Cyborg | Designer-Babies | Futurism | Futurist | Immortality | Longevity | Nanotechnology | Post-Human | Singularity | Transhuman

MisterX55547

Live by the Golden Rule (pledge/petition/proclamation …

 Golden Rule  Comments Off on Live by the Golden Rule (pledge/petition/proclamation …
Jun 282016
 

Sign the petition Petition results Who What & Why All Life strives to incorporate the principle of the Golden Rule. Directing our attention toward understanding this most basic principle gives us a reasonable, common sense and compassionate direction in anything we do. Remembering and putting the Golden Rule to use each day in our own lives transforms our relationship with ourselves, with others and with our environment, the planet Earth. An invitation to All:

1stStrive and Incorporate: strive to understand the meaning of the Golden Rule for myself and how I wish to incorporate it in my life, recognizing that this effort is sometimes hard and yet always helpful.

2ndInvite and Request: invite/petition/request those who represent me to do the same: live by the Golden Rule. My representatives will change the world for the better when they apply it within their organizations, such as in any of the religious traditions, teachings and in communities; environmental, civic, economic, educational, political, or social entities.

3rdStand in Unity: join with those on this planet who wish to take real responsibility toward compassion and fairness; and to build an understanding with my neighbors about what is to be done in each new situation based upon the principle of the Golden Rule. Simply stated,

See the original post:

Live by the Golden Rule (pledge/petition/proclamation …

Golden Rule – Robinsons Brewery

 Golden Rule  Comments Off on Golden Rule – Robinsons Brewery
Jun 282016
 

Welcome to the Golden Rulethe hidden gem of Ambleside.

Tucked away off the main road in the heart of the Lake District, this Grade II listed traditional multi-room pub is ever popular with residents and visitors, the young and old, walkers, climbers and mountain bikers, artists and writers. With no background music, no noisy games machines, no big screen televisions, and no meals, the Rule is just the place to relax and have a drink and a chat.

Enjoy the extensive range of cask beers, draught lagers and ciders, fine wines, malt whiskies, gins, and other spirits in comfortable traditionally furnished rooms, in the secluded sun-trap beer garden, or by the open fire.

Take advantage of the free WiFi, daily newspapers, books and magazines, selection of board games and dart board. Dogs are welcome throughout and water bowls are always available.

John and Margret have been welcoming people to the Golden Rule since 1981, and they and their team look forward to welcoming you too.

View original post here:

Golden Rule – Robinsons Brewery

Apps/Evolution – GNOME Wiki!

 Evolution  Comments Off on Apps/Evolution – GNOME Wiki!
Jun 282016
 

Evolution is a personal information management application that provides integrated mail, calendaring and address book functionality.

First consult the Evolution Manual.

The evolution-list mailing list is the best place to seek further assistance with using Evolution, for example when you have problems. Subscribe here!

The evolution-hackers mailing list is for developer discussions. The topics can get pretty technical. Subscribe here!

Many Evolution developers and users can also be found on IRC (irc.gimp.org), channel #evolution.

The Evolution project releases its source code as tarball files, from which Free Software distributors can create easily-installable binary packages for users.

Most likely your Free Software distribution (Fedora, Mint, Ubuntu, etc.) already provides binary packages for Evolution. The following links are only for the source code.

The latest stable releases are the 3.20 series. Tarballs can be found for these various components (see also the “.news” files accompanying them for a list of changes):

The latest development snapshot tarballs (3.21 series, what will become 3.22) can be found below (after the first 3.21 release):

Or you can clone the source code repositories with git:

gitclonegit://git.gnome.org/evolution (Browse)

gitclonegit://git.gnome.org/evolution-data-server (Browse)

gitclonegit://git.gnome.org/evolution-ews (optional) (Browse)

gitclonegit://git.gnome.org/evolution-mapi (deprecated) (Browse)

You can also view the schedule of upcoming releases.

The following materials have aged. Some parts are no longer accurate and need a rewrite.

IRC nick names in brackets.

CategoryProject

Follow this link:

Apps/Evolution – GNOME Wiki!

Evolution – Conservapedia

 Evolution  Comments Off on Evolution – Conservapedia
Jun 282016
 

The theory of evolution is a naturalistic theory of the history of life on earth (this refers to the theory of evolution which employs methodological naturalism and is taught in schools and universities). Merriam-Webster’s dictionary gives the following definition of evolution: “a theory that the various types of animals and plants have their origin in other preexisting types and that the distinguishable differences are due to modifications in successive generations…”[2] Currently, there are several theories of evolution.

Since World War II a majority of the most prominent and vocal defenders of the evolutionary position which employs methodological naturalism have been atheists and agnostics.[3] In 2007, “Discovery Institute’s Center for Science and Culture…announced that over 700 scientists from around the world have now signed a statement expressing their skepticism about the contemporary theory of Darwinian evolution.”[4]

In 2011, the results of a study was published indicating that most United States high school biology teachers are reluctant to endorse the theory of evolution in class. [5] In addition, in 2011, eight anti-evolution bills were introduced into state legislatures within the United States encouraging students to employ critical thinking skills when examining the evolutionary paradigm. In 2009, there were seven states which required critical analysis skills be employed when examining evolutionary material within schools.[6]

A 2005 poll by the Louis Finkelstein Institute for Social and Religious Research found that 60% of American medical doctors reject Darwinism, stating that they do not believe man evolved through natural processes alone.[7] Thirty-eight percent of the American medical doctors polled agreed with the statement that “Humans evolved naturally with no supernatural involvement.” [8] The study also reported that 1/3 of all medical doctors favor the theory of intelligent design over evolution.[9] In 2010, the Gallup organization reported that 40% of Americans believe in young earth creationism.[10] In January 2006, the BBC reported concerning Britain:

Furthermore, more than 40% of those questioned believe that creationism or intelligent design (ID) should be taught in school science lessons.[11]

Picture above was taken at Johns Hopkins University

Johns Hopkins University Press reported in 2014: “Over the past forty years, creationism has spread swiftly among European Catholics, Protestants, Jews, Hindus, and Muslims, even as anti-creationists sought to smother its flames.”[12] In addition, China has the world’s largest atheist population and the rapid growth of biblical creationism/Evangelical Christianity in China may have a significant impact on the number of individuals in the world who believe in evolution and also on global atheism (see: China and biblical creationism and Asian atheism).

The theory of evolution posits a process of transformation from simple life forms to more complex life forms, which has never been observed or duplicated in a laboratory.[13][14] Although not a creation scientist, Swedish geneticist Dr. Nils Heribert-Nilsson, Professor of Botany at the University of Lund in Sweden and a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, stated: “My attempts to demonstrate Evolution by an experiment carried on for more than 40 years have completely failed. At least, I should hardly be accused of having started from a preconceived antievolutionary standpoint.”[15][16]

The fossil record is often used as evidence in the creation versus evolution controversy. The fossil record does not support the theory of evolution and is one of the flaws in the theory of evolution.[17] In 1981, there were at least a hundred million fossils that were catalogued and identified in the world’s museums.[18] Despite the large number of fossils available to scientists in 1981, evolutionist Mark Ridley, who currently serves as a professor of zoology at Oxford University, was forced to confess: “In any case, no real evolutionist, whether gradualist or punctuationist, uses the fossil record as evidence in favour of the theory of evolution as opposed to special creation.”[19]

In addition to the evolutionary position lacking evidential support and being counterevidential, the great intellectuals in history such as Archimedes, Aristotle, St. Augustine, Francis Bacon, Isaac Newton, and Lord Kelvin did not propose an evolutionary process for a species to transform into a more complex version. Even after the theory of evolution was proposed and promoted heavily in England and Germany, most leading scientists were against the theory of evolution.[20]

The theory of evolution was published by naturalist Charles Darwin in his book On The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or The Preservation of Favored Races in the Struggle for Life, in 1859. In a letter to Asa Gray, Darwin confided: “…I am quite conscious that my speculations run quite beyond the bounds of true science.”[21]Prior to publishing the book, Darwin wrote in his private notebooks that he was a materialist, which is a type of atheist.[22] Darwin was a weak atheist/agnostic (see: religious views of Charles Darwin) .[23] Charles Darwins casual mentioning of a creator in earlier editions of The Origin of Species appears to have been a merely a ploy to downplay the implications of his materialistic theory.[24] The amount of credit Darwin actually deserves for the theory is disputed. [25] Darwin’s theory attempted to explain the origin of the various kinds of plants and animals via the process of natural selection or “survival of the fittest”.

The basic principle behind natural selection is that in the struggle for life some organisms in a given population will be better suited to their particular environment and thus have a reproductive advantage which increases the representation of their particular traits over time. Many years before Charles Darwin, there were several other individuals who published articles on the topic of natural selection.[26]

Darwin did not first propose in his book Origin of Species that man had descended from non-human ancestors. Darwin’s theory of evolution incorporated that later in Darwin’s book entitled Descent of Man.

As far as the history of the theory of evolution, although Darwin is well known when it comes to the early advocacy of the evolutionary position in the Western world, evolutionary ideas were taught by the ancient Greeks as early as the 7th century B.C.[27] The concept of naturalistic evolution differs from the concept of theistic evolution in that it states God does not guide the posited process of macroevolution.[28]

In 2012, the science news website Livescience.com published a news article entitled Belief in Evolution Boils Down to a Gut Feeling which indicated that research suggests that gut feelings trumped facts when it comes to evolutionists believing in evolution.[29] In January of 2012, the Journal of Research in Science Teaching published a study indicating that evolutionary belief is significantly based on gut feelings.[30][31] The January 20, 2012 article entitled Belief in Evolution Boils Down to a Gut Feeling published by the website Live Science wrote of the research: “They found that intuition had a significant impact on what the students accepted, no matter how much they knew and regardless of their religious beliefs.”[32]

In response to evolutionary indoctrination and the uncritical acceptance of evolution by many evolutionists, the scientists at the organization Creation Ministries International created a Question evolution! campaign which poses 15 questions for evolutionists. In addition, leading creationist organizations have created lists of poor arguments that evolutionists should not use.[33] See also: Causes of evolutionary belief

See also: Theories of evolution

Evolutionist Theodosius Dobzhansky wrote concerning the theory of evolution: “The process of mutation is the only known source of the new materials of genetic variability, and hence of evolution.”[34] Concerning various theories of evolution, most evolutionists believe that the processes of mutation, genetic drift and natural selection created every species of life that we see on earth today after life first came about on earth although there is little consensus on how this process is allegedly to have occurred.[35]

Pierre-Paul Grass, who served as Chair of evolutionary biology at Sorbonne University for thirty years and was ex-president of the French Academy of Sciences, stated the following: “Some contemporary biologists, as soon as they observe a mutation, talk about evolution. They are implicitly supporting the following syllogism: mutations are the only evolutionary variations, all living beings undergo mutations, therefore all living beings evolve….No matter how numerous they may be, mutations do not produce any kind of evolution.” Grass pointed out that bacteria which are the subject of study of many geneticists and molecular biologists are organisms which produce the most mutants.[36] Grasse then points that bacteria are considered to have “stabilized”.[37] Grass regards the “unceasing mutations” to be “merely hereditary fluctuations around a median position; a swing to the right, a swing to the left, but no final evolutionary effect.”[38]

In addition, Harvard biologist Ernst Mayr wrote: “It must be admitted, however, that it is a considerable strain on ones credulity to assume that finely balanced systems such as certain sense organs (the eye of vertebrates, or the birds feather) could be improved by random mutations.”[39]

Creation scientists believe that mutations, natural selection, and genetic drift would not cause macroevolution.[40] Furthermore, creation scientists assert that the life sciences as a whole support the creation model and do not support the theory of evolution.[41]Homology involves the theory that macroevolutionary relationships can be demonstrated by the similarity in the anatomy and physiology of different organisms.[42] An example of a homology argument is that DNA similarities between human and other living organisms is evidence for the theory of evolution.[43] Creation scientists provide sound reasons why the homology argument is not a valid argument. Both evolutionary scientists and young earth creation scientists believe that speciation occurs, however, young earth creation scientists state that speciation generally occurs at a much faster rate than evolutionist believe is the case.[44]

Critics of the theory of evolution state that many of today’s proponents of the evolutionary position have diluted the meaning of the term “evolution” to the point where it defined as or the definition includes change over time in the gene pool of a population over time through such processes as mutation, natural selection, and genetic drift.[45] Dr. Jonathan Sarfati of Creation Ministries International declares concerning the diluted definition of the word “evolution”:

See also: Atheism and equivocation

Dr. Jonathan Sarfati wrote:

All (sexually reproducing) organisms contain their genetic information in paired form. Each offspring inherits half its genetic information from its mother, and half from its father. So there are two genes at a given position (locus, plural loci) coding for a particular characteristic. An organism can be heterozygous at a given locus, meaning it carries different forms (alleles) of this gene… So there is no problem for creationists explaining that the original created kinds could each give rise to many different varieties. In fact, the original created kinds would have had much more heterozygosity than their modern, more specialized descendants. No wonder Ayala pointed out that most of the variation in populations arises from reshuffling of previously existing genes, not from mutations. Many varieties can arise simply by two previously hidden recessive alleles coming together. However, Ayala believes the genetic information came ultimately from mutations, not creation. His belief is contrary to information theory, as shown in chapter 9 on Design.[48]

Dr. Don Batten of Creation Ministries International has pointed out that prominent evolutionists, such as PZ Myers and Nick Matzke, have indicated that a naturalistic postulation of the origin of life (often called abiogenesis), is part of the evolutionary model.[49] This poses a very serious problem for the evolutionary position as the evidence clearly points life being a product of design and not through naturalistic processes.[50]

The genetic entropy theory by Cornell University Professor Dr. John Sanford on eroding genomes of all living organisms due to mutations inherited from one generation to the next is declared to be one of the major challenges to evolutionary theory. The central part of Sanfords argument is that mutations, represented by spelling mistakes in DNA, are accumulating so quickly in some creatures (and particularly in people) that natural selection cannot stop the functional degradation of the genome, let alone drive an evolutionary process that could lead for example, from apes into people.[51]

Sanford’s book Genetic Entropy and the Mystery of the Genome explains why human DNA is inexorably deteriorating at an alarming rate, thus cannot be millions of years old.[52]

The evolutionist Michael Lynch wrote in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America in a December 3, 2009 article entitled: Rate, molecular spectrum, and consequences of human mutation (taken from the abstract):

Creation scientists and intelligent design advocates point out that the genetic code (DNA code), genetic programs, and biological information argue for an intelligent cause in regards the origins question and assert it is one of the many problems of the theory of evolution.[55][56]

Dr. Walt Brown states the genetic material that controls the biological processes of life is coded information and that human experience tells us that codes are created only by the result of intelligence and not merely by processes of nature.[55] Dr. Brown also asserts that the “information stored in the genetic material of all life is a complex program. Therefore, it appears that an unfathomable intelligence created these genetic programs.”[55]

To support his view regarding the divine origin of genetic programs Dr. Walt Brown cites the work of David Abel and Professor Jack Trevors who wrote the following:

In the peer reviewed biology journal Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington Dr. Stephen Meyer argues that no current materialistic theory of evolution can account for the origin of the information necessary to build novel animal forms and proposed an intelligent cause as the best explanation for the origin of biological information and the higher taxa.[58] The editor of the Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, Dr. Richard Sternberg, came under intense scrutiny and persecution for the aforementioned article published by Dr. Meyer.

See also: Theory of evolution and little consensus and Theories of evolution

There is little scientific consensus on how macroevolution is said to have happened and the claimed mechanisms of evolutionary change, as can be seen in the following quotes:

Pierre-Paul Grass, who served as Chair of Evolution at Sorbonne University for thirty years and was ex-president of the French Academy of Sciences, stated the following:

Today, our duty is to destroy the myth of evolution, considered as a simple, understood, and explained phenomenon which keeps rapidly unfolding before us. Biologists must be encouraged to think about the weaknesses of the interpretations and extrapolations that theoreticians put forward or lay down as established truths. The deceit is sometimes unconscious, but not always, since some people, owing to their sectarianism, purposely overlook reality and refuse to acknowledge the inadequacies and the falsity of their beliefs. – Pierre-Paul Grass – Evolution of Living Organisms (1977), pages 6 and 8[62]

See: Modern evolutionary synthesis and Theories of evolution

A notable case of a scientists using fraudulent material to promote the theory of evolution was the work of German scientist and atheist Ernst Haeckel. Noted evolutionist and Stephen Gould, who held a agnostic worldview[63] and promoted the notion of non-overlapping magesteria, wrote the following regarding Ernst Haeckel’s work in a March 2000 issue of Natural History:

An irony of history is that the March 9, 1907 edition of the NY Times refers to Ernst Haeckel as the “celebrated Darwinian and founder of the Association for the Propagation of Ethical Atheism.”[65]

Stephen Gould continues by quoting Michael Richardson of the St. Georges Hospital Medical School in London, who stated: “I know of at least fifty recent biology texts which use the drawings uncritically”.[64]

See also: Evolution and the fossil record

As alluded to earlier, today there are over one hundred million identified and cataloged fossils in the world’s museums.[66] If the evolutionary position was valid, then there should be “transitional forms” in the fossil record reflecting the intermediate life forms. Another term for these “transitional forms” is “missing links”.

Charles Darwin admitted that his theory required the existence of “transitional forms.” Darwin wrote: “So that the number of intermediate and transitional links, between all living and extinct species, must have been inconceivably great. But assuredly, if this theory be true, such have lived upon the earth.”[68] However, Darwin wrote: “Why then is not every geological formation and every strata full of such intermediate links? Geology assuredly does not reveal any such finely-graduated organic chain; and this perhaps, is the most obvious and serious objection which can be urged against my theory.”[69] Darwin thought the lack of transitional links in his time was because “only a small portion of the surface of the earth has been geologically explored and no part with sufficient care…”.[70] As Charles Darwin grew older he became increasingly concerned about the lack of evidence for the theory of evolution in terms of the existence of transitional forms. Darwin wrote, “When we descend to details, we cannot prove that a single species has changed; nor can we prove that the supposed changes are beneficial, which is the groundwork of the theory.[71]

Scientist Dr. Michael Denton wrote regarding the fossil record:

Creationists assert that evolutionists have had over 140 years to find a transitional fossil and nothing approaching a conclusive transitional form has ever been found and that only a handful of highly doubtful examples of transitional fossils exist.[73] Distinguished anthropologist Sir Edmund R. Leach declared, “Missing links in the sequence of fossil evidence were a worry to Darwin. He felt sure they would eventually turn up, but they are still missing and seem likely to remain so.”[74]

David B. Kitts of the School of Geology and Geophysics at the University of Oklahoma wrote that “Evolution requires intermediate forms between species and paleontology does not provide them”.[75]

David Raup, who was the curator of geology at the museum holding the world’s largest fossil collection, the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago, observed:

One of the most famous proponents of the theory of evolution was the late Harvard paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould. But Gould admitted:

For more information please see:

Creationists can cite quotations which assert that no solid fossil evidence for the theory of evolution position exists:

For more fossil record quotes please see: Fossil record quotes and Additional fossil record quotes

For more information please see: Paleoanthropology and Human evolution

Paleoanthropology is an interdisciplinary branch of anthropology that concerns itself with the origins of early humans and it examines and evaluates items such as fossils and artifacts.[82] Dr. David Pilbeam is a paleoanthropologist who received his Ph.D. at Yale University and Dr. Pilbeam is presently Professor of Social Sciences at Harvard University and Curator of Paleontology at the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology. In addition, Dr. Pilbeam served as an advisor for the Kenya government regarding the creation of an international institute for the study of human origins.[83]

Dr. Pilbeam wrote a review of Richard Leakey’s book Origins in the journal American Scientist:

Dr. Pilbeam wrote the following regarding the theory of evolution and paleoanthropology:

Evolutionist and Harvard professor Richard Lewontin wrote in 1995 that “Despite the excited and optimistic claims that have been made by some paleontologists, no fossil hominid species can be established as our direct ancestor….”[85] In the September 2005 issue of National Geographic, Joel Achenbach asserted that human evolution is a “fact” but he also candidly admitted that the field of paleoanthropology “has again become a rather glorious mess.”[86][87] In the same National Geographic article Harvard paleoanthropologist Dan Lieberman states, “We’re not doing a very good job of being honest about what we don’t know…”.[87]

Concerning pictures of the supposed ancestors of man featured in science journals and the news media Boyce Rensberger wrote in the journal Science the following regarding their highly speculative nature:

Creation scientists concur with Dr. Pilbeam regarding the speculative nature of the field of paleoanthropology and assert there is no compelling evidence in the field of paleoanthropology for the various theories of human evolution.[90]

In 2011, Dr. Grady S. McMurtry declared:

It is acknowledged that the Laws of Genetics are conservative, they are not creative. Genetics only copies or rearranges the previously existing information and passes it on to the next generation. When copying information, you have only two choices; you can only copy it perfectly or imperfectly, you cannot copy something more perfectly. Mutations do not build one upon another beneficially. Mutations do not create new organs; they only modify existing organs and structures. Mutations overwhelmingly lose information; they do not gain it; therefore, mutations cause changes which are contrary of evolutionary philosophy.

As a follow on, the addition of excess undirected energy will destroy the previously existing system. Indeed, you will never get an increase in the specifications on the DNA to create new organs without the input from a greater intelligence.

Mutations affect and are affected by many genes and other intergenic information acting in combination with one another. The addition of the accidental duplication of previously existing information is detrimental to any organism.

Mutations do produce microevolution, however, this term is far better understood as merely lateral adaptation, which is only variation within a kind, a mathematical shifting of gene frequency within a gene pool. The shifting of gene frequencies and a loss of information cannot produce macroevolution.

As Dr. Roger Lewin commented after the 1980 University of Chicago conference entitled Macroevolution:

The central question of the Chicago conference was whether the mechanisms underlying microevolution can be extrapolated to explain the phenomena of macroevolution. At the risk of doing violence to the positions of some of the people at the meeting, the answer can be given as a clear, No. [Emphasis added]

Dr. Roger Lewin, Evolution Theory under Fire, Science. Vol. 210, 21 November 1980. p. 883-887.[91]

In 1988, the prominent Harvard University biologist Ernst Mayr wrote in his essay Does Microevolution Explain Macroevolution?:

…In this respect, indeed, macroevolution as a field of study is completely decoupled from microevolution.[92]

See also: Creation Ministries International on the second law of thermodynamics and evolution

Creation Ministries International has a great wealth of information on why the second law of thermodynamics is incompatible with the evolutionary paradigm.

Some of their key resources on this matter are:

See also: Theories of evolution

Because the fossil record is characterized by the abrupt appearance of species and stasis in the fossil record the theory of punctuated equilibrium was developed and its chief proponents were Stephen Gould, Niles Eldridge, and Steven Stanley. According to the American Museum of Natural History the theory of Punctuated Equilibrium “asserts that evolution occurs in dramatic spurts interspersed with long periods of stasis”.[93] Because Stephen Gould was the leading proponent of the theory of punctuated equilibrium much of the criticism of the theory has been directed towards Gould.[94][95] The development of a new evolutionary school of thought occurring due to the fossil record not supporting the evolutionary position was not unprecedented. In 1930, Austin H. Clark, an American evolutionary zoologist who wrote 630 articles and books in six languages, came up with an evolutionary hypothesis called zoogenesis which postulated that each of the major types of life forms evolved separately and independently from all the others.[96] Prior to publishing his work entitled The New Evolution: Zoogenesis, Clark wrote in a journal article published in the Quarterly Review of Biology that “so far as concerns the major groups of animals, the creationists seem to have the better of the argument. There is not the slightest evidence that any one of the major groups arose from any other.”[97]

In 1995, there was an essay in the New York Review of Books by the late John Maynard Smith, a noted evolutionary biologist who was considered the dean of British neo-Darwinists, and Smith wrote the following regarding Gould’s work in respect to the theory of evolution:

Noted journalist and author Robert Wright , wrote in 1996 that, among top-flight evolutionary biologists, Gould is considered a pestnot just a lightweight, but an actively muddled man who has warped the public’s understanding of Darwinism.[100][101]

Creation scientist Dr. Jonathan Sarfati wrote regarding the implausibility of the theory of punctuated equilibrium and the implausibility of the idea of gradual evolution the following:

Individuals who are against the evolutionary position assert that evolutionary scientists employ extremely implausible “just so stories” to support their position and have done this since at least the time of Charles Darwin.[104][105]

A well known example of a “just so story” is when Darwin, in his Origin of the Species, wrote a chapter entitled “Difficulties on Theory” in which he stated:

Even the prominent evolutionist and geneticist Professor Richard Lewontin admitted the following:

Dr. Sarfati wrote regarding the theory of evolution the following:

Opponents to the theory of evolution commonly point to the following in nature as being implausibly created through evolutionary processes:

Lastly, biochemist Michael Behe wrote the following:

Phillip E. Johnson cites Francis Crick in order to illustrate the fact that the biological world has the strong appearance of being designed:

Stephen C. Meyer offers the following statement regarding the design of the biological world:

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy states regarding a candid admission of Charles Darwin:

In the course of that conversation I said to Mr. Darwin, with reference to some of his own remarkable works on the Fertilisation of Orchids, and upon The Earthworms, and various other observations he made of the wonderful contrivances for certain purposes in natureI said it was impossible to look at these without seeing that they were the effect and the expression of Mind. I shall never forget Mr. Darwin’s answer. He looked at me very hard and said, Well, that often comes over me with overwhelming force; but at other times, and he shook his head vaguely, adding, it seems to go away.(Argyll 1885, 244][127]

Research and historical data indicate that a significant portion of atheists/agnostics often see the their lives and the world as being the product of purposeful design (see: Atheism and purpose).[128]

See: Argument from beauty

Advocates of the theory of evolution have often claimed that those who oppose the theory of evolution don’t publish their opposition to the theory of evolution in the appropriate scientific literature (creationist scientists have peer reviewed journals which favor the creationist position).[129][130][131] Recently, there has been articles which were favorable to the intelligent design position in scientific journals which traditionally have favored the theory of evolution.[132]

Karl Popper, a leading philosopher of science and originator of the falsifiability as a criterion of demarcation of science from nonscience,[133] stated that Darwinism is “not a testable scientific theory, but a metaphysical research programme.”[134] Leading Darwinist and philosopher of science, Michael Ruse declared the concerning Popper’s statement and the actions he took after making that statement: “Since making this claim, Popper himself has modified his position somewhat; but, disclaimers aside, I suspect that even now he does not really believe that Darwinism in its modern form is genuinely falsifiable.”[135]

The issue of the falsifiability of the evolutionary position is very important issue and although offering a poor cure to the problem that Karl Popper described, committed evolutionists Louis Charles Birch & Paul R. Ehrlich stated in the journal Nature:

The Swedish cytogeneticist, Antonio Lima-De-Faria, who has been knighted by the king of Sweden for his scientific achievements, noted that “there has never been a theory of evolution”.[137][138]

See also: Suppression of alternatives to evolution and Atheism and the suppression of science

Many of the leaders of the atheist movement, such as the evolutionist and the new atheist Richard Dawkins, argue for atheism and evolution with a religious fervor (See also: Atheism and evolution).

Daniel Smartt has identified seven dimensions which make up religion: narrative, experiential, social, ethical, doctrinal, ritual and material. It is not necessary in Smartt’s model for every one of these to be present in order for something to be a religion.[139]. However, it can be argued that all seven are present in the case of atheism.[140][141] Please see: Atheism: A religionand Atheism and Atheism is a religion.

See also: Atheism is a religion and Atheism and evolution

Atheism is a religion and naturalistic notions concerning origins are religious in nature and both have legal implications as far as evolution being taught in public schools.[143][144][145]

John Calvert, a lawyer and intelligent design proponent wrote:

See also:

Continue reading here:

Evolution – Conservapedia

What is Darwinism? – TalkOrigins Archive

 Darwinism  Comments Off on What is Darwinism? – TalkOrigins Archive
Jun 282016
 

What is Darwinism? Joel Hanes

n One Long Argument, Ernst Mayr (evolutionary biologist, and originator of the Biological Species Concept) summarizes Darwin’s theories, and traces the history of their acceptance by the world scientific community.

In the Preface , he begins:

In Chapter Four, “Ideological Opposition to Darwin’s Five Theories”, Mayr summarizes “Darwin’s Theory”, or “Darwinism”, thus:

… The term “Darwinism”, … has numerous meanings depending on who has used the term and at what period. A better understanding of the meaning of this term is only one reason to call attention to the composite nature of Darwin’s evolutionary thought.

… One particulary cogent reason why Darwinism cannot be a single monolithic theory is that organic evolution consists of two essentially independent processes, as we have seen: transformation in time, and diversification in ecological and geographical space. The two processes require a minimum of two entirely independent and very different theories.

… I consider it necessary to dissect Darwin’s conceptual framework of evolution into a number of major theories that formed the basis of his evolutionary thinking. For the sake of convenience, I have partitioned Darwin’s evolutionary paradigm into five theories, but of course others might prefer a different division. The selected theories are by no means all of Darwin’s evolutionary theories; others were, for instance, sexual selection, pangenesis, effect of use and disuse, and character divergence. However when later authors referred to Darwin’s theory thay invariably had a combination of some of the following five theories in mind:

Let’s look at some of the implications of Mayr’s analysis.

At first blush, (4) Gradualism seems like it might conflict with Gould & Eldredge’s “punctuated equilibrium” theory; but on closer examination, not so.

Here [thanks to Robert Low] are two relevant quotes from On the Origin of Species:

“Varieties are often at first local…rendering the discovery of intermediate links less likely. Local varieties will not spread into other and distant regions until they are considerably modified and improved; and when they do spread, if discovered in a geological formation, they will appear as if suddenly created there, and will simply be classed as new species.”

Darwin did not claim that evolutionary change is slow and continuous — only that it does not proceed by “jumps” in a single generation (what Mayr calls “saltational” change). That is, despite the distortions of some anti-evolutionists, Darwin explictly did not think that evolution proceeds by the production of “hopeful monsters” — Darwin himself never proposed that a fully-dinosaur parent gave birth to fully-bird progeny. Rather, the change took place in a series of intermediate, perhaps nearly insensible, steps in successive generations. Note that change over a thousand generations of any species appears as “sudden” or “abrupt” change in the fossil record, because a thousand generations is such an infinitesimally small fraction of Earth’s history.

(5) Natural selection, doesn’t account for some of the kinds of variation that we see in species — particularly non-adaptive traits — but you’ll notice that Darwin didn’t claim that natural selection explained all traits, merely the adaptive ones.

After Darwin, some biologists distorted the theory of natural selection into the doctrine of “strict adaptionism”, in which every feature of every organism was held to be produced by natural selection (and thus some explanation of why the feature is adaptive was required.) But Darwin didn’t say that all selection is natural (adaptive) selection — only that natural selection is the source of some change, and can explain why adaptive change occurs. Modern biologists have proposed other mechanisms for change — neutral selection, genetic drift, the “founder effect”, etc. — and Darwin himself thought that sexual selection could be important. None of these contradict the idea of natural selection; as additional mechanisms for genetic change over time, they augment it.

Here [thanks to Ken Smith] is a quote from the final chapter of the sixth edition of On the Origin of Species:

This has been of no avail.

Great is the power of steady misrepresentation; but the history of science shows that fortunately this power does not long endure.

Mayr recaps the history of Darwinist theories, and addresses the claims that Darwinism has been disproved or superseded in Chapter Ten: “New Frontiers in Evolutionary Biology”.

Opponents of the [modern evolutionary] synthesis consistently confound three schools of Darwinism:

Darwinism is not a simple theory that is either true or false but is rather a highly complex research program that is being continuously modified and improved. This was true before the [modern evolutionary] synthesis, and it continues to be true after the synthesis. Table 2 lists many of the significant stages in the modification of Darwinism that one might recognize. Yet recognizing such seemingly discontinuous periods is in many respects an artificial enterprise. … each of these periods was heterogeneous to some extent, owing to the diversity in the thinking of different evolutionists. Most critics who have attempted to refute the evolutionary synthesis have failed to recognize this diversity of views and thus have succeeded in refuting only the reductionist fringe of the Darwinism camp.

On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favored Races in the Struggle for Life, Charles Darwin, First Edition 1859. Sixth Edition 1872.

Home Page | Browse | Search | Feedback | Links The FAQ | Must-Read Files | Index | Creationism | Evolution | Age of the Earth | Flood Geology | Catastrophism | Debates

Visit link:

What is Darwinism? – TalkOrigins Archive

Tor Browser – Anonymity Online, IP Changer – YouTube

 Tor Browser  Comments Off on Tor Browser – Anonymity Online, IP Changer – YouTube
Jun 262016
 

The Tor software protects you by bouncing your communications around a distributed network of relays run by volunteers all around the world: it prevents somebody watching your Internet connection from learning what sites you visit, it prevents the sites you visit from learning your physical location, and it lets you access sites which are blocked.

The Tor Browser lets you use Tor on Windows, Mac OS X, or Linux without needing to install any software. It can run off a USB flash drive, comes with a pre-configured web browser to protect your anonymity, and is self-contained (portable).

Playlists:

File Recovery Software – https://goo.gl/1wlK6R Photo Editing Software – https://goo.gl/6fsmcY Android games – https://goo.gl/xSwfV6 Proxy, VPN, IP changer – https://goo.gl/HZoDz5 Backup & Recovery – https://goo.gl/LsbzN8 Parental Control Software – https://goo.gl/QRT4u9 Remote Desktop Control – https://goo.gl/QLeR7t Emulators – https://goo.gl/k9uCX0 PC Optimizer Software – https://goo.gl/Mae0QA PC Information Software – https://goo.gl/AHtlTl Network Management Software – https://goo.gl/zWNbuq Work With PDF Files – https://goo.gl/Q1R4Qu Audio Video Converters – https://goo.gl/dUrrx1 Media Players – https://goo.gl/wEvcua Other – https://goo.gl/uN5KcO

View original post here:
Tor Browser – Anonymity Online, IP Changer – YouTube

Gambling Addiction – Signs, Symptoms & Treatment for …

 Gambling  Comments Off on Gambling Addiction – Signs, Symptoms & Treatment for …
Jun 242016
 

Home Gambling Addiction Call 800-654-0987 to speak with a addiction treatment counselor.

Do you, or does someone you love enjoy playing lotto, buying lottery tickets or visiting the casino on a regular basis?Has your desire to gamble ever resulted in your spending money that you really didnt have to spend, getting in trouble or had negative effects on your relationships with friends or loved ones?Frequent gambling could be a sign of a gambling addiction.

It is estimated that gambling addiction affects somewhere between two to five percent of all American adults in some way.Many different risk factors can lead to a compulsive gambling addiction that is both difficult to cope with and equally difficult to overcome.

Gambling addiction can lead to job loss, family problems, loss of material possessions such as a house or car, health problems, problems with the law and much more.

Fortunately, there is help and treatment has been derived from many different methods of counseling and therapy to assist those who have a compulsive gambling problem with overcoming their desire to gamble and learning how to control their behaviors.

A simple desire to scratch a ticket, play a slot or visit a casino is not necessarily a sign of gambling addiction but when this desire is so compulsive that you just cant stop thinking about it until you take action, there may be a problem in your life. Gambling addiction is characterized by a compulsive desire to gamble that is marked with an inability to control behaviors when gambling.Those who suffer from gambling addiction will continue to gamble (either daily or possibly just on a binge) despite negative financial, legal and social consequences.

Many people who are addicted to gambling will do things that they never would have done if it werent for their addiction such as stealing money from friends or family members or taking part in illegal activities in an effort to get more money either to gamble or to pay debts. Despite a desire to quit, many compulsive gamblers are unable to control their actions without help.The impulsive behaviors often get them into trouble and can lead to serious consequences.

Treatment can help you overcome! Call 800-654-0987 to find help today.

Often referred to as a hidden illness gambling addiction has no obvious physical signs or symptoms that can be quickly or easily spotted.Problem gamblers often go unnoticed for many years before the signs of the addiction finally become evident even to close friends and family members. In fact, because many gambling addicts are able to control their behaviors the majority of the time, it could be very difficult to spot a gambling addiction unless you physically go with the gambler into a situation in which they are actually gambling, then you may quickly realize that they are out of control.

Although the signs of gambling addiction are often difficult for others to spot, if you like to gamble, theres a good chance that you will be able to recognize the symptoms of gambling addiction in yourself early on, well before others will even notice.

Call 800-654-0987 toll free to get on the road to recovery today. You are not alone.

Fact:Compulsive gambling leads to emotional problems, relationship problems and could lead to legal problems in addition to the financial implications. Even if you have the money to spend, gambling too much can become problematic as your social life suffers from your spending too much time on gambling.

Fact:Gambling in excess, either daily or during a binge, can be problematic.Even if you dont gamble often, the gambling can still cause problems financially, legally or socially.

Fact:Gambling addicts often place blame on their loved ones in an effort to take the blame off of themselves but this doesnt necessarily mean that the partner has anything to do with their problem.

The National Council on Problem Gambling reports that one in five pathological gamblers attempts suicide, a rater higher than for any other addictive disorder.

Not all gambling is problematic.Responsible gambling is possible and many gaming venues take part in responsible gaming policies that are intended to provide gamblers with an ethical means of having fun without the dangers and risks associated with gambling addiction.

The devastation that gambling addiction can wreak on the life of those who suffer from this illness as well as those around him make this a very dangerous disorder to be reckoned with.Compulsive gambling accounts for as much as five billion dollars spent annually in the United States alone.Many of the people who are addicted to gambling find themselves accruing tens or hundreds of thousands of dollars in debt.

Gambling addiction affects each individual in a different way and each gambler will have unique needs for recovery.The type of treatment that works for one individual will not necessarily work for another. Probably the greatest hurdle in treatment for gambling addiction is to realize and admit that you have a problem and need help.Because gambling is called the hidden addiction it can be very, very difficult to attest to your wrongdoing, and admit that you have a gambling problem.This is especially true when a gambling addiction has resulted in extreme financial hardship, broken relationships and certain legal problems along the way.

Treatment for gambling addiction takes many forms and most people who seek help for a gambling addiction participate in Gamblers Anonymous (GA).In addition to the social support that is found in the Gamblers Anonymous programs, psychotherapy, and especially cognitive behavioral therapy, have proven to be effective at helping those who are addicted to gambling to change their behaviors and take on more positive actions to cope with stress or other potential triggers that would typically lead them to gamble.

Cognitive behavioral therapy for gambling addiction focuses on changing the poor behaviors of a problem gambler into positive thoughts and behaviors.The idea here is to rewire the gamblers brain into a new way of thinking about their gambling addiction and their desire to gamble.

During treatment, you will learn many ways to cope with cravings or your desire to gamble.It is completely normal to feel the urge to gamble, especially if you are recovering from a gambling addiction, but it can be difficult to cope with such desires in a positive way.Throughout your struggles with gambling addiction and recovery there will likely be many times that you want to gamble and struggle to make the right choice not to follow through with your desires.The following methods can help you to cope with potential triggers without relapsing:

If you relapse while you are undergoing treatment for gambling addiction, the best thing to do is to pick up on your recovery where you left off. Don’t let relapse stop you in your tracks! Do not use relapse as an excuse to give up on yourself or your recovery.

