the east coast of the state, from the St Mary’s River bordering Florida and Georgia to Tybee Island where the Savannah River and Atlantic Ocean meet. Barrier Islands are found along most of the Eastern seaboard from Florida to Maine with the Georgia islands totaling fourteen.

The Georgia Islands begin with Cumberland Island and also include Little Cumberland, Jekyll, St. Simons, Sea Island, Little St Simons, Wolf, Sapelo, St. Catherine’s, Ossabaw Island, Wassaw, and Williamson Islands. The northernmost island in the chain is Tybee Island, one of the most popular beach destinations in the state.

Little St. Simons is also a premier vacation destination for vacationers wanting to get away from it all and enjoy a private vacation along Georgia island beaches. The privately owned island encompasses 10,000 acres and is home to a variety of trees and plant life, along with endangered and threatened species of birds. Dolphins, otters, and whales can sometimes be seen in the waters around the island.

A vacation to the Georgia Barrier Islands provides dramatic ocean views, luxury hotels, fine dining, spas, relaxation, and privacy. You can also spend time on the sugar-white Georgia Island beaches for quiet strolls, horseback riding, and romantic sunsets. Guests can arrange for a day trip to the island from the mainland for hiking, touring, or boating, and there are also options for overnight stays. Make plans ahead of time when traveling to Little St. Simon’s Island, however, as only a limited number of guests are allowed on the island at one time.

Cumberland Island, at the southern base of the Georgia Barrier Islands chain, is home to a diverse natural ecological setting with hardwood forests of oak trees and pine in the north, along with saltwater marshes supporting numerous species of fish and birds. There are seventeen miles of white Georgia Island beaches along this lovely island, making it a perennially popular destination in Georgia.

At nearby Crooked River State Park, the 500 acres provide hiking trails that will take you through areas filled with wildlife, including assorted birds, turtles, and alligators. Saltwater fishing, kayaking, boating, and miniature golf are available at the park, and RV and trailer camping is available along with individual rental cottages, making it an excellent fit for travelers who want to spend several days on the Barrier Islands.

The northernmost area of the Georgia Islands is Tybee Island, situated along the Savannah River. There are numerous things to do at Tybee for vacationers interested in outdoor excursions, due to the 100-acre Tybee National Wildlife Refuge providing birdwatchers and hikers with plenty of opportunities for sightseeing. The Tybee Island Pier & Pavilion is a great place for picnics and fishing, and at the Tybee Island Marine Science Center, you can take a one-hour guided walk along the beach to learn about the local environment. Those interested in history can also visit the Tybee Lighthouse, built in 1736 and still in use today.

At Jekyll Island, vacationers will have miles of Georgia island beaches and dunes to explore. In the nineteenth century, the island was a retreat for the rich and famous, and today visitors can tour the Jekyll Island Historic District. The district encompasses 240 acres of restored homes, chapels, cottages, and stables, displaying examples of Victorian and Gothic architecture, as well as Tiffany stained glass. In August, the island holds the annual Beach Music Festival, which lasts for three days and includes music, barbecue, dancing, wine tasting, and a golf tournament.

Whichever one you choose to visit, the Barrier Islands in Georgia are an excellent vacation destination for travelers who want to spend time outside and enjoy the beautiful beaches and coastline of this part of the US.

Original post:
Georgia Barrier Islands – Georgia Island Beaches

Pierre Teilhard De Chardin | Designer Children | Prometheism | Euvolution