If you or someone you love needs treatment for a gambling problem, its important that you seek a treatment approach that will be most appropriate for your individual needs.Finding the right type of treatment for your needs and the right help for a gambling addiction will ensure that you have the greatest chance of recovery.Most of the time, gambling addiction treatment takes place either through social support groups such as Gamblers Anonymous and outpatient therapy or in an inpatient facility.

If your gambling addiction has lead to severe financial, legal or social problems then you may require inpatient treatment for your condition.This type of help for gambling addiction includes around-the-clock supervision in a hospital like setting where the patient will stay while undergoing treatment. The intense therapy, counseling and supervision provided by inpatient treatment centers significantly reduce the risk of relapse while in treatment.

Compulsive gamblers often need the support of friends, family members and additional peers in order to help them stop gambling.Gamblers Anonymous groups can provide peer and social support for those in recovery or for those who wish they could stop gambling.For many, these groups provide a foundation for a successful and long term recovery from addiction to gambling.

The rest is here:

Gambling Addiction – Signs, Symptoms & Treatment for …

gambling | Britannica.com

 Gambling  Comments Off on gambling | Britannica.com
Jun 242016
 

Alternative title: betting

Gambling, slot machinePcb21the betting or staking of something of value, with consciousness of risk and hope of gain, on the outcome of a game, a contest, or an uncertain event whose result may be determined by chance or accident or have an unexpected result by reason of the bettors miscalculation.

The outcomes of gambling games may be determined by chance alone, as in the purely random activity of a tossed pair of dice or of the ball on a roulette wheel, or by physical skill, training, or prowess in athletic contests, or by a combination of strategy and chance. The rules by which gambling games are played sometimes serve to confuse the relationship between the components of the game, which depend on skill and chance, so that some players may be able to manipulate the game to serve their own interests. Thus, knowledge of the game is useful for playing poker or betting on horse racing but is of very little use for purchasing lottery tickets or playing slot machines.

A gambler may participate in the game itself while betting on its outcome (card games, craps), or he may be prevented from any active participation in an event in which he has a stake (professional athletics, lotteries). Some games are dull or nearly meaningless without the accompanying betting activity and are rarely played unless wagering occurs (coin tossing, poker, dice games, lotteries). In other games betting is not intrinsically part of the game, and the association is merely conventional and not necessary to the performance of the game itself (horse racing, football pools). Commercial establishments such as casinos and racetracks may organize gambling when a portion of the money wagered by patrons can be easily acquired by participation as a favoured party in the game, by rental of space, or by withdrawing a portion of the betting pool. Some activities of very large scale (horse racing, lotteries) usually require commercial and professional organizations to present and maintain them efficiently.

A rough estimate of the amount of money legally wagered annually in the world is about $10 trillion (illegal gambling may exceed even this figure). In terms of total turnover, lotteries are the leading form of gambling worldwide. State-licensed or state-operated lotteries expanded rapidly in Europe and the United States during the late 20th century and are widely distributed throughout most of the world. Organized football (soccer) pools can be found in nearly all European countries, several South American countries, Australia, and a few African and Asian countries. Most of these countries also offer either state-organized or state-licensed wagering on other sporting events.

Betting on horse racing is a leading form of gambling in English-speaking countries and in France. It also exists in many other countries. Wherever horse racing is popular, it has usually become a major business, with its own newspapers and other periodicals, extensive statistical services, self-styled experts who sell advice on how to bet, and sophisticated communication networks that furnish information to betting centres, bookmakers and their employees, and workers involved with the care and breeding of horses. The same is true, to a smaller extent, of dog racing. The emergence of satellite broadcasting technology has led to the creation of so-called off-track betting facilities, in which bettors watch live telecasts at locations away from the racetrack.

Casinos or gambling houses have existed at least since the 17th century. In the 20th century they became commonplace and assumed almost a uniform character throughout the world. In Europe and South America they are permitted at many or most holiday resorts but not always in cities. In the United States casinos were for many years legal only in Nevada and New Jersey and, by special license, in Puerto Rico, but most other states now allow casino gambling, and betting facilities operate clandestinely throughout the country, often through corruption of political authorities. Roulette is one of the principal gambling games in casinos throughout France and Monaco and is popular throughout the world. Craps is the principal dice game at most American casinos. Slot and video poker machines are a mainstay of casinos in the United States and Europe and also are found in thousands of private clubs, restaurants, and other establishments; they are also common in Australia. Among the card games played at casinos, baccarat, in its popular form chemin de fer, has remained a principal gambling game in Great Britain and in the continental casinos most often patronized by the English at Deauville, Biarritz, and the Riviera resorts. Faro, at one time the principal gambling game in the United States, has become obsolete. Blackjack is the principal card game in American casinos. The French card game trente et quarante (or rouge et noir) is played at Monte-Carlo and a few other continental casinos. Many other games may also be found in some casinosfor example, sic bo, fan-tan, and pai-gow poker in Asia and local games such as boule, banca francesa, and kalooki in Europe.

At the start of the 21st century, poker exploded in popularity, principally through the high visibility of poker tournaments broadcast on television and the proliferation of Internet playing venues. Another growing form of Internet gambling is the so-called betting exchangesInternet Web sites on which players make wagers with one another, with the Web site taking a small cut of each wager in exchange for organizing and handling the transaction.

In a wide sense of the word, stock markets may also be considered a form of gambling, albeit one in which skill and knowledge on the part of the bettors play a considerable part. This also goes for insurance; paying the premium on ones life insurance is, in effect, a bet that one will die within a specified time. If one wins (dies), the win is paid out to ones relatives, and if one loses (survives the specified time), the wager (premium) is kept by the insurance company, which acts as a bookmaker and sets the odds (payout ratios) according to actuarial data. These two forms of gambling are considered beneficial to society, the former acquiring venture capital and the latter spreading statistical risks.

Events or outcomes that are equally probable have an equal chance of occurring in each instance. In games of pure chance, each instance is a completely independent one; that is, each play has the same probability as each of the others of producing a given outcome. Probability statements apply in practice to a long series of events but not to individual ones. The law of large numbers is an expression of the fact that the ratios predicted by probability statements are increasingly accurate as the number of events increases, but the absolute number of outcomes of a particular type departs from expectation with increasing frequency as the number of repetitions increases. It is the ratios that are accurately predictable, not the individual events or precise totals.

The probability of a favourable outcome among all possibilities can be expressed: probability (p) equals the total number of favourable outcomes (f) divided by the total number of possibilities (t), or p=f/t. But this holds only in situations governed by chance alone. In a game of tossing two dice, for example, the total number of possible outcomes is 36 (each of six sides of one die combined with each of six sides of the other), and the number of ways to make, say, a seven is six (made by throwing 1 and 6, 2 and 5, 3 and 4, 4 and 3, 5 and 2, or 6 and 1); therefore, the probability of throwing a seven is 6/36, or 1/6.

In most gambling games it is customary to express the idea of probability in terms of odds against winning. This is simply the ratio of the unfavourable possibilities to the favourable ones. Because the probability of throwing a seven is 1/6, on average one throw in six would be favourable and five would not; the odds against throwing a seven are therefore 5 to 1. The probability of getting heads in a toss of a coin is 1/2; the odds are 1 to 1, called even. Care must be used in interpreting the phrase on average, which applies most accurately to a large number of cases and is not useful in individual instances. A common gamblers fallacy, called the doctrine of the maturity of the chances (or the Monte-Carlo fallacy), falsely assumes that each play in a game of chance is dependent on the others and that a series of outcomes of one sort should be balanced in the short run by the other possibilities. A number of systems have been invented by gamblers largely on the basis of this fallacy; casino operators are happy to encourage the use of such systems and to exploit any gamblers neglect of the strict rules of probability and independent plays. An interesting example of a game where each play is dependent on previous plays, however, is blackjack, where cards already dealt from the dealing shoe affect the composition of the remaining cards; for example, if all of the aces (worth 1 or 11 points) have been dealt, it is no longer possible to achieve a natural (a 21 with two cards). This fact forms the basis for some systems where it is possible to overcome the house advantage.

In some games an advantage may go to the dealer, the banker (the individual who collects and redistributes the stakes), or some other participant. Therefore, not all players have equal chances to win or equal payoffs. This inequality may be corrected by rotating the players among the positions in the game. Commercial gambling operators, however, usually make their profits by regularly occupying an advantaged position as the dealer, or they may charge money for the opportunity to play or subtract a proportion of money from the wagers on each play. In the dice game of crapswhich is among the major casino games offering the gambler the most favourable oddsthe casino returns to winners from 3/5 of 1 percent to 27 percent less than the fair odds, depending on the type of bet made. Depending on the bet, the house advantage (vigorish) for roulette in American casinos varies from about 5.26 to 7.89 percent, and in European casinos it varies from 1.35 to 2.7 percent. The house must always win in the long run. Some casinos also add rules that enhance their profits, especially rules that limit the amounts that may be staked under certain circumstances.

Many gambling games include elements of physical skill or strategy as well as of chance. The game of poker, like most other card games, is a mixture of chance and strategy that also involves a considerable amount of psychology. Betting on horse racing or athletic contests involves the assessment of a contestants physical capacity and the use of other evaluative skills. In order to ensure that chance is allowed to play a major role in determining the outcomes of such games, weights, handicaps, or other correctives may be introduced in certain cases to give the contestants approximately equal opportunities to win, and adjustments may be made in the payoffs so that the probabilities of success and the magnitudes of the payoffs are put in inverse proportion to each other. Pari-mutuel pools in horse-race betting, for example, reflect the chances of various horses to win as anticipated by the players. The individual payoffs are large for those bettors whose winning horses are backed by relatively few bettors and small if the winners are backed by a relatively large proportion of the bettors; the more popular the choice, the lower the individual payoff. The same holds true for betting with bookmakers on athletic contests (illegal in most of the United States but legal in England). Bookmakers ordinarily accept bets on the outcome of what is regarded as an uneven match by requiring the side more likely to win to score more than a simple majority of points; this procedure is known as setting a point spread. In a game of American or Canadian football, for example, the more highly regarded team would have to win by, say, more than 10 points to yield an even payoff to its backers.

Unhappily, these procedures for maintaining the influence of chance can be interfered with; cheating is possible and reasonably easy in most gambling games. Much of the stigma attached to gambling has resulted from the dishonesty of some of its promoters and players, and a large proportion of modern gambling legislation is written to control cheating. More laws have been oriented to efforts by governments to derive tax revenues from gambling than to control cheating, however.

Gambling is one of mankinds oldest activities, as evidenced by writings and equipment found in tombs and other places. It was regulated, which as a rule meant severely curtailed, in the laws of ancient China and Rome as well as in the Jewish Talmud and by Islam and Buddhism, and in ancient Egypt inveterate gamblers could be sentenced to forced labour in the quarries. The origin of gambling is considered to be divinatory: by casting marked sticks and other objects and interpreting the outcome, man sought knowledge of the future and the intentions of the gods. From this it was a very short step to betting on the outcome of the throws. The Bible contains many references to the casting of lots to divide property. One well-known instance is the casting of lots by Roman guards (which in all likelihood meant that they threw knucklebones) for the garment of Jesus during the Crucifixion. This is mentioned in all four of the Gospels and has been used for centuries as a warning example by antigambling crusaders. However, in ancient times casting lots was not considered to be gambling in the modern sense but instead was connected with inevitable destiny, or fate. Anthropologists have also pointed to the fact that gambling is more prevalent in societies where there is a widespread belief in gods and spirits whose benevolence may be sought. The casting of lots, not infrequently dice, has been used in many cultures to dispense justice and point out criminals at trialsin Sweden as late as 1803. The Greek word for justice, dike, comes from a word that means to throw, in the sense of throwing dice.

European history is riddled with edicts, decrees, and encyclicals banning and condemning gambling, which indirectly testify to its popularity in all strata of society. Organized gambling on a larger scale and sanctioned by governments and other authorities in order to raise money began in the 15th century with lotteriesand centuries earlier in China with keno. With the advent of legal gambling houses in the 17th century, mathematicians began to take a serious interest in games with randomizing equipment (such as dice and cards), out of which grew the field of probability theory.

Apart from forerunners in ancient Rome and Greece, organized sanctioned sports betting dates back to the late 18th century. About that time there began a gradual, albeit irregular, shift in the official attitude toward gambling, from considering it a sin to considering it a vice and a human weakness and, finally, to seeing it as a mostly harmless and even entertaining activity. Additionally, the Internet has made many forms of gambling accessible on an unheard-of scale. By the beginning of the 21st century, approximately four out of five people in Western nations gambled at least occasionally. The swelling number of gamblers in the 20th century highlighted the personal and social problem of pathological gambling, in which individuals are unable to control or limit their gambling. During the 1980s and 90s, pathological gambling was recognized by medical authorities in several countries as a cognitive disorder that afflicts slightly more than 1 percent of the population, and various treatment and therapy programs were developed to deal with the problem.

Corrections? Updates? Help us improve this article! Contact our editors with your Feedback.

Follow this link:

gambling | Britannica.com

Caribbean Cruise Caribbean Cruises – Princess Cruises

 Caribbean  Comments Off on Caribbean Cruise Caribbean Cruises – Princess Cruises
Jun 242016
 

Where do you want to go?

Music and dance as colorful as the reefs, tranquil waters just a shade deeper than the sky, and a rich history as diverse as the breathtaking landscapes make Caribbean cruises one of the most popular vacations to find both discovery and relaxation. The stories of the Caribbean are captivating, the beaches mesmerizing and the carefree charm intoxicating. With Princess Cruises you can experience it all.

White powder sand beaches, perfect clear water, and sunny climes it’s the island idyll that earned Trunk Bay a spot as one of Cond Nast Traveler’s Cruise World Wonders and you can experience it with Princess.

View the 7 Cruise Wonders | View Cruises | About the Writer

The culture and colors of the Caribbean come to life the moment you step onboard. Take a steel-pan drum lesson, get your heart pumping to the Caribbean-infused beat of Zumba, and enjoy live island music from local performers that will have you dancing all day…and all night long.

Learn more about how we bring the Caribbean onboard

Read the rest here:

Caribbean Cruise Caribbean Cruises – Princess Cruises

Caribbean – Lonely Planet

 Caribbean  Comments Off on Caribbean – Lonely Planet
Jun 242016
 

Caribbean Cooking Experience in Dominica

Gain a little insight into Dominican culture with a Caribbean cooking experience in Roseau! At a local home up in the hills, youll cook traditional Caribbean dishes and learn about the native fruits, vegetables and herbs used in Caribbean cuisine. Then sip some rum punch and enjoy your creations with your fellow food lovers! Morning and afternoon classes are available, and round-trip transport from the port in Roseau is included. Meet your guide at the Roseau Bayfront before traveling by bus to the site of your cooking class, set amid the tropical rainforest. During the 20-minute drive, admire views the lush, colorful landscape out the window.When you arrive, meet your hostess, who will introduce you to the herbs and fresh organic produce that will go into your dishes. Then take your place in the open-air kitchen and begin your cooking lesson! Create traditional Caribbean dishes such as Creole fish, rice and peas in coconut milk, and fresh garden salad and learn a bit about their significance in Dominican culture. Then enjoy a little time to stroll around the property, admiring the panoramic views of the mountains and Caribbean Sea. Finish your experience by sitting down to dine on your creations, accompanied by dessert, fruit and rum punch. Your class ends with the drive back to the Roseau Bayfront.

Snorkel in the worlds third largest reef within a protected marine park of Grand Turk! Your boat captain takes you to a shallow reef to practice before snorkeling down the wall into the abyss! Learn safe snorkeling techniques from basic levels up to free diving and spot many species of tropical fish amid the healthy coral. In one of Turks and Caicos premiere natural attractions, youll find plentiful marine life at your fingertips. You can enjoy this snorkel tour from land or from your cruise ship!Grand Turks reputation as one of the worlds top diving destinations means it boasts some of the best snorkeling in the Caribbean as well. Explore the beauty of Turks and Caicos underwater world at two great snorkel sites. After pickup from your hotel in the morning or afternoon (depending on your choice), hop aboard a boat for a short ride over crystal-clear waters. Your first destination is a shallow reef where your boat captain-guide teaches basic snorkeling techniques before you stop to snorkel on the wall — a spot where the sea floor suddenly drops in depth. Glide over coral gardens in the protected marine park, and come face to face with a variety of colorful tropical fish or even stroke a stingray in this sanctuary of natural beauty and diversity. Your guide, trained to identify species of fish and invertebrates, will focus on your comfort and safety at all times. Then, take a peek into the abyss while snorkeling the wall, where youll get a chance to try free diving with your guide. Hover where the water, just 15 feet (5 meters) deep, quickly descends to 7,000 feet (2,133 meters)! Marvel as scuba divers from all over the world disappear into the breathtaking, mysterious depths. Youll be amazed by the pristine surroundings of this unforgettable underwater world, After you discover the abundance of marine life inhabiting the Caribbean Sea, your captain will return you to shore, where you’ll be dropped off at your hotel.

The melody of horns floating through the air, classic cars parked in colonial squares, revolutionary statuesget over the resort wall and discover the real Cuba! Travel east to Santiago de Cuba and Baracoa and encounter the birthplace of Cuban rhythms and revolutionary fervour. Soak in Spanish heritage while exploring churches, forts and cobblestoned streets. Overnight in homestays for an immersive Cuban experience few travellers get to enjoy. Don’t just walk down the road less travelleddance down it. Viva la Revolucin!

Immerse yourself in Guatemalas fascinating history and beautiful scenery on this 8-day tour. See some of Guatemalas best-known destinations as you take a city sightseeing tour around Antigua, enjoy a boat ride on Lake Atitlan, visit the Mayan ruins of Yaxha and Tikal, hike up Pacaya Volcano and more. This all-inclusive tour includes transportation and overnight accommodation, making it a convenient way to get the most out of your trip to Guatemala!

Experience Semana Santa (holy week), one of the most vibrant celebrations in Central America, on this remarkable 10-day adventure based in Antigua, Guatemala. Line the parade route along cobblestoned streets decorated in flower petals, explore the famous Chichicastenango Market, and venture with a local guide to meet local Mayan villagers amidst the volcanic scenery of Lake Atitln. Be part of an exceptional time in an exceptional place.

Trinidad boasts of an ecological diversity unmatched in the Caribbean and the east coast is a prime example. Featuring protected wetlands and miles of fine brown sand, this five and a half hour tour allows you to travel to the fascinating Asa Wright Nature Center. Here, you will experience rich bird life such as the Ruby-topaz humming-bird and the tufted coquette.

Go here to read the rest:

Caribbean – Lonely Planet

Scathing Dissent in Fourth Amendment Case

 Fourth Amendment  Comments Off on Scathing Dissent in Fourth Amendment Case
Jun 242016
 

In a so-far-sleepy Supreme Court term, Justice Sonia Sotomayor let loose a scorching dissent in a case involving the Fourth Amendment and police conduct on Monday. The majority opinion, Sotomayor wrote, “says that your body is subject to invasion while courts excuse the violation of your rights.”

Justice Clarence Thomas wrote the court’s opinion on behalf of five justices, including all of the other Republican appointees and Democratic appointee Justice Stephen Breyer. Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg joined most of Sotomayor’s dissent, as well as a separate dissent by Justice Elena Kagan.

Sotomayor’s remarkably direct dissent went far beyond the specific question of the case, tapping directly into the zeitgeist of the Black Lives Matter movement and criminal justice reform. It cites the Department of Justice’s report from Ferguson, Missouri, on police misconduct and books like Michelle Alexander’s “The New Jim Crow,” Ta-Nehisi Coates’ “Between the World and Me” and James Baldwin’s 1963 classic “The Fire Next Time.”

Related: Supreme Court Won’t Consider Challenge to Assault Weapons Ban

Of people “routinely targeted by the police,” Sotomayor wrote, “Until their voices matter too, our justice system will continue to be anything but.”

The case concerns Edward Strieff, who was stopped while leaving a house a police officer was watching on suspicion of drug activity. When the officer discovered Strieff had an outstanding warrant for a minor traffic violation, he searched Strieff and found methamphetamine. The court had to decide whether the drugs found on Strieff could be used as evidence or whether such evidence was disqualified by the Fourth Amendment’s prohibition on “unreasonable searches and seizures.”

Evidence in the Strieff case, Thomas wrote for the majority, was “admissible because the officer’s discovery of the arrest warrant attenuated the connection between the unlawful stop and the evidence seized incident to arrest.”

Sotomayor retorted, “The Court today holds that the discovery of a warrant for an unpaid parking ticket will forgive a police officer’s violation of your Fourth Amendment rights. Do not be soothed by the opinion’s technical language: This case allows the police to stop you on the street, demand your identification, and check it for outstanding traffic warrants even if you are doing nothing wrong.”

Early in her career, Sotomayor worked as a prosecutor in Manhattan not exactly the redoubt of the soft on crime. Still, she wrote, in the only portion of the dissenting opinion Ginsburg didn’t join, “Writing only for myself, and drawing on my professional experiences, I would add that unlawful ‘stops’ have severe consequences much greater than the inconvenience suggested by the name.”

She added that the fact that the officer did in fact find drugs on Strieff didn’t matter: “A basic principle lies at the heart of the Fourth Amendment: Two wrongs don’t make a right.”

She described at length all the encroachments a police officer can lawfully make on an individual, from invasive physical searches to handcuffing to a lasting arrest record.

Strieff is white, Sotomayor noted, but that doesn’t mean racial profiling isn’t at the heart of this case. “The white defendant in this case shows that anyone’s dignity can be violated in this manner But it is no secret that people of color are disproportionate victims of this type of scrutiny For generations, black and brown parents have given their children ‘the talk’ instructing them never to run down the street; always keep your hands where they can be seen; do not even think of talking back to a stranger all out of fear of how an officer with a gun will react to them.”

Validating “the talk” under color of law, Sotomayor concluded, “implies that you are not a citizen of a democracy but the subject of a carceral state, just waiting to be cataloged.”

See the article here:
Scathing Dissent in Fourth Amendment Case

Ayn Rand Wikipdia

 Ayn Rand  Comments Off on Ayn Rand Wikipdia
Jun 212016
 

Un article de Wikipdia, l’encyclopdie libre.

Ayn Rand (prononc [an rnd]), ne Alissa Zinovievna Rosenbaum (en cyrillique russe: ), est une philosophe[1], scnariste et romancire[2] amricaine d’origine russe, juive athe, ne le 2 fvrier 1905 Saint-Ptersbourg et morte le 6 mars 1982 New York.

Ayn Rand est connue pour sa philosophie rationaliste, proche de celle du mouvement politique libertarien, laquelle elle a donn le nom d’objectivisme. Elle a crit de nombreux essais philosophiques sur des concepts tenant de la pense librale, comme la libert, la justice sociale, la proprit ou l’tat et dont le principal (et l’un des seuls de ses textes traduits en franais, avec La Grve (Atlas Shrugged)), est La Vertu d’gosme (The Virtue of Selfishness en langue originale). Ses contributions principales s’inscrivent dans les domaines de l’thique, de la philosophie politique et de l’pistmologie. Cependant, malgr sa considrable popularit hors du champ acadmique, ses travaux ne sont gnralement pas comments par la plupart des philosophes. Cela peut s’expliquer parce qu’une lecture de ses romans est requise pour discuter les lments de sa philosophie objectiviste, et que les philosophes rechignent la lecture d’ouvrages de fiction[3].

Ayn Rand a galement publi des uvres de fiction telles que La Grve (Atlas Shrugged), La Source vive (The Fountainhead) et Nous, les vivants (We the Living), qui figurent parmi les plus vendues aux tats-Unis. Elle a par ailleurs crit de nombreux scnarios pour le cinma, dont des adaptations de ses propres uvres de fiction.

Ayn Rand est considre comme la thoricienne d’un capitalisme individualiste ainsi que d’un libertarianisme refusant toute forme de coercition et prnant les valeurs de la raison, du mrite et de l’gosme rationnel, son concept central. Figure de l’anti-communisme radical, Ayn Rand prne galement l’indpendance et le laissez-faire face toute forme de collectivisme ou de religion tablis.

De nombreuses personnalits, comme le psychothrapeute Nathaniel Branden, les conomistes Alan Greenspan et M. Northrup Buechner[4], le romancier Terry Goodkind, le prsident Ronald Reagan ou le fondateur de Wikipdia, Jimmy Wales, se rclament de ses conceptions. Ayn Rand a aussi profondment nourri la vision libertarienne dite minarchiste, replaant l’individu au centre de la socit et de l’thique.

Elle avait trouv dans Ludwig von Mises, lui aussi migr aux tats-Unis, le grand thoricien contemporain du laissez-faire qui compltait sa comprhension de l’conomie.

Selon Alain Laurent, un des spcialistes francophones de son uvre, Ayn Rand reprsenterait l’incarnation de la self-made woman immigre, car elle russit cet exploit tout en professant un athisme radical (…) et critiquant violemment l’altruisme au nom de l’gosme rationnel[5]. Ayn Rand fut par ailleurs la cible de nombreuses critiques dont la principale s’attache expliquer qu’en dpit d’une argumentation se voulant rationnelle, elle n’en matrisait pas toujours les raisonnements[6].

Alissa Zinovievna Rosenbaum nat Saint-Ptersbourg le 2 fvrier 1905 (le 20 janvier du calendrier julien) dans une famille juive agnostique de la classe moyenne, compose de trois enfants dont elle est l’ane[7]. Son pre, Zinovy Zacharovich Rosenbaum, pharmacien, est n Brestlitovsk le 18 novembre 1869 alors que sa mre, Anna Borisovna Kaplan, est ne Saint-Ptersbourg le 15 octobre 1880[8].

Elle s’intresse trs jeune la littrature et au cinma, crivant ds l’ge de 7 ans des romans ou des scnarios. l’ge de 9 ans, elle dcide de devenir crivain. Elle lit notamment Walter Scott et Alexandre Dumas et s’enthousiasme pour le courant romantique. Elle lit avec passion le roman d’aventure La Valle mystrieuse (1915) du romancier franais Maurice Champagne. Son personnage principal, figure de l’homme hroque et vertueux, marque l’imagination d’Alissa. Ce type de personnage se retrouve dans toute son uvre et, en particulier, travers le personnage principal d’Atlas Shrugged, John Galt[9]. Elle dcouvre 13 ans celui qui devient son auteur favori et qu’elle considre comme le plus grand crivain: Victor Hugo. Au collge, elle se montre brillante en mathmatiques; sa carrire universitaire semble alors toute trace. En 1912, sa famille s’installe dans la Perspective Nevski, dans le quartier Znamenskaya. La jeune Alissa y assiste sa premire exposition, consacre aux images de films, en 1913. Le cinma la passionnera en effet toute sa vie.

La ville de Saint-Ptersbourg est depuis longtemps l’un des foyers des troubles rvolutionnaires qui agitent la Russie tsariste. Rand soutient au dbut la rvolution[Quand?] mene par Kerensky mais l’arrive au pouvoir des bolchviques, en octobre 1917, puis la confiscation de la pharmacie de son pre par le gouvernement rvolutionnaire, contraignent sa famille fuir la Russie pour l’Ukraine puis pour la Crime. Les Rosenbaum s’installent Yevpatoria jusqu’ ce que celle-ci soit envahie par les rvolutionnaires en 1921[10]. dater de ce jour Rand nourrit une haine tenace pour les communistes, sentiment qui traverse tous ses crits. Elle brle alors son journal intime, car elle a pris l’habitude d’y consigner des rflexions et des critiques sur les rvolutionnaires.

Le 30 juin 1921, Alissa Rosenbaum est diplme du lyce de Yevpatoria. L’anne suivante, la famille Rosenbaum retourne Petrograd[11]. Alissa, qui a alors 16 ans, entame des tudes d’histoire et de philosophie l’universit de Petrograd et y dcouvre les uvres d’Edmond Rostand, de Friedrich von Schiller, d’Aristote et de Fiodor Dostoevski. Ses tudes lui donnent accs, selon ses propres termes, une culture millnaire travers laquelle elle juge nfaste l’influence des ides communistes en Russie. Ces dernires annes en Union des rpubliques socialistes sovitiques, o elle est oblige d’intgrer la propagande communiste, formeront la base de sa critique des systmes collectivistes.

Le 13 octobre 1924, Alissa sort diplme de l’universit. Elle continue crire et entre l’Institut d’tat des Arts cinmatographiques en 1924[12]. Elle y tudie l’histoire et la politique amricaine et dcouvre aussi le cinma nord-amricain, dont les westerns, mais aussi toute la culture des tats-Unis. Elle devient alors une admiratrice de la socit amricaine et de ses valeurs d’individualisme et d’optimisme. Comprenant qu’elle ne peut raliser son rve d’crire des romans en Union des rpubliques socialistes sovitiques en raison de la censure communiste, elle se rsigne l’ide de quitter le pays pour les tats-Unis[10]. En 1925 elle publie une brochure sur l’actrice de cinma Pola Negri, Moscou et Lningrad, puis en 1926 un petit essai intitul Hollywood: American Movie City Moscou[13]. la fin de l’anne 1926, elle se voit accorder un visa pour rendre visite des proches habitant aux tats-Unis et ce pour une courte priode, ce qui lui permet d’immigrer dans ce pays o elle s’installe pour le reste de sa vie.

Aprs s’tre arrte dans plusieurs villes d’Europe de l’Ouest, dont le port du Havre en France, d’o elle prend un bateau, le De Grasse, Alissa Rosenbaum arrive New York le 19 fvrier 1926. Ses premires impressions devant les gratte-ciels la marquent profondment et inspirent les descriptions de son roman La Source vive. Elle rejoint ensuite Chicago, dans l’Illinois, o elle vit pendant 6 mois et apprend la langue anglaise. Elle commence galement mettre en forme ses ides de romans et de films et dcide de devenir scnariste. Elle se voit accorder une extension de son visa par les autorits sovitiques. Alissa choisit alors de ne pas retourner en URSS et part pour Hollywood o elle devient scnariste sous la direction du ralisateur et producteur Cecil B. DeMille, qui s’intresse elle par hasard, alors qu’elle fait le pied de grue devant son studio[14]. Alissa lui explique qu’elle est passionne de cinma amricain et qu’elle arrive de Russie. DeMille travaille alors sur le film The King of Kings et l’emploie comme figurante. La jeune femme y rencontre galement l’acteur Frank O’Connor dont elle dira qu’il tait son visage idal[9]. Ils se marient le 15 avril 1929, et le resteront jusqu’ la mort d’O’Connor, en 1979.

Alissa Zinovievna Rosenbaum est naturalise amricaine le 13 mars 1931. C’est alors qu’elle change son nom en Ayn Rand, en rfrence selon elle la transcription en cyrillique du nom de sa famille. Une autre explication veut que ce serait en rfrence la machine crire Remington Rand, mais celle-ci n’a t vendue qu’ultrieurement[15]. Elle se montre fire de sa nouvelle nationalit et dclare ainsi en 1974, dans un discours aux lves de l’acadmie militaire de West Point: Je peux dire et il ne s’agit pas d’une banalit patriotique, mais avec une connaissance complte des racines mtaphysiques, pistmologiques, morales, politiques et esthtiques ncessaires que les tats-Unis d’Amrique sont le pays plus grand, le plus noble et, dans ses principes, le seul moral de l’histoire du monde[16].

Ayn Rand travaille trs dur comme lectrice de scnario, pour DeMille, ayant cur de se faire une place dans le monde d’Hollywood[9]. Paralllement, elle crit afin de raliser son rve. Avant de vivre de sa plume, elle occupe divers emplois, notamment la garde-robe de la RKO Radio Pictures[17] jusqu’en 1932, anne o elle russit vendre le scnario de Red Pawn Universal Studios. Son niveau de vie s’amliore alors considrablement, et Rand peut s’acheter une automobile, ce qui est pour elle cette poque le signe d’une russite sociale certaine qui contraste avec ses annes en Union des rpubliques socialistes sovitiques[9]. Le producteur Josef von Sternberg pense donner le premier rle l’actrice Marlene Dietrich mais le thme anti-sovitique tant encore mal considr cette poque, le projet choue[18].

Elle crit ensuite en 1934 les pices de thtre Ideal et Woman on Trial, cette dernire tant joue Hollywood le 22 octobre. La pice Woman on Trial, qui retrace le parcours peu commun de l’industriel et autodidacte sudois Ivar Kreuger, est recompose en 1935 puis produite sous le titre Night of January 16th qui est reprsente d’abord Hollywood puis Broadway le 16 septembre. La pice est originale: l’action consiste en un procs dont le jury, choisi parmi les spectateurs, pouvait dterminer la fin. Deux pilogues sont donc possibles, suivant la dcision du jury populaire.

Le manuscrit de son roman Nous, les vivants (We the Living, partiellement inspir par sa propre exprience) lui demande beaucoup de travail. L’ayant achev en 1933, elle ne parvient cependant le faire publier que le 18 avril 1936, aprs l’avoir fait parvenir de nombreux diteurs. Ce sont les ditions Macmillan pour les tats-Unis et Cassell pour l’Angleterre qui l’ont accept. Elle le considre comme la plus autobiographique de ses uvres de fictions: en effet, le roman dcrit la vie de son hrone sous la domination communiste, sa confrontation avec la violence absurde du rgime et sa fuite pour l’tranger. Cependant, Nous, les vivants ne reoit pas un accueil enthousiaste de la critique amricaine, en partie cause du fait que, dans les annes 1930, priode nomme la dcennie rouge (Red Decade), le communisme tant encore relativement bien considr dans les milieux intellectuels et artistiques amricains[10]. Nanmoins Rand considrait elle-mme Nous, les vivants comme davantage qu’une simple autobiographie: Ce n’est pas une autobiographie proprement dite, l’ouvrage a davantage un sens intellectuel. L’intrigue est invente mais l’arrire-plan non[19].

Ds 1935, Ayn Rand travaille sur son projet principal, la rdaction du roman La Source vive (The Fountainhead), dimension plus philosophique.

En 1938, elle publie en Angleterre le roman dystopique Hymne (Anthem), qui dcrit une socit dans laquelle le collectivisme a triomph. Hymne n’est accept par aucun diteur aux tats-Unis alors que We the Living n’a pas non plus rencontr un grand succs. Stephen Cox, de lObjectivist Center, considre que cela est d lpoque: We the Living fut publi quand la popularit du socialisme russe tait au plus haut parmi les faiseurs d’opinions amricains explique-t-il[20]. En 1939 Ayn Rand reoit les dernires nouvelles de ses parents demeurs en URSS, elle a ainsi dfinitivement coup toute relation avec son pass russe.

En 1940, Rand participe, avec son mari, la campagne prsidentielle amricaine pour le candidat libral Wendell Willkie dans sa section de la ville de New York. Cet activisme lui permet de rencontrer des intellectuels favorables au capitalisme de laissez-faire. Le journaliste du New York Times Henry Hazlitt et sa femme permettent Rand et son mari de rencontrer l’conomiste autrichien Ludwig von Mises qui admire les travaux de Rand, en dpit de diffrences philosophiques[21].

La mme anne, l’adaptation thtrale de We the Living, The Unconquered, par George Abbott, est reprsente Broadway le 13 fvrier. Abbott a nanmoins adouci la dimension critique du roman, le rendant davantage au got du public, notamment en ajoutant des dialogues sentimentaux[9]. Elle connat son premier grand succs avec la publication de La Source vive, le 8 mai 1943, roman qu’elle a mis sept ans crire. Refus par douze diteurs, le manuscrit est finalement accept par la maison d’dition Bobbs-Merrill grce l’insistance d’Archibald Ogden, membre du comit ditorial, qui a menac de dmissionner si l’on ne publiait pas l’ouvrage[22]. Vendu six millions d’exemplaires, le livre devient un succs plantaire, (il s’en vend encore 100000 par an). Adapt au cinma en 1949 par King Vidor la Warner avec Gary Cooper et Patricia Neal dans les rles principaux, le film est distribu en France la mme anne sous le titre Le Rebelle.

Rand commence pouvoir vivre de ses crits. Elle travaille ds lors comme scnariste mi-temps, toujours pour le producteur Hal B. Wallis. Sous sa direction, elle adapte en 1945 le roman Pity My Simplicity de Christopher Massie, nomm aux Oscars sous le titre Love Letters ainsi que You Came Along[23]. Rand travaille ensuite, en aot 1943 un article The Moral Basis of Individualism puis emmnage en Californie pour rdiger le scnario de The Fountainhead.

Elle s’installe donc la Von Sternberg House construite par l’architecte Richard Neutra. Par ailleurs elle rencontre Taliesin East le clbre architecte Frank Lloyd Wright qu’elle admire normment: pour elle Wright fut un innovateur, dfendant larchitecture moderne contre la tradition [24]. Toujours Taliesin East Rand rencontre d’autres figures intellectuelles du moment comme Morrie Ryskind, Janet Gaynor, Gilbert Adrian et Leonard Read. L’architecte devient un fervent admirateur de son roman The Fountainhead; il dessine pour elle une maison qui ne sera toutefois jamais construite. En septembre 1944, Rand crit le scnario de Love Letters. L’anne suivante The Fountainhead est class 6e best-seller de l’anne par le New York Times [25].

Ayn Rand se lie d’amiti avec l’crivaine libertarienne Isabel Paterson (18861961), qui l’initie l’histoire des tats-Unis. Leur amiti cessera par la suite, Rand n’ayant pas apprci le comportement de Paterson lors d’une crmonie Hollywood. Les deux femmes entretiennent alors une abondante correspondance. Le biographe de Paterson, Stephen Cox, explique que les penses des deux femmes se sont mutuellement influences[26]. Ayn Rand considre l’essai d’Isabel Paterson, The God of the Machine (1943), comme l’quivalent pour les dfenseurs du capitalisme de ce qu’est Le Capital pour les communistes et la Bible pour les chrtiens[27].

Ds 1946, Ayn Rand travaille au manuscrit de son roman La Grve (Atlas Shrugged), tout en assurant un emploi de scnariste pour le producteur Hal B. Wallis. En 1947, en pleine priode du maccarthysme, elle tmoigne charge dans les procs des Dix d’Hollywood, qui dbouchent sur la constitution des listes noires[28], devant le United States House Un-American Activities Committee qui identifie les personnalits pro-communistes amricaines[29]. Ayn Rand est l’une des premires intellectuelles amricaines fustiger la propagande communiste dans le milieu du cinma. Pour ce faire, elle rdige Screen Guide for Americans qui recommande treize principes face au communisme et rejoint la MPA (la Motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of the American Ideals) la mme anne[9]. Anthem est par ailleurs publi aux tats-Unis, en juillet 1946.

En 1949 The Fountainhead est adapt l’cran, le 23 juin. Ayn Rand dcide en 1951, en compagnie de son mari, de quitter Hollywood pour emmnager New York (au 120 East de la 34e rue), sa ville prfre en raison de ses gratte-ciel qui la fascinent, et o elle travaille plein temps sur son nouveau roman, La Grve (Atlas Shrugged), qu’elle n’achve que six ans plus tard. La rdaction de ce long roman provoque une dpression nanmoins vite surmonte[30].

En 1950, Ayn Rand et quelques proches crent un groupe qui prend par provocation le nom de Le Collectif, form par Alan Greenspan, futur prsident de la Fed et le psychologue Nathanael Blumenthal (qui deviendra Nathaniel Branden, l’auteur de The Psychology of Self-Esteem), futur amant de Rand, sa femme, Barbara Branden, et Leonard Peikoff, profondment influenc par The Fountainhead. Avec ce groupe, qui multiplie les confrences publiques, Rand compte diffuser sa philosophie et ses crits. Le cercle d’amis prend ainsi un rle de plus en plus important, aidant Ayn Rand diffuser son systme philosophique, auquel elle donne le nom d’objectivisme. Sous l’impulsion de Branden, le groupe fonde le Nathaniel Branden Institute (N.B.I), qui dite un priodique, The Objectivist, actif de 1962 1965. Le priodique devient ensuite The Objectivist Newsletter, de 1966 1971. Puis le groupe dite, de 1971 1976, une lettre d’information, The Ayn Rand Letter[note 1]. Ayn Rand y publie des articles, qui forment la base pour ces essais philosophiques, et en premier lieu l’ouvrage The Virtue of Selfishness qui dveloppe sa thorie du point de vue thique. La compilation Capitalism: The Unknown Ideal (1966) regroupe ses tudes conomiques et politiques alors que Introduction to Objectivist Epistemology (1971) prsente sa thorie des concepts, sa contribution la plus importante la philosophie. Rand crit galement une tude esthtique, The Romantic Manifesto (1969).

En 1957 est publie sa principale uvre, La Grve (Atlas Shrugged), aux ditions Random House, roman de prs de 1500 pages qui met en scne des entrepreneurs qui dcident de cesser d’tre les esclaves d’un tatisme pr-totalitaire qui ravage la socit l’image du New Deal de Roosevelt. Le tirage initial est de 100000 exemplaires et le livre devient rapidement un best-seller mondial puisque son tirage tait chaque anne de 200000 units jusqu’ l’lection du prsident Obama, qui a conduit en vendre un million d’exemplaires en deux ans et demi[31]. Dans une tude de 1991 de la Bibliothque du Congrs amricain, le livre tait cit par les Amricains comme celui qui les avait le plus influencs, aprs la Bible[32]. Le roman mle divers thmes et sujets de rflexion, passant de l’pistmologie la mtaphysique, suivant une action classique, centre autour du combat d’un mystrieux personnage, John Galt, qui n’apparat qu’ la fin. Il marque aussi la fin de l’activit romanesque de Rand, et le dbut de ses crits philosophiques[33].

En 1958, Rand anime des sminaires d’criture et, le 6 mars, elle fait sa premire confrence au Queens College de New York. Elle prend la parole pour la premire fois la tlvision amricaine, sur le plateau de Mike Wallace en 1959[34]. Elle prsente son essai Faith and Force: Destroyers of the Modern World l’universit Yale le 17 fvrier 1960. Le rythme de ses lectures publiques mais galement universitaires s’acclre. En 1961, Rand publie For the New Intellectual le 24 mars et fait une confrence au Ford Hall Forum, The Intellectual Bankruptcy of Our Age le 26 mars. Le Ford Hall Forum devient le lieu privilgi de ses confrences qui ont lieu de 1962 1976. Elle ralise galement des allocutions et des ateliers (workshops) au Nathaniel Branden Institute qui ouvre en janvier 1962. Le mme mois le premier numro de The Objectivist Newsletter est publi.

La popularit de Rand s’accrot galement. De plus en plus sollicite par les journaux, elle signe, le 17 juin 1961, sa premire intervention dans la Weekly column du Los Angeles Times qu’elle animera quelques annes durant. Ses confrences sont toutes enregistres et diffuses aux tats-Unis et dans d’autres pays. Ayn Rand enseigne par ailleurs dans de nombreuses universits partir de 1960, Yale, Princeton et Columbia. Elle enseigne galement Harvard, l’universit du Wisconsin, l’universit Johns-Hopkins et au MIT. Durant ses dernires annes, Ayn Rand prend galement position sur de grandes questions de socit, s’opposant l’engagement amricain dans la Seconde Guerre mondiale, et soutenant Isral pendant la guerre du Kippour. Elle s’exprime sur tous les thmes de socit o sa morale objectiviste peut trancher: l’galit des sexes et l’homosexualit, le racisme et le travail.

Le 2 octobre 1963 Rand reoit un honorary doctorate de l’universit Lewis et Clark et publie en dcembre 1964 The Virtue of Selfishness (La Vertu d’gosme), l’essai qui prsente le mieux sa pense thique et philosophique. En juillet 1966, elle crit une autre tude, en plusieurs parties, publie dans le priodique The Objectivist intitul Introduction to Objectivist Epistemology[35] destine exposer les fondements de sa philosophie de la connaissance.

La relation sentimentale de Rand avec le psychothrapeute Nathaniel Branden s’intensifie dans les annes 1960. Branden publie galement divers textes psychologiques dans la revue d’Ayn Rand. En 1968, le couple illgitime rompt, en partie cause du fait que chacun tait mari[36].

Ds mars 1969, Ayn Rand donne des cours d’criture, pour les essais cette fois, des membres du Nathaniel Branden Institute. Le 11 octobre, elle anime des ateliers autour de l’pistmologie objectiviste. Le 16 juillet, elle assiste comme V.I.P. au lancement de la fuse Apollo 11. Cet vnement lui inspire deux essais[note 2] vantant le progrs technique permis par le capitalisme: La signification fondamentale du triomphe d’Apollo 11 n’est pas politique ni mme philosophique, elle est davantage pistmologique et morale[37] dit-elle cette occasion qui la marque beaucoup. Rand se lie par ailleurs d’amiti avec l’astronaute Michael Collins[38] ainsi qu’avec l’crivain Mickey Spillane et le critique musical Deems Taylor avec qui elle entretient une longue correspondance[39].

La sant d’Ayn Rand se dtriore au dbut des annes 1970. Elle est opre en 1974 pour un cancer du poumon car c’est une grande fumeuse. La fin de la relation avec Branden signe la fin de facto du Nathaniel Branden Institute et certains amis objectivistes s’loignent d’elle. Rand publie dans The Objectivist une critique de Nathaniel Branden, qu’elle juge avoir t malhonnte envers elle et d’avoir eu un comportement irrationnel dans sa vie personnelle[40]. Le 6 mars 1974 Rand fait une confrence West Point intitule Philosophy: Who Needs It, ouvrage parachevant sa philosophie de la ralit et de l’homme[41]. Le 14 avril, elle reoit sa sur, Nora Drobysheva, qui a pu obtenir une autorisation de quitter l’URSS. Rand tente de lui proposer son aide pour qu’elle immigre aux tats-Unis, mais sa sur refuse et rentre en URSS aprs quelques jours.

En janvier 1976, Rand publie son dernier article dans le recueil The Ayn Rand Letter, The Energy Crisis qui traite des enjeux gopolitiques. Le 27 juillet, elle est invite la Maison-Blanche pour diner avec l’homme politique libral australien Malcolm Fraser, futur premier ministre d’Australie: c’est le signe d’une reconnaissance nationale. Le 10 avril 1977, elle est invite au Ford Hall Forum pour un dner en son honneur, avec tous les membres du Nathaniel Branden Institute.

En septembre 1979, La Grve (Atlas Shrugged) est scnaris pour un projet de srie tlvise puis, en avril, son dernier essai, Introduction to Objectivist Epistemology, est publi par la New American Library. Le 9 novembre, son mari Frank OConnor dcde et, ds lors les activits d’Ayn Rand au sein du mouvement objectiviste se rarfient. Sa sant dcline par ailleurs. L’un de ses derniers projets est une adaptation tlvise de La Grve (Atlas Shrugged) ainsi qu’un roman, To Lorne Dieterling, dont elle ne laisse que des brouillons prparatoires.

En 1981 Rand anime ses dernires confrences: au Ford Hall Forum avec The Age of Mediocrity, le 26 avril et The Sanction of the Victims La Nouvelle-Orlans le 21 novembre. Elle travaille aux dernires pages du scnario tlvis de La Grve (Atlas Shrugged), qu’elle achve en janvier. Malade, elle recourt l’aide sociale pour couvrir ses dpenses de sant, sous le faux-nom d’Ann O’Connor, contredisant quelque peu ses principes[42]. Elle meurt d’une insuffisance cardiaque le 6 mars 1982 chez elle, New York.

De nombreux compagnons objectivistes se rendent son enterrement, dont Alan Greenspan et David Kelley, qui lit lors des obsques le pome If, de Rudyard Kipling[43]. Rand est enterre au cimetire de Kensico, Valhalla, New York. Dans ses dernires volonts, elle dsigne Leonard Peikoff comme hritier de sa proprit intellectuelle et le reconnat galement comme le meilleur spcialiste de sa philosophie[44]. Peikoff fonde le Ayn Rand Institute pour propager ses ides.

Ayn Rand a, au fur et mesure de ses crits, constitu un mouvement philosophique intitul l’objectivisme[45] reposant sur le postulat selon lequel ma philosophie conoit essentiellement l’Homme comme un tre hroque dont l’thique de vie est la poursuite de son propre bonheur, la ralisation de soi son activit la plus noble, et la Raison son seul absolu.[46]. En 1976, Rand explique que sa contribution principale la philosophie est sa thorie et [s]es concepts, [s]on thique, et [s]a dcouverte que, en politique, le mal – la violation des droits – consiste en un commencement de pouvoir et de force[47].

Rejetant la foi considre comme oppose la raison, Rand condamne toute forme de mysticisme, y compris les religions, et prne le ralisme philosophique[48]. Rand met en avant ce qu’elle nomme l’gosme rationnel, ou gosme de l’intrt personnel, seul principe moral digne d’tre suivi par opposition l’altruisme, de mentalit collectiviste. L’individu est selon elle la base de toute morale, il se doit d’exister pour lui-mme crit-elle en 1962 et de ne jamais se sacrifier pour les autres, ni sacrifier les autres pour lui-mme[49]. En 1976, Rand explique que sa contribution principale la philosophie est sa thorie et [s]es concepts, [s]on thique, et [s]a dcouverte que, en politique, le mal la violation des droits consiste en un commencement de pouvoir et de force[47].

Rand pose que le seul systme moral pertinent est celui du laissez-faire, le capitalisme. Elle est donc profondment individualiste et s’oppose tout systme collectiviste, en premier lieu au communisme. Elle critique de manire vhmente autant certains libraux et conservateurs amricains, comme les partisans du rgime sovitique[note 3].

D’inspiration aristotlicienne, la philosophie d’Ayn Rand se veut profondment rationaliste et objectiviste, les motions de l’homme se devant d’tre soumises sa raison, faute de quoi, l’homme baserait son existence sur des chimres issues de ses reprsentations du monde et non sur les faits. Elle ne renie pas pour autant la sphre motionnelle mais considre que l’homme qui se perd dans ses motions essaie de fuir la ralit au lieu de s’y adapter. Ayn Rand a ainsi dfini la psycho-pistmologie, socle de son systme objectiviste, comme l’tude des processus cognitifs humains vus partir de l’interaction entre l’esprit conscient et les fonctions automatiques de l’inconscient[50]. Harry Binswanger a continu ses travaux sur ce point. La vie de lhomme est considre comme le fondement de toute valeur, et sa propre vie est le but thique de tout individu. Le passage dit de l’allocution de John Galt (John Galt speaking), personnage principal du livre La Grve (Atlas Shrugged), reprsente la quintessence de sa pense propos de l’individu[51].

Ayn Rand a t influence par de nombreux philosophes comme Aristote en premier lieu[52] (et mme nul autre que lui, ses propres dires[53]), mais aussi John Locke, Thomas d’Aquin, Friedrich Nietzsche, Max Stirner, Henryk Sienkiewicz, Ludwig von Mises ou Isabel Paterson. Nanmoins, Douglas B. Rasmussen dcrit son approche de l’enseignement d’Aristote comme tant extrmement imprcise, alors que sa connaissance de son systme thique tait pour sa part trs mince[54].

L’influence de Nietzsche est, selon Ronald E. Merrill, auteur de The Ideas of Ayn Rand, relle[55], notamment travers la notion de surhomme qui se retrouve dans tous ses crits. Ayn Rand dit partager avec Friedrich Nietzsche le culte de l’ego humain, dont The Fountainhead veut rendre compte. C’est pourquoi elle apposa en en-tte du manuscrit de cette uvre une citation de Par del le bien et le mal exprimant, selon elle, ce culte. Elle dcida nanmoins de retirer cette citation de l’dition finale de l’ouvrage du fait de son dsaccord avec la philosophie de Nietzsche, dont elle rejetait le mysticisme et l’irrationalisme[56].

Pour elle, au sein de l’histoire de la philosophie, seuls trois auteurs, dont elle-mme, ont marqu l’thique, qu’elle nomme les trois A, pour Aristote, Thomas d’Aquin et Ayn Rand[57]. Parmi les philosophes, Rand prouve un ddain particulier pour Emmanuel Kant, qu’elle dit tre un monstre et le plus mauvais homme de l’histoire car il prne un systme thique totalement tranger l’intrt personnel. Elle critique la position de Kant, qui veut expliquer que la raison ne peut connatre la ralit en soi: pour Rand, sa philosophie est l’exacte oppos des positions kantiennes[58]. Pour les philosophes objectivistes George Walsh[59] et Fred Seddon[60], Rand n’a pas su interprter l’apport de Kant; pour le premier elle exagre l’ambition du philosophe allemand. D’autres critiques condamnent sa vision du kantisme comme tant simplement ignorante et indigne[61]. Il reste que la plupart des philosophes ralistes postrieurs Kant en ont autant, sinon plus, son gard[62].

Ayn Rand est surtout connue pour ses fictions, principalement Atlas Shrugged, vritable best-seller, et The Fountainhead. Les personnages de ses romans sont ainsi devenus des rfrences cls dans la culture amricaine comme John Galt, Dagny Taggart ou Kira Argounova[63]. Rand se dpeint elle-mme comme une romantique raliste, et toute son uvre reflte cette double tendance[64].

Atlas Shrugged est un roman de plus de 1000 pages qui fit d’Ayn Rand une romancire populaire, ds sa publication en 1957. En 2007, soit cinquante ans aprs la premire publication du roman, prs de 185000 exemplaires furent vendus d’aprs le Ayn Rand Institute[65]. Selon un sondage ralis par Freestar Media/Zogby, 8% des Amricains avaient lu Atlas Shrugged en 2007[66]. Une traduction franaise du roman est parue en octobre 2011 sous le titre La Grve, qui tait le premier auquel Ayn Rand songeait (The Strike) lorsqu’elle crivait son roman[67].

D’aprs l’auteur elle-mme, Atlas Shrugged a pour thme le rle de l’esprit humain dans la socit[68]. L’intrigue met donc en scne des hommes de l’esprit (men of the mind: scientifiques indpendants, entrepreneurs honntes, artistes individualistes) qui disparaissent mystrieusement, provoquant crises et catastrophes, dans un avenir (pour les annes 1950) proche qui n’en ressemble pas moins la catastrophe des annes 1930. Il s’agit d’un roman ides, par lequel Rand dveloppe sa conception de la vrit, de la libert et de l’gosme rationnel, tout en prsentant les mfaits de l’tatisme qu’elle prsente comme le produit du subjectivisme moral et intellectuel. Le titre Atlas Shrugged se rfre au titan de la mythologie grecque Atlas qui tient le monde sur ses paules, symbole du rle irremplaable des hommes de l’esprit, entrepreneurs et crateurs de valeurs, dans la socit. Ce roman dcrit galement la manire dont l’intervention de l’tat dtruit la production et la rgulation sociale[69], lui opposant la libre initiative et la responsabilit personnelle.

Le personnage principal du roman, John Galt, est l’archtype du hros vertueux et entreprenant. La premire phrase du rcit, Who is John Galt? a marqu la culture populaire amricaine, de mme que son allocution, long passage de 62 pages[70], qui est un morceau majeur de la philosophie, car il expose les racines profondes de l’idologie tatiste, qui sont chercher en premier lieu, et dans l’ordre, dans les domaines de la mtaphysique, de l’pistmologie et enfin de l’thique. explique le traducteur suisse, Pierre-Louis Boitel[71].

Publi en 1943 le roman La Source vive connut un grand succs et fut ensuite adapt au cinma par King Vidor en 1949 sous le titre Le Rebelle. Le titre du livre fait rfrence une dclaration d’Ayn Rand: l’ego de l’Homme est la source vive du progrs humain[72]. Refus par de nombreux diteurs car non commercial, le livre est pourtant parmi les plus vendus au monde au sein de l’uvre de Rand[73].

Le rcit dcrit la vie d’un architecte individualiste, Howard Roark, dans le New-York des annes 1920 qui ne parvient pas faire accepter ses crations. Par lui, Rand dveloppe les thmes contenus dans sa doctrine objectiviste, savoir l’intgrit, l’gosme rationnel, la vertu d’indpendance et la crativit. Chaque chapitre est dvolu un personnage, emblme d’une valeur randienne. Ayn Rand y esquisse deux philosophies antagonistes, travers les deux personnages en opposition. Le premier, incarn par Roark, est lhomme volontariste et libre, qui reprsente lgoste absolu, et dot de libert de jugement alors que Keating est l’archtype du parasite social. The Fountainhead peut, selon Mimi Reisel Gladstein, tre lu comme une version moderne d’une pice mdivale de moralit[74].

Les romans de Rand furent l’objet de vives critiques lors de leur publication[75]. Selon Jeff Britting, la popularit des crits de Rand doit beaucoup au bouche oreille[76]. En effet, les milieux universitaires et littraires ont longtemps ignor les romans de Rand. Le philosophe John Lewis dclare cependant, dans sa Literary Encyclopedia de 2001, que Rand a crit les uvres de fiction les plus intellectuellement brillantes de sa gnration[77].

Les premiers comptes-rendus de la critique apparaissent avec sa pice de thtre Night of January 16th. Ses autres premiers crits, We the Living et Anthem ont reu une faible attention des critiques, seul son best-seller The Fountainhead mobilisa vritablement la presse et en particulier le New York Times[78], journal que Rand apprciait grandement[79]. C’est surtout son roman La Grve (Atlas Shrugged) qui reut la plus grande critique, principalement ngative. En particulier, l’ancien espion sovitique repenti Whittaker Chambers, dans la National Review, qualifia l’ouvrage d’immature et de remarquablement stupide, ajoutant qu’on ne pouvait l’appeler un roman qu’en dvaluant le mot[80].

Les travaux de Rand veillrent peu d’intrt dans les milieux acadmiques et universitaires[81]. La premire tude sur son uvre, publie en 1971, tait celle de William F. O’Neill, With Charity Toward None: An Analysis of Ayn Rand’s Philosophy[82]. L’auteur fut vivement critiqu par ses pairs, qui lui reprochrent d’tre de parti-pris pour avoir pris Rand et ses crits au srieux. La revue The Personalist publia aprs sa mort de nombreux articles et le philosophe Robert Nozick y rdigea l’article On the Randian Argument[83].

Comme le souligne Alain Laurent, la popularit d’Ayn Rand a t telle qu’aux tats-Unis, presque tout le monde l’a lue et a eu son moment Ayn Rand comme l’a confi Hillary Clinton. Aprs sa mort, elle est demeure bien vivante dans le paysage intellectuel et politique amricain, influenant le libralisme classique comme le Cato Institute[84].

L’essai The Virtue of Selfishness, traduit en franais sous le titre La Vertu d’gosme synthtise la pense thique d’Ayn Rand[85]. Publi en 1964, il s’agit de ses principaux textes issus des confrences. Annonc par ses prcdents crits, la doctrine du vivre pour soi est le sujet de ce livre qui expose la plupart des axiomes objectivistes et en premier lieu le principe selon lequel l’ego est la seule rfrence thique: Aucune loi, aucun parti ne pourra jamais tuer cette chose en l’homme qui sait dire je[86]. Ainsi rsume Pierre Lemieux, La nature de l’homme lui impose un code d’thique rationnel (…) Les droits de l’homme se rsument dans le droit pour un individu d’utiliser sa raison, l’exclusion de toute coercition, pour mener sa propre vie. Raison et libert vont de pair pour Ayn Rand[87].

Le capitalisme est ainsi le seul systme o les hommes productifs sont libres d’agir et de cooprer en vertu de leurs liberts. Contrairement une critique rpandue, Rand n’est pas anarchiste, ni anarcho-capitaliste, car elle considre que l’anarchie en tant que concept politique, est une abstraction vague et nave[88]. Nanmoins Rand est souvent considre comme une thoricienne anarchiste, notamment par Ulrike Heider qui la surnomme the queen of reason[89]. Par ailleurs elle ne prne pas une socit sans tat. Elle propose un systme alternatif o l’tat est limit une activit judiciaire, via le monopole du contrle des contrats entre citoyens. Selon Alain Laurent, Rand est minarchiste, c’est une adepte du limited government. L’tat doit ainsi seulement protger l’individu de la violence physique, protger son droit la vie, la libert, la proprit et la poursuite de son propre bonheur. Ces objectifs concident exactement avec les principes des Founding Fathers, les pres fondateurs des tats-Unis[90]. L’thique de Rand renoue avec le concept aristotlicien de valeur qui est ainsi pour elle ce pourquoi l’on entreprend une action pour acqurir et (ou) conserver quelque chose[91].

La mthode de Rand se fonde sur l’objectivit dfinie comme Une mthode pour valuer la connaissance base sur sa conformit ou non la ralit[93]. La premire partie de ce livre est consacre dmontrer en quoi la vie, et l’individu, est essentiellement rationnel, et que son existence doit tre objective, c’est–dire conforme la ralit. Le rationnel est donc le moyen de survie, et, par extension, l’thique rgulant son comportement et ses choix[94]. Rand s’oppose aux doctrines philosophiques et politiques qui posent que l’thique est irrationnelle et donc que la raison n’est pas inhrente l’homme, justifiant par l un altruisme au service de la collectivit. Ces doctrines justifient le recours la force, caractristique de l’tat. La conduite thique est donc celle de la rflexion et du travail productif[95]. Selon Alain Laurent, dans Le Libralisme amricain, De ces prmisses [Rand] dduit une thique anti-sacrificielle et anti-collectiviste affirmant la lgitimit exclusive de la poursuite du self-interest cal sur le droit individuel de proprit, l’change librement consenti et le principe de non-initiation de la force[96].

Ayn Rand condamnait l’engagement amricain dans la Premire et dans la Seconde Guerre mondiale[97], puis dans la guerre de Core, considrant que la seule justification de la guerre doit tre le principe de lgitime dfense de soi-mme, et non des autres.

Elle s’est tout aussi publiquement oppose la guerre du Vit Nam en dclarant: Si vous voulez voir le summum ultime, suicidaire, de l’altruisme l’chelle internationale, observez la guerre du Vit Nam, une guerre o chaque soldat amricain meurt sans raison d’aucune sorte[98].

Rand s’opposait donc toute politique d’intervention et d’ingrence, mais au seul nom de la souverainet des tats respectueux du Droit: pour elle, les tats “tyranniques” et les conglomrats de “sauvages”, n’avaient aucun Droit. Ainsi, elle interprtait la guerre du Kippour de 1973 comme partant d’une attaque contre un tat respectueux des droits individuels, et elle soutint en consquence Isral, dclarant: Les Arabes sont une des cultures les moins dveloppes. Ils sont typiquement nomades. Leur culture est primitive et ils prouvent du ressentiment contre Isral car c’est la seule tte de pont de la science moderne et de la civilisation sur leur continent. Quand vous avez des hommes civiliss qui combattent des sauvages, vous soutenez les hommes civiliss, peu importe qui ils sont.[99].

Elle avait une vision tranche, voire expditive, de la politique internationale. Dans The Foreign Policy of a Mixed Economy, Rand condamnait le principe de l’aide publique entre les tats, qui nourrit les guerres conomiques et abaisse les liberts humaines, contribuant balkaniser les socits, notamment en entretenant le principe de l’ethnicit, selon le titre de son article Global Balkanization. Pour Ayn Rand, l’irrationnalisme (dont la ralisation historique ultime est le communisme, thse qu’elle dveloppe dans son article Capitalism vs. Communism) se propage, conduisant un nouveau fascisme, celui d’un culte du consensus[100] et du tout-tat, toujours plus prdateur et dpensier. Rand y voit par ailleurs la cause de la volont de certains tats, comme les tats-Unis, de conduire des guerres d’ingrence qui sont injustes (The Wreckage of the Consensus) parce qu’on les mne suivant les principes de l’altruisme, ce qui outrepasse leurs fonctions lgitimes et viole les droits de leurs citoyens.

Plusieurs des ouvrages de Rand prsentent les femmes et les hommes comme gaux sur le plan intellectuel. Toutefois, elle a, plusieurs reprises, affirm que les diffrences physiologiques entre les deux sexes conduisaient des diffrences psychologiques fondamentales, sources d’une diffrenciation naturellement sexue des rles sociaux. Il s’agit l d’un des postulats de ce qu’elle nomme la psycho-pistmologie, la science qui examine le rapport du psychisme humain la ralit. Rand affirma par exemple que, si les femmes sont comptentes pour occuper la fonction de Prsidente, aucune femme rationnelle ne devrait chercher atteindre cette position; elle expliqua plus tard qu’une telle fonction serait psychologiquement perturbante pour une femme[101]. Rand pense ainsi que l’essence de la fminit est la vnration le dsir d’admiration de l’homme, qu’une femme idale doit vnrer les hommes, et qu’un homme idal est le plus haut symbole de l’humanit[102]. Le sexe est pour elle l’expression de l’estime de soi[103].

Ayn Rand s’est exprime publiquement une unique occasion sur le thme de l’homosexualit, lors d’une confrence au Ford Hall Forum de 1968. En 1971, elle publie un recueil d’essais, The New Left, o elle attaque les mouvements fministes et gay, puisque la discrimination positive impose par l’tat est par dfinition injuste, et affirme que l’homosexualit est immorale en soi. En dpit de cette critique, elle estime que la loi ne doit pas intervenir dans une relation entre deux adultes consentants. Dans des conversations tenues en 1980 avec le philosophe Harry Binswanger, elle nuancera sa position, revenant sur le terme d’immoral sans retirer sa critique[104]. Rand dfendait par ailleurs le droit des entreprises de discriminer sur la base de l’orientation sexuelle, de la race ou de n’importe quel autre critre: c’est par dfinition du Droit de proprit que le refus d’une personne ou d’une organisation de traiter avec une autre ne viole aucun droit, quand la raison en serait irrationnelle, raciste ou homophobe[105].

Dans ses articles Racism et Balkanisation globale, Rand estime que le racisme est la forme la plus basse, la plus crment primitive de collectivisme[106]. Que cette notion implique qu’un homme soit jug non sur ses propres actions mais sur celles d’un collectif d’anctres apparaissait intolrable dans son systme de pense[107] car le racisme, a fortiori institu par l’tat, nie les deux aspects de la vie de l’homme: sa raison et sa moralit pour y substituer un dterminisme gntique. Elle tait oppose toute intervention tatique ce sujet, estimant qu’ partir du moment o ce n’est pas l’tat qui l’impose, le racisme n’est pas un problme de Droit mais une question morale, et ne peut tre combattu que par des moyens privs, tels que le boycott conomique ou l’ostracisme social.[108].

La culture n’est pas le produit anonyme de masses indiffrencies, mais la somme des ralisations intellectuelles d’hommes individuels[110] selon Ayn Rand qui fait de la culture et du progrs scientifique des domaines thiques. Cependant, dans son article Our Cultural Value-Deprivation (1966), elle note la perte de valeur dans la culture et notamment la valeur individualiste. Son essai The Intellectual Bankruptcy of Our Age (1961)[111] a pour but de condamner une culture de masse mondialise, celle du XXesicle qui refuse l’hritage libral du sicle prcdent.

En matire d’cologie et d’environnement, Rand y voit une manipulation des gouvernements, destine rduire les liberts et faire primer l’motion sur la raison. Critiquant l’environnementalisme, dans Against Environnementalist, elle considre que l’cologie est un retour du religieux et de l’irrationnel, alors que seul le progrs technique peut amliorer la condition humaine[112].

Adepte du minarchisme et d’un libertarianisme anti-tat, Rand prconise un tat minimal. Elle oppose l’tatisme l’intrt bien compris des individus. Selon elle l’tat, qu’elle qualifie d’absolu lorsqu’il ambitionne de rgenter toute la sphre sociale et conomique, ne fait que violer le Droit qu’il est l pour faire respecter L’tatisme a toujours t le corollaire politique du collectivisme[113] explique-t-elle, sa dmesure culminant dans le communisme.

Ses jugements sur l’tatisme ont suscit l’admiration dans tous les mouvements libraux. La formule L’tat absolu n’est simplement qu’une forme institutionnalise du banditisme, quel que soit le gang particulier qui prend le pouvoir[113] rsume au mieux sa pense. Cependant, Rand n’est pas pour l’anarchisme, qui prne la disparition de l’tat. Elle considre que celui-ci doit exister, pour veiller ce que les citoyens jouissent de toute leur libert de choix et de raison: Le gouvernement agit seulement comme un agent de police qui protge l’homme des droits, il utilise la force physique uniquement et seulement titre de reprsailles contre ceux qui prennent l’initiative de son utilisation, tels que des criminels ou des envahisseurs trangers.[114]. En d’autres termes, l’tat doit veiller la conservation des droits individuels (la libert et la proprit), dont la source est la nature de l’homme car: la seule justification valable de l’existence d’un tat [est d’] assurer les Droits des hommes en protgeant ceux-ci de la violence physique[115].

Seul le systme du laissez-faire capitaliste peut garantir les liberts individuelles. La socit doit veiller ce qu’une complte sparation de l’tat et l’conomie existe, de la mme manire et pour les mmes raisons qu’existe la sparation de l’tat et l’glise [116].

Les crits d’Ayn Rand continuent d’tre largement vendus et lus, travers le monde, avec plus de 25 millions d’ouvrages vendus en 2007, et prs de 800000 de plus chaque anne selon le Ayn Rand Institute[117], y compris dans le milieu scolaire[118]. Selon une tude conduite par la Bibliothque du Congrs amricain et par Book of the Month Club (le club du livre du mois) dans les annes 1990, La Grve (Atlas Shrugged) est le livre le plus influent aprs la Bible aux tats-Unis[10].

Une certaine branche du mouvement fministe amricain se rclame des travaux de Rand. Dans Feminist interpretations of Ayn Rand[119] Mimi Reisel Gladstein et Chais Matthew Sciabarra analysent la nature de cette influence et expliquent mme en quoi la philosophe peut tre qualifie de fministe avant l’heure[120].

Ayn Rand a eu galement une profonde influence sur des penseurs et des personnalits contemporains tels John Hospers (le premier candidat du parti libertarien aux lections prsidentielles amricaines de 1972), George Hamilton Smith (pdagogue et auteur libertarien), le philosophe et pistmologue Allan Gotthelf, les philosophes et universitaires Robert Mayhew (auteur de Essays on Ayn Rand’s Atlas Shrugged) et Tara Smith, l’conomiste George Reisman, le psychologue comme Edwin A. Locke, crateur de la goal-setting theory, l’historien Robert Hessen, et les politologues Charles Murray (crateur de l’American Enterprise Institute) et Peter Schwartz[121]. Selon Pierre Lemieux, Rand, en dpit de son aversion pour l’anarchie, est galement un modle des mouvements anarcho-capitalistes[87]. Les thoriciens anarchistes et minarchistes Murray Rothbard et Robert Nozick reconnaissent l’apport de Rand dans le champ thique surtout. L’crivain Mario Vargas Llosa est un de ses admirateurs[122]. Alain Laurent, citant une confidence d’Alan Greenspan explique mme que le prsident russe Vladimir Poutine non seulement connat ses crits mais de plus aime en discuter[123]>.

L’ancien prsident de la Fed, Alan Greenspan, a beaucoup t influenc[124] par Rand et dclara son propos: Elle m’a montr que le capitalisme n’est pas seulement efficace, mais aussi moral[125]. Ayn Rand a aussi eu une influence sur James Clavell, George Reisman, Alan Greenspan, Terry Goodkind et le professeur de marketing Jerry Kirkpatrick. L’ancien prsident des tats-Unis, Ronald Reagan se dit lui-mme un admirateur de Rand, dans sa correspondance prive[126]. Le dessinateur de comics Steve Ditko est un lecteur de Rand[127]. Parmi d’autres personnalits publiques, l’actrice Angelina Jolie et son mari et acteur Brad Pitt, Frank Miller, Vince Vaughn ou Ron Paul, ancien candidat la Prsidence amricaine, se disent influencs par l’objectivisme d’Ayn Rand.

Jimmy Wales, le fondateur de l’encyclopdie libre Wikipdia, professe son admiration pour Ayn Rand: ayant lu The Fountainhead, il se qualifie lui-mme de libertarien: La catgorie de personnes dans laquelle je peux le mieux me considrer serait celle des libertariens[128] dit-il. La pense de Rand colore tout ce que je fais et tout ce que je pense[129]. Wales a ainsi anim, de 1992 1996 une liste de diffusion lectronique nomme Moderated Discussion of Objectivist Philosophy. Il donna une interview qui fit la premire page du numro de juin 2007 du magazine libertarien Reason[130].

Un groupe d’entrepreneurs dcids fonder une cryptarchie en 1998, baptise Laissez Faire City d’abord en Indonsie, sur l’le de Bintan, puis au Costa Rica voulaient mettre en application les directives objectivistes. Le projet choua faute de trouver un territoire libre et en dehors de tout contrle tatique[132].

Ds ses dbuts Ayn Rand a runi autour d’elle une gnration de penseurs considrs comme objectivistes[133]. Plusieurs d’entre eux continuent, aprs sa mort, promouvoir sa philosophie, aux tats-Unis et dans le monde.

En 1985, Leonard Peikoff, en qui Rand avait totale confiance pour reprsenter sa philosophie, fonde le Ayn Rand Institute (ARI), qui a pour but de faire connatre la pense de Rand aux jeunes gnrations, de soutenir et dvelopper ses ides, et de promouvoir les principes de la raison, de l’intrt priv rationnel, des droits individuels et du capitalisme du laissez-faire le plus largement possible. En 1989, David Kelley cre quant lui lInstitute for Objectivist Studies, devenu The Atlas Society, et qui s’intresse davantage la dimension philosophique et universitaire des travaux d’Ayn Rand. En 2000, l’historien John McCaskey organise lAnthem Foundation for Objectivist Scholarship, qui offre des bourses et des rcompenses pour des crits universitaires lis l’objectivisme pour les universits de Pittsburgh et du Texas Austin. L’association amricaine Rebirth of Reason fonde en 2005 par Joseph Rowlands et qui sige Santa Clara, en Californie regroupe la plupart des continuateurs de l’objectivisme[134].

En France, Alain Laurent, philosophe et essayiste, a fond avec Jos Luis Goyena une Ayn Rand French Society. La Ayn Rand French Society organise des confrences pour prsenter la pense librale et ralise des articles, tous publis dans le priodique numrique Le Nouvel 1dividualiste[135].

Jim Powell, du Cato Institute, considre Ayn Rand comme l’une des trois plus importantes femmes du mouvement libertarien moderne amricain, aux cts de Rose Wilder Lane et d’Isabel Paterson[136]. Alain Laurent parle lui des Founding Mothers (les mres fondatrices) du no-libralisme[137]. Pourtant, Rand a toujours refus d’tre considre comme une thoricienne du mouvement libertarien.

Le mouvement philosophique pro-technologique dit de l’extropianisme, ainsi que celui du transhumanisme, reconnat dans les concepts d’gosme et de productivit de Rand des valeurs ontologiques fondatrices. Dans ses Principles of Extropy, le fondateur de ce courant de pense, Max More dfinit l’optimisme pratique (practical optimism), l’auto-transformation (self-transformation), ainsi que l’auto-direction (self-direction) en rfrence aux considrations de l’Objectivisme; les parallles tant en effet nombreux[138]. L’Objectivisme tant une philosophie qui vante le progrs scientifique et technique, la manire du scientisme, des courants technophiles comme celui dit du Neo-Tech et qui a pour but llimination du mysticisme de la pense humaine, se rclament no-Objectiviste

La doctrine de l’gosme radical et de l’individualisme d’Ayn Rand a t rcupre par un certain nombre de personnalits sectaires; ainsi, Rand est l’un des principaux auteurs cits dans la Bible de Satan d’Anton Szandor LaVey, lequel explique que sa religion est uniquement la philosophie d’Ayn Rand laquelle a t ajoute des crmonials et des rituels[139],[140].

Les crits et la philosophie d’Ayn Rand ont t la cible de diverses critiques, tenant soit sa personnalit, soit son systme d’ides, soit son style littraire.

La contestation de l’altruisme de la part d’Ayn Rand a d’abord attir des critiques d’ordre thique. Par exemple, l’crivain Gore Vidal formule ainsi en 1961: Ds lors que nous devons vivre ensemble, dpendants les uns des autres, l’altruisme est ncessaire la survie. Il explique la popularit d’Ayn Rand en ces termes: Elle a un grand attrait pour les gens simples, perdus dans une socit organise, rticents payer des impts, n’aimant pas l’tat providence, qui se sentent coupables face la souffrance des autres mais voudraient durcir leur cur. Elle leur propose une prescription allchante: l’altruisme est source de tous les maux, l’intrt individuel est le seul bien, et si vous tes stupide ou incomptent, c’est votre problme. [141].

La prsentation de la vie d’Ayn Rand est elle-mme sujet controverse. Dans The Passion of Ayn Rand’s Critics[142], James Valliant axe son tude sur les manipulations biographiques possibles faites par Nathaniel Branden et sa femme de la vie de la philosophe aprs sa mort. Pour Valliant, les hritiers de Rand ont embelli son parcours et dissimul certaines notes de son journal[143].

L’anarcho-capitaliste Murray Rothbard, dans The Sociology of the Ayn Rand Cult (1972), aprs avoir soutenu Rand[144], dcrit les rouages de la socit objectiviste, la comparant une secte: non seulement la secte dAyn Rand tait explicitement athe, anti-religieuse, non seulement elle glorifiait la Raison, mais elle professait une dpendance de type matre-esclave envers le gourou au nom de lindpendance, une adoration et une obissance au chef au nom de lindividualit de chacun et une croyance aveugle dans le gourou au nom de la Raison[145]. Les critiques universitaires et politiques anti-libertariennes sont nombreuses[146]. Le clbre psychologue amricain Albert Ellis prsente le mouvement randien comme une religion dans son article Is Objectivism A Religion?[147](1968).

D’autres considrent que le raisonnement philosophique de Rand est sophistique, dtournant le concept de rationalit, tel Scott Ryan dans Objectivism and the Corruption of Rationality: A Critique of Ayn Rand’s Epistemology qui s’attaque, lui, aux fondements pistmologiques de la pense randienne, considre comme une pseudo-philosophie[148].

La pense de Rand continue gagner des dfenseurs, en dpit de la critique continuelle la qualifiant de mal construite et peu mthodique[149]. Son style est ainsi dcrit, mme au sein de ses partisans, comme tant littraire, hyperbolique et motionnel[150]. Le philosophe Jack Wheeler note la grandiloquence incessante et la dcharge continue de haine des crits de Rand, en dpit de cela, il voit son systme thique comme le plus achev et le plus fcond des tudes contemporaines[151]. Enfin, le populaire et satirique The Philosophical Lexicon ralis par les philosophes Daniel Dennett et Asbjrn Steglich-Petersen, dfinit le rand comme une tirade nerve cause lorsque l’on considre tort un dsaccord d’ordre philosophique comme une attaque personnelle et/ou comme la preuve d’une innommable corruption morale. “Lorsque j’ai remis en question sa seconde affirmation, il s’est lanc dans un rand”[152].

De nombreux dessins anims amricains font rfrence Rand. Un pisode de Futurama[Lequel?] imagine Rand dans le futur alors qu’elle vit dans les gouts.Dans l’pisode Le Charmeur de poules de South Park parle d’Atlas Shrugged comme d’un morceau de dchet [153]. alors que de multiples rfrences sont faites dans Les Simpson, particulirement dans l’pisode Manucure pour 4 femmes o une allusion critique est faite au livre The Fountainhead.

Des jeux tlviss font galement rfrence Rand, Jeopardy! mais aussi des sries dramatiques, Gilmore Girls (2000) et Mad Men (2007), ou des missions comiques (The Colbert Report…)[154].

Le groupe de rock canadien Rush, dans l’album 2112 fait rfrence au monde dcrit dans Anthem. En littrature, l’crivain objectiviste Kay Nolte Smith prsente un roman clef, Elegy for a Soprano inspir par le groupe du Collectif avec Rand et Branden. Le roman de William F. Buckley, Getting it Right fait galement allusion Rand. Le jeu vido BioShock utilise des lments de l’action du livre Atlas Shrugged.

Le visage de Rand apparat sur un timbre cre le 22 avril 1999 New York par le United States Postal Service[155].

Whoisjohngalt est un code dans l’extension Frozen throne de Warcraft 3 pour obtenir de faon rapide l’ensemble des amliorations disponibles.

Du vivant d’Ayn Rand

titre original: The Virtue of Selfishness (1964), prface d’Alain Laurent, traduction de Marc Meunier.

Premire dition en 1966

En collaboration avec Peter Schwartz.

Sous la direction de Michael S. Berliner, introduction de Leonard Peikoff

Premire dition en 1969.

Original post:

Ayn Rand Wikipdia

Atlas Shrugged: Part II (2012) – Rotten Tomatoes

 Atlas Shrugged  Comments Off on Atlas Shrugged: Part II (2012) – Rotten Tomatoes
Jun 212016
 

http://movie-api-2.aws.prod.flixster.com/movie/771311191?include=%5B%22images%22%2C%22reviews%22%2C%22movieCast%22%2C%22movieCast.person%22%2C%22videoClips%22%2C%22criticSummary%22%2C%22reviews.critic%22%2C%22reviews.publication%22%2C%22genres%22%2C%22franchise%22%2C%22affiliates%22%2C%22affiliates.amazonInfo%22%2C%22affiliates.vuduInfo%22%2C%22affiliates.itunesInfo%22%2C%22audienceSummary%22%2C%22audienceReviews%22%5D&filter=%7B%22videoClipsLimit%22%3A20%2C%22reviewsLimit%22%3A24%2C%22movieCastLimit%22%3A1000%2C%22imagesLimit%22%3A20%7D { “id” : “771311191”, “type” : “movie”, “advisory” : “for brief language”, “lastModifiedDate” : “2016-06-21T07:58:40-07:00”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “rotten”, “value” : 4 }, “year” : 2012, “releaseScope” : “wide”, “studioName” : “Atlas Distribution”, “dvdWindow” : “on-dvd”, “heroImage” : { “id” : “n-31649”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjszMTY0OTtqOzE3MDEwOzEyMDA7MTIwMDs2MDE”, “height” : 601, “width” : 1200, “format” : “JPG” }, “synopsis” : “The global economy is on the brink of collapse. Unemployment has risen to 24%. Gas is now $42 per gallon. Brilliant creators, from artists to industrialists, continue to mysteriously disappear at the hands of the unknown. Dagny Taggart, Vice President in Charge of Operations for Taggart Transcontinental, has discovered what may very well be the answer to a mounting energy crisis – found abandoned amongst the ruins of a once productive factory, a revolutionary motor that could seemingly power the World. But, the motor is dead… there is no one left to decipher its secret… and, someone is watching. It’s a race against the clock to find the inventor before the motor of the World is stopped for good. Who is John Galt? — (C) Official Site”, “releaseDates” : { “dvd” : “2013-02-19”, “theater” : “2012-10-12” }, “runningTime” : 112, “title” : “Atlas Shrugged: Part II”, “creationDate” : “2012-06-28T06:30:13-07:00”, “posterImage” : { “id” : “m-11166914”, “thumborId” : “v1.bTsxMTE2NjkxNDtqOzE3MDk0OzEyMDA7NjAwOzg4MA”, “height” : 880, “width” : 600, “format” : “JPG” }, “vanity” : “atlas_shrugged_part_ii”, “officialUrl” : “http://www.atlasshruggedmovie.com/”, “cummulativeBoxOffice” : null, “mainTrailer” : { “id” : “11170711”, “title” : “Atlas Shrugged Part II”, “sourceId” : “759732”, “thumbUrl” : “https://content.internetvideoarchive.com/content/photos/8044/759732_093.jpg”, “duration” : 129, “clipType” : “TRL”, “source” : “VDD” }, “boxOffice” : null, “openingWindow” : “NA”, “mpaaRating” : “PG13”, “affiliates” : { “id” : “771311191”, “type” : “affiliates”, “vuduInfo” : [ { “id” : “106961”, “type” : “VDB”, “endDate” : “2020-01-01”, “price” : 9.99, “format” : “hd”, “currency” : “USD”, “startDate” : “2015-12-14” }, { “id” : “106960”, “type” : “VDR”, “endDate” : “2020-01-01”, “price” : 3.99, “format” : “hd”, “currency” : “USD”, “startDate” : “2015-12-14” }, { “id” : “106963”, “type” : “VDB”, “endDate” : “2020-01-01”, “price” : 9.99, “format” : “hdx”, “currency” : “USD”, “startDate” : “2015-12-14” }, { “id” : “106962”, “type” : “VDR”, “endDate” : “2020-01-01”, “price” : 3.99, “format” : “hdx”, “currency” : “USD”, “startDate” : “2015-12-14” }, { “id” : “106959”, “type” : “VDB”, “endDate” : “2020-01-01”, “price” : 9.99, “format” : “sd”, “currency” : “USD”, “startDate” : “2015-12-14” }, { “id” : “106958”, “type” : “VDR”, “endDate” : “2020-01-01”, “price” : 2.99, “format” : “sd”, “currency” : “USD”, “startDate” : “2015-12-14” } ], “sonicInfo” : [ ], “amazonInfo” : [ ], “itunesInfo” : [ ] }, “audienceReviews” : [ { “id” : “10816”, “type” : “audienceReview”, “score” : 6.0, “ratingDate” : “2014-09-22T05:17:35-07:00”, “userImage” : { “thumbnailUrl” : “graph.facebook.com/v2.2/100000440772572/picture” }, “superReviewer” : true, “movieId” : 771311191, “comment” : “Atlas Shrugged II: The Strike is a compelling and provocative film that brings Ayn Rand’s classic novel to life. The saga continues with Dagny Taggart and Henry Rearden struggling to hold off a total economic collapse while an oppressive government tightens their control and leading industrialists mysteriously disappear. All of the major roles have been recast, which is rather off putting and doesn’t result in any noticeable improvements in the characters. However, the directing is a little better and delivers a clearer vision than the first film had. Additionally, the special effects are fairly well-done for an independent film, and are used quite effectively to add energy and excitement to the scenes. While Atlas Shrugged II: The Strike doesn’t live up to the quality of the source material, it still delivers a solid dramatic thriller.”, “ratingSource” : null, “userName” : “Dann Michalski”, “userId” : null }, { “id” : “10813”, “type” : “audienceReview”, “score” : 5.0, “ratingDate” : “2013-06-29T09:30:16-07:00”, “userImage” : null, “superReviewer” : true, “movieId” : 771311191, “comment” : “Ayn Rand’s industrialists fight against the Fair Share Act, which further strangles the economy. nFirst, the most unfortunate thing about this film was the endorsement that the real Sean Hannity gave to the fictional Hank Rearden. Additionally, protesters directly referenced the Occupy Wall Street rhetoric. The one-to-one relationship between the modern day right wing and Rand’s objectivists is bullshit, and it’s a shame that this film’s creators got sucked into Rand’s abduction by the right wing. After all the contemporary right wing is in the pocket of conservative Christians, yet Rand was an ardent atheist; the modern day right wing gives welfare to corporate fat cats whom Rand would consider looters. What does this have to do with the film? The iconography of the protesters and Hannity place the film in our historical moment, not Rand’s, which takes us out of the film’s world. nSecond, I was impressed with Samantha Mathis’s performance. Her Dagny was given more to human emotion, which played peek-a-boo amid Dagny’s characteristic stoicism. But her acting was the best of the cast. I particularly disliked Jason Beghe’s gravel-voiced Rearden. nFinally, the film is poorly paced. The speeches by Readen and Francisco belong in the film, but director John Putch should have taken a walking and talking page from Aaron Sorkin’s book to give the film some energy, and the montages of poverty do little to add to the plot. nOverall, this is a controversial film not because Rand is a controversial figure (even though she is) but primarily because the film doesn’t really get her.”, “ratingSource” : null, “userName” : “Jim Hunter”, “userId” : null }, { “id” : “10814”, “type” : “audienceReview”, “score” : 4.0, “ratingDate” : “2013-06-25T18:51:02-07:00”, “userImage” : { “thumbnailUrl” : “graph.facebook.com/v2.2/100001504732128/picture” }, “superReviewer” : true, “movieId” : 771311191, “comment” : “What the heck happened here? They changed the actors for almost EVERY role from the part 1 of this saga. Whose bright idea was that?? This could have been an interesting continuing story, but I found the new actors way too distracting….were they all busy? sheesh…”, “ratingSource” : null, “userName” : “Cynthia S.”, “userId” : null }, { “id” : “10815”, “type” : “audienceReview”, “score” : 3.0, “ratingDate” : “2013-02-21T05:58:59-08:00”, “userImage” : null, “superReviewer” : true, “movieId” : 771311191, “comment” : “You’d think after the horrible and horribly boring Atlas Shrugged: Part One that a promised Part Two might just disappear into the ether. If only we could have been so fortunate. Ayn Rand’s cautionary opus about the evils of big government is given another creaky adaptation that fails to justify its existence. I feel like I could repeat verbatim my faults with the first film. Once again we don’t have characters but mouthpieces for ideology, an ideology that celebrates untamed greed. Once again the “best and brightest” (a.k.a. world’s richest) are disappearing and the world is grinding to a halt without their necessary genius. Does anyone really think if the world’s billionaires left in a huff that the world would cease to function? The assumption that financial wealth equates brilliance seems fatally flawed. Once again it’s in a modern setting where America has gone back in time to value railroads. Once again the main thrust of the inert drama is over inconsequential railway economics. Once again people just talk in circles in cheap locations. Once again the government agencies are a bunch of clucking stooges, eager to punish successful business. Once again Rand’s Objectivist worldview is treated as gospel and value is only ascribed to the amount of money one can produce. This time we have a slightly better budget, a better director, and some recognizable actors like Samantha Manthis, Esai Morales, Ray Wise, Richard T. Jones, and D.B. Sweeney as the mysterious John Gault. The story transitions to a ridiculous government mandate that include such incomprehensible edicts like making sure no one spends more money than another person. Can you imagine the paperwork involved? This woeful sequel will only appeal to Rand’s most faithful admirers, and you probably don’t want to hang out with those people anyway. There’s your clue: if you see someone carrying a copy of Atlas Shrugged: Part Two they either lack taste or are far too generous with movies. If there is indeed a concluding Part Three, it will be further proof that Rand’s market-based screeds are not accurate. The market has already rejected two of these dreadful movies.rnrnNate’s Grade: D”, “ratingSource” : null, “userName” : “Nate Zoebl”, “userId” : null } ], “meta” : { “totalCount” : 39 }, “reviews” : [ { “id” : “2110251”, “type” : “review”, “score” : “rotten”, “topCritic” : true, “quote” : “Seriously, if this is the best promotion of itself that the free market can manage, it really would benefit from the help of a Ministry of Culture or something.”, “movieId” : 771311191, “scoreOri” : null, “creationDate” : “2012-10-15T02:06:24-07:00”, “url” : “http://www.villagevoice.com/2012-10-10/film/atlas-shrugged-part-two-why-can-t-the-free-market-make-this-movie-any-better/”, “publication” : { “id” : “472”, “type” : “publication”, “name” : “Village Voice” }, “critic” : { “id” : “14220”, “type” : “critic”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “c-2363”, “thumborId” : “v1.YzsyMzYzO2o7MTcwMTA7MTIwMDszODs0Mg”, “height” : 42, “width” : 38, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Alan Scherstuhl”, “vanity” : “alan-scherstuhl” } }, { “id” : “2110231”, “type” : “review”, “score” : “rotten”, “topCritic” : true, “quote” : “Director John Putch struggles to find balance or generate a single spark from the clunky mix of romance, political diatribe and thriller.”, “movieId” : 771311191, “scoreOri” : null, “creationDate” : “2012-10-15T00:31:31-07:00”, “url” : “http://www.latimes.com/entertainment/movies/moviesnow/la-et-mn-atlas-shrugged-20121015,0,3134211.story”, “publication” : { “id” : “268”, “type” : “publication”, “name” : “Los Angeles Times” }, “critic” : { “id” : “5517”, “type” : “critic”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “c-2608”, “thumborId” : “v1.YzsyNjA4O2c7MTcwMTA7MTIwMDsxNTA7MTUw”, “height” : 150, “width” : 150, “format” : “GIF” }, “name” : “Sheri Linden”, “vanity” : “sheri-linden” } }, { “id” : “2110230”, “type” : “review”, “score” : “rotten”, “topCritic” : true, “quote” : “The producers are going to have to hire a better director if they want moviegoers to be curious enough about this Galt guy to buy a ticket for the presumptive third and final chapter.”, “movieId” : 771311191, “scoreOri” : null, “creationDate” : “2012-10-15T00:28:05-07:00”, “url” : “http://movies.nytimes.com/2012/10/15/movies/atlas-shrugged-part-ii-with-samantha-mathis.html?partner=rss&emc=rss&_r=0”, “publication” : { “id” : “337”, “type” : “publication”, “name” : “New York Times” }, “critic” : { “id” : “5988”, “type” : “critic”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “c-2630”, “thumborId” : “v1.YzsyNjMwO2c7MTcwMTA7MTIwMDsxNTA7MTUw”, “height” : 150, “width” : 150, “format” : “GIF” }, “name” : “Manohla Dargis”, “vanity” : “manohla-dargis” } }, { “id” : “2110082”, “type” : “review”, “score” : “rotten”, “topCritic” : true, “quote” : “It’s consistent with its predecessor as a somewhat awkward translation of Ayn Rand’s 1957 novel to our current era, handled with bland telepic-style competency.”, “movieId” : 771311191, “scoreOri” : null, “creationDate” : “2012-10-13T15:43:49-07:00”, “url” : “http://www.variety.com/review/VE1117948555?refcatid=31”, “publication” : { “id” : “466”, “type” : “publication”, “name” : “Variety” }, “critic” : { “id” : “3084”, “type” : “critic”, “mainImage” : null, “name” : “Dennis Harvey”, “vanity” : “dennis-harvey” } }, { “id” : “2110051”, “type” : “review”, “score” : “rotten”, “topCritic” : true, “quote” : “A disaster as a film, Atlas also is laughable in its presentation of Rand’s ideology.”, “movieId” : 771311191, “scoreOri” : “1/4”, “creationDate” : “2012-10-13T10:27:38-07:00”, “url” : “http://www.philly.com/philly/entertainment/movies/20121013_Atlas_Shrugged__Part_II__a_quick_taste_of_Rand_s_philosophy.html”, “publication” : { “id” : “361”, “type” : “publication”, “name” : “Philadelphia Inquirer” }, “critic” : { “id” : “12125”, “type” : “critic”, “mainImage” : null, “name” : “Tirdad Derakhshani”, “vanity” : “tirdad-derakhshani” } }, { “id” : “2110050”, “type” : “review”, “score” : “rotten”, “topCritic” : true, “quote” : “If the novel Atlas Shrugged is ultimate libertarian porn, then the first two installments of the screen adaptation are soggy softcore.”, “movieId” : 771311191, “scoreOri” : null, “creationDate” : “2012-10-13T10:24:13-07:00”, “url” : “http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/review/atlas-shrugged-part-ii-strike-378755”, “publication” : { “id” : “213”, “type” : “publication”, “name” : “Hollywood Reporter” }, “critic” : { “id” : “1284”, “type” : “critic”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “c-1663”, “thumborId” : “v1.YzsxNjYzO2c7MTcwMTA7MTIwMDszODs1Mg”, “height” : 52, “width” : 38, “format” : “GIF” }, “name” : “Todd McCarthy”, “vanity” : “todd-mccarthy” } }, { “id” : “2109921”, “type” : “review”, “score” : “rotten”, “topCritic” : true, “quote” : “The people behind the Atlas Shrugged series of films have things they want to tell you, and just to make sure that you know what they are, the movies tell you, and tell you, and then tell you again.”, “movieId” : 771311191, “scoreOri” : null, “creationDate” : “2012-10-12T08:55:17-07:00”, “url” : “http://www.thewrap.com/movies/column-post/atlas-shrugged-part-ii-review-tea-party-twilight-improves-bit-still-strident-sequel-6053”, “publication” : { “id” : “2205”, “type” : “publication”, “name” : “TheWrap” }, “critic” : { “id” : “12622”, “type” : “critic”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “c-2620”, “thumborId” : “v1.YzsyNjIwO2c7MTcwMTA7MTIwMDsxNTA7MTUw”, “height” : 150, “width” : 150, “format” : “GIF” }, “name” : “Alonso Duralde”, “vanity” : “alonso-duralde” } }, { “id” : “2109919”, “type” : “review”, “score” : “rotten”, “topCritic” : true, “quote” : “Proving the theorem from Todd Solondz’s Palindromes that different actors can play the same role without losing much continuity, Samantha Mathis plays Dagny with all the lifelessness Taylor Schilling brought to the original role.”, “movieId” : 771311191, “scoreOri” : “F”, “creationDate” : “2012-10-12T08:54:00-07:00”, “url” : “http://www.avclub.com/articles/atlas-shrugged-part-iithe-strike,86633/”, “publication” : { “id” : “833”, “type” : “publication”, “name” : “AV Club” }, “critic” : { “id” : “336”, “type” : “critic”, “mainImage” : null, “name” : “Scott Tobias”, “vanity” : “scott-tobias” } }, { “id” : “2109918”, “type” : “review”, “score” : “rotten”, “topCritic” : true, “quote” : “I didn’t hate this movie. The first one was far worse — mercifully, the cast and director have all been replaced.”, “movieId” : 771311191, “scoreOri” : null, “creationDate” : “2012-10-12T08:51:03-07:00”, “url” : “http://bostonglobe.com/arts/movies/2012/10/14/movie-review-the-shrugging-continues-atlas-shrugged-part/1evEnXfn5lf2jD7XSXKrlL/story.html”, “publication” : { “id” : “44”, “type” : “publication”, “name” : “Boston Globe” }, “critic” : { “id” : “1301”, “type” : “critic”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “c-1664”, “thumborId” : “v1.YzsxNjY0O2c7MTcwMTA7MTIwMDszODs0OQ”, “height” : 49, “width” : 38, “format” : “GIF” }, “name” : “Wesley Morris”, “vanity” : “wesley-morris” } }, { “id” : “2109675”, “type” : “review”, “score” : “rotten”, “topCritic” : true, “quote” : “”Atlas Shrugged: Part II” is political economy written with crayon.”, “movieId” : 771311191, “scoreOri” : “1/4”, “creationDate” : “2012-10-11T20:34:30-07:00”, “url” : “http://www.nypost.com/p/entertainment/movies/saw_the_film_shrugged_fJIj4XwcW2XB6eW0TScgRI”, “publication” : { “id” : “336”, “type” : “publication”, “name” : “New York Post” }, “critic” : { “id” : “6626”, “type” : “critic”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “c-1744”, “thumborId” : “v1.YzsxNzQ0O2o7MTcwMTA7MTIwMDszODs0MQ”, “height” : 41, “width” : 38, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Kyle Smith”, “vanity” : “kyle-smith” } }, { “id” : “2109589”, “type” : “review”, “score” : “rotten”, “topCritic” : true, “quote” : “Rather than refresh the cast with new actors, the producers would have done better to just digitally reanimate Patricia Neal and Gary Cooper, the stars of the 1949 adaptation of Rand’s The Fountainhead.”, “movieId” : 771311191, “scoreOri” : “1.5/4”, “creationDate” : “2012-10-11T10:45:44-07:00”, “url” : “http://www.washingtonpost.com/gog/movies/atlas-shrugged-part-2-either-or,1233956/critic-review.html”, “publication” : { “id” : “474”, “type” : “publication”, “name” : “Washington Post” }, “critic” : { “id” : “1186”, “type” : “critic”, “mainImage” : null, “name” : “Mark Jenkins”, “vanity” : “mark-jenkins” } }, { “id” : “2260041”, “type” : “review”, “score” : “rotten”, “topCritic” : false, “quote” : “A greedy billionaire’s most feverish nightmare realized with all the amateurish panache of a daytime soap opera.”, “movieId” : 771311191, “scoreOri” : null, “creationDate” : “2015-05-03T08:42:27-07:00”, “url” : “http://www.philadelphiaweekly.com/screen/reviews/atlas_shrugged_flicks_give_randians_their_own_battlefield_earth-174437651.html”, “publication” : { “id” : “362”, “type” : “publication”, “name” : “Philadelphia Weekly” }, “critic” : { “id” : “3462”, “type” : “critic”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “c-2563”, “thumborId” : “v1.YzsyNTYzO2c7MTcwMTA7MTIwMDsxNTI7MTY4”, “height” : 168, “width” : 152, “format” : “GIF” }, “name” : “Sean Burns”, “vanity” : “sean-burns” } }, { “id” : “2146723”, “type” : “review”, “score” : “rotten”, “topCritic” : false, “quote” : “There are ironic footnotes in cinema history because they champion the free market yet fail miserably in it.”, “movieId” : 771311191, “scoreOri” : “1.5/5”, “creationDate” : “2013-06-09T08:32:17-07:00”, “url” : “http://www.7mpictures.com/atlas-shrugged-part-ii-the-strike-blu-ray-review/”, “publication” : { “id” : “1593”, “type” : “publication”, “name” : “7M Pictures” }, “critic” : { “id” : “6773”, “type” : “critic”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “c-1747”, “thumborId” : “v1.YzsxNzQ3O2o7MTcwMTA7MTIwMDszODs1NA”, “height” : 54, “width” : 38, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Kevin Carr”, “vanity” : “kevin-carr” } }, { “id” : “2129220”, “type” : “review”, “score” : “rotten”, “topCritic” : false, “quote” : “The determined, if questionably talented, cast and crew of Ayn Rand devotees continue to hack their way through the lionized author’s obtuse prose”, “movieId” : 771311191, “scoreOri” : “2/4”, “creationDate” : “2013-02-18T11:29:07-08:00”, “url” : “http://www.becauseitoldyouso.com/2013/02/feb-19-blu-raydvd-reviews.html”, “publication” : { “id” : “2288”, “type” : “publication”, “name” : “OK! Magazine” }, “critic” : { “id” : “4335”, “type” : “critic”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “c-1717”, “thumborId” : “v1.YzsxNzE3O2o7MTcwMTA7MTIwMDszODs0NQ”, “height” : 45, “width” : 38, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Phil Villarreal”, “vanity” : “phil-villarreal” } }, { “id” : “2113401”, “type” : “review”, “score” : “rotten”, “topCritic” : false, “quote” : “The Bad Boys II of ****ty propaganda films, morally and aesthetically corrupt yet compulsively watchable in the broad strokes. Somewhere, in heaven, Eisenstein is laughing. Hard.”, “movieId” : 771311191, “scoreOri” : “0.5/4”, “creationDate” : “2012-11-05T03:43:00-08:00”, “url” : null, “publication” : { “id” : “1866”, “type” : “publication”, “name” : “Projection Booth” }, “critic” : { “id” : “12145”, “type” : “critic”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “c-2213”, “thumborId” : “v1.YzsyMjEzO2o7MTcwMTA7MTIwMDsxMDA7ODc”, “height” : 87, “width” : 100, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Rob Humanick”, “vanity” : “rob-humanick” } }, { “id” : “2111501”, “type” : “review”, “score” : “rotten”, “topCritic” : false, “quote” : “The acting is better than in Part 1 but the fact this is the middle segment leaves the audience that might like it dissatisfied”, “movieId” : 771311191, “scoreOri” : “5/10”, “creationDate” : “2012-10-23T08:10:51-07:00”, “url” : “http://www.jackiekcooper.com”, “publication” : { “id” : “1557”, “type” : “publication”, “name” : “jackiekcooper.com” }, “critic” : { “id” : “10513”, “type” : “critic”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “c-1770”, “thumborId” : “v1.YzsxNzcwO2o7MTcwMTA7MTIwMDszODs0MA”, “height” : 40, “width” : 38, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Jackie K. Cooper”, “vanity” : “jackie-k-cooper” } }, { “id” : “2111190”, “type” : “review”, “score” : “rotten”, “topCritic” : false, “quote” : “The film’s excruciating unwatchability transcends politics.”, “movieId” : 771311191, “scoreOri” : “1/10”, “creationDate” : “2012-10-19T16:43:50-07:00”, “url” : “http://antagonie.blogspot.com/2012/10/no-galt-on-her-tail.html”, “publication” : { “id” : “1900”, “type” : “publication”, “name” : “Antagony & Ecstasy” }, “critic” : { “id” : “12682”, “type” : “critic”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “c-2219”, “thumborId” : “v1.YzsyMjE5O2o7MTcwMTA7MTIwMDsxMDA7MTAw”, “height” : 100, “width” : 100, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Tim Brayton”, “vanity” : “tim-brayton” } }, { “id” : “2111061”, “type” : “review”, “score” : “rotten”, “topCritic” : false, “quote” : “Atlas won’t be the only one to shrug off this tiresome load.”, “movieId” : 771311191, “scoreOri” : “1/5”, “creationDate” : “2012-10-19T03:34:34-07:00”, “url” : “http://www.austinchronicle.com/calendar/film/2012-10-12/atlas-shrugged-part-ii/”, “publication” : { “id” : “28”, “type” : “publication”, “name” : “Austin Chronicle” }, “critic” : { “id” : “34”, “type” : “critic”, “mainImage” : null, “name” : “Marjorie Baumgarten”, “vanity” : “marjorie-baumgarten” } }, { “id” : “2110734”, “type” : “review”, “score” : “fresh”, “topCritic” : false, “quote” : “Rand’s detractors will hate the movie as much as they do her, but her fans will be satisfied … “, “movieId” : 771311191, “scoreOri” : “3/5”, “creationDate” : “2012-10-18T06:05:08-07:00”, “url” : “http://www.newsreview.com/sacramento/atlas-shrugged-part-2/content?oid=8118808”, “publication” : { “id” : “599”, “type” : “publication”, “name” : “Sacramento News & Review” }, “critic” : { “id” : “3224”, “type” : “critic”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “c-2104”, “thumborId” : “v1.YzsyMTA0O2o7MTcwMTA7MTIwMDs5ODsxMjI”, “height” : 122, “width” : 98, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Jim Lane”, “vanity” : “jim-lane” } }, { “id” : “2110404”, “type” : “review”, “score” : “rotten”, “topCritic” : false, “quote” : “A niche movie on a par with any cheapjack faith-based picture, which is why it resembles one — and only the most ardently faithful need apply.”, “movieId” : 771311191, “scoreOri” : “.5/5”, “creationDate” : “2012-10-16T07:51:47-07:00”, “url” : “http://www.mountainx.com/movies/review/atlas_shrugged_part_ii”, “publication” : { “id” : “1020”, “type” : “publication”, “name” : “Mountain Xpress (Asheville, NC)” }, “critic” : { “id” : “5783”, “type” : “critic”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “c-1730”, “thumborId” : “v1.YzsxNzMwO2o7MTcwMTA7MTIwMDszODs0NA”, “height” : 44, “width” : 38, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Ken Hanke”, “vanity” : “ken-hanke” } }, { “id” : “2110277”, “type” : “review”, “score” : “rotten”, “topCritic” : false, “quote” : “It’s still kinda bad, but at least this movie won’t be an industry punchline for years to come. … Oh, what a difference competence makes.”, “movieId” : 771311191, “scoreOri” : “4.5/10”, “creationDate” : “2012-10-15T05:06:41-07:00”, “url” : “http://www.craveonline.com/film/reviews/197977-review-atlas-shrugged-part-2”, “publication” : { “id” : “1906”, “type” : “publication”, “name” : “CraveOnline” }, “critic” : { “id” : “14539”, “type” : “critic”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “c-2338”, “thumborId” : “v1.YzsyMzM4O2c7MTcwMTA7MTIwMDszODs0Mg”, “height” : 42, “width” : 38, “format” : “GIF” }, “name” : “William Bibbiani”, “vanity” : “william-bibbiani” } }, { “id” : “2110117”, “type” : “review”, “score” : “rotten”, “topCritic” : false, “quote” : “The portrait of American gloom and doom has its layers of meanings and philosophies, but I’d rather approach Atlas as a clumsy B-movie with occasional entertainment value.”, “movieId” : 771311191, “scoreOri” : “C”, “creationDate” : “2012-10-14T06:18:04-07:00”, “url” : “http://www.blu-ray.com/Atlas-Shrugged-Part-II-The-Strike/152217/?show=preview”, “publication” : { “id” : “2468”, “type” : “publication”, “name” : “Blu-ray.com” }, “critic” : { “id” : “2771”, “type” : “critic”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “c-2237”, “thumborId” : “v1.YzsyMjM3O2o7MTcwMTA7MTIwMDsyNTA7Mjg1”, “height” : 285, “width” : 250, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Brian Orndorf”, “vanity” : “brian-orndorf” } }, { “id” : “2109950”, “type” : “review”, “score” : “rotten”, “topCritic” : false, “quote” : “New viewers aren’t expected to jump into the dense story now, and anyone coming back for seconds is predisposed to believing this is the most important movie of the year. Sean Hannity or another right-wing mouthpiece told them so.”, “movieId” : 771311191, “scoreOri” : “B-“, “creationDate” : “2012-10-12T09:31:55-07:00”, “url” : “http://www.tampabay.com/features/movies/review-atlas-shrugged-part-ii-upgrades-casts-action/1256106”, “publication” : { “id” : “1457”, “type” : “publication”, “name” : “Tampa Bay Times” }, “critic” : { “id” : “3876”, “type” : “critic”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “c-1710”, “thumborId” : “v1.YzsxNzEwO2c7MTcwMTA7MTIwMDszODs0Mg”, “height” : 42, “width” : 38, “format” : “GIF” }, “name” : “Steve Persall”, “vanity” : “steve-persall” } }, { “id” : “2109891”, “type” : “review”, “score” : “rotten”, “topCritic” : false, “quote” : “A stupid person’s idea of what a smart movie sounds like. “, “movieId” : 771311191, “scoreOri” : “1/4”, “creationDate” : “2012-10-12T06:56:59-07:00”, “url” : “http://rogersmovienation.com/2012/12/30/movie-review-atlas-shrugged-ii/”, “publication” : { “id” : “2448”, “type” : “publication”, “name” : “Tribune News Service” }, “critic” : { “id” : “1238”, “type” : “critic”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “c-1654”, “thumborId” : “v1.YzsxNjU0O2c7MTcwMTA7MTIwMDszODs0NQ”, “height” : 45, “width” : 38, “format” : “GIF” }, “name” : “Roger Moore”, “vanity” : “roger-moore” } } ], “images” : [ { “id” : “n-31649”, “type” : “image”, “width” : 1200, “format” : “JPG”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjszMTY0OTtqOzE3MDEwOzEyMDA7MTIwMDs2MDE”, “height” : 601 }, { “id” : “n-31650”, “type” : “image”, “width” : 1067, “format” : “JPG”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjszMTY1MDtqOzE3MDEwOzEyMDA7MTA2NzsxNDIz”, “height” : 1423 }, { “id” : “n-31651”, “type” : “image”, “width” : 1200, “format” : “JPG”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjszMTY1MTtqOzE3MDEwOzEyMDA7MTIwMDs5MDA”, “height” : 900 }, { “id” : “n-31652”, “type” : “image”, “width” : 1024, “format” : “JPG”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjszMTY1MjtqOzE3MDEwOzEyMDA7MTAyNDs3Njg”, “height” : 768 }, { “id” : “n-31653”, “type” : “image”, “width” : 1423, “format” : “JPG”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjszMTY1MztqOzE3MDEwOzEyMDA7MTQyMzsxMDY3”, “height” : 1067 }, { “id” : “n-31654”, “type” : “image”, “width” : 1423, “format” : “JPG”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjszMTY1NDtqOzE3MDEwOzEyMDA7MTQyMzsxMDY3”, “height” : 1067 }, { “id” : “n-31655”, “type” : “image”, “width” : 1200, “format” : “JPG”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjszMTY1NTtqOzE3MDEwOzEyMDA7MTIwMDs5MDA”, “height” : 900 }, { “id” : “n-31656”, “type” : “image”, “width” : 1200, “format” : “JPG”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjszMTY1NjtqOzE3MDEwOzEyMDA7MTIwMDs5MDA”, “height” : 900 } ], “audienceSummary” : { “id” : “771311191”, “type” : “audienceSummary”, “avgScore” : 3.5, “popcornMeter” : { “state” : “upright”, “value” : 61 }, “audienceCount” : 12817 }, “videoClips” : [ { “id” : “11170711”, “type” : “videoClip”, “duration” : 129, “sourceId” : “759732”, “source” : “VDD”, “thumbUrl” : “https://content.internetvideoarchive.com/content/photos/8044/759732_093.jpg”, “title” : “Atlas Shrugged Part II”, “clipType” : “TRL” }, { “id” : “11250297”, “type” : “videoClip”, “duration” : 132, “sourceId” : “939825”, “source” : “VDD”, “thumbUrl” : “https://content.internetvideoarchive.com/content/photos/10355/939825_150.jpg”, “title” : “Atlas Shrugged: Part II (Blu-ray/DVD Trailer)”, “clipType” : “TRL” }, { “id” : “11170712”, “type” : “videoClip”, “duration” : 64, “sourceId” : “762001”, “source” : “VDD”, “thumbUrl” : “https://content.internetvideoarchive.com/content/photos/8003/762001_038.jpg”, “title” : “Atlas Shrugged Part II (trailer 1)”, “clipType” : “TRL” }, { “id” : “11171768”, “type” : “videoClip”, “duration” : 37, “sourceId” : “571118”, “source” : “VDD”, “thumbUrl” : “https://content.internetvideoarchive.com/content/photos/7604/759732_013.jpg”, “title” : “Atlas Shrugged Part II (trailer 2)”, “clipType” : “TRL” } ], “movieCast” : [ { “id” : “773245636”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ ], “role” : “DIR”, “person” : { “id” : “162658586”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “n-800493”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjs4MDA0OTM7ajsxNzAxOTsxMjAwOzU0MDs3MjA”, “height” : 720, “width” : 540, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “John Putch”, “vanity” : “john_putch” } }, { “id” : “774026912”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ ], “role” : “PRO”, “person” : { “id” : “771366821”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : null, “name” : “John Aglialoro”, “vanity” : “john_aglialoro” } }, { “id” : “774026913”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ ], “role” : “PRO”, “person” : { “id” : “533571670”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : null, “name” : “Jeff Freilich”, “vanity” : “jeff_freilich” } }, { “id” : “774026914”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ ], “role” : “PRO”, “person” : { “id” : “364660757”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : null, “name” : “Harmon M. Kaslow”, “vanity” : “harmon_m_kaslow” } }, { “id” : “774222799”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ ], “role” : “PRO”, “person” : { “id” : “771419522”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : null, “name” : “Bernie Laramie”, “vanity” : “bernie_laramie” } }, { “id” : “773245638”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ ], “role” : “SCR”, “person” : { “id” : “770838299”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : null, “name” : “Brian Patrick O’Toole”, “vanity” : “brian_patrick_otoole” } }, { “id” : “773245637”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ ], “role” : “SCR”, “person” : { “id” : “771124014”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : null, “name” : “Duke Sandefur”, “vanity” : “duke_sandefur” } }, { “id” : “774026911”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ ], “role” : “SCR”, “person” : { “id” : “770850479”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : null, “name” : “Duncan Scott”, “vanity” : “duncan_scott” } }, { “id” : “774346106”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ ], “role” : “EPR”, “person” : { “id” : “771419526”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : null, “name” : “William A. Dunn”, “vanity” : “william_a_dunn” } }, { “id” : “773245631”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “Dagny Taggart” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “162656115”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “r-43375”, “thumborId” : “v1.cjs0MzM3NTtqOzE3MDEwOzEyMDA7MjIwOzE5Ng”, “height” : 196, “width” : 220, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Samantha Mathis”, “vanity” : “samantha_mathis” } }, { “id” : “773245632”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “Henry Rearden” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “162728844”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “n-210107”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjsyMTAxMDc7ajsxNzAxMjsxMjAwOzE5NDg7MTQ2MQ”, “height” : 1461, “width” : 1948, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Jason Beghe”, “vanity” : “jason_beghe” } }, { “id” : “773245633”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “Francisco d’Anconia” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “162666833”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “r-45839”, “thumborId” : “v1.cjs0NTgzOTtqOzE3MDEwOzEyMDA7MzQ4OzMxMA”, “height” : 310, “width” : 348, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Esai Morales”, “vanity” : “esai_morales” } }, { “id” : “773245634”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “James Taggart” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “388433340”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “r-44645”, “thumborId” : “v1.cjs0NDY0NTtqOzE3MDEwOzEyMDA7MzI1OzI5MA”, “height” : 290, “width” : 325, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Patrick Fabian”, “vanity” : “patrick-fabian” } }, { “id” : “773245635”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “Lillian Rearden” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “770751203”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “n-31655”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjszMTY1NTtqOzE3MDEwOzEyMDA7MTIwMDs5MDA”, “height” : 900, “width” : 1200, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Kim Rhodes”, “vanity” : “kim_rhodes” } }, { “id” : “773278080”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “Dr. Floyd Ferris” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “770689041”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “n-192397”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjsxOTIzOTc7ajsxNzAxMjsxMjAwOzg2NDs2NDg”, “height” : 648, “width” : 864, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “John Rubinstein”, “vanity” : “john_rubinstein” } }, { “id” : “773278082”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “Head of State Thompson” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “162689781”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “r-44978”, “thumborId” : “v1.cjs0NDk3ODtqOzE3MDEwOzEyMDA7MjIwOzE5Ng”, “height” : 196, “width” : 220, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Ray Wise”, “vanity” : “ray_wise” } }, { “id” : “773265674”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “Eddie Willers” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “162711070”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “n-775791”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjs3NzU3OTE7ajsxNzAxODsxMjAwOzQ4MDs3MjA”, “height” : 720, “width” : 480, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Richard T. Jones”, “vanity” : “1065320-richard_jones” } }, { “id” : “773265675”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “John Galt” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “162663346”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “n-297994”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjsyOTc5OTQ7ajsxNzAxMzsxMjAwOzIwNDg7MTUzNg”, “height” : 1536, “width” : 2048, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “D.B. Sweeney”, “vanity” : “db_sweeney” } }, { “id” : “773273607”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “Quentin Daniels” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “326392213”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “n-159993”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjsxNTk5OTM7ajsxNzAxMTsxMjAwOzYwMDs0NTA”, “height” : 450, “width” : 600, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Diedrich Bader”, “vanity” : “diedrich_bader” } }, { “id” : “773278079”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “Wesley Mouch” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “770669696”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “n-410445”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjs0MTA0NDU7ajsxNzAxNDsxMjAwOzEwNjQ7Nzk4”, “height” : 798, “width” : 1064, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Paul McCrane”, “vanity” : “paul_mccrane” } }, { “id” : “773278081”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “Dr. Robert Stadler” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “364605074”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “n-802941”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjs4MDI5NDE7ajsxNzAxOTsxMjAwOzU0MDs3MjA”, “height” : 720, “width” : 540, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Robert Picardo”, “vanity” : “robert_picardo” } }, { “id” : “773278083”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “Leonard Small” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “162674239”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “n-292891”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjsyOTI4OTE7ajsxNzAxMzsxMjAwOzE1MzY7MjA0OA”, “height” : 2048, “width” : 1536, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Bug Hall”, “vanity” : “bug_hall” } }, { “id” : “773278084”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “Ken Danagger” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “162666977”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “n-291209”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjsyOTEyMDk7ajsxNzAxMzsxMjAwOzI4MDA7MjEwMA”, “height” : 2100, “width” : 2800, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Arye Gross”, “vanity” : “arye_gross” } }, { “id” : “773278085”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “Kip Chalmers” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “358164876”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “n-319694”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjszMTk2OTQ7ajsxNzAxMzsxMjAwOzQ2MDszNDU”, “height” : 345, “width” : 460, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Rex Linn”, “vanity” : “rex_linn” } }, { “id” : “773278086”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “Cherryl Brooks” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “382254460”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “n-301157”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjszMDExNTc7ajsxNzAxMzsxMjAwOzQ0NDszMzM”, “height” : 333, “width” : 444, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Larisa Oleynik”, “vanity” : “larisa_oleynik” } }, { “id” : “773278087”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “Jeff Allen” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “679876056”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “n-729873”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjs3Mjk4NzM7ajsxNzAxODsxMjAwOzY0MDs0ODA”, “height” : 480, “width” : 640, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Jeff Yagher”, “vanity” : “jeff_yagher” } }, { “id” : “773278088”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “Ted ‘Buzz’ Killman” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “364656263”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “r-44569”, “thumborId” : “v1.cjs0NDU2OTtqOzE3MDEwOzEyMDA7Mjg1OzI1NA”, “height” : 254, “width” : 285, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Michael Gross”, “vanity” : “michael_gross” } }, { “id” : “773278089”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “Clem Weatherby” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “358149037”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “r-39597”, “thumborId” : “v1.cjszOTU5NztqOzE3MDEwOzEyMDA7MzkwOzYwMA”, “height” : 600, “width” : 390, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Stephen Macht”, “vanity” : “stephen_macht” } }, { “id” : “773278090”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “Robert Collins” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “283081805”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “n-801684”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjs4MDE2ODQ7ajsxNzAxOTsxMjAwOzMwMDs0NTA”, “height” : 450, “width” : 300, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Thomas F. Wilson”, “vanity” : “thomas_f_wilson” } }, { “id” : “773278091”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “Judge Griffin” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “770844662”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : null, “name” : “Jordana Capra”, “vanity” : “jordana_capra” } }, { “id” : “773278092”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “Gwen Ives” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “771424062”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : null, “name” : “Jennifer Cortese”, “vanity” : “jennifer_cortese” } }, { “id” : “773278093”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “Lillian’s Friend” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “770850191”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : null, “name” : “Rebecca Dunn”, “vanity” : “rebecca_dunn” } }, { “id” : “773278094”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “Luke Stone” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “770777292”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “n-426017”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjs0MjYwMTc7ajsxNzAxNDsxMjAwOzQyNTY7MjEyOA”, “height” : 2128, “width” : 4256, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Mel Fair”, “vanity” : “mel_fair” } }, { “id” : “773278095”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “Judge Beckstrom” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “404880424”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : null, “name” : “Kip Gilman”, “vanity” : “kip_gilman” } }, { “id” : “773278096”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “Reception Guest #1” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “771216434”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “n-43506”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjs0MzUwNjtqOzE3MDEwOzEyMDA7MTE0OTs4NjI”, “height” : 862, “width” : 1149, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Martin Grey”, “vanity” : “martin_grey” } }, { “id” : “773278097”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “Laura Bradford” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “771424063”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : null, “name” : “Amy Hedrick”, “vanity” : “amy_hedrick” } }, { “id” : “773278098”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “Dave Mitchum” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “770843962”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : null, “name” : “Kevin M. Horton”, “vanity” : “kevin_m_horton” } }, { “id” : “773278099”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “Gilbert Keith Worthing” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “770854027”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : null, “name” : “Gildart Jackson”, “vanity” : “gildart_jackson” } }, { “id” : “773278100”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “Sara Connelly” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “497096787”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “n-786503”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjs3ODY1MDM7ajsxNzAxOTsxMjAwOzU0MDs3MjA”, “height” : 720, “width” : 540, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Jamie Rose”, “vanity” : “jamie_rose” } } ], “criticSummary” : { “id” : “604702”, “type” : “criticSummary”, “consensus” : “Poorly written, clumsily filmed and edited, and hampered by amateurish acting, Atlas Shrugged: Part II does no favors to the ideology it so fervently champions.”, “topCritics” : { “totalCount” : 11, “freshCount” : 0, “rottenCount” : 11, “dvdCount” : 0, “averageRating” : 2.19, “topCriticsTomatometer” : { “value” : 0, “state” : “rotten” } }, “allCritics” : { “totalCount” : 23, “freshCount” : 1, “rottenCount” : 22, “dvdCount” : 1, “averageRating” : 3.02 } }, “genres” : [ { “id” : “9”, “type” : “genre”, “name” : “Drama”, “tag” : “drama” } ]} { “title” : “Atlas Shrugged: Part II”, “id” : “771311191”, “year” : 2012, “advisory” : “for brief language”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “rotten”, “value” : 4 }, “studio” : “Atlas Distribution”, “synopsis” : “The global economy is on the brink of collapse. Unemployment has risen to 24%. Gas is now $42 per gallon. Brilliant creators, from artists to industrialists, continue to mysteriously disappear at the hands of the unknown. Dagny Taggart, Vice President in Charge of Operations for Taggart Transcontinental, has discovered what may very well be the answer to a mounting energy crisis – found abandoned amongst the ruins of a once productive factory, a revolutionary motor that could seemingly power the World. But, the motor is dead… there is no one left to decipher its secret… and, someone is watching. It’s a race against the clock to find the inventor before the motor of the World is stopped for good. Who is John Galt? — (C) Official Site”, “runningTime” : 112, “releaseDates” : { “dvd” : “2013-02-19”, “theater” : “2012-10-12” }, “lastModifiedDate” : “2016-06-21T07:58:40-07:00”, “creationDate” : “2012-06-28T06:30:13-07:00”, “vanity” : “atlas_shrugged_part_ii”, “officialUrl” : “http://www.atlasshruggedmovie.com/”, “mainTrailer” : { “id” : “11170711”, “title” : “Atlas Shrugged Part II”, “sourceId” : “759732”, “thumbUrl” : “https://content.internetvideoarchive.com/content/photos/8044/759732_093.jpg”, “duration” : 129, “clipType” : “TRL”, “source” : “VDD” }, “mpaaRating” : “PG13”, “genres” : [ { “id” : “9”, “type” : “genre”, “name” : “Drama”, “tag” : “drama” } ], “castItems” : [ { “id” : “773245631”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “Dagny Taggart” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “162656115”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “r-43375”, “thumborId” : “v1.cjs0MzM3NTtqOzE3MDEwOzEyMDA7MjIwOzE5Ng”, “height” : 196, “width” : 220, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Samantha Mathis”, “vanity” : “samantha_mathis” } }, { “id” : “773245632”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “Henry Rearden” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “162728844”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “n-210107”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjsyMTAxMDc7ajsxNzAxMjsxMjAwOzE5NDg7MTQ2MQ”, “height” : 1461, “width” : 1948, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Jason Beghe”, “vanity” : “jason_beghe” } }, { “id” : “773245633”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “Francisco d’Anconia” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “162666833”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “r-45839”, “thumborId” : “v1.cjs0NTgzOTtqOzE3MDEwOzEyMDA7MzQ4OzMxMA”, “height” : 310, “width” : 348, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Esai Morales”, “vanity” : “esai_morales” } }, { “id” : “773245634”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “James Taggart” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “388433340”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “r-44645”, “thumborId” : “v1.cjs0NDY0NTtqOzE3MDEwOzEyMDA7MzI1OzI5MA”, “height” : 290, “width” : 325, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Patrick Fabian”, “vanity” : “patrick-fabian” } }, { “id” : “773245635”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “Lillian Rearden” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “770751203”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “n-31655”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjszMTY1NTtqOzE3MDEwOzEyMDA7MTIwMDs5MDA”, “height” : 900, “width” : 1200, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Kim Rhodes”, “vanity” : “kim_rhodes” } }, { “id” : “773278080”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “Dr. Floyd Ferris” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “770689041”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “n-192397”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjsxOTIzOTc7ajsxNzAxMjsxMjAwOzg2NDs2NDg”, “height” : 648, “width” : 864, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “John Rubinstein”, “vanity” : “john_rubinstein” } }, { “id” : “773278082”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “Head of State Thompson” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “162689781”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “r-44978”, “thumborId” : “v1.cjs0NDk3ODtqOzE3MDEwOzEyMDA7MjIwOzE5Ng”, “height” : 196, “width” : 220, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Ray Wise”, “vanity” : “ray_wise” } }, { “id” : “773265674”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “Eddie Willers” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “162711070”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “n-775791”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjs3NzU3OTE7ajsxNzAxODsxMjAwOzQ4MDs3MjA”, “height” : 720, “width” : 480, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Richard T. Jones”, “vanity” : “1065320-richard_jones” } }, { “id” : “773265675”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “John Galt” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “162663346”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “n-297994”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjsyOTc5OTQ7ajsxNzAxMzsxMjAwOzIwNDg7MTUzNg”, “height” : 1536, “width” : 2048, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “D.B. Sweeney”, “vanity” : “db_sweeney” } }, { “id” : “773273607”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “Quentin Daniels” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “326392213”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “n-159993”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjsxNTk5OTM7ajsxNzAxMTsxMjAwOzYwMDs0NTA”, “height” : 450, “width” : 600, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Diedrich Bader”, “vanity” : “diedrich_bader” } }, { “id” : “773278079”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “Wesley Mouch” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “770669696”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “n-410445”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjs0MTA0NDU7ajsxNzAxNDsxMjAwOzEwNjQ7Nzk4”, “height” : 798, “width” : 1064, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Paul McCrane”, “vanity” : “paul_mccrane” } }, { “id” : “773278081”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “Dr. Robert Stadler” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “364605074”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “n-802941”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjs4MDI5NDE7ajsxNzAxOTsxMjAwOzU0MDs3MjA”, “height” : 720, “width” : 540, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Robert Picardo”, “vanity” : “robert_picardo” } }, { “id” : “773278083”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “Leonard Small” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “162674239”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “n-292891”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjsyOTI4OTE7ajsxNzAxMzsxMjAwOzE1MzY7MjA0OA”, “height” : 2048, “width” : 1536, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Bug Hall”, “vanity” : “bug_hall” } }, { “id” : “773278084”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “Ken Danagger” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “162666977”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “n-291209”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjsyOTEyMDk7ajsxNzAxMzsxMjAwOzI4MDA7MjEwMA”, “height” : 2100, “width” : 2800, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Arye Gross”, “vanity” : “arye_gross” } }, { “id” : “773278085”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “Kip Chalmers” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “358164876”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “n-319694”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjszMTk2OTQ7ajsxNzAxMzsxMjAwOzQ2MDszNDU”, “height” : 345, “width” : 460, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Rex Linn”, “vanity” : “rex_linn” } }, { “id” : “773278086”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “Cherryl Brooks” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “382254460”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “n-301157”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjszMDExNTc7ajsxNzAxMzsxMjAwOzQ0NDszMzM”, “height” : 333, “width” : 444, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Larisa Oleynik”, “vanity” : “larisa_oleynik” } }, { “id” : “773278087”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “Jeff Allen” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “679876056”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “n-729873”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjs3Mjk4NzM7ajsxNzAxODsxMjAwOzY0MDs0ODA”, “height” : 480, “width” : 640, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Jeff Yagher”, “vanity” : “jeff_yagher” } }, { “id” : “773278088”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “Ted ‘Buzz’ Killman” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “364656263”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “r-44569”, “thumborId” : “v1.cjs0NDU2OTtqOzE3MDEwOzEyMDA7Mjg1OzI1NA”, “height” : 254, “width” : 285, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Michael Gross”, “vanity” : “michael_gross” } }, { “id” : “773278089”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “Clem Weatherby” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “358149037”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “r-39597”, “thumborId” : “v1.cjszOTU5NztqOzE3MDEwOzEyMDA7MzkwOzYwMA”, “height” : 600, “width” : 390, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Stephen Macht”, “vanity” : “stephen_macht” } }, { “id” : “773278090”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “Robert Collins” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “283081805”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “n-801684”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjs4MDE2ODQ7ajsxNzAxOTsxMjAwOzMwMDs0NTA”, “height” : 450, “width” : 300, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Thomas F. Wilson”, “vanity” : “thomas_f_wilson” } }, { “id” : “773278091”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “Judge Griffin” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “770844662”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : null, “name” : “Jordana Capra”, “vanity” : “jordana_capra” } }, { “id” : “773278092”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “Gwen Ives” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “771424062”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : null, “name” : “Jennifer Cortese”, “vanity” : “jennifer_cortese” } }, { “id” : “773278093”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “Lillian’s Friend” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “770850191”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : null, “name” : “Rebecca Dunn”, “vanity” : “rebecca_dunn” } }, { “id” : “773278094”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “Luke Stone” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “770777292”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “n-426017”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjs0MjYwMTc7ajsxNzAxNDsxMjAwOzQyNTY7MjEyOA”, “height” : 2128, “width” : 4256, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Mel Fair”, “vanity” : “mel_fair” } }, { “id” : “773278095”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “Judge Beckstrom” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “404880424”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : null, “name” : “Kip Gilman”, “vanity” : “kip_gilman” } }, { “id” : “773278096”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “Reception Guest #1” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “771216434”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “n-43506”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjs0MzUwNjtqOzE3MDEwOzEyMDA7MTE0OTs4NjI”, “height” : 862, “width” : 1149, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Martin Grey”, “vanity” : “martin_grey” } }, { “id” : “773278097”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “Laura Bradford” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “771424063”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : null, “name” : “Amy Hedrick”, “vanity” : “amy_hedrick” } }, { “id” : “773278098”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “Dave Mitchum” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “770843962”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : null, “name” : “Kevin M. Horton”, “vanity” : “kevin_m_horton” } }, { “id” : “773278099”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “Gilbert Keith Worthing” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “770854027”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : null, “name” : “Gildart Jackson”, “vanity” : “gildart_jackson” } }, { “id” : “773278100”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ “Sara Connelly” ], “role” : “ACT”, “person” : { “id” : “497096787”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “n-786503”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjs3ODY1MDM7ajsxNzAxOTsxMjAwOzU0MDs3MjA”, “height” : 720, “width” : 540, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Jamie Rose”, “vanity” : “jamie_rose” } } ], “screenwriterItems” : [ { “id” : “773245638”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ ], “role” : “SCR”, “person” : { “id” : “770838299”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : null, “name” : “Brian Patrick O’Toole”, “vanity” : “brian_patrick_otoole” } }, { “id” : “773245637”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ ], “role” : “SCR”, “person” : { “id” : “771124014”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : null, “name” : “Duke Sandefur”, “vanity” : “duke_sandefur” } }, { “id” : “774026911”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ ], “role” : “SCR”, “person” : { “id” : “770850479”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : null, “name” : “Duncan Scott”, “vanity” : “duncan_scott” } } ], “directorItems” : [ { “id” : “773245636”, “type” : “movieCast”, “characters” : [ ], “role” : “DIR”, “person” : { “id” : “162658586”, “type” : “person”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “n-800493”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjs4MDA0OTM7ajsxNzAxOTsxMjAwOzU0MDs3MjA”, “height” : 720, “width” : 540, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “John Putch”, “vanity” : “john_putch” } } ], “criticSummary” : { “consensus” : “Poorly written, clumsily filmed and edited, and hampered by amateurish acting, Atlas Shrugged: Part II does no favors to the ideology it so fervently champions.”, “topCritics” : { “tomatometer” : { “value” : 0, “state” : “rotten” }, “totalCount” : 11, “freshCount” : 0, “rottenCount” : 11, “dvdCount” : 0, “averageRating” : 2.19 }, “allCritics” : { “tomatometer” : { “state” : “rotten”, “value” : 4 }, “totalCount” : 23, “freshCount” : 1, “rottenCount” : 22, “dvdCount” : 1, “averageRating” : 3.02 } }, “audienceSummary” : { “id” : “771311191”, “type” : “audienceSummary”, “avgScore” : 3.5, “popcornMeter” : { “state” : “upright”, “value” : 61 }, “audienceCount” : 12817 }, “reviews” : [ { “id” : “2110251”, “type” : “review”, “score” : “rotten”, “topCritic” : true, “quote” : “Seriously, if this is the best promotion of itself that the free market can manage, it really would benefit from the help of a Ministry of Culture or something.”, “movieId” : 771311191, “scoreOri” : null, “creationDate” : “2012-10-15T02:06:24-07:00”, “url” : “http://www.villagevoice.com/2012-10-10/film/atlas-shrugged-part-two-why-can-t-the-free-market-make-this-movie-any-better/”, “publication” : { “id” : “472”, “type” : “publication”, “name” : “Village Voice” }, “critic” : { “id” : “14220”, “type” : “critic”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “c-2363”, “thumborId” : “v1.YzsyMzYzO2o7MTcwMTA7MTIwMDszODs0Mg”, “height” : 42, “width” : 38, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Alan Scherstuhl”, “vanity” : “alan-scherstuhl” } }, { “id” : “2110231”, “type” : “review”, “score” : “rotten”, “topCritic” : true, “quote” : “Director John Putch struggles to find balance or generate a single spark from the clunky mix of romance, political diatribe and thriller.”, “movieId” : 771311191, “scoreOri” : null, “creationDate” : “2012-10-15T00:31:31-07:00”, “url” : “http://www.latimes.com/entertainment/movies/moviesnow/la-et-mn-atlas-shrugged-20121015,0,3134211.story”, “publication” : { “id” : “268”, “type” : “publication”, “name” : “Los Angeles Times” }, “critic” : { “id” : “5517”, “type” : “critic”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “c-2608”, “thumborId” : “v1.YzsyNjA4O2c7MTcwMTA7MTIwMDsxNTA7MTUw”, “height” : 150, “width” : 150, “format” : “GIF” }, “name” : “Sheri Linden”, “vanity” : “sheri-linden” } }, { “id” : “2110230”, “type” : “review”, “score” : “rotten”, “topCritic” : true, “quote” : “The producers are going to have to hire a better director if they want moviegoers to be curious enough about this Galt guy to buy a ticket for the presumptive third and final chapter.”, “movieId” : 771311191, “scoreOri” : null, “creationDate” : “2012-10-15T00:28:05-07:00”, “url” : “http://movies.nytimes.com/2012/10/15/movies/atlas-shrugged-part-ii-with-samantha-mathis.html?partner=rss&emc=rss&_r=0”, “publication” : { “id” : “337”, “type” : “publication”, “name” : “New York Times” }, “critic” : { “id” : “5988”, “type” : “critic”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “c-2630”, “thumborId” : “v1.YzsyNjMwO2c7MTcwMTA7MTIwMDsxNTA7MTUw”, “height” : 150, “width” : 150, “format” : “GIF” }, “name” : “Manohla Dargis”, “vanity” : “manohla-dargis” } }, { “id” : “2110082”, “type” : “review”, “score” : “rotten”, “topCritic” : true, “quote” : “It’s consistent with its predecessor as a somewhat awkward translation of Ayn Rand’s 1957 novel to our current era, handled with bland telepic-style competency.”, “movieId” : 771311191, “scoreOri” : null, “creationDate” : “2012-10-13T15:43:49-07:00”, “url” : “http://www.variety.com/review/VE1117948555?refcatid=31”, “publication” : { “id” : “466”, “type” : “publication”, “name” : “Variety” }, “critic” : { “id” : “3084”, “type” : “critic”, “mainImage” : null, “name” : “Dennis Harvey”, “vanity” : “dennis-harvey” } }, { “id” : “2110051”, “type” : “review”, “score” : “rotten”, “topCritic” : true, “quote” : “A disaster as a film, Atlas also is laughable in its presentation of Rand’s ideology.”, “movieId” : 771311191, “scoreOri” : “1/4”, “creationDate” : “2012-10-13T10:27:38-07:00”, “url” : “http://www.philly.com/philly/entertainment/movies/20121013_Atlas_Shrugged__Part_II__a_quick_taste_of_Rand_s_philosophy.html”, “publication” : { “id” : “361”, “type” : “publication”, “name” : “Philadelphia Inquirer” }, “critic” : { “id” : “12125”, “type” : “critic”, “mainImage” : null, “name” : “Tirdad Derakhshani”, “vanity” : “tirdad-derakhshani” } }, { “id” : “2110050”, “type” : “review”, “score” : “rotten”, “topCritic” : true, “quote” : “If the novel Atlas Shrugged is ultimate libertarian porn, then the first two installments of the screen adaptation are soggy softcore.”, “movieId” : 771311191, “scoreOri” : null, “creationDate” : “2012-10-13T10:24:13-07:00”, “url” : “http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/review/atlas-shrugged-part-ii-strike-378755”, “publication” : { “id” : “213”, “type” : “publication”, “name” : “Hollywood Reporter” }, “critic” : { “id” : “1284”, “type” : “critic”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “c-1663”, “thumborId” : “v1.YzsxNjYzO2c7MTcwMTA7MTIwMDszODs1Mg”, “height” : 52, “width” : 38, “format” : “GIF” }, “name” : “Todd McCarthy”, “vanity” : “todd-mccarthy” } }, { “id” : “2109921”, “type” : “review”, “score” : “rotten”, “topCritic” : true, “quote” : “The people behind the Atlas Shrugged series of films have things they want to tell you, and just to make sure that you know what they are, the movies tell you, and tell you, and then tell you again.”, “movieId” : 771311191, “scoreOri” : null, “creationDate” : “2012-10-12T08:55:17-07:00”, “url” : “http://www.thewrap.com/movies/column-post/atlas-shrugged-part-ii-review-tea-party-twilight-improves-bit-still-strident-sequel-6053”, “publication” : { “id” : “2205”, “type” : “publication”, “name” : “TheWrap” }, “critic” : { “id” : “12622”, “type” : “critic”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “c-2620”, “thumborId” : “v1.YzsyNjIwO2c7MTcwMTA7MTIwMDsxNTA7MTUw”, “height” : 150, “width” : 150, “format” : “GIF” }, “name” : “Alonso Duralde”, “vanity” : “alonso-duralde” } }, { “id” : “2109919”, “type” : “review”, “score” : “rotten”, “topCritic” : true, “quote” : “Proving the theorem from Todd Solondz’s Palindromes that different actors can play the same role without losing much continuity, Samantha Mathis plays Dagny with all the lifelessness Taylor Schilling brought to the original role.”, “movieId” : 771311191, “scoreOri” : “F”, “creationDate” : “2012-10-12T08:54:00-07:00”, “url” : “http://www.avclub.com/articles/atlas-shrugged-part-iithe-strike,86633/”, “publication” : { “id” : “833”, “type” : “publication”, “name” : “AV Club” }, “critic” : { “id” : “336”, “type” : “critic”, “mainImage” : null, “name” : “Scott Tobias”, “vanity” : “scott-tobias” } }, { “id” : “2109918”, “type” : “review”, “score” : “rotten”, “topCritic” : true, “quote” : “I didn’t hate this movie. The first one was far worse — mercifully, the cast and director have all been replaced.”, “movieId” : 771311191, “scoreOri” : null, “creationDate” : “2012-10-12T08:51:03-07:00”, “url” : “http://bostonglobe.com/arts/movies/2012/10/14/movie-review-the-shrugging-continues-atlas-shrugged-part/1evEnXfn5lf2jD7XSXKrlL/story.html”, “publication” : { “id” : “44”, “type” : “publication”, “name” : “Boston Globe” }, “critic” : { “id” : “1301”, “type” : “critic”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “c-1664”, “thumborId” : “v1.YzsxNjY0O2c7MTcwMTA7MTIwMDszODs0OQ”, “height” : 49, “width” : 38, “format” : “GIF” }, “name” : “Wesley Morris”, “vanity” : “wesley-morris” } }, { “id” : “2109675”, “type” : “review”, “score” : “rotten”, “topCritic” : true, “quote” : “”Atlas Shrugged: Part II” is political economy written with crayon.”, “movieId” : 771311191, “scoreOri” : “1/4”, “creationDate” : “2012-10-11T20:34:30-07:00”, “url” : “http://www.nypost.com/p/entertainment/movies/saw_the_film_shrugged_fJIj4XwcW2XB6eW0TScgRI”, “publication” : { “id” : “336”, “type” : “publication”, “name” : “New York Post” }, “critic” : { “id” : “6626”, “type” : “critic”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “c-1744”, “thumborId” : “v1.YzsxNzQ0O2o7MTcwMTA7MTIwMDszODs0MQ”, “height” : 41, “width” : 38, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Kyle Smith”, “vanity” : “kyle-smith” } }, { “id” : “2109589”, “type” : “review”, “score” : “rotten”, “topCritic” : true, “quote” : “Rather than refresh the cast with new actors, the producers would have done better to just digitally reanimate Patricia Neal and Gary Cooper, the stars of the 1949 adaptation of Rand’s The Fountainhead.”, “movieId” : 771311191, “scoreOri” : “1.5/4”, “creationDate” : “2012-10-11T10:45:44-07:00”, “url” : “http://www.washingtonpost.com/gog/movies/atlas-shrugged-part-2-either-or,1233956/critic-review.html”, “publication” : { “id” : “474”, “type” : “publication”, “name” : “Washington Post” }, “critic” : { “id” : “1186”, “type” : “critic”, “mainImage” : null, “name” : “Mark Jenkins”, “vanity” : “mark-jenkins” } }, { “id” : “2260041”, “type” : “review”, “score” : “rotten”, “topCritic” : false, “quote” : “A greedy billionaire’s most feverish nightmare realized with all the amateurish panache of a daytime soap opera.”, “movieId” : 771311191, “scoreOri” : null, “creationDate” : “2015-05-03T08:42:27-07:00”, “url” : “http://www.philadelphiaweekly.com/screen/reviews/atlas_shrugged_flicks_give_randians_their_own_battlefield_earth-174437651.html”, “publication” : { “id” : “362”, “type” : “publication”, “name” : “Philadelphia Weekly” }, “critic” : { “id” : “3462”, “type” : “critic”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “c-2563”, “thumborId” : “v1.YzsyNTYzO2c7MTcwMTA7MTIwMDsxNTI7MTY4”, “height” : 168, “width” : 152, “format” : “GIF” }, “name” : “Sean Burns”, “vanity” : “sean-burns” } }, { “id” : “2146723”, “type” : “review”, “score” : “rotten”, “topCritic” : false, “quote” : “There are ironic footnotes in cinema history because they champion the free market yet fail miserably in it.”, “movieId” : 771311191, “scoreOri” : “1.5/5”, “creationDate” : “2013-06-09T08:32:17-07:00”, “url” : “http://www.7mpictures.com/atlas-shrugged-part-ii-the-strike-blu-ray-review/”, “publication” : { “id” : “1593”, “type” : “publication”, “name” : “7M Pictures” }, “critic” : { “id” : “6773”, “type” : “critic”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “c-1747”, “thumborId” : “v1.YzsxNzQ3O2o7MTcwMTA7MTIwMDszODs1NA”, “height” : 54, “width” : 38, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Kevin Carr”, “vanity” : “kevin-carr” } }, { “id” : “2129220”, “type” : “review”, “score” : “rotten”, “topCritic” : false, “quote” : “The determined, if questionably talented, cast and crew of Ayn Rand devotees continue to hack their way through the lionized author’s obtuse prose”, “movieId” : 771311191, “scoreOri” : “2/4”, “creationDate” : “2013-02-18T11:29:07-08:00”, “url” : “http://www.becauseitoldyouso.com/2013/02/feb-19-blu-raydvd-reviews.html”, “publication” : { “id” : “2288”, “type” : “publication”, “name” : “OK! Magazine” }, “critic” : { “id” : “4335”, “type” : “critic”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “c-1717”, “thumborId” : “v1.YzsxNzE3O2o7MTcwMTA7MTIwMDszODs0NQ”, “height” : 45, “width” : 38, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Phil Villarreal”, “vanity” : “phil-villarreal” } }, { “id” : “2113401”, “type” : “review”, “score” : “rotten”, “topCritic” : false, “quote” : “The Bad Boys II of ****ty propaganda films, morally and aesthetically corrupt yet compulsively watchable in the broad strokes. Somewhere, in heaven, Eisenstein is laughing. Hard.”, “movieId” : 771311191, “scoreOri” : “0.5/4”, “creationDate” : “2012-11-05T03:43:00-08:00”, “url” : null, “publication” : { “id” : “1866”, “type” : “publication”, “name” : “Projection Booth” }, “critic” : { “id” : “12145”, “type” : “critic”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “c-2213”, “thumborId” : “v1.YzsyMjEzO2o7MTcwMTA7MTIwMDsxMDA7ODc”, “height” : 87, “width” : 100, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Rob Humanick”, “vanity” : “rob-humanick” } }, { “id” : “2111501”, “type” : “review”, “score” : “rotten”, “topCritic” : false, “quote” : “The acting is better than in Part 1 but the fact this is the middle segment leaves the audience that might like it dissatisfied”, “movieId” : 771311191, “scoreOri” : “5/10”, “creationDate” : “2012-10-23T08:10:51-07:00”, “url” : “http://www.jackiekcooper.com”, “publication” : { “id” : “1557”, “type” : “publication”, “name” : “jackiekcooper.com” }, “critic” : { “id” : “10513”, “type” : “critic”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “c-1770”, “thumborId” : “v1.YzsxNzcwO2o7MTcwMTA7MTIwMDszODs0MA”, “height” : 40, “width” : 38, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Jackie K. Cooper”, “vanity” : “jackie-k-cooper” } }, { “id” : “2111190”, “type” : “review”, “score” : “rotten”, “topCritic” : false, “quote” : “The film’s excruciating unwatchability transcends politics.”, “movieId” : 771311191, “scoreOri” : “1/10”, “creationDate” : “2012-10-19T16:43:50-07:00”, “url” : “http://antagonie.blogspot.com/2012/10/no-galt-on-her-tail.html”, “publication” : { “id” : “1900”, “type” : “publication”, “name” : “Antagony & Ecstasy” }, “critic” : { “id” : “12682”, “type” : “critic”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “c-2219”, “thumborId” : “v1.YzsyMjE5O2o7MTcwMTA7MTIwMDsxMDA7MTAw”, “height” : 100, “width” : 100, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Tim Brayton”, “vanity” : “tim-brayton” } }, { “id” : “2111061”, “type” : “review”, “score” : “rotten”, “topCritic” : false, “quote” : “Atlas won’t be the only one to shrug off this tiresome load.”, “movieId” : 771311191, “scoreOri” : “1/5”, “creationDate” : “2012-10-19T03:34:34-07:00”, “url” : “http://www.austinchronicle.com/calendar/film/2012-10-12/atlas-shrugged-part-ii/”, “publication” : { “id” : “28”, “type” : “publication”, “name” : “Austin Chronicle” }, “critic” : { “id” : “34”, “type” : “critic”, “mainImage” : null, “name” : “Marjorie Baumgarten”, “vanity” : “marjorie-baumgarten” } }, { “id” : “2110734”, “type” : “review”, “score” : “fresh”, “topCritic” : false, “quote” : “Rand’s detractors will hate the movie as much as they do her, but her fans will be satisfied … “, “movieId” : 771311191, “scoreOri” : “3/5”, “creationDate” : “2012-10-18T06:05:08-07:00”, “url” : “http://www.newsreview.com/sacramento/atlas-shrugged-part-2/content?oid=8118808”, “publication” : { “id” : “599”, “type” : “publication”, “name” : “Sacramento News & Review” }, “critic” : { “id” : “3224”, “type” : “critic”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “c-2104”, “thumborId” : “v1.YzsyMTA0O2o7MTcwMTA7MTIwMDs5ODsxMjI”, “height” : 122, “width” : 98, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Jim Lane”, “vanity” : “jim-lane” } }, { “id” : “2110404”, “type” : “review”, “score” : “rotten”, “topCritic” : false, “quote” : “A niche movie on a par with any cheapjack faith-based picture, which is why it resembles one — and only the most ardently faithful need apply.”, “movieId” : 771311191, “scoreOri” : “.5/5”, “creationDate” : “2012-10-16T07:51:47-07:00”, “url” : “http://www.mountainx.com/movies/review/atlas_shrugged_part_ii”, “publication” : { “id” : “1020”, “type” : “publication”, “name” : “Mountain Xpress (Asheville, NC)” }, “critic” : { “id” : “5783”, “type” : “critic”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “c-1730”, “thumborId” : “v1.YzsxNzMwO2o7MTcwMTA7MTIwMDszODs0NA”, “height” : 44, “width” : 38, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Ken Hanke”, “vanity” : “ken-hanke” } }, { “id” : “2110277”, “type” : “review”, “score” : “rotten”, “topCritic” : false, “quote” : “It’s still kinda bad, but at least this movie won’t be an industry punchline for years to come. … Oh, what a difference competence makes.”, “movieId” : 771311191, “scoreOri” : “4.5/10”, “creationDate” : “2012-10-15T05:06:41-07:00”, “url” : “http://www.craveonline.com/film/reviews/197977-review-atlas-shrugged-part-2”, “publication” : { “id” : “1906”, “type” : “publication”, “name” : “CraveOnline” }, “critic” : { “id” : “14539”, “type” : “critic”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “c-2338”, “thumborId” : “v1.YzsyMzM4O2c7MTcwMTA7MTIwMDszODs0Mg”, “height” : 42, “width” : 38, “format” : “GIF” }, “name” : “William Bibbiani”, “vanity” : “william-bibbiani” } }, { “id” : “2110117”, “type” : “review”, “score” : “rotten”, “topCritic” : false, “quote” : “The portrait of American gloom and doom has its layers of meanings and philosophies, but I’d rather approach Atlas as a clumsy B-movie with occasional entertainment value.”, “movieId” : 771311191, “scoreOri” : “C”, “creationDate” : “2012-10-14T06:18:04-07:00”, “url” : “http://www.blu-ray.com/Atlas-Shrugged-Part-II-The-Strike/152217/?show=preview”, “publication” : { “id” : “2468”, “type” : “publication”, “name” : “Blu-ray.com” }, “critic” : { “id” : “2771”, “type” : “critic”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “c-2237”, “thumborId” : “v1.YzsyMjM3O2o7MTcwMTA7MTIwMDsyNTA7Mjg1”, “height” : 285, “width” : 250, “format” : “JPG” }, “name” : “Brian Orndorf”, “vanity” : “brian-orndorf” } }, { “id” : “2109950”, “type” : “review”, “score” : “rotten”, “topCritic” : false, “quote” : “New viewers aren’t expected to jump into the dense story now, and anyone coming back for seconds is predisposed to believing this is the most important movie of the year. Sean Hannity or another right-wing mouthpiece told them so.”, “movieId” : 771311191, “scoreOri” : “B-“, “creationDate” : “2012-10-12T09:31:55-07:00”, “url” : “http://www.tampabay.com/features/movies/review-atlas-shrugged-part-ii-upgrades-casts-action/1256106”, “publication” : { “id” : “1457”, “type” : “publication”, “name” : “Tampa Bay Times” }, “critic” : { “id” : “3876”, “type” : “critic”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “c-1710”, “thumborId” : “v1.YzsxNzEwO2c7MTcwMTA7MTIwMDszODs0Mg”, “height” : 42, “width” : 38, “format” : “GIF” }, “name” : “Steve Persall”, “vanity” : “steve-persall” } }, { “id” : “2109891”, “type” : “review”, “score” : “rotten”, “topCritic” : false, “quote” : “A stupid person’s idea of what a smart movie sounds like. “, “movieId” : 771311191, “scoreOri” : “1/4”, “creationDate” : “2012-10-12T06:56:59-07:00”, “url” : “http://rogersmovienation.com/2012/12/30/movie-review-atlas-shrugged-ii/”, “publication” : { “id” : “2448”, “type” : “publication”, “name” : “Tribune News Service” }, “critic” : { “id” : “1238”, “type” : “critic”, “mainImage” : { “id” : “c-1654”, “thumborId” : “v1.YzsxNjU0O2c7MTcwMTA7MTIwMDszODs0NQ”, “height” : 45, “width” : 38, “format” : “GIF” }, “name” : “Roger Moore”, “vanity” : “roger-moore” } } ], “audienceReviews” : [ { “id” : “10816”, “type” : “audienceReview”, “score” : 6.0, “ratingDate” : “2014-09-22T05:17:35-07:00”, “userImage” : { “thumbnailUrl” : “graph.facebook.com/v2.2/100000440772572/picture” }, “superReviewer” : true, “movieId” : 771311191, “comment” : “Atlas Shrugged II: The Strike is a compelling and provocative film that brings Ayn Rand’s classic novel to life. The saga continues with Dagny Taggart and Henry Rearden struggling to hold off a total economic collapse while an oppressive government tightens their control and leading industrialists mysteriously disappear. All of the major roles have been recast, which is rather off putting and doesn’t result in any noticeable improvements in the characters. However, the directing is a little better and delivers a clearer vision than the first film had. Additionally, the special effects are fairly well-done for an independent film, and are used quite effectively to add energy and excitement to the scenes. While Atlas Shrugged II: The Strike doesn’t live up to the quality of the source material, it still delivers a solid dramatic thriller.”, “ratingSource” : null, “userName” : “Dann Michalski”, “userId” : null }, { “id” : “10813”, “type” : “audienceReview”, “score” : 5.0, “ratingDate” : “2013-06-29T09:30:16-07:00”, “userImage” : null, “superReviewer” : true, “movieId” : 771311191, “comment” : “Ayn Rand’s industrialists fight against the Fair Share Act, which further strangles the economy. nFirst, the most unfortunate thing about this film was the endorsement that the real Sean Hannity gave to the fictional Hank Rearden. Additionally, protesters directly referenced the Occupy Wall Street rhetoric. The one-to-one relationship between the modern day right wing and Rand’s objectivists is bullshit, and it’s a shame that this film’s creators got sucked into Rand’s abduction by the right wing. After all the contemporary right wing is in the pocket of conservative Christians, yet Rand was an ardent atheist; the modern day right wing gives welfare to corporate fat cats whom Rand would consider looters. What does this have to do with the film? The iconography of the protesters and Hannity place the film in our historical moment, not Rand’s, which takes us out of the film’s world. nSecond, I was impressed with Samantha Mathis’s performance. Her Dagny was given more to human emotion, which played peek-a-boo amid Dagny’s characteristic stoicism. But her acting was the best of the cast. I particularly disliked Jason Beghe’s gravel-voiced Rearden. nFinally, the film is poorly paced. The speeches by Readen and Francisco belong in the film, but director John Putch should have taken a walking and talking page from Aaron Sorkin’s book to give the film some energy, and the montages of poverty do little to add to the plot. nOverall, this is a controversial film not because Rand is a controversial figure (even though she is) but primarily because the film doesn’t really get her.”, “ratingSource” : null, “userName” : “Jim Hunter”, “userId” : null }, { “id” : “10814”, “type” : “audienceReview”, “score” : 4.0, “ratingDate” : “2013-06-25T18:51:02-07:00”, “userImage” : { “thumbnailUrl” : “graph.facebook.com/v2.2/100001504732128/picture” }, “superReviewer” : true, “movieId” : 771311191, “comment” : “What the heck happened here? They changed the actors for almost EVERY role from the part 1 of this saga. Whose bright idea was that?? This could have been an interesting continuing story, but I found the new actors way too distracting….were they all busy? sheesh…”, “ratingSource” : null, “userName” : “Cynthia S.”, “userId” : null }, { “id” : “10815”, “type” : “audienceReview”, “score” : 3.0, “ratingDate” : “2013-02-21T05:58:59-08:00”, “userImage” : null, “superReviewer” : true, “movieId” : 771311191, “comment” : “You’d think after the horrible and horribly boring Atlas Shrugged: Part One that a promised Part Two might just disappear into the ether. If only we could have been so fortunate. Ayn Rand’s cautionary opus about the evils of big government is given another creaky adaptation that fails to justify its existence. I feel like I could repeat verbatim my faults with the first film. Once again we don’t have characters but mouthpieces for ideology, an ideology that celebrates untamed greed. Once again the “best and brightest” (a.k.a. world’s richest) are disappearing and the world is grinding to a halt without their necessary genius. Does anyone really think if the world’s billionaires left in a huff that the world would cease to function? The assumption that financial wealth equates brilliance seems fatally flawed. Once again it’s in a modern setting where America has gone back in time to value railroads. Once again the main thrust of the inert drama is over inconsequential railway economics. Once again people just talk in circles in cheap locations. Once again the government agencies are a bunch of clucking stooges, eager to punish successful business. Once again Rand’s Objectivist worldview is treated as gospel and value is only ascribed to the amount of money one can produce. This time we have a slightly better budget, a better director, and some recognizable actors like Samantha Manthis, Esai Morales, Ray Wise, Richard T. Jones, and D.B. Sweeney as the mysterious John Gault. The story transitions to a ridiculous government mandate that include such incomprehensible edicts like making sure no one spends more money than another person. Can you imagine the paperwork involved? This woeful sequel will only appeal to Rand’s most faithful admirers, and you probably don’t want to hang out with those people anyway. There’s your clue: if you see someone carrying a copy of Atlas Shrugged: Part Two they either lack taste or are far too generous with movies. If there is indeed a concluding Part Three, it will be further proof that Rand’s market-based screeds are not accurate. The market has already rejected two of these dreadful movies.rnrnNate’s Grade: D”, “ratingSource” : null, “userName” : “Nate Zoebl”, “userId” : null } ], “heroImage” : { “id” : “n-31649”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjszMTY0OTtqOzE3MDEwOzEyMDA7MTIwMDs2MDE”, “height” : 601, “width” : 1200, “format” : “JPG” }, “posterImage” : { “id” : “m-11166914”, “thumborId” : “v1.bTsxMTE2NjkxNDtqOzE3MDk0OzEyMDA7NjAwOzg4MA”, “height” : 880, “width” : 600, “format” : “JPG” }, “videoClips” : [ { “id” : “11170711”, “type” : “videoClip”, “duration” : 129, “sourceId” : “759732”, “source” : “VDD”, “thumbUrl” : “https://content.internetvideoarchive.com/content/photos/8044/759732_093.jpg”, “title” : “Atlas Shrugged Part II”, “clipType” : “TRL” }, { “id” : “11250297”, “type” : “videoClip”, “duration” : 132, “sourceId” : “939825”, “source” : “VDD”, “thumbUrl” : “https://content.internetvideoarchive.com/content/photos/10355/939825_150.jpg”, “title” : “Atlas Shrugged: Part II (Blu-ray/DVD Trailer)”, “clipType” : “TRL” }, { “id” : “11170712”, “type” : “videoClip”, “duration” : 64, “sourceId” : “762001”, “source” : “VDD”, “thumbUrl” : “https://content.internetvideoarchive.com/content/photos/8003/762001_038.jpg”, “title” : “Atlas Shrugged Part II (trailer 1)”, “clipType” : “TRL” }, { “id” : “11171768”, “type” : “videoClip”, “duration” : 37, “sourceId” : “571118”, “source” : “VDD”, “thumbUrl” : “https://content.internetvideoarchive.com/content/photos/7604/759732_013.jpg”, “title” : “Atlas Shrugged Part II (trailer 2)”, “clipType” : “TRL” } ], “images” : [ { “id” : “n-31649”, “type” : “image”, “width” : 1200, “format” : “JPG”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjszMTY0OTtqOzE3MDEwOzEyMDA7MTIwMDs2MDE”, “height” : 601 }, { “id” : “n-31650”, “type” : “image”, “width” : 1067, “format” : “JPG”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjszMTY1MDtqOzE3MDEwOzEyMDA7MTA2NzsxNDIz”, “height” : 1423 }, { “id” : “n-31651”, “type” : “image”, “width” : 1200, “format” : “JPG”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjszMTY1MTtqOzE3MDEwOzEyMDA7MTIwMDs5MDA”, “height” : 900 }, { “id” : “n-31652”, “type” : “image”, “width” : 1024, “format” : “JPG”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjszMTY1MjtqOzE3MDEwOzEyMDA7MTAyNDs3Njg”, “height” : 768 }, { “id” : “n-31653”, “type” : “image”, “width” : 1423, “format” : “JPG”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjszMTY1MztqOzE3MDEwOzEyMDA7MTQyMzsxMDY3”, “height” : 1067 }, { “id” : “n-31654”, “type” : “image”, “width” : 1423, “format” : “JPG”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjszMTY1NDtqOzE3MDEwOzEyMDA7MTQyMzsxMDY3”, “height” : 1067 }, { “id” : “n-31655”, “type” : “image”, “width” : 1200, “format” : “JPG”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjszMTY1NTtqOzE3MDEwOzEyMDA7MTIwMDs5MDA”, “height” : 900 }, { “id” : “n-31656”, “type” : “image”, “width” : 1200, “format” : “JPG”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjszMTY1NjtqOzE3MDEwOzEyMDA7MTIwMDs5MDA”, “height” : 900 } ], “openingWindow” : “NA”, “releaseScope” : “wide”} { “@context” : “http://schema.org”, “@type” : “Movie”, “name” : “Atlas Shrugged: Part II”, “description” : “The global economy is on the brink of collapse. Unemployment has risen to 24%. Gas is now $42 per gallon. Brilliant creators, from artists to industrialists, continue to mysteriously disappear at the hands of the unknown. Dagny Taggart, Vice President in Charge of Operations for Taggart Transcontinental, has discovered what may very well be the answer to a mounting energy crisis – found abandoned amongst the ruins of a once productive factory, a revolutionary motor that could seemingly power the World. But, the motor is dead… there is no one left to decipher its secret… and, someone is watching. It’s a race against the clock to find the inventor before the motor of the World is stopped for good. Who is John Galt? — (C) Official Site”, “actor” : [ { “@type” : “Person”, “name” : “Samantha Mathis” }, { “@type” : “Person”, “name” : “Jason Beghe” }, { “@type” : “Person”, “name” : “Esai Morales” }, { “@type” : “Person”, “name” : “Patrick Fabian” }, { “@type” : “Person”, “name” : “Kim Rhodes” }, { “@type” : “Person”, “name” : “John Rubinstein” }, { “@type” : “Person”, “name” : “Ray Wise” }, { “@type” : “Person”, “name” : “Richard T. Jones” }, { “@type” : “Person”, “name” : “D.B. Sweeney” }, { “@type” : “Person”, “name” : “Diedrich Bader” }, { “@type” : “Person”, “name” : “Paul McCrane” }, { “@type” : “Person”, “name” : “Robert Picardo” }, { “@type” : “Person”, “name” : “Bug Hall” }, { “@type” : “Person”, “name” : “Arye Gross” }, { “@type” : “Person”, “name” : “Rex Linn” }, { “@type” : “Person”, “name” : “Larisa Oleynik” }, { “@type” : “Person”, “name” : “Jeff Yagher” }, { “@type” : “Person”, “name” : “Michael Gross” }, { “@type” : “Person”, “name” : “Stephen Macht” }, { “@type” : “Person”, “name” : “Thomas F. Wilson” } ], “director” : [ { “@type” : “Person”, “name” : “John Putch” } ], “author” : [ { “@type” : “Person”, “name” : “Brian Patrick O’Toole” }, { “@type” : “Person”, “name” : “Duke Sandefur” }, { “@type” : “Person”, “name” : “Duncan Scott” } ], “productionCompany” : { “@type” : “Organization”, “name” : “Atlas Distribution” }, “aggregateRating” : { “@type” : “AggregateRating”, “ratingValue” : 4, “bestRating” : “100”, “worstRating” : “0”, “reviewCount” : 23, “name” : “Tomatometer”, “description” : “The Tomatometer rating based on the published opinions of hundreds of film and television critics is a trusted measurement of movie and TV programming quality for millions of moviegoers. It represents the percentage of professional critic reviews that are positive for a given film or television show.” }, “contentRating” : “PG13”, “dateModified” : “2016-06-21T07:58:40-07:00”, “dateCreated” : “2012-06-28T06:30:13-07:00”, “datePublished” : 2012, “genre” : [ “Drama” ], “sameAs” : “http://www.atlasshruggedmovie.com/”, “review” : [ { “@type” : “Review”, “reviewBody” : “Seriously, if this is the best promotion of itself that the free market can manage, it really would benefit from the help of a Ministry of Culture or something.”, “url” : “http://www.villagevoice.com/2012-10-10/film/atlas-shrugged-part-two-why-can-t-the-free-market-make-this-movie-any-better/”, “dateCreated” : “2012-10-15T02:06:24-07:00”, “author” : { “@type” : “Person”, “url” : “www.rottentomatoes.com/critic/alan-scherstuhl”, “name” : “Alan Scherstuhl” }, “publisher” : { “@type” : “Organization”, “name” : “Village Voice” }, “reviewRating” : { “@type” : “Rating”, “bestRating” : “F”, “worstRating” : “R”, “ratingValue” : “rotten” } }, { “@type” : “Review”, “reviewBody” : “Director John Putch struggles to find balance or generate a single spark from the clunky mix of romance, political diatribe and thriller.”, “url” : “http://www.latimes.com/entertainment/movies/moviesnow/la-et-mn-atlas-shrugged-20121015,0,3134211.story”, “dateCreated” : “2012-10-15T00:31:31-07:00”, “author” : { “@type” : “Person”, “url” : “www.rottentomatoes.com/critic/sheri-linden”, “name” : “Sheri Linden” }, “publisher” : { “@type” : “Organization”, “name” : “Los Angeles Times” }, “reviewRating” : { “@type” : “Rating”, “bestRating” : “F”, “worstRating” : “R”, “ratingValue” : “rotten” } }, { “@type” : “Review”, “reviewBody” : “The producers are going to have to hire a better director if they want moviegoers to be curious enough about this Galt guy to buy a ticket for the presumptive third and final chapter.”, “url” : “http://movies.nytimes.com/2012/10/15/movies/atlas-shrugged-part-ii-with-samantha-mathis.html?partner=rss&emc=rss&_r=0”, “dateCreated” : “2012-10-15T00:28:05-07:00”, “author” : { “@type” : “Person”, “url” : “www.rottentomatoes.com/critic/manohla-dargis”, “name” : “Manohla Dargis” }, “publisher” : { “@type” : “Organization”, “name” : “New York Times” }, “reviewRating” : { “@type” : “Rating”, “bestRating” : “F”, “worstRating” : “R”, “ratingValue” : “rotten” } }, { “@type” : “Review”, “reviewBody” : “It’s consistent with its predecessor as a somewhat awkward translation of Ayn Rand’s 1957 novel to our current era, handled with bland telepic-style competency.”, “url” : “http://www.variety.com/review/VE1117948555?refcatid=31”, “dateCreated” : “2012-10-13T15:43:49-07:00”, “author” : { “@type” : “Person”, “url” : “www.rottentomatoes.com/critic/dennis-harvey”, “name” : “Dennis Harvey” }, “publisher” : { “@type” : “Organization”, “name” : “Variety” }, “reviewRating” : { “@type” : “Rating”, “bestRating” : “F”, “worstRating” : “R”, “ratingValue” : “rotten” } }, { “@type” : “Review”, “reviewBody” : “A disaster as a film, Atlas also is laughable in its presentation of Rand’s ideology.”, “url” : “http://www.philly.com/philly/entertainment/movies/20121013_Atlas_Shrugged__Part_II__a_quick_taste_of_Rand_s_philosophy.html”, “dateCreated” : “2012-10-13T10:27:38-07:00”, “author” : { “@type” : “Person”, “url” : “www.rottentomatoes.com/critic/tirdad-derakhshani”, “name” : “Tirdad Derakhshani” }, “publisher” : { “@type” : “Organization”, “name” : “Philadelphia Inquirer” }, “reviewRating” : { “@type” : “Rating”, “bestRating” : “F”, “worstRating” : “R”, “ratingValue” : “rotten” } }, { “@type” : “Review”, “reviewBody” : “If the novel Atlas Shrugged is ultimate libertarian porn, then the first two installments of the screen adaptation are soggy softcore.”, “url” : “http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/review/atlas-shrugged-part-ii-strike-378755”, “dateCreated” : “2012-10-13T10:24:13-07:00”, “author” : { “@type” : “Person”, “url” : “www.rottentomatoes.com/critic/todd-mccarthy”, “name” : “Todd McCarthy” }, “publisher” : { “@type” : “Organization”, “name” : “Hollywood Reporter” }, “reviewRating” : { “@type” : “Rating”, “bestRating” : “F”, “worstRating” : “R”, “ratingValue” : “rotten” } }, { “@type” : “Review”, “reviewBody” : “The people behind the Atlas Shrugged series of films have things they want to tell you, and just to make sure that you know what they are, the movies tell you, and tell you, and then tell you again.”, “url” : “http://www.thewrap.com/movies/column-post/atlas-shrugged-part-ii-review-tea-party-twilight-improves-bit-still-strident-sequel-6053”, “dateCreated” : “2012-10-12T08:55:17-07:00”, “author” : { “@type” : “Person”, “url” : “www.rottentomatoes.com/critic/alonso-duralde”, “name” : “Alonso Duralde” }, “publisher” : { “@type” : “Organization”, “name” : “TheWrap” }, “reviewRating” : { “@type” : “Rating”, “bestRating” : “F”, “worstRating” : “R”, “ratingValue” : “rotten” } }, { “@type” : “Review”, “reviewBody” : “Proving the theorem from Todd Solondz’s Palindromes that different actors can play the same role without losing much continuity, Samantha Mathis plays Dagny with all the lifelessness Taylor Schilling brought to the original role.”, “url” : “http://www.avclub.com/articles/atlas-shrugged-part-iithe-strike,86633/”, “dateCreated” : “2012-10-12T08:54:00-07:00”, “author” : { “@type” : “Person”, “url” : “www.rottentomatoes.com/critic/scott-tobias”, “name” : “Scott Tobias” }, “publisher” : { “@type” : “Organization”, “name” : “AV Club” }, “reviewRating” : { “@type” : “Rating”, “bestRating” : “F”, “worstRating” : “R”, “ratingValue” : “rotten” } }, { “@type” : “Review”, “reviewBody” : “I didn’t hate this movie. The first one was far worse — mercifully, the cast and director have all been replaced.”, “url” : “http://bostonglobe.com/arts/movies/2012/10/14/movie-review-the-shrugging-continues-atlas-shrugged-part/1evEnXfn5lf2jD7XSXKrlL/story.html”, “dateCreated” : “2012-10-12T08:51:03-07:00”, “author” : { “@type” : “Person”, “url” : “www.rottentomatoes.com/critic/wesley-morris”, “name” : “Wesley Morris” }, “publisher” : { “@type” : “Organization”, “name” : “Boston Globe” }, “reviewRating” : { “@type” : “Rating”, “bestRating” : “F”, “worstRating” : “R”, “ratingValue” : “rotten” } }, { “@type” : “Review”, “reviewBody” : “”Atlas Shrugged: Part II” is political economy written with crayon.”, “url” : “http://www.nypost.com/p/entertainment/movies/saw_the_film_shrugged_fJIj4XwcW2XB6eW0TScgRI”, “dateCreated” : “2012-10-11T20:34:30-07:00”, “author” : { “@type” : “Person”, “url” : “www.rottentomatoes.com/critic/kyle-smith”, “name” : “Kyle Smith” }, “publisher” : { “@type” : “Organization”, “name” : “New York Post” }, “reviewRating” : { “@type” : “Rating”, “bestRating” : “F”, “worstRating” : “R”, “ratingValue” : “rotten” } }, { “@type” : “Review”, “reviewBody” : “Rather than refresh the cast with new actors, the producers would have done better to just digitally reanimate Patricia Neal and Gary Cooper, the stars of the 1949 adaptation of Rand’s The Fountainhead.”, “url” : “http://www.washingtonpost.com/gog/movies/atlas-shrugged-part-2-either-or,1233956/critic-review.html”, “dateCreated” : “2012-10-11T10:45:44-07:00”, “author” : { “@type” : “Person”, “url” : “www.rottentomatoes.com/critic/mark-jenkins”, “name” : “Mark Jenkins” }, “publisher” : { “@type” : “Organization”, “name” : “Washington Post” }, “reviewRating” : { “@type” : “Rating”, “bestRating” : “F”, “worstRating” : “R”, “ratingValue” : “rotten” } }, { “@type” : “Review”, “reviewBody” : “A greedy billionaire’s most feverish nightmare realized with all the amateurish panache of a daytime soap opera.”, “url” : “http://www.philadelphiaweekly.com/screen/reviews/atlas_shrugged_flicks_give_randians_their_own_battlefield_earth-174437651.html”, “dateCreated” : “2015-05-03T08:42:27-07:00”, “author” : { “@type” : “Person”, “url” : “www.rottentomatoes.com/critic/sean-burns”, “name” : “Sean Burns” }, “publisher” : { “@type” : “Organization”, “name” : “Philadelphia Weekly” }, “reviewRating” : { “@type” : “Rating”, “bestRating” : “F”, “worstRating” : “R”, “ratingValue” : “rotten” } }, { “@type” : “Review”, “reviewBody” : “There are ironic footnotes in cinema history because they champion the free market yet fail miserably in it.”, “url” : “http://www.7mpictures.com/atlas-shrugged-part-ii-the-strike-blu-ray-review/”, “dateCreated” : “2013-06-09T08:32:17-07:00”, “author” : { “@type” : “Person”, “url” : “www.rottentomatoes.com/critic/kevin-carr”, “name” : “Kevin Carr” }, “publisher” : { “@type” : “Organization”, “name” : “7M Pictures” }, “reviewRating” : { “@type” : “Rating”, “bestRating” : “F”, “worstRating” : “R”, “ratingValue” : “rotten” } }, { “@type” : “Review”, “reviewBody” : “The determined, if questionably talented, cast and crew of Ayn Rand devotees continue to hack their way through the lionized author’s obtuse prose”, “url” : “http://www.becauseitoldyouso.com/2013/02/feb-19-blu-raydvd-reviews.html”, “dateCreated” : “2013-02-18T11:29:07-08:00”, “author” : { “@type” : “Person”, “url” : “www.rottentomatoes.com/critic/phil-villarreal”, “name” : “Phil Villarreal” }, “publisher” : { “@type” : “Organization”, “name” : “OK! Magazine” }, “reviewRating” : { “@type” : “Rating”, “bestRating” : “F”, “worstRating” : “R”, “ratingValue” : “rotten” } }, { “@type” : “Review”, “reviewBody” : “The Bad Boys II of ****ty propaganda films, morally and aesthetically corrupt yet compulsively watchable in the broad strokes. Somewhere, in heaven, Eisenstein is laughing. Hard.”, “dateCreated” : “2012-11-05T03:43:00-08:00”, “author” : { “@type” : “Person”, “url” : “www.rottentomatoes.com/critic/rob-humanick”, “name” : “Rob Humanick” }, “publisher” : { “@type” : “Organization”, “name” : “Projection Booth” }, “reviewRating” : { “@type” : “Rating”, “bestRating” : “F”, “worstRating” : “R”, “ratingValue” : “rotten” } }, { “@type” : “Review”, “reviewBody” : “The acting is better than in Part 1 but the fact this is the middle segment leaves the audience that might like it dissatisfied”, “url” : “http://www.jackiekcooper.com”, “dateCreated” : “2012-10-23T08:10:51-07:00”, “author” : { “@type” : “Person”, “url” : “www.rottentomatoes.com/critic/jackie-k-cooper”, “name” : “Jackie K. Cooper” }, “publisher” : { “@type” : “Organization”, “name” : “jackiekcooper.com” }, “reviewRating” : { “@type” : “Rating”, “bestRating” : “F”, “worstRating” : “R”, “ratingValue” : “rotten” } }, { “@type” : “Review”, “reviewBody” : “The film’s excruciating unwatchability transcends politics.”, “url” : “http://antagonie.blogspot.com/2012/10/no-galt-on-her-tail.html”, “dateCreated” : “2012-10-19T16:43:50-07:00”, “author” : { “@type” : “Person”, “url” : “www.rottentomatoes.com/critic/tim-brayton”, “name” : “Tim Brayton” }, “publisher” : { “@type” : “Organization”, “name” : “Antagony & Ecstasy” }, “reviewRating” : { “@type” : “Rating”, “bestRating” : “F”, “worstRating” : “R”, “ratingValue” : “rotten” } }, { “@type” : “Review”, “reviewBody” : “Atlas won’t be the only one to shrug off this tiresome load.”, “url” : “http://www.austinchronicle.com/calendar/film/2012-10-12/atlas-shrugged-part-ii/”, “dateCreated” : “2012-10-19T03:34:34-07:00”, “author” : { “@type” : “Person”, “url” : “www.rottentomatoes.com/critic/marjorie-baumgarten”, “name” : “Marjorie Baumgarten” }, “publisher” : { “@type” : “Organization”, “name” : “Austin Chronicle” }, “reviewRating” : { “@type” : “Rating”, “bestRating” : “F”, “worstRating” : “R”, “ratingValue” : “rotten” } }, { “@type” : “Review”, “reviewBody” : “Rand’s detractors will hate the movie as much as they do her, but her fans will be satisfied … “, “url” : “http://www.newsreview.com/sacramento/atlas-shrugged-part-2/content?oid=8118808”, “dateCreated” : “2012-10-18T06:05:08-07:00”, “author” : { “@type” : “Person”, “url” : “www.rottentomatoes.com/critic/jim-lane”, “name” : “Jim Lane” }, “publisher” : { “@type” : “Organization”, “name” : “Sacramento News & Review” }, “reviewRating” : { “@type” : “Rating”, “bestRating” : “F”, “worstRating” : “R”, “ratingValue” : “fresh” } }, { “@type” : “Review”, “reviewBody” : “A niche movie on a par with any cheapjack faith-based picture, which is why it resembles one — and only the most ardently faithful need apply.”, “url” : “http://www.mountainx.com/movies/review/atlas_shrugged_part_ii”, “dateCreated” : “2012-10-16T07:51:47-07:00”, “author” : { “@type” : “Person”, “url” : “www.rottentomatoes.com/critic/ken-hanke”, “name” : “Ken Hanke” }, “publisher” : { “@type” : “Organization”, “name” : “Mountain Xpress (Asheville, NC)” }, “reviewRating” : { “@type” : “Rating”, “bestRating” : “F”, “worstRating” : “R”, “ratingValue” : “rotten” } } ], “duration” : “PT112M”, “url” : “www.rottentomatoes.com/m/atlas_shrugged_part_ii”, “releasedEvent” : [ { “@type” : “PublicationEvent”, “startDate” : “2012-10-12”, “name” : “Theater” }, { “@type” : “PublicationEvent”, “startDate” : “2013-02-19”, “name” : “DVD” } ], “character” : [ { “@type” : “Person”, “name” : “Dagny Taggart” }, { “@type” : “Person”, “name” : “Henry Rearden” }, { “@type” : “Person”, “name” : “Francisco d’Anconia” }, { “@type” : “Person”, “name” : “James Taggart” }, { “@type” : “Person”, “name” : “Lillian Rearden” }, { “@type” : “Person”, “name” : “Dr. Floyd Ferris” }, { “@type” : “Person”, “name” : “Head of State Thompson” }, { “@type” : “Person”, “name” : “Eddie Willers” }, { “@type” : “Person”, “name” : “John Galt” }, { “@type” : “Person”, “name” : “Quentin Daniels” }, { “@type” : “Person”, “name” : “Wesley Mouch” }, { “@type” : “Person”, “name” : “Dr. Robert Stadler” }, { “@type” : “Person”, “name” : “Leonard Small” }, { “@type” : “Person”, “name” : “Ken Danagger” }, { “@type” : “Person”, “name” : “Kip Chalmers” }, { “@type” : “Person”, “name” : “Cherryl Brooks” }, { “@type” : “Person”, “name” : “Jeff Allen” }, { “@type” : “Person”, “name” : “Ted ‘Buzz’ Killman” }, { “@type” : “Person”, “name” : “Clem Weatherby” }, { “@type” : “Person”, “name” : “Robert Collins” } ]} { “boxOffice” : [ { “id” : “771403192”, “type” : “movie”, “advisory” : “for crude and suggestive humor, some nudity, action violence and brief strong language”, “lastModifiedDate” : “2016-06-21T11:34:41-07:00”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “fresh”, “value” : 66 }, “year” : 2016, “releaseScope” : “wide”, “studioName” : “Warner Bros. Pictures”, “dvdWindow” : “NA”, “heroImage” : { “id” : “n-1000445”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjsxMDAwNDQ1O2o7MTcwMjE7MTIwMDszMDAwOzIwMDA”, “height” : 2000, “width” : 3000, “format” : “JPG” }, “synopsis” : “The story follows a one-time bullied geek, Bob, who grew up to be a lethal CIA agent, coming home for his high school reunion. Claiming to be on a top-secret case, he enlists the help of former “big man on campus,” Calvin, now an accountant who misses his glory days. But before the staid numbers-cruncher realizes what he’s getting into, it’s too late to get out, as his increasingly unpredictable new friend drags him through a world of shoot-outs, double-crosses and espionage that could get them both killed in more ways than Calvin can count.”, “releaseDates” : { “theater” : “2016-06-17” }, “runningTime” : 114, “title” : “Central Intelligence”, “posterImage” : { “id” : “m-11946483”, “thumborId” : “v1.bTsxMTk0NjQ4MztqOzE3MDEzOzEyMDA7ODAwOzExODY”, “height” : 1186, “width” : 800, “format” : “JPG” }, “creationDate” : “2014-11-12T23:16:29-08:00”, “vanity” : “central_intelligence”, “officialUrl” : “http://www.centralintelligencemovie.com/”, “cummulativeBoxOffice” : 35535250, “mainTrailer” : { “id” : “11232634”, “title” : “Central Intelligence”, “sourceId” : “866156”, “thumbUrl” : “https://content.internetvideoarchive.com/content/photos/10122/866156_081.jpg”, “duration” : 156, “clipType” : “TRL”, “source” : “VDD” }, “boxOffice” : 35535250, “openingWindow” : “in-theaters”, “mpaaRating” : “PG13” }, { “id” : “771375842”, “type” : “movie”, “advisory” : “for terror and horror violence”, “lastModifiedDate” : “2016-06-21T11:37:11-07:00”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “certified_fresh”, “value” : 78 }, “year” : 2016, “releaseScope” : “wide”, “studioName” : “Warner Bros. Pictures”, “dvdWindow” : “NA”, “heroImage” : { “id” : “n-1124575”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjsxMTI0NTc1O2o7MTcwMjM7MTIwMDsyMTMzOzEyMDA”, “height” : 1200, “width” : 2133, “format” : “JPG” }, “synopsis” : “Reprising their roles, Oscar nominee Vera Farmiga (“Up In the Air,” TV’s “Bates Motel”) and Patrick Wilson (the “Insidious” films), star as Lorraine and Ed Warren, who, in one of their most terrifying paranormal investigations, travel to north London to help a single mother raising four children alone in a house plagued by malicious spirits.”, “releaseDates” : { “theater” : “2016-06-10” }, “runningTime” : 133, “title” : “The Conjuring 2”, “posterImage” : { “id” : “m-11882329”, “thumborId” : “v1.bTsxMTg4MjMyOTtqOzE3MDEyOzEyMDA7MTQxNzsyMTAw”, “height” : 2100, “width” : 1417, “format” : “JPG” }, “creationDate” : “2014-02-27T21:34:33-08:00”, “vanity” : “the_conjuring_2”, “officialUrl” : “http://www.theconjuring2.com/”, “cummulativeBoxOffice” : 0, “mainTrailer” : { “id” : “11234499”, “title” : “The Conjuring 2”, “sourceId” : “62422”, “thumbUrl” : “https://content.internetvideoarchive.com/content/photos/10160/62422_072.jpg”, “duration” : 159, “clipType” : “TRL”, “source” : “VDD” }, “boxOffice” : 14880050, “openingWindow” : “in-theaters”, “mpaaRating” : “R” }, { “id” : “771353630”, “type” : “movie”, “advisory” : “for mild thematic elements”, “lastModifiedDate” : “2016-06-21T11:43:03-07:00”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “certified_fresh”, “value” : 94 }, “year” : 2016, “releaseScope” : “wide”, “studioName” : “Walt Disney Pictures/PIXAR”, “dvdWindow” : “NA”, “heroImage” : { “id” : “n-1129082”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjsxMTI5MDgyO2o7MTcwMjM7MTIwMDsxODAwOzg0MA”, “height” : 840, “width” : 1800, “format” : “JPG” }, “synopsis” : “”Finding Dory” reunites the friendly-but-forgetful blue tang fish with her loved ones, and everyone learns a few things about the true meaning of family along the way. The all-new big-screen adventure dives into theaters in 2016, taking moviegoers back to the extraordinary underwater world from the original film.”, “releaseDates” : { “theater” : “2016-06-17” }, “runningTime” : 100, “title” : “Finding Dory”, “posterImage” : { “id” : “m-11685530”, “thumborId” : “v1.bTsxMTY4NTUzMDtwOzE3MDEwOzEyMDA7NDMyOzYzNw”, “height” : 637, “width” : 432, “format” : “PNG” }, “creationDate” : “2013-04-02T07:00:46-07:00”, “vanity” : “finding_dory”, “officialUrl” : “http://movies.disney.com/finding-dory”, “cummulativeBoxOffice” : null, “mainTrailer” : { “id” : “11232306”, “title” : “Finding Dory”, “sourceId” : “480095”, “thumbUrl” : “https://content.internetvideoarchive.com/content/photos/10345/480095_100.jpg”, “duration” : 155, “clipType” : “TRL”, “source” : “VDD” }, “boxOffice” : 10238270, “openingWindow” : “in-theaters”, “mpaaRating” : “PG” }, { “id” : “771362372”, “type” : “movie”, “advisory” : “for violence and some language”, “lastModifiedDate” : “2016-06-21T11:34:42-07:00”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “rotten”, “value” : 34 }, “year” : 2016, “releaseScope” : “wide”, “studioName” : “Lionsgate”, “dvdWindow” : “NA”, “heroImage” : { “id” : “n-1122109”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjsxMTIyMTA5O2o7MTcwMjI7MTIwMDszNjAwOzI1MTg”, “height” : 2518, “width” : 3600, “format” : “JPG” }, “synopsis” : “THE FOUR HORSEMEN (Jesse Eisenberg, Woody Harrelson, Dave Franco, Lizzy Caplan) return for a second mind-bending adventure, elevating the limits of stage illusion to new heights and taking them around the globe. One year after outwitting the FBI and winning the public’s adulation with their Robin Hood-style magic spectacles, the illusionists resurface for a comeback performance in hopes of exposing the unethical practices of a tech magnate. The man behind their vanishing act is none other than WALTER MABRY (Daniel Radcliffe), a tech prodigy who threatens the Horsemen into pulling off their most impossible heist yet. Their only hope is to perform one last unprecedented stunt to clear their names and reveal the mastermind behind it all.”, “releaseDates” : { “theater” : “2016-06-10” }, “runningTime” : 115, “title” : “Now You See Me 2”, “posterImage” : { “id” : “m-11863097”, “thumborId” : “v1.bTsxMTg2MzA5NztqOzE3MDEyOzEyMDA7NTAwMDs3NjAw”, “height” : 7600, “width” : 5000, “format” : “JPG” }, “creationDate” : “2013-08-14T01:40:49-07:00”, “vanity” : “now_you_see_me_2”, “officialUrl” : “http://www.nowyouseeme.movie/”, “cummulativeBoxOffice” : 41085908, “mainTrailer” : { “id” : “11236858”, “title” : “Now You See Me 2 (International Trailer 1)”, “sourceId” : “929812”, “thumbUrl” : “https://content.internetvideoarchive.com/content/photos/10037/929812_018.jpg”, “duration” : 60, “clipType” : “TRL”, “source” : “VDD” }, “boxOffice” : 9373379, “openingWindow” : “in-theaters”, “mpaaRating” : “PG13” }, { “id” : “771021948”, “type” : “movie”, “advisory” : “for extended sequences of intense fantasy violence”, “lastModifiedDate” : “2016-06-21T11:34:41-07:00”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “rotten”, “value” : 29 }, “year” : 2016, “releaseScope” : “wide”, “studioName” : “Universal Pictures”, “dvdWindow” : “NA”, “heroImage” : { “id” : “n-1122138”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjsxMTIyMTM4O2o7MTcwMjI7MTIwMDs1MTEyOzIxMzI”, “height” : 2132, “width” : 5112, “format” : “JPG” }, “synopsis” : “Legendary Pictures’ WARCRAFT, a 3D epic adventure of world-colliding conflict based upon Blizzard Entertainment’s globally-renowned universe, is directed by Duncan Jones (Moon, Source Code) and is written by Charles Leavitt and rewritten by Duncan Jones. The producers are Charles Roven, Thomas Tull, Jon Jashni and Alex Gartner. Stuart Fenegan, Jillian Share and Brent O’Connor serve as executive producers. Blizzard’s Chris Metzen co-produces. (C) Universal”, “releaseDates” : { “theater” : “2016-06-10” }, “runningTime” : 100, “title” : “Warcraft”, “posterImage” : { “id” : “m-11785752”, “thumborId” : “v1.bTsxMTc4NTc1MjtqOzE3MDExOzEyMDA7MzE1ODs1MDAw”, “height” : 5000, “width” : 3158, “format” : “JPG” }, “creationDate” : “2010-04-12T19:50:26-07:00”, “vanity” : “warcraft”, “officialUrl” : “http://www.warcraftmovie.com/”, “cummulativeBoxOffice” : 38432955, “mainTrailer” : { “id” : “11232069”, “title” : “Warcraft”, “sourceId” : “723419”, “thumbUrl” : “https://content.internetvideoarchive.com/content/photos/10242/723419_116.jpg”, “duration” : 103, “clipType” : “TRL”, “source” : “VDD” }, “boxOffice” : 7241430, “openingWindow” : “in-theaters”, “mpaaRating” : “PG13” }, { “id” : “771371217”, “type” : “movie”, “advisory” : “for sequences of violence, action and destruction, brief strong language and some suggestive images”, “lastModifiedDate” : “2016-06-21T11:37:11-07:00”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “rotten”, “value” : 48 }, “year” : 2016, “releaseScope” : “wide”, “studioName” : “20th Century Fox”, “dvdWindow” : “NA”, “heroImage” : { “id” : “n-1117775”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjsxMTE3Nzc1O2o7MTcwMjI7MTIwMDsyMTg0OzExNTI”, “height” : 1152, “width” : 2184, “format” : “JPG” }, “synopsis” : “Following the critically acclaimed global smash hit X-Men: Days of Future Past, director Bryan Singer returns with X-MEN: APOCALYPSE. Since the dawn of civilization, he was worshipped as a god. Apocalypse, the first and most powerful mutant from Marvel’s X-Men universe, amassed the powers of many other mutants, becoming immortal and invincible. Upon awakening after thousands of years, he is disillusioned with the world as he finds it and recruits a team of powerful mutants, including a disheartened Magneto (Michael Fassbender), to cleanse mankind and create a new world order, over which he will reign. As the fate of the Earth hangs in the balance, Raven (Jennifer Lawrence) with the help of Professor X (James McAvoy) must lead a team of young X-Men to stop their greatest nemesis and save mankind from complete destruction.”, “releaseDates” : { “theater” : “2016-05-27” }, “runningTime” : 136, “title” : “X-Men: Apocalypse”, “posterImage” : { “id” : “m-11949610”, “thumborId” : “v1.bTsxMTk0OTYxMDtqOzE3MDEzOzEyMDA7MjAyNTszMDAw”, “height” : 3000, “width” : 2025, “format” : “JPG” }, “creationDate” : “2013-12-05T21:44:25-08:00”, “vanity” : “x_men_apocalypse”, “officialUrl” : “https://www.facebook.com/xmenmovies”, “cummulativeBoxOffice” : null, “mainTrailer” : { “id” : “11233434”, “title” : “X-Men: Apocalypse”, “sourceId” : “58483”, “thumbUrl” : “https://content.internetvideoarchive.com/content/photos/10257/58483_206.jpg”, “duration” : 154, “clipType” : “TRL”, “source” : “VDD” }, “boxOffice” : 5309290, “openingWindow” : “in-theaters”, “mpaaRating” : “PG13” }, { “id” : “771386622”, “type” : “movie”, “advisory” : “for sci-fi action violence”, “lastModifiedDate” : “2016-06-21T11:40:26-07:00”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “rotten”, “value” : 37 }, “year” : 2016, “releaseScope” : “wide”, “studioName” : “Paramount Pictures”, “dvdWindow” : “NA”, “heroImage” : { “id” : “n-1117796”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjsxMTE3Nzk2O2o7MTcwMjI7MTIwMDsxNDAwOzUyNA”, “height” : 524, “width” : 1400, “format” : “JPG” }, “synopsis” : “Michelangelo, Donatello, Leonardo, and Raphael return to theaters this summer to battle bigger, badder villains, alongside April O’Neil (Megan Fox), Vern Fenwick (Will Arnett), and a newcomer: the hockey-masked vigilante Casey Jones (Stephen Amell). After supervillain Shredder (Brian Tee) escapes custody, he joins forces with mad scientist Baxter Stockman (Tyler Perry) and two dimwitted henchmen, Bebop (Gary Anthony Williams) and Rocksteady (WWE Superstar Stephen “Sheamus” Farrelly), to unleash a diabolical plan to take over the world. As the Turtles prepare to take on Shredder and his new crew, they find themselves facing an even greater evil with similar intentions: the notorious Krang.”, “releaseDates” : { “theater” : “2016-06-03” }, “runningTime” : 97, “title” : “Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Out of the Shadows”, “posterImage” : { “id” : “m-11940336”, “thumborId” : “v1.bTsxMTk0MDMzNjtqOzE3MDEzOzEyMDA7MTY5MTsyNjM5”, “height” : 2639, “width” : 1691, “format” : “JPG” }, “creationDate” : “2014-08-15T03:57:01-07:00”, “vanity” : “teenage_mutant_ninja_turtles_out_of_the_shadows”, “officialUrl” : “http://www.teenagemutantninjaturtlesmovie.com/”, “cummulativeBoxOffice” : 0, “mainTrailer” : { “id” : “11233402”, “title” : “Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Out Of The Shadows”, “sourceId” : “214547”, “thumbUrl” : “https://content.internetvideoarchive.com/content/photos/10286/214547_138.jpg”, “duration” : 98, “clipType” : “TRL”, “source” : “VDD” }, “boxOffice” : 5251531, “openingWindow” : “in-theaters”, “mpaaRating” : “PG13” }, { “id” : “771370508”, “type” : “movie”, “advisory” : “for fantasy action/peril and some language”, “lastModifiedDate” : “2016-06-21T11:43:12-07:00”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “rotten”, “value” : 30 }, “year” : 2016, “releaseScope” : “wide”, “studioName” : “Walt Disney Pictures”, “dvdWindow” : “NA”, “heroImage” : { “id” : “n-1103872”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjsxMTAzODcyO2o7MTcwMjI7MTIwMDsxOTIwOzEwODA”, “height” : 1080, “width” : 1920, “format” : “JPG” }, “synopsis” : “In Disney’s “Alice Through the Looking Glass,” an all-new spectacular adventure featuring the unforgettable characters from Lewis Carroll’s beloved stories, Alice returns to the whimsical world of Underland and travels back in time to save the Mad Hatter. Directed by James Bobin, who brings his own unique vision to the spectacular world Tim Burton created on screen in 2010 with “Alice in Wonderland,” the film is written by Linda Woolverton based on characters created by Lewis Carroll and produced by Joe Roth, Suzanne Todd and Jennifer Todd and Tim Burton with John G. Scotti serving as executive producer. “Alice Through the Looking Glass” reunites the all-star cast from the worldwide blockbuster phenomenon, including: Johnny Depp, Anne Hathaway, Mia Wasikowska and Helena Bonham Carter along with the voices of Alan Rickman, Stephen Fry, Michael Sheen and Timothy Spall. We are also introduced to several new characters: Zanik Hightopp (Rhys Ifans), the Mad Hatter’s father and Time himself (Sacha Baron Cohen), a peculiar creature who is part human, part clock. Alice Kingsleigh (Wasikowska) has spent the past few years following in her father’s footsteps and sailing the high seas. Upon her return to London, she comes across a magical looking glass and returns to the fantastical realm of Underland and her friends the White Rabbit (Sheen), Absolem (Rickman), the Cheshire Cat (Fry) and the Mad Hatter (Depp), who is not himself. The Hatter has lost his Muchness, so Mirana (Hathaway) sends Alice on a quest to borrow the Chronosphere, a metallic globe inside the chamber of the Grand Clock which powers all time. Returning to the past, she comes across friends – and enemies – at different points in their lives, and embarks on a perilous race to save the Hatter before time runs out. Presented in Digital 3D(TM), Real D 3D and IMAX (R) 3D, Disney’s “Alice Through the Looking Glass” opens in U.S. theaters on May 27, 2016.”, “releaseDates” : { “theater” : “2016-05-27” }, “runningTime” : 108, “title” : “Alice Through the Looking Glass”, “posterImage” : { “id” : “m-11591428”, “thumborId” : “v1.bTsxMTU5MTQyODtqOzE3MDk5OzEyMDA7ODY0OzEyODA”, “height” : 1280, “width” : 864, “format” : “JPG” }, “creationDate” : “2013-11-23T14:19:22-08:00”, “vanity” : “alice_in_wonderland_through_the_looking_glass”, “officialUrl” : “http://movies.disney.com/alice-through-the-looking-glass”, “cummulativeBoxOffice” : null, “mainTrailer” : { “id” : “11232093”, “title” : “Alice Through The Looking Glass”, “sourceId” : “813185”, “thumbUrl” : “https://content.internetvideoarchive.com/content/photos/10174/813185_065.jpg”, “duration” : 147, “clipType” : “TRL”, “source” : “VDD” }, “boxOffice” : 4290760, “openingWindow” : “in-theaters”, “mpaaRating” : “PG” }, { “id” : “771385244”, “type” : “movie”, “advisory” : “for thematic elements and some suggestive material”, “lastModifiedDate” : “2016-06-21T11:34:42-07:00”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “rotten”, “value” : 57 }, “year” : 2016, “releaseScope” : “wide”, “studioName” : “Warner Bros. Pictures”, “dvdWindow” : “NA”, “heroImage” : { “id” : “n-1038538”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjsxMDM4NTM4O2o7MTcwMjI7MTIwMDsxMjgwOzg1MQ”, “height” : 851, “width” : 1280, “format” : “JPG” }, “synopsis” : “Adapted from the bestselling novel by Jo Jo Moyes, Me Before You tells the story of the unexpected relationship that blossoms between a contented small town Englishwoman and the wealthy, paralyzed Londoner who hires her as his caretaker. Theater director Thea Sharrock makes her feature directorial debut with this MGM/New Line Cinema co-production. ~ Jason Buchanan, Rovi”, “releaseDates” : { “theater” : “2016-06-03” }, “runningTime” : 110, “title” : “Me Before You”, “posterImage” : { “id” : “m-11543773”, “thumborId” : “v1.bTsxMTU0Mzc3MztqOzE3MDk4OzEyMDA7NDA1OzYwMA”, “height” : 600, “width” : 405, “format” : “JPG” }, “creationDate” : “2014-07-17T23:40:31-07:00”, “vanity” : “me_before_you”, “officialUrl” : “http://mebeforeyoumovie.com”, “cummulativeBoxOffice” : 46112029, “mainTrailer” : { “id” : “11235957”, “title” : “Me Before You”, “sourceId” : “949915”, “thumbUrl” : “https://content.internetvideoarchive.com/content/photos/10325/949915_227_1.jpg”, “duration” : 153, “clipType” : “TRL”, “source” : “VDD” }, “boxOffice” : 3911175, “openingWindow” : “in-theaters”, “mpaaRating” : “PG13” }, { “id” : “771377017”, “type” : “movie”, “advisory” : “for extended sequences of violence, action and mayhem”, “lastModifiedDate” : “2016-06-21T11:34:43-07:00”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “certified_fresh”, “value” : 90 }, “year” : 2016, “releaseScope” : “wide”, “studioName” : “Walt Disney Pictures”, “dvdWindow” : “NA”, “heroImage” : { “id” : “n-1062070”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjsxMDYyMDcwO2o7MTcwMjI7MTIwMDsyMDAwOzEzMzM”, “height” : 1333, “width” : 2000, “format” : “JPG” }, “synopsis” : “Marvel’s “Captain America: Civil War” finds Steve Rogers leading the newly formed team of Avengers in their continued efforts to safeguard humanity. But after another incident involving the Avengers results in collateral damage, political pressure mounts to install a system of accountability, headed by a governing body to oversee and direct the team. The new status quo fractures the Avengers, resulting in two camps-one led by Steve Rogers and his desire for the Avengers to remain free to defend humanity without government interference, and the other following Tony Stark’s surprising decision to support government oversight and accountability.”, “releaseDates” : { “theater” : “2016-05-06” }, “runningTime” : 146, “title” : “Captain America: Civil War”, “posterImage” : { “id” : “m-11690070”, “thumborId” : “v1.bTsxMTY5MDA3MDtwOzE3MDEwOzEyMDA7NDg4OzcyMA”, “height” : 720, “width” : 488, “format” : “PNG” }, “creationDate” : “2014-03-18T01:52:19-07:00”, “vanity” : “captain_america_civil_war”, “officialUrl” : “http://marvel.com/captainamerica#/home”, “cummulativeBoxOffice” : 401312591, “mainTrailer” : { “id” : “11232773”, “title” : “Captain America: Civil War”, “sourceId” : “472058”, “thumbUrl” : “https://content.internetvideoarchive.com/content/photos/10102/472058_074.jpg”, “duration” : 152, “clipType” : “TRL”, “source” : “VDD” }, “boxOffice” : 2331622, “openingWindow” : “in-theaters”, “mpaaRating” : “PG13” } ], “opening” : [ { “id” : “771436876”, “type” : “movie”, “advisory” : “for thematic elements including violent content, and for some language”, “lastModifiedDate” : “2016-06-21T06:21:37-07:00”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “fresh”, “value” : 100 }, “year” : 2016, “releaseScope” : “limited”, “studioName” : “Piki Films”, “dvdWindow” : “NA”, “heroImage” : { “id” : “n-1092612”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjsxMDkyNjEyO2o7MTcwMjI7MTIwMDsyMDQ4OzEzNjM”, “height” : 1363, “width” : 2048, “format” : “JPG” }, “synopsis” : “Raised on hip-hop and foster care, defiant city kid Ricky gets a fresh start in the New Zealand countryside. He quickly finds himself at home with his new foster family: the loving Aunt Bella, the cantankerous Uncle Hec, and dog Tupac. When a tragedy strikes that threatens to ship Ricky to another home, both he and Hec go on the run in the bush. As a national manhunt ensues, the newly branded outlaws must face their options: go out in a blaze of glory or overcome their differences and survive as a family. Equal parts road comedy and rousing adventure story, director Taika Waititi (WHAT WE DO IN THE SHADOWS, upcoming THOR: RAGNORAK) masterfully weaves lively humor with emotionally honest performances by Sam Neill and Julian Dennison. A hilarious, touching crowd-pleaser, HUNT FOR THE WILDERPEOPLE reminds us about the journey that growing up is (at any age) and those who help us along the way.”, “releaseDates” : { “theater” : “2016-06-24” }, “runningTime” : 101, “title” : “Hunt for the Wilderpeople”, “posterImage” : { “id” : “m-11939842”, “thumborId” : “v1.bTsxMTkzOTg0MjtwOzE3MDEzOzEyMDA7NDc4OzcwOA”, “height” : 708, “width” : 478, “format” : “PNG” }, “creationDate” : “2016-01-25T01:17:27-08:00”, “vanity” : “hunt_for_the_wilderpeople”, “officialUrl” : “http://wilderpeople.film/”, “cummulativeBoxOffice” : null, “mainTrailer” : { “id” : “11245753”, “title” : “Hunt For The Wilderpeople”, “sourceId” : “545243”, “thumbUrl” : “https://content.internetvideoarchive.com/content/photos/10269/545243_199.jpg”, “duration” : 151, “clipType” : “TRL”, “source” : “VDD” }, “boxOffice” : null, “openingWindow” : “opening”, “mpaaRating” : “PG13” }, { “id” : “771359352”, “type” : “movie”, “advisory” : “for sequences of sci-fi action and destruction, and for some language”, “lastModifiedDate” : “2016-06-21T12:29:00-07:00”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “fresh”, “value” : 60 }, “year” : 2016, “releaseScope” : “wide”, “studioName” : “20th Century Fox”, “dvdWindow” : “NA”, “heroImage” : { “id” : “n-1129912”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjsxMTI5OTEyO2o7MTcwMjM7MTIwMDszMDAwOzEyNTA”, “height” : 1250, “width” : 3000, “format” : “JPG” }, “synopsis” : “We always knew they were coming back. After INDEPENDENCE DAY redefined the event movie genre, the next epic chapter delivers global catastrophe on an unimaginable scale. Using recovered alien technology, the nations of Earth have collaborated on an immense defense program to protect the planet. But nothing can prepare us for the aliens’ advanced and unprecedented force. Only the ingenuity of a few brave men and women can bring our world back from the brink of extinction. (C) Fox”, “releaseDates” : { “theater” : “2016-06-24” }, “runningTime” : 119, “title” : “Independence Day: Resurgence”, “posterImage” : { “id” : “m-11573414”, “thumborId” : “v1.bTsxMTU3MzQxNDtqOzE3MDk4OzEyMDA7MjAyNTszMDAw”, “height” : 3000, “width” : 2025, “format” : “JPG” }, “creationDate” : “2013-06-20T22:10:16-07:00”, “vanity” : “independence_day_resurgence”, “officialUrl” : “http://www.foxmovies.com/movies/independence-day-resurgence”, “cummulativeBoxOffice” : null, “mainTrailer” : { “id” : “11233502”, “title” : “Independence Day: Resurgence”, “sourceId” : “614920”, “thumbUrl” : “https://content.internetvideoarchive.com/content/photos/10252/614920_526.jpg”, “duration” : 151, “clipType” : “TRL”, “source” : “VDD” }, “boxOffice” : 50000000, “openingWindow” : “opening”, “mpaaRating” : “PG13” }, { “id” : “771414367”, “type” : “movie”, “advisory” : “brutal battle scenes and disturbing graphic images”, “lastModifiedDate” : “2016-06-21T10:49:18-07:00”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “rotten”, “value” : 0 }, “year” : 2016, “releaseScope” : “wide”, “studioName” : “STX Entertainment”, “dvdWindow” : “NA”, “heroImage” : { “id” : “n-1133355”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjsxMTMzMzU1O2o7MTcwMjM7MTIwMDs1NzYwOzM4NDA”, “height” : 3840, “width” : 5760, “format” : “JPG” }, “synopsis” : “Directed by four-time Oscar (R) nominee Gary Ross and starring Oscar (R) winner Matthew McConaughey, Free State of Jones is an epic action-drama set during the Civil War, and tells the story of defiant Southern farmer, Newt Knight, and his extraordinary armed rebellion against the Confederacy. Banding together with other small farmers and local slaves, Knight launched an uprising that led Jones County, Mississippi to secede from the Confederacy, creating a Free State of Jones. Knight continued his struggle into Reconstruction, distinguishing him as a compelling, if controversial, figure of defiance long beyond the War.”, “releaseDates” : { “theater” : “2016-06-24” }, “runningTime” : 139, “title” : “Free State of Jones”, “posterImage” : { “id” : “m-12036570”, “thumborId” : “v1.bTsxMjAzNjU3MDtqOzE3MDE0OzEyMDA7MTk2MjsyODI2”, “height” : 2826, “width” : 1962, “format” : “JPG” }, “creationDate” : “2015-03-01T22:03:45-08:00”, “vanity” : “free_state_of_jones”, “officialUrl” : “http://stxmovies.com/freestateofjones/”, “cummulativeBoxOffice” : null, “mainTrailer” : { “id” : “11234809”, “title” : “Free State Of Jones”, “sourceId” : “431647”, “thumbUrl” : “https://content.internetvideoarchive.com/content/photos/10342/431647_102.jpg”, “duration” : 68, “clipType” : “TRL”, “source” : “VDD” }, “boxOffice” : 15000000, “openingWindow” : “opening”, “mpaaRating” : “R” }, { “id” : “771422973”, “type” : “movie”, “advisory” : “for bloody images, intense sequences of peril, and brief strong language”, “lastModifiedDate” : “2016-06-21T11:40:44-07:00”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “NA” }, “year” : 2016, “releaseScope” : “wide”, “studioName” : “Ombra Films”, “dvdWindow” : “NA”, “heroImage” : { “id” : “n-1100848”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjsxMTAwODQ4O2o7MTcwMjI7MTIwMDs1NjE2OzMxNTk”, “height” : 3159, “width” : 5616, “format” : “JPG” }, “synopsis” : “In the taut thriller The Shallows, when Nancy (Blake Lively) is surfing on a secluded beach, she finds herself on the feeding ground of a great white shark. Though she is stranded only 200 yards from shore, survival proves to be the ultimate test of wills, requiring all of Nancy’s ingenuity, resourcefulness, and fortitude.”, “releaseDates” : { “theater” : “2016-06-24” }, “runningTime” : 87, “title” : “The Shallows”, “posterImage” : { “id” : “m-11730097”, “thumborId” : “v1.bTsxMTczMDA5NztqOzE3MDEwOzEyMDA7MjAyNTszMDAw”, “height” : 3000, “width” : 2025, “format” : “JPG” }, “creationDate” : “2015-08-07T03:01:53-07:00”, “vanity” : “the_shallows”, “officialUrl” : “http://www.theshallows-movie.com/site/”, “cummulativeBoxOffice” : null, “mainTrailer” : { “id” : “11238393”, “title” : “The Shallows”, “sourceId” : “139669”, “thumbUrl” : “https://content.internetvideoarchive.com/content/photos/10373/139669_057.jpg”, “duration” : 108, “clipType” : “TRL”, “source” : “VDD” }, “boxOffice” : 12000000, “openingWindow” : “opening”, “mpaaRating” : “PG13” } ], “upcoming” : [ { “id” : “770808377”, “type” : “movie”, “advisory” : null, “lastModifiedDate” : “2016-06-21T10:49:19-07:00”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “NA” }, “year” : 2016, “releaseScope” : “wide”, “studioName” : “Sony Pictures”, “dvdWindow” : “NA”, “heroImage” : { “id” : “n-1086458”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjsxMDg2NDU4O2o7MTcwMjI7MTIwMDszMDAwOzIwMDQ”, “height” : 2004, “width” : 3000, “format” : “JPG” }, “synopsis” : “Ghostbusters makes its long-awaited return, rebooted with a cast of hilarious new characters. Thirty years after the beloved original franchise took the world by storm, director Paul Feig brings his fresh take to the supernatural comedy, joined by some of the funniest actors working today–Melissa McCarthy, Kristen Wiig, Kate McKinnon, Leslie Jones, and Chris Hemsworth. This summer, they’re here to save the world!”, “releaseDates” : { “theater” : “2016-07-15” }, “runningTime” : 105, “title” : “Ghostbusters”, “posterImage” : { “id” : “m-11557040”, “thumborId” : “v1.bTsxMTU1NzA0MDtqOzE3MDk4OzEyMDA7MzAwMDs0MDAw”, “height” : 4000, “width” : 3000, “format” : “JPG” }, “creationDate” : “2009-04-28T03:24:46-07:00”, “vanity” : “ghostbusters_2016”, “officialUrl” : “http://www.ghostbusters.com/”, “cummulativeBoxOffice” : null, “mainTrailer” : { “id” : “11237463”, “title” : “Ghostbusters”, “sourceId” : “843035”, “thumbUrl” : “https://content.internetvideoarchive.com/content/photos/10334/843035_087.jpg”, “duration” : 139, “clipType” : “TRL”, “source” : “VDD” }, “boxOffice” : null, “openingWindow” : “upcoming”, “mpaaRating” : “NR” }, { “id” : “771350404”, “type” : “movie”, “advisory” : “for action and some rude humor”, “lastModifiedDate” : “2016-06-21T10:49:26-07:00”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “fresh”, “value” : 80 }, “year” : 2016, “releaseScope” : “wide”, “studioName” : “Universal Pictures”, “dvdWindow” : “NA”, “heroImage” : { “id” : “n-816945”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjs4MTY5NDU7ajsxNzAxOTsxMjAwOzEyODA7NzIw”, “height” : 720, “width” : 1280, “format” : “JPG” }, “synopsis” : “For their fifth fully-animated feature-film collaboration, Illumination Entertainment and Universal Pictures present The Secret Life of Pets, a comedy about the lives our pets lead after we leave for work or school each day. Comedy superstars Louis C.K., Eric Stonestreet and Kevin Hart make their animated feature-film debuts in The Secret Life of Pets, which co-stars Ellie Kemper, Lake Bell, Jenny Slate, Bobby Moynihan, Hannibal Buress and Albert Brooks. Illumination founder and CEO Chris Meledandri and his longtime collaborator Janet Healy produce the film directed by Chris Renaud (Despicable Me, Despicable Me 2), co-directed by Yarrow Cheney and written by Brian Lynch and Cinco Paul & Ken Daurio.”, “releaseDates” : { “theater” : “2016-07-08” }, “runningTime” : null, “title” : “The Secret Life of Pets”, “posterImage” : { “id” : “m-11510769”, “thumborId” : “v1.bTsxMTUxMDc2OTtqOzE3MDk4OzEyMDA7NDgwOzc2MA”, “height” : 760, “width” : 480, “format” : “JPG” }, “creationDate” : “2013-02-14T21:15:39-08:00”, “vanity” : “the_secret_life_of_pets”, “officialUrl” : null, “cummulativeBoxOffice” : null, “mainTrailer” : { “id” : “11227335”, “title” : “The Secret Life Of Pets”, “sourceId” : “910344”, “thumbUrl” : “https://content.internetvideoarchive.com/content/photos/10220/910344_011.jpg”, “duration” : 153, “clipType” : “TRL”, “source” : “VDD” }, “boxOffice” : null, “openingWindow” : “upcoming”, “mpaaRating” : “NR” }, { “id” : “771374700”, “type” : “movie”, “advisory” : “for sequences of action and violence, some sensuality and brief rude dialogue”, “lastModifiedDate” : “2016-06-21T10:49:22-07:00”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “NA” }, “year” : 2016, “releaseScope” : “wide”, “studioName” : “Lionsgate Pictures”, “dvdWindow” : “NA”, “heroImage” : { “id” : “n-1133635”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjsxMTMzNjM1O2o7MTcwMjM7MTIwMDsyMzUwOzEyMDA”, “height” : 1200, “width” : 2350, “format” : “JPG” }, “synopsis” : “It has been years since the man once known as Tarzan (Alexander Skarsgrd) left the jungles of Africa behind for a gentrified life as John Clayton III, Lord Greystoke, with his beloved wife, Jane (Margot Robbie) at his side. Now, he has been invited back to the Congo to serve as a trade emissary of Parliament, unaware that he is a pawn in a deadly convergence of greed and revenge, masterminded by the Belgian, Captain Leon Rom (Christoph Waltz). But those behind the murderous plot have no idea what they are about to unleash.”, “releaseDates” : { “theater” : “2016-07-01” }, “runningTime” : 109, “title” : “The Legend of Tarzan”, “posterImage” : { “id” : “m-11954606”, “thumborId” : “v1.bTsxMTk1NDYwNjtqOzE3MDEzOzEyMDA7NTc0Ozg1MQ”, “height” : 851, “width” : 574, “format” : “JPG” }, “creationDate” : “2014-02-12T03:30:39-08:00”, “vanity” : “the_legend_of_tarzan”, “officialUrl” : “http://legendoftarzan.com/”, “cummulativeBoxOffice” : null, “mainTrailer” : { “id” : “11233392”, “title” : “The Legend Of Tarzan”, “sourceId” : “39102”, “thumbUrl” : “https://content.internetvideoarchive.com/content/photos/10127/39102_061.jpg”, “duration” : 147, “clipType” : “TRL”, “source” : “VDD” }, “boxOffice” : null, “openingWindow” : “upcoming”, “mpaaRating” : “PG13” }, { “id” : “771400429”, “type” : “movie”, “advisory” : “for sequences of violence and action throughout, disturbing behavior, suggestive content and language”, “lastModifiedDate” : “2016-06-21T10:49:26-07:00”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “NA” }, “year” : 2016, “releaseScope” : “wide”, “studioName” : “Warner Bros. Pictures”, “dvdWindow” : “NA”, “heroImage” : { “id” : “n-864935”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjs4NjQ5MzU7ajsxNzAyMDsxMjAwOzEyODA7NzIw”, “height” : 720, “width” : 1280, “format” : “JPG” }, “synopsis” : “Director David Ayer (Fury) takes the helm for this Warner Bros. production adapted from the DC Comics series about a group of super-villains who are given a shot at redemption by embarking on a heroic mission that will most likely mean the death of them all. Dan Lin produces from a script by Justin Marks.”, “releaseDates” : { “theater” : “2016-08-05” }, “runningTime” : 100, “title” : “Suicide Squad”, “posterImage” : { “id” : “m-11483740”, “thumborId” : “v1.bTsxMTQ4Mzc0MDtwOzE3MDk3OzEyMDA7NTY3Ozg0MA”, “height” : 840, “width” : 567, “format” : “PNG” }, “creationDate” : “2014-10-17T23:15:51-07:00”, “vanity” : “suicide_squad_2016”, “officialUrl” : null, “cummulativeBoxOffice” : null, “mainTrailer” : { “id” : “11228225”, “title” : “Suicide Squad”, “sourceId” : “125938”, “thumbUrl” : “https://content.internetvideoarchive.com/content/photos/10209/125938_165.jpg”, “duration” : 153, “clipType” : “TRL”, “source” : “VDD” }, “boxOffice” : null, “openingWindow” : “upcoming”, “mpaaRating” : “PG13” }, { “id” : “771411544”, “type” : “movie”, “advisory” : “for disturbing bloody violence and strong language”, “lastModifiedDate” : “2016-06-21T10:49:24-07:00”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “NA” }, “year” : 2016, “releaseScope” : “wide”, “studioName” : “Universal Pictures”, “dvdWindow” : “NA”, “heroImage” : { “id” : “n-1133400”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjsxMTMzNDAwO2o7MTcwMjM7MTIwMDsxOTIwOzEwODA”, “height” : 1080, “width” : 1920, “format” : “JPG” }, “synopsis” : “Writer/director James DeMonaco returns for the third installment of the franchise starring Frank Grillo.”, “releaseDates” : { “theater” : “2016-07-01” }, “runningTime” : null, “title” : “The Purge: Election Year”, “posterImage” : { “id” : “m-12007674”, “thumborId” : “v1.bTsxMjAwNzY3NDtqOzE3MDEzOzEyMDA7NTAwMDs3OTE3”, “height” : 7917, “width” : 5000, “format” : “JPG” }, “creationDate” : “2015-01-12T03:00:11-08:00”, “vanity” : “the_purge_election_year”, “officialUrl” : null, “cummulativeBoxOffice” : null, “mainTrailer” : { “id” : “11236361”, “title” : “The Purge: Election Year (Australia Trailer 1)”, “sourceId” : “483765”, “thumbUrl” : “https://content.internetvideoarchive.com/content/photos/10015/483765_008.jpg”, “duration” : 142, “clipType” : “TRL”, “source” : “VDD” }, “boxOffice” : null, “openingWindow” : “upcoming”, “mpaaRating” : “R” }, { “id” : “771372077”, “type” : “movie”, “advisory” : “for mild rude humor and some action/peril”, “lastModifiedDate” : “2016-06-21T11:43:01-07:00”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “NA” }, “year” : 2016, “releaseScope” : “wide”, “studioName” : “20th Century Fox”, “dvdWindow” : “NA”, “heroImage” : { “id” : “n-982720”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjs5ODI3MjA7ajsxNzAyMTsxMjAwOzEyODA7NzIw”, “height” : 720, “width” : 1280, “format” : “JPG” }, “synopsis” : “Scrat’s epic pursuit of the elusive acorn catapults him into the universe where he accidentally sets off a series of cosmic events that transform and threaten the Ice Age World. To save themselves, Sid, Manny, Diego, and the rest of the herd must leave their home and embark on a quest full of comedy and adventure, travelling to exotic new lands and encountering a host of colorful new characters.”, “releaseDates” : { “theater” : “2016-07-22” }, “runningTime” : 100, “title” : “Ice Age: Collision Course”, “posterImage” : { “id” : “m-11362509”, “thumborId” : “v1.bTsxMTM2MjUwOTtqOzE3MDk2OzEyMDA7NjAwOzgwMA”, “height” : 800, “width” : 600, “format” : “JPG” }, “creationDate” : “2013-12-23T06:30:23-08:00”, “vanity” : “ice_age_collision_course”, “officialUrl” : “https://www.facebook.com/iceage”, “cummulativeBoxOffice” : null, “mainTrailer” : { “id” : “11233536”, “title” : “Ice Age: Collision Course”, “sourceId” : “381486”, “thumbUrl” : “https://content.internetvideoarchive.com/content/photos/10300/381486_058.jpg”, “duration” : 146, “clipType” : “TRL”, “source” : “VDD” }, “boxOffice” : null, “openingWindow” : “upcoming”, “mpaaRating” : “PG” }, { “id” : “771361911”, “type” : “movie”, “advisory” : null, “lastModifiedDate” : “2016-06-21T10:49:26-07:00”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “NA” }, “year” : 2016, “releaseScope” : “limited”, “studioName” : “Paramount Pictures”, “dvdWindow” : “NA”, “heroImage” : { “id” : “n-982685”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjs5ODI2ODU7ajsxNzAyMTsxMjAwOzEyODA7NzIw”, “height” : 720, “width” : 1280, “format” : “JPG” }, “synopsis” : “The crew of the starship Enterprise embarks on another mission into deep space in this Paramount production penned by Star Trek and Star Trek Into Darkness scribes Alex Kurtzman and Roberto Orci. ~ Jason Buchanan, Rovi”, “releaseDates” : { “theater” : “2016-07-22” }, “runningTime” : null, “title” : “Star Trek Beyond”, “posterImage” : { “id” : “m-12027103”, “thumborId” : “v1.bTsxMjAyNzEwMztqOzE3MDE0OzEyMDA7Mjg2OzQ0Ng”, “height” : 446, “width” : 286, “format” : “JPG” }, “creationDate” : “2013-08-07T01:43:50-07:00”, “vanity” : “star_trek_beyond”, “officialUrl” : “http://www.startrekmovie.com/”, “cummulativeBoxOffice” : null, “mainTrailer” : { “id” : “11233501”, “title” : “Star Trek Beyond”, “sourceId” : “939225”, “thumbUrl” : “https://content.internetvideoarchive.com/content/photos/10337/939225_103.jpg”, “duration” : 152, “clipType” : “TRL”, “source” : “VDD” }, “boxOffice” : null, “openingWindow” : “upcoming”, “mpaaRating” : “NR” }, { “id” : “771365099”, “type” : “movie”, “advisory” : “strong crude sexual content, pervasive language, and drug use”, “lastModifiedDate” : “2016-06-21T11:37:08-07:00”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “fresh”, “value” : 100 }, “year” : 2016, “releaseScope” : “limited”, “studioName” : “Sony Pictures”, “dvdWindow” : “NA”, “heroImage” : { “id” : “n-1064625”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjsxMDY0NjI1O2o7MTcwMjI7MTIwMDsxMjgwOzcyMA”, “height” : 720, “width” : 1280, “format” : “JPG” }, “synopsis” : “A misplaced sausage and his savory friends embark on an existential adventure through the aisles of a massive supermarket in this raunchy animated comedy from Seth Rogen and Evan Goldberg. As the store’s annual 4th of July sale draws near, the perishable pals must return to their rightful places on the shelves before the customers come flooding in to fill their carts. Conrad Vernon (Monsters vs. Aliens) takes the helm for this Sony Pictures/AnnaPurna Pictures co-production penned by Rogen, Goldberg, Kyle Hunter, and Ariel Shaffirwhich. ~ Jason Buchanan, Rovi”, “releaseDates” : { “theater” : “2016-08-12” }, “runningTime” : null, “title” : “Sausage Party”, “posterImage” : { “id” : “m-11949625”, “thumborId” : “v1.bTsxMTk0OTYyNTtqOzE3MDEzOzEyMDA7NjkyOzEwMjQ”, “height” : 1024, “width” : 692, “format” : “JPG” }, “creationDate” : “2013-09-25T01:54:17-07:00”, “vanity” : “sausage_party”, “officialUrl” : null, “cummulativeBoxOffice” : null, “mainTrailer” : { “id” : “11238106”, “title” : “Sausage Party”, “sourceId” : “787011”, “thumbUrl” : “https://content.internetvideoarchive.com/content/photos/10335/787011_176.jpg”, “duration” : 145, “clipType” : “TRL”, “source” : “VDD” }, “boxOffice” : null, “openingWindow” : “upcoming”, “mpaaRating” : “R” }, { “id” : “771398975”, “type” : “movie”, “advisory” : null, “lastModifiedDate” : “2016-06-21T11:42:12-07:00”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “NA” }, “year” : 2016, “releaseScope” : “wide”, “studioName” : “Universal”, “dvdWindow” : “NA”, “heroImage” : { “id” : “n-1040021”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjsxMDQwMDIxO2o7MTcwMjI7MTIwMDsxMjgwOzcyMA”, “height” : 720, “width” : 1280, “format” : “JPG” }, “synopsis” : “Matt Damon reprises his role as the titular former CIA agent with a hazy past. Jason Bourne is the fifth installment in the action franchise, and the third to be directed by Paul Greengrass.”, “releaseDates” : { “theater” : “2016-07-29” }, “runningTime” : null, “title” : “Jason Bourne”, “posterImage” : { “id” : “m-11560338”, “thumborId” : “v1.bTsxMTU2MDMzODtqOzE3MDk4OzEyMDA7MzE1ODs1MDAw”, “height” : 5000, “width” : 3158, “format” : “JPG” }, “creationDate” : “2014-10-05T00:04:31-07:00”, “vanity” : “jason_bourne”, “officialUrl” : “http://www.jasonbournemovie.com/”, “cummulativeBoxOffice” : null, “mainTrailer” : { “id” : “11236137”, “title” : “Jason Bourne”, “sourceId” : “654034”, “thumbUrl” : “https://content.internetvideoarchive.com/content/photos/10248/654034_179.jpg”, “duration” : 148, “clipType” : “TRL”, “source” : “VDD” }, “boxOffice” : null, “openingWindow” : “upcoming”, “mpaaRating” : “PG13” }, { “id” : “771382797”, “type” : “movie”, “advisory” : “for action/peril, some scary moments and brief rude humor”, “lastModifiedDate” : “2016-06-21T10:49:14-07:00”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “fresh”, “value” : 70 }, “year” : 2016, “releaseScope” : “wide”, “studioName” : “Walt Disney Pictures”, “dvdWindow” : “NA”, “heroImage” : { “id” : “n-1134422”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjsxMTM0NDIyO2o7MTcwMjM7MTIwMDsyMTgwOzExNTI”, “height” : 1152, “width” : 2180, “format” : “JPG” }, “synopsis” : “This film tells the tale of a young girl, the Queen of England and a benevolent giant known as the BFG, who set out on an adventure to capture the evil, man-eating giants who have been invading the human world.”, “releaseDates” : { “theater” : “2016-07-01” }, “runningTime” : 115, “title” : “The BFG”, “posterImage” : { “id” : “m-11931565”, “thumborId” : “v1.bTsxMTkzMTU2NTtqOzE3MDEzOzEyMDA7MTY4ODsyNTAw”, “height” : 2500, “width” : 1688, “format” : “JPG” }, “creationDate” : “2014-06-19T08:16:48-07:00”, “vanity” : “the_bfg_2016”, “officialUrl” : “http://movies.disney.com/the-bfg”, “cummulativeBoxOffice” : null, “mainTrailer” : { “id” : “11233325”, “title” : “The BFG”, “sourceId” : “823354”, “thumbUrl” : “https://content.internetvideoarchive.com/content/photos/10323/823354_142.jpg”, “duration” : 133, “clipType” : “TRL”, “source” : “VDD” }, “boxOffice” : null, “openingWindow” : “upcoming”, “mpaaRating” : “PG” } ], “topRentals” : [ { “id” : “771442118”, “type” : “movie”, “advisory” : “for strong violence and language.”, “lastModifiedDate” : “2016-06-21T07:29:03-07:00”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “NA” }, “year” : 2016, “releaseScope” : “limited”, “studioName” : “Mandeville Films”, “dvdWindow” : “new-on-dvd”, “heroImage” : { “id” : “n-1133604”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjsxMTMzNjA0O2o7MTcwMjM7MTIwMDsxMjU4OzUyNQ”, “height” : 525, “width” : 1258, “format” : “JPG” }, “synopsis” : “THE DUEL stars Liam Hemsworth as a Texas Ranger who investigates a series of murders in a small town led by a charismatic preacher played by Woody Harrelson. However, the routine undercover investigation soon turns personal for the ranger who must solve the case before he loses everything to the mysterious town.”, “releaseDates” : { “dvd” : “2016-06-24”, “theater” : “2016-06-24” }, “runningTime” : 109, “title” : “The Duel”, “posterImage” : { “id” : “m-11869259”, “thumborId” : “v1.bTsxMTg2OTI1OTtwOzE3MDEyOzEyMDA7NDY4OzY5NQ”, “height” : 695, “width” : 468, “format” : “PNG” }, “creationDate” : “2016-04-27T02:39:12-07:00”, “vanity” : “the_duel_2016”, “officialUrl” : null, “cummulativeBoxOffice” : null, “mainTrailer” : { “id” : “11245275”, “title” : “The Duel”, “sourceId” : “860754”, “thumbUrl” : “https://content.internetvideoarchive.com/content/photos/10268/860754_005.jpg”, “duration” : 115, “clipType” : “TRL”, “source” : “VDD” }, “boxOffice” : null, “openingWindow” : “opening”, “mpaaRating” : “R” }, { “id” : “771435751”, “type” : “movie”, “advisory” : null, “lastModifiedDate” : “2016-06-21T06:23:50-07:00”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “fresh”, “value” : 75 }, “year” : 2016, “releaseScope” : “wide”, “studioName” : “Worldwide Pants”, “dvdWindow” : “new-on-dvd”, “heroImage” : { “id” : “n-1117772”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjsxMTE3NzcyO2o7MTcwMjI7MTIwMDs1NzYwOzM4NDA”, “height” : 3840, “width” : 5760, “format” : “JPG” }, “synopsis” : “An 18-year-old with muscular dystrophy (Craig Roberts) goes on a road trip with his caregiver (Paul Rudd), and the pair learn about life from the people they meet along the way. Written and directed by Rob Burnett, The Fundamentals of Caring made its world premiere at the 2016 Sundance Film Festival.”, “releaseDates” : { “dvd” : “2016-06-24” }, “runningTime” : 93, “title” : “The Fundamentals of Caring”, “posterImage” : { “id” : “m-12033115”, “thumborId” : “v1.bTsxMjAzMzExNTtqOzE3MDE0OzEyMDA7MTUwMDsyMjIy”, “height” : 2222, “width” : 1500, “format” : “JPG” }, “creationDate” : “2015-12-25T19:10:13-08:00”, “vanity” : “the_fundamentals_of_caring”, “officialUrl” : “”, “cummulativeBoxOffice” : null, “mainTrailer” : null, “boxOffice” : null, “openingWindow” : “NA”, “mpaaRating” : “NR” }, { “id” : “771441659”, “type” : “movie”, “advisory” : null, “lastModifiedDate” : “2016-06-21T10:49:24-07:00”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “fresh”, “value” : 100 }, “year” : 2016, “releaseScope” : “limited”, “studioName” : “Bron Capital Partners”, “dvdWindow” : “new-on-dvd”, “heroImage” : { “id” : “n-1134247”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjsxMTM0MjQ3O2o7MTcwMjM7MTIwMDs1MzkwOzM2MDA”, “height” : 3600, “width” : 5390, “format” : “JPG” }, “synopsis” : “When major-league rookie pitcher Hopper Gibson (Johnny Simmons) can’t find the plate, he’s sent down to the minor leagues and begins sessions with an unorthodox sports psychologist (Paul Giamatti). In the process, hidden conflicts with his overbearing father (Ethan Hawke) are brought to light.”, “releaseDates” : { “dvd” : “2016-06-24”, “theater” : “2016-06-24” }, “runningTime” : 88, “title” : “The Phenom”, “posterImage” : { “id” : “m-11922523”, “thumborId” : “v1.bTsxMTkyMjUyMztqOzE3MDEyOzEyMDA7NTcwOzg0MA”, “height” : 840, “width” : 570, “format” : “JPG” }, “creationDate” : “2016-04-22T08:25:52-07:00”, “vanity” : “the_phenom_2016”, “officialUrl” : null, “cummulativeBoxOffice” : null, “mainTrailer” : { “id” : “11248690”, “title” : “The Phenom”, “sourceId” : “190086”, “thumbUrl” : “https://content.internetvideoarchive.com/content/photos/10318/190086_165.jpg”, “duration” : 148, “clipType” : “TRL”, “source” : “VDD” }, “boxOffice” : null, “openingWindow” : “opening”, “mpaaRating” : “NR” }, { “id” : “771444017”, “type” : “movie”, “advisory” : null, “lastModifiedDate” : “2016-06-21T09:59:35-07:00”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “NA” }, “year” : 2016, “releaseScope” : “limited”, “studioName” : “Stormchaser Films”, “dvdWindow” : “new-on-dvd”, “heroImage” : { “id” : “n-1129882”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjsxMTI5ODgyO2o7MTcwMjM7MTIwMDsxOTIwOzEwODA”, “height” : 1080, “width” : 1920, “format” : “JPG” }, “synopsis” : “A young woman’s quiet night in becomes a free-fall into fear in this disturbing home invasion thriller. After she lands her dream job, a young cellist (Louise Linton) settles in for a relaxing few days holed up in her apartment-but as a violent storm rages outside, she can’t shake the feeling that someone is watching her every move. Cleverly toying with the rules of suspense, director Travis Z wrings maximum terror from everyone’s worst nightmare: you may not be alone.”, “releaseDates” : { “dvd” : “2016-06-24”, “theater” : “2016-06-24” }, “runningTime” : 91, “title” : “Intruder”, “posterImage” : { “id” : “m-12027346”, “thumborId” : “v1.bTsxMjAyNzM0NjtqOzE3MDE0OzEyMDA7MTY5MDsyNTAw”, “height” : 2500, “width” : 1690, “format” : “JPG” }, “creationDate” : “2016-05-26T19:29:53-07:00”, “vanity” : “intruder_2016”, “officialUrl” : “http://www.ifcfilms.com/films/intruder”, “cummulativeBoxOffice” : null, “mainTrailer” : null, “boxOffice” : null, “openingWindow” : “opening”, “mpaaRating” : “NR” }, { “id” : “771443837”, “type” : “movie”, “advisory” : null, “lastModifiedDate” : “2016-06-21T02:49:04-07:00”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “NA” }, “year” : 2016, “releaseScope” : “limited”, “studioName” : null, “dvdWindow” : “new-on-dvd”, “heroImage” : { “id” : “n-1117896”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjsxMTE3ODk2O2o7MTcwMjI7MTIwMDsxMjgwOzcyMA”, “height” : 720, “width” : 1280, “format” : “JPG” }, “synopsis” : “Seattle Road explores the paradox of a couple’s love and the resentment that forms between two ambitious people. Eve is a beautiful but wounded woman, the product of an affluent and sophisticated background. Adam a sheltered, vulnerable man raised in a cult-like commune with his mother and younger brother who only recently escaped his confining background. Early in their relationship, Eve suffers from the loss of her estranged father and convinces Adam to move into her father’s abandoned country home. She hides the fact that the property is actually not left to her in the will, and that they will basically be squatting at the home. Together they unknowingly embark on a journey that will be tumultuous to their relationship, leading to a great sense of impending doom. Exploring the ideas of serendipity and predestination, Adam and Eve are on a romantic collision course that’s part of a larger design – that they’re fated to be partners and to go through stages in their relationship that mirror their archetypal story from Genesis. Relying on the use of imperfect fragments of memory, this film deconstructs a relationship in a painful, realistic and ultimately hopeful journey.”, “releaseDates” : { “dvd” : “2016-06-24”, “theater” : “2016-06-24” }, “runningTime” : 83, “title” : “Seattle Road”, “posterImage” : { “id” : “m-11949608”, “thumborId” : “v1.bTsxMTk0OTYwODtwOzE3MDEzOzEyMDA7MzE1OzQ2Nw”, “height” : 467, “width” : 315, “format” : “PNG” }, “creationDate” : “2016-05-23T05:13:42-07:00”, “vanity” : “seattle_road_2016”, “officialUrl” : “”, “cummulativeBoxOffice” : null, “mainTrailer” : { “id” : “11250058”, “title” : “Seattle Road”, “sourceId” : “829656”, “thumbUrl” : “https://content.internetvideoarchive.com/content/photos/10317/829656_074.jpg”, “duration” : 60, “clipType” : “TRL”, “source” : “VDD” }, “boxOffice” : null, “openingWindow” : “NA”, “mpaaRating” : “NR” }, { “id” : “771381397”, “type” : “movie”, “advisory” : “for some suggestive material”, “lastModifiedDate” : “2016-06-21T12:04:00-07:00”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “rotten”, “value” : 29 }, “year” : 2016, “releaseScope” : “wide”, “studioName” : “Gold Circle Films”, “dvdWindow” : “new-on-dvd”, “heroImage” : { “id” : “n-1064568”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjsxMDY0NTY4O2o7MTcwMjI7MTIwMDsyMzcxOzE1MDA”, “height” : 1500, “width” : 2371, “format” : “JPG” }, “synopsis” : “Gold Circle Entertainment and HBO present a Playtone production of My Big Fat Greek Wedding 2, the long-awaited follow-up to the highest-grossing romantic comedy of all time. Written by Academy Award (R) nominee Nia Vardalos, who stars alongside the entire returning cast of favorites, the film reveals a Portokalos family secret that will bring the beloved characters back together for an even bigger and Greeker wedding. Kirk Jones (Nanny McPhee, Waking Ned Devine) directs the next chapter of the film that will be once again produced by Rita Wilson and Playtone partners Tom Hanks and Gary Goetzman. Paul Brooks and Steven Shareshian return to executive produce alongside Vardalos and Scott Niemeyer. Universal Pictures will distribute the comedy domestically and in select international territories.”, “releaseDates” : { “dvd” : “2016-06-21”, “theater” : “2016-03-25” }, “runningTime” : 94, “title” : “My Big Fat Greek Wedding 2”, “posterImage” : { “id” : “m-11564384”, “thumborId” : “v1.bTsxMTU2NDM4NDtqOzE3MDk4OzEyMDA7Mjg0OzQwNQ”, “height” : 405, “width” : 284, “format” : “JPG” }, “creationDate” : “2014-05-31T01:53:24-07:00”, “vanity” : “my_big_fat_greek_wedding_2”, “officialUrl” : “http://www.mybigfatgreekweddingmovie.com/”, “cummulativeBoxOffice” : 59573085, “mainTrailer” : { “id” : “11232322”, “title” : “My Big Fat Greek Wedding 2”, “sourceId” : “530904”, “thumbUrl” : “https://content.internetvideoarchive.com/content/photos/10241/530904_007.jpg”, “duration” : 136, “clipType” : “TRL”, “source” : “VDD” }, “boxOffice” : 141501, “openingWindow” : “in-theaters”, “mpaaRating” : “PG13” }, { “id” : “771362417”, “type” : “movie”, “advisory” : “for some violence and action”, “lastModifiedDate” : “2016-06-21T10:49:22-07:00”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “certified_fresh”, “value” : 83 }, “year” : 2016, “releaseScope” : “limited”, “studioName” : “Warner Bros. Pictures”, “dvdWindow” : “new-on-dvd”, “heroImage” : { “id” : “n-1049439”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjsxMDQ5NDM5O2o7MTcwMjI7MTIwMDs0MDk2OzE1NDQ”, “height” : 1544, “width” : 4096, “format” : “JPG” }, “synopsis” : “Michael Shannon, Joel Edgerton, and Kirsten Dunst star in writer/director Jeff Nichols’ drama about a father and his eight-year-old son who go on the lam upon discovering that the boy possesses mysterious powers. ~ Jason Buchanan, Rovi”, “releaseDates” : { “dvd” : “2016-06-21”, “theater” : “2016-03-18” }, “runningTime” : 111, “title” : “Midnight Special”, “posterImage” : { “id” : “m-11708091”, “thumborId” : “v1.bTsxMTcwODA5MTtqOzE3MDEwOzEyMDA7NDA1MDs2MDAw”, “height” : 6000, “width” : 4050, “format” : “JPG” }, “creationDate” : “2013-08-15T01:45:15-07:00”, “vanity” : “midnight_special_2015”, “officialUrl” : “http://www.midnightspecialmovie.com/”, “cummulativeBoxOffice” : null, “mainTrailer” : { “id” : “11232640”, “title” : “Midnight Special”, “sourceId” : “871053”, “thumbUrl” : “https://content.internetvideoarchive.com/content/photos/10020/871053_111.jpg”, “duration” : 125, “clipType” : “TRL”, “source” : “VDD” }, “boxOffice” : 153508, “openingWindow” : “NA”, “mpaaRating” : “PG13” }, { “id” : “771433283”, “type” : “movie”, “advisory” : “for strong crude sexual content, graphic nudity, violence, language, and some drug use”, “lastModifiedDate” : “2016-06-21T07:58:53-07:00”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “rotten”, “value” : 38 }, “year” : 2016, “releaseScope” : “wide”, “studioName” : “Big Talk Productions”, “dvdWindow” : “new-on-dvd”, “heroImage” : { “id” : “n-957062”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjs5NTcwNjI7ajsxNzAyMTsxMjAwOzEyODA7NzIw”, “height” : 720, “width” : 1280, “format” : “JPG” }, “synopsis” : “Nobby (Sacha Baron Cohen), a sweet but dimwitted English football hooligan, reunites with his long-lost brother Sebastian (Mark Strong), a deadly MI6 agent, to prevent a massive global terror attack and prove that behind every great spy is an embarrassing sibling. Nobby has everything a man from Grimsby could want, including 11 children and the most gorgeous girlfriend in the northeast of England (Rebel Wilson). There’s only one thing missing: his little brother, Sebastian, who Nobby has spent 28 years searching for after they were separated as kids. Nobby sets off to reunite with Sebastian, unaware that not only is his brother MI6’s deadliest assassin, but he’s just uncovered plans for an imminent global terrorist attack. On the run and wrongfully accused, Sebastian realizes that if he is going to save the world, he will need the help of its biggest idiot.”, “releaseDates” : { “dvd” : “2016-06-21”, “theater” : “2016-03-11” }, “runningTime” : 83, “title” : “The Brothers Grimsby”, “posterImage” : { “id” : “m-11644966”, “thumborId” : “v1.bTsxMTY0NDk2NjtqOzE3MDk5OzEyMDA7MTM1ODsyMDEy”, “height” : 2012, “width” : 1358, “format” : “JPG” }, “creationDate” : “2015-10-30T08:06:56-07:00”, “vanity” : “the_brothers_grimsby”, “officialUrl” : “”, “cummulativeBoxOffice” : 0, “mainTrailer” : { “id” : “11231917”, “title” : “The Brothers Grimsby”, “sourceId” : “950765”, “thumbUrl” : “https://content.internetvideoarchive.com/content/photos/9901/950765_069.jpg”, “duration” : 173, “clipType” : “TRL”, “source” : “VDD” }, “boxOffice” : null, “openingWindow” : “NA”, “mpaaRating” : “R” }, { “id” : “771428953”, “type” : “movie”, “advisory” : null, “lastModifiedDate” : “2016-06-21T10:49:17-07:00”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “certified_fresh”, “value” : 99 }, “year” : 2016, “releaseScope” : “limited”, “studioName” : “Buffalo Films”, “dvdWindow” : “new-on-dvd”, “heroImage” : { “id” : “n-1007034”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjsxMDA3MDM0O2o7MTcwMjE7MTIwMDsxMjgwOzcyMA”, “height” : 720, “width” : 1280, “format” : “JPG” }, “synopsis” : “Embrace of the Serpent features the encounter, apparent betrayal and finally life-affirming friendship between an Amazonian shaman (the last survivor of his people) and two foreign scientists.”, “releaseDates” : { “dvd” : “2016-06-21”, “theater” : “2016-02-17” }, “runningTime” : 123, “title” : “Embrace Of The Serpent (El Abrazo De La Serpiente)”, “posterImage” : { “id” : “m-11314106”, “thumborId” : “v1.bTsxMTMxNDEwNjtqOzE3MDk1OzEyMDA7NDMyOzY0MA”, “height” : 640, “width” : 432, “format” : “JPG” }, “creationDate” : “2015-09-11T06:46:20-07:00”, “vanity” : “embrace_of_the_serpent”, “officialUrl” : “http://embraceoftheserpent.oscilloscope.net/”, “cummulativeBoxOffice” : 1320005, “mainTrailer” : { “id” : “11234643”, “title” : “Embrace Of The Serpent (US)”, “sourceId” : “230252”, “thumbUrl” : “https://content.internetvideoarchive.com/content/photos/9945/230252_010.jpg”, “duration” : 127, “clipType” : “TRL”, “source” : “VDD” }, “boxOffice” : 30406, “openingWindow” : “NA”, “mpaaRating” : “NR” }, { “id” : “771260322”, “type” : “movie”, “advisory” : “for some nudity, sexuality and language”, “lastModifiedDate” : “2016-06-21T06:50:57-07:00”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “rotten”, “value” : 46 }, “year” : 2016, “releaseScope” : “limited”, “studioName” : “Broad Green Pictures”, “dvdWindow” : “new-on-dvd”, “heroImage” : { “id” : “n-1048803”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjsxMDQ4ODAzO2o7MTcwMjI7MTIwMDsxOTgwOzEzMzE”, “height” : 1331, “width” : 1980, “format” : “JPG” }, “synopsis” : “Knight of Cups follows writer Rick (Christian Bale, The Fighter, American Hustle) on an odyssey through the playgrounds of Los Angeles and Las Vegas as he undertakes a search for love and self. Even as he moves through a desire-laden landscape of mansions, resorts, beaches and clubs, Rick grapples over complicated relationships with his brother (Wes Bentley) and father (Brian Dennehy). His quest to break the spell of his disenchantment takes him on a series of adventures with six alluring women: rebellious Della (Imogen Poots); his physician ex-wife, Nancy (Cate Blanchett); a serene model Helen (Freida Pinto); a woman he wronged in the past Elizabeth (Natalie Portman); a spirited, playful stripper Karen (Teresa Palmer); and an innocent Isabel (Isabel Lucas), who helps him see a way forward. Rick moves in a daze through a strange and overwhelming dreamscape — but can he wake up to the beauty, humanity and rhythms of life around him? The deeper he searches, the more the journey becomes his destination. The 7th film from director Terrence Malick (The Thin Red Line, Tree of Life), Knight of Cups (the title refers to the Tarot card depicting a romantic adventurer guided by his emotions) offers both a vision of modern life and an intensely personal experience of memory, family, and love. Knight of Cups is produced by Nicolas Gonda, Sarah Green and Ken Kao. Prominent crew includes cinematographer Emmanuel Lubezki (Gravity, Birdman), production designer Jack Fisk, costume designer Jacqueline West, and composer Hanan Townshend (To The Wonder). The film’s ensemble cast also includes Antonio Banderas, Cherry Jones and Armin Mueller-Stahl.”, “releaseDates” : { “dvd” : “2016-06-21”, “theater” : “2016-03-04” }, “runningTime” : 118, “title” : “Knight of Cups”, “posterImage” : { “id” : “m-11510773”, “thumborId” : “v1.bTsxMTUxMDc3MztqOzE3MDk4OzEyMDA7NTY3Ozg0MA”, “height” : 840, “width” : 567, “format” : “JPG” }, “creationDate” : “2011-11-04T01:21:25-07:00”, “vanity” : “knight_of_cups”, “officialUrl” : “http://www.theknightofcupsmovie.com/”, “cummulativeBoxOffice” : 558402, “mainTrailer” : { “id” : “11223182”, “title” : “Knight Of Cups”, “sourceId” : “230816”, “thumbUrl” : “https://content.internetvideoarchive.com/content/photos/7531/230816_095.jpg”, “duration” : 141, “clipType” : “TRL”, “source” : “VDD” }, “boxOffice” : 3970, “openingWindow” : “NA”, “mpaaRating” : “R” } ], “newOnDvd” : [ { “id” : “771381397”, “type” : “movie”, “advisory” : “for some suggestive material”, “lastModifiedDate” : “2016-06-21T12:04:00-07:00”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “rotten”, “value” : 29 }, “year” : 2016, “releaseScope” : “wide”, “studioName” : “Gold Circle Films”, “dvdWindow” : “new-on-dvd”, “heroImage” : { “id” : “n-1064568”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjsxMDY0NTY4O2o7MTcwMjI7MTIwMDsyMzcxOzE1MDA”, “height” : 1500, “width” : 2371, “format” : “JPG” }, “synopsis” : “Gold Circle Entertainment and HBO present a Playtone production of My Big Fat Greek Wedding 2, the long-awaited follow-up to the highest-grossing romantic comedy of all time. Written by Academy Award (R) nominee Nia Vardalos, who stars alongside the entire returning cast of favorites, the film reveals a Portokalos family secret that will bring the beloved characters back together for an even bigger and Greeker wedding. Kirk Jones (Nanny McPhee, Waking Ned Devine) directs the next chapter of the film that will be once again produced by Rita Wilson and Playtone partners Tom Hanks and Gary Goetzman. Paul Brooks and Steven Shareshian return to executive produce alongside Vardalos and Scott Niemeyer. Universal Pictures will distribute the comedy domestically and in select international territories.”, “releaseDates” : { “dvd” : “2016-06-21”, “theater” : “2016-03-25” }, “runningTime” : 94, “title” : “My Big Fat Greek Wedding 2”, “posterImage” : { “id” : “m-11564384”, “thumborId” : “v1.bTsxMTU2NDM4NDtqOzE3MDk4OzEyMDA7Mjg0OzQwNQ”, “height” : 405, “width” : 284, “format” : “JPG” }, “creationDate” : “2014-05-31T01:53:24-07:00”, “vanity” : “my_big_fat_greek_wedding_2”, “officialUrl” : “http://www.mybigfatgreekweddingmovie.com/”, “cummulativeBoxOffice” : 59573085, “mainTrailer” : { “id” : “11232322”, “title” : “My Big Fat Greek Wedding 2”, “sourceId” : “530904”, “thumbUrl” : “https://content.internetvideoarchive.com/content/photos/10241/530904_007.jpg”, “duration” : 136, “clipType” : “TRL”, “source” : “VDD” }, “boxOffice” : 69378, “openingWindow” : “in-theaters”, “mpaaRating” : “PG13” }, { “id” : “771362417”, “type” : “movie”, “advisory” : “for some violence and action”, “lastModifiedDate” : “2016-06-21T10:49:22-07:00”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “certified_fresh”, “value” : 83 }, “year” : 2016, “releaseScope” : “limited”, “studioName” : “Warner Bros. Pictures”, “dvdWindow” : “new-on-dvd”, “heroImage” : { “id” : “n-1049439”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjsxMDQ5NDM5O2o7MTcwMjI7MTIwMDs0MDk2OzE1NDQ”, “height” : 1544, “width” : 4096, “format” : “JPG” }, “synopsis” : “Michael Shannon, Joel Edgerton, and Kirsten Dunst star in writer/director Jeff Nichols’ drama about a father and his eight-year-old son who go on the lam upon discovering that the boy possesses mysterious powers. ~ Jason Buchanan, Rovi”, “releaseDates” : { “dvd” : “2016-06-21”, “theater” : “2016-03-18” }, “runningTime” : 111, “title” : “Midnight Special”, “posterImage” : { “id” : “m-11708091”, “thumborId” : “v1.bTsxMTcwODA5MTtqOzE3MDEwOzEyMDA7NDA1MDs2MDAw”, “height” : 6000, “width” : 4050, “format” : “JPG” }, “creationDate” : “2013-08-15T01:45:15-07:00”, “vanity” : “midnight_special_2015”, “officialUrl” : “http://www.midnightspecialmovie.com/”, “cummulativeBoxOffice” : null, “mainTrailer” : { “id” : “11232640”, “title” : “Midnight Special”, “sourceId” : “871053”, “thumbUrl” : “https://content.internetvideoarchive.com/content/photos/10020/871053_111.jpg”, “duration” : 125, “clipType” : “TRL”, “source” : “VDD” }, “boxOffice” : 132372, “openingWindow” : “NA”, “mpaaRating” : “PG13” }, { “id” : “771433283”, “type” : “movie”, “advisory” : “for strong crude sexual content, graphic nudity, violence, language, and some drug use”, “lastModifiedDate” : “2016-06-21T07:58:53-07:00”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “rotten”, “value” : 38 }, “year” : 2016, “releaseScope” : “wide”, “studioName” : “Big Talk Productions”, “dvdWindow” : “new-on-dvd”, “heroImage” : { “id” : “n-957062”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjs5NTcwNjI7ajsxNzAyMTsxMjAwOzEyODA7NzIw”, “height” : 720, “width” : 1280, “format” : “JPG” }, “synopsis” : “Nobby (Sacha Baron Cohen), a sweet but dimwitted English football hooligan, reunites with his long-lost brother Sebastian (Mark Strong), a deadly MI6 agent, to prevent a massive global terror attack and prove that behind every great spy is an embarrassing sibling. Nobby has everything a man from Grimsby could want, including 11 children and the most gorgeous girlfriend in the northeast of England (Rebel Wilson). There’s only one thing missing: his little brother, Sebastian, who Nobby has spent 28 years searching for after they were separated as kids. Nobby sets off to reunite with Sebastian, unaware that not only is his brother MI6’s deadliest assassin, but he’s just uncovered plans for an imminent global terrorist attack. On the run and wrongfully accused, Sebastian realizes that if he is going to save the world, he will need the help of its biggest idiot.”, “releaseDates” : { “dvd” : “2016-06-21”, “theater” : “2016-03-11” }, “runningTime” : 83, “title” : “The Brothers Grimsby”, “posterImage” : { “id” : “m-11644966”, “thumborId” : “v1.bTsxMTY0NDk2NjtqOzE3MDk5OzEyMDA7MTM1ODsyMDEy”, “height” : 2012, “width” : 1358, “format” : “JPG” }, “creationDate” : “2015-10-30T08:06:56-07:00”, “vanity” : “the_brothers_grimsby”, “officialUrl” : “”, “cummulativeBoxOffice” : 0, “mainTrailer” : { “id” : “11231917”, “title” : “The Brothers Grimsby”, “sourceId” : “950765”, “thumbUrl” : “https://content.internetvideoarchive.com/content/photos/9901/950765_069.jpg”, “duration” : 173, “clipType” : “TRL”, “source” : “VDD” }, “boxOffice” : null, “openingWindow” : “NA”, “mpaaRating” : “R” }, { “id” : “771428953”, “type” : “movie”, “advisory” : null, “lastModifiedDate” : “2016-06-21T10:49:17-07:00”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “certified_fresh”, “value” : 99 }, “year” : 2016, “releaseScope” : “limited”, “studioName” : “Buffalo Films”, “dvdWindow” : “new-on-dvd”, “heroImage” : { “id” : “n-1007034”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjsxMDA3MDM0O2o7MTcwMjE7MTIwMDsxMjgwOzcyMA”, “height” : 720, “width” : 1280, “format” : “JPG” }, “synopsis” : “Embrace of the Serpent features the encounter, apparent betrayal and finally life-affirming friendship between an Amazonian shaman (the last survivor of his people) and two foreign scientists.”, “releaseDates” : { “dvd” : “2016-06-21”, “theater” : “2016-02-17” }, “runningTime” : 123, “title” : “Embrace Of The Serpent (El Abrazo De La Serpiente)”, “posterImage” : { “id” : “m-11314106”, “thumborId” : “v1.bTsxMTMxNDEwNjtqOzE3MDk1OzEyMDA7NDMyOzY0MA”, “height” : 640, “width” : 432, “format” : “JPG” }, “creationDate” : “2015-09-11T06:46:20-07:00”, “vanity” : “embrace_of_the_serpent”, “officialUrl” : “http://embraceoftheserpent.oscilloscope.net/”, “cummulativeBoxOffice” : 1320005, “mainTrailer” : { “id” : “11234643”, “title” : “Embrace Of The Serpent (US)”, “sourceId” : “230252”, “thumbUrl” : “https://content.internetvideoarchive.com/content/photos/9945/230252_010.jpg”, “duration” : 127, “clipType” : “TRL”, “source” : “VDD” }, “boxOffice” : 22000, “openingWindow” : “NA”, “mpaaRating” : “NR” }, { “id” : “771260322”, “type” : “movie”, “advisory” : “for some nudity, sexuality and language”, “lastModifiedDate” : “2016-06-21T06:50:57-07:00”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “rotten”, “value” : 46 }, “year” : 2016, “releaseScope” : “limited”, “studioName” : “Broad Green Pictures”, “dvdWindow” : “new-on-dvd”, “heroImage” : { “id” : “n-1048803”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjsxMDQ4ODAzO2o7MTcwMjI7MTIwMDsxOTgwOzEzMzE”, “height” : 1331, “width” : 1980, “format” : “JPG” }, “synopsis” : “Knight of Cups follows writer Rick (Christian Bale, The Fighter, American Hustle) on an odyssey through the playgrounds of Los Angeles and Las Vegas as he undertakes a search for love and self. Even as he moves through a desire-laden landscape of mansions, resorts, beaches and clubs, Rick grapples over complicated relationships with his brother (Wes Bentley) and father (Brian Dennehy). His quest to break the spell of his disenchantment takes him on a series of adventures with six alluring women: rebellious Della (Imogen Poots); his physician ex-wife, Nancy (Cate Blanchett); a serene model Helen (Freida Pinto); a woman he wronged in the past Elizabeth (Natalie Portman); a spirited, playful stripper Karen (Teresa Palmer); and an innocent Isabel (Isabel Lucas), who helps him see a way forward. Rick moves in a daze through a strange and overwhelming dreamscape — but can he wake up to the beauty, humanity and rhythms of life around him? The deeper he searches, the more the journey becomes his destination. The 7th film from director Terrence Malick (The Thin Red Line, Tree of Life), Knight of Cups (the title refers to the Tarot card depicting a romantic adventurer guided by his emotions) offers both a vision of modern life and an intensely personal experience of memory, family, and love. Knight of Cups is produced by Nicolas Gonda, Sarah Green and Ken Kao. Prominent crew includes cinematographer Emmanuel Lubezki (Gravity, Birdman), production designer Jack Fisk, costume designer Jacqueline West, and composer Hanan Townshend (To The Wonder). The film’s ensemble cast also includes Antonio Banderas, Cherry Jones and Armin Mueller-Stahl.”, “releaseDates” : { “dvd” : “2016-06-21”, “theater” : “2016-03-04” }, “runningTime” : 118, “title” : “Knight of Cups”, “posterImage” : { “id” : “m-11510773”, “thumborId” : “v1.bTsxMTUxMDc3MztqOzE3MDk4OzEyMDA7NTY3Ozg0MA”, “height” : 840, “width” : 567, “format” : “JPG” }, “creationDate” : “2011-11-04T01:21:25-07:00”, “vanity” : “knight_of_cups”, “officialUrl” : “http://www.theknightofcupsmovie.com/”, “cummulativeBoxOffice” : 558402, “mainTrailer” : { “id” : “11223182”, “title” : “Knight Of Cups”, “sourceId” : “230816”, “thumbUrl” : “https://content.internetvideoarchive.com/content/photos/7531/230816_095.jpg”, “duration” : 141, “clipType” : “TRL”, “source” : “VDD” }, “boxOffice” : 1675, “openingWindow” : “NA”, “mpaaRating” : “R” }, { “id” : “771428923”, “type” : “movie”, “advisory” : “for some language and disaster images”, “lastModifiedDate” : “2016-06-21T07:57:51-07:00”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “certified_fresh”, “value” : 80 }, “year” : 2016, “releaseScope” : “limited”, “studioName” : null, “dvdWindow” : “new-on-dvd”, “heroImage” : { “id” : “n-1013881”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjsxMDEzODgxO2o7MTcwMjE7MTIwMDsxMzkyOzc4Mw”, “height” : 783, “width” : 1392, “format” : “JPG” }, “synopsis” : “Nestled in Norway’s Sunnmre region, Geiranger is one of the most spectacular tourist draws on the planet. With the mountain kerneset overlooking the village – and constantly threatening to collapse into the fjord – it is also a place where cataclysm could strike at any moment. After putting in several years at Geiranger’s warning center, geologist Kristian is moving on to a prestigious gig with an oil company. But the very day he’s about to drive his family to their new life in the city, Kristian senses something isn’t right. The substrata are shifting. No one wants to believe that this could be the big one, especially with tourist season at its peak, but when that mountain begins to crumble, every soul in Geiranger has ten minutes to get to high ground before a tsunami hits, consuming everything in its path.”, “releaseDates” : { “dvd” : “2016-06-21”, “theater” : “2016-03-04” }, “runningTime” : 104, “title” : “The Wave (Bolgen)”, “posterImage” : { “id” : “m-11644967”, “thumborId” : “v1.bTsxMTY0NDk2NztqOzE3MDk5OzEyMDA7NjkxOzEwMjQ”, “height” : 1024, “width” : 691, “format” : “JPG” }, “creationDate” : “2015-09-11T03:31:58-07:00”, “vanity” : “the_wave_2016”, “officialUrl” : “”, “cummulativeBoxOffice” : 176637, “mainTrailer” : { “id” : “11235260”, “title” : “The Wave (US)”, “sourceId” : “306314”, “thumbUrl” : “https://content.internetvideoarchive.com/content/photos/9967/306314_027.jpg”, “duration” : 130, “clipType” : “TRL”, “source” : “VDD” }, “boxOffice” : 2034, “openingWindow” : “NA”, “mpaaRating” : “R” }, { “id” : “771366842”, “type” : “movie”, “advisory” : null, “lastModifiedDate” : “2016-06-21T07:58:29-07:00”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “fresh”, “value” : 86 }, “year” : 2016, “releaseScope” : “limited”, “studioName” : “Level 33 Entertainment”, “dvdWindow” : “new-on-dvd”, “heroImage” : { “id” : “n-1093538”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjsxMDkzNTM4O2o7MTcwMjI7MTIwMDsyMjg4OzE3MTI”, “height” : 1712, “width” : 2288, “format” : “JPG” }, “synopsis” : “In 1931, Harold Lasseter’s body was found in the Central Australian desert. His diary revealed he’d discovered gold — worth billions of dollars today — but he’d give it all away for a loaf of bread and a chance at survival. The gold has never been found. Filmmaker Luke Walker finds Lasseter’s 85 year-old son, still wandering the desert trying to find the gold that killed his father. Is it still possible to piece together the fragments of history Lasseter left behind? Armed with a camera, Walker chases his footsteps in hopes to unravel the tangle of myths, lies and legend that remain buried with Lasseter’s bones. But as he follows his last few steps he finds himself closer to the gold than anyone has been for 80 years. Do you dare join the adventure and take part in the quest for Australia’s Lost Gold?”, “releaseDates” : { “dvd” : “2016-06-21”, “theater” : “2016-05-27” }, “runningTime” : 104, “title” : “Australia’s Lost Gold (Lasseter’s Bones)”, “posterImage” : { “id” : “m-11882327”, “thumborId” : “v1.bTsxMTg4MjMyNztqOzE3MDEyOzEyMDA7NTk3Ozg0MA”, “height” : 840, “width” : 597, “format” : “JPG” }, “creationDate” : “2013-10-16T06:30:43-07:00”, “vanity” : “australias_lost_gold”, “officialUrl” : “http://www.lassetersbones.com.au/”, “cummulativeBoxOffice” : null, “mainTrailer” : { “id” : “11239324”, “title” : “Australia’s Lost Gold”, “sourceId” : “694401”, “thumbUrl” : “https://content.internetvideoarchive.com/content/photos/10211/694401_173.jpg”, “duration” : 128, “clipType” : “TRL”, “source” : “VDD” }, “boxOffice” : null, “openingWindow” : “in-theaters”, “mpaaRating” : “NR” }, { “id” : “771362909”, “type” : “movie”, “advisory” : “for horror violence and gore, and for language”, “lastModifiedDate” : “2016-06-21T11:34:50-07:00”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “rotten”, “value” : 43 }, “year” : 2016, “releaseScope” : “limited”, “studioName” : “Dimension Films, Anchor Bay Entertainment”, “dvdWindow” : “new-on-dvd”, “heroImage” : { “id” : “n-1130013”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjsxMTMwMDEzO2o7MTcwMjM7MTIwMDsxMTYxOzY0MA”, “height” : 640, “width” : 1161, “format” : “JPG” }, “synopsis” : “CLOWN is a story of a loving father who dons a clown outfit and makeup to perform at his son’s sixth birthday, only to later discover that the costume–red nose and wig included–will not come off and his own personality changes in a horrific fashion. To break the curse of the evil outfit, the father must make grim choices with his own family facing danger.”, “releaseDates” : { “dvd” : “2016-06-17”, “theater” : “2016-06-17” }, “runningTime” : 99, “title” : “Clown”, “posterImage” : { “id” : “m-11952145”, “thumborId” : “v1.bTsxMTk1MjE0NTtqOzE3MDEzOzEyMDA7NjAyOzg1MQ”, “height” : 851, “width” : 602, “format” : “JPG” }, “creationDate” : “2013-08-21T01:39:22-07:00”, “vanity” : “clown_2016”, “officialUrl” : null, “cummulativeBoxOffice” : 26920, “mainTrailer” : { “id” : “11234393”, “title” : “Clown”, “sourceId” : “294899”, “thumbUrl” : “https://content.internetvideoarchive.com/content/photos/10348/294899_121.jpg”, “duration” : 137, “clipType” : “TRL”, “source” : “VDD” }, “boxOffice” : null, “openingWindow” : “in-theaters”, “mpaaRating” : “R” }, { “id” : “771362219”, “type” : “movie”, “advisory” : null, “lastModifiedDate” : “2016-06-20T23:06:05-07:00”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “fresh”, “value” : 70 }, “year” : 2016, “releaseScope” : “limited”, “studioName” : “IFC Films”, “dvdWindow” : “new-on-dvd”, “heroImage” : { “id” : “n-1114834”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjsxMTE0ODM0O2o7MTcwMjI7MTIwMDsyNDk2OzE0MDQ”, “height” : 1404, “width” : 2496, “format” : “JPG” }, “synopsis” : “Based on the international bestseller, the riveting first film in the Department Q series introduces maverick detective Carl Mrck (Nikolaj Lie Kaas) who, after majorly botching an assignment, is relegated to reviewing cold cases. With his new partner (Fares Fares), the moody Mrck begins digging into the unsolved disappearance of a high-ranking female politician (Sonja Richter) who supposedly committed suicide but whose body was never recovered–a mystery that plunges the investigators into a dark and disturbing conspiracy. A nonstop series of ingenious twists and shocking surprises keep the suspense simmering in this stylish thriller.”, “releaseDates” : { “dvd” : “2016-06-17”, “theater” : “2016-06-17” }, “runningTime” : 97, “title” : “The Keeper of Lost Causes (Kvinden i buret)”, “posterImage” : { “id” : “m-12027349”, “thumborId” : “v1.bTsxMjAyNzM0OTtqOzE3MDE0OzEyMDA7NTc1Ozg1MQ”, “height” : 851, “width” : 575, “format” : “JPG” }, “creationDate” : “2013-08-13T01:45:20-07:00”, “vanity” : “the_keeper_of_lost_causes”, “officialUrl” : null, “cummulativeBoxOffice” : null, “mainTrailer” : { “id” : “11250661”, “title” : “Department Q (Trilogy Trailer)”, “sourceId” : “503683”, “thumbUrl” : “https://content.internetvideoarchive.com/content/photos/10374/503683_118.jpg”, “duration” : 138, “clipType” : “TRL”, “source” : “VDD” }, “boxOffice” : null, “openingWindow” : “in-theaters”, “mpaaRating” : “NR” }, { “id” : “771414328”, “type” : “movie”, “advisory” : null, “lastModifiedDate” : “2016-06-21T11:34:53-07:00”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “fresh”, “value” : 92 }, “year” : 2016, “releaseScope” : “limited”, “studioName” : “Drafthouse Films”, “dvdWindow” : “new-on-dvd”, “heroImage” : { “id” : “n-1122173”, “thumborId” : “v1.bjsxMTIyMTczO2o7MTcwMjI7MTIwMDs5MDA7NTA1”, “height” : 505, “width” : 900, “format” : “JPG” }, “synopsis” : “After Steven Spielberg’s classic Raiders of the Lost Ark was released 35 years ago, three 11-year-old boys from Mississippi set out on what would become a 7-year-long labor of love and tribute to their favorite film: a faithful, shot-for-shot adaptation of the action adventure film. They finished every scene…except one; the film’s explosive airplane set piece. Over two decades later, the trio reunited with the original cast members from their childhood in order to complete their masterpiece. Featuring interviews with John Rhys Davies, Eli Roth and more, Raiders!: The Story of the Greatest Fan Film Ever Made is just that: the story of this long-gestating project’s culmination, chronicling the friends’ dedication to their artistic vision-mixed in with some movie magic-to create a personal, epic love letter to a true modern classic.”, “releaseDates” : { “dvd” : “2016-06-17”, “theater” : “2016-06-17” }, “runningTime” : 104, “title” : “Raiders!: The Story of the Greatest Fan Film Ever Made”, “posterImage” : { “id” : “m-11917989”, “thumborId” : “v1.bTsxMTkxNzk4OTtqOzE3MDEyOzEyMDA7MTM4MzsyMDQ4”, “height” : 2048, “width” : 1383, “format” : “JPG” }, “creationDate” : “2015-02-27T23:02:45-08:00”, “vanity” : “raiders_the_story_of_the_greatest_fan_film_ever_made”, “officialUrl” : “http://www.raidersdoc.com/”, “cummulativeBoxOffice” : 26059, “mainTrailer” : { “id” : “11248227”, “title” : “Raiders: The Story Of The Greatest Fan Film Ever Made”, “sourceId” : “915105”, “thumbUrl” : “https://content.internetvideoarchive.com/content/photos/9937/915105_161.jpg”, “duration” : 127, “clipType” : “TRL”, “source” : “VDD” }, “boxOffice” : null, “openingWindow” : “in-theaters”, “mpaaRating” : “NR” } ], “most-popular-tv” : [ { “link” : “//www.rottentomatoes.com/tv/game-of-thrones/s06/”, “score” : 93, “showId” : 15349, “rating” : “certified”, “showTitle” : “Game of Thrones: Season 6”, “title” : “Game of Thrones: Season 6”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “certified_fresh”, “value” : 93 } }, { “link” : “//www.rottentomatoes.com/tv/preacher/s01/”, “score” : 90, “showId” : 12261, “rating” : “certified”, “showTitle” : “Preacher: Season 1”, “title” : “Preacher: Season 1”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “certified_fresh”, “value” : 90 } }, { “link” : “//www.rottentomatoes.com/tv/orange-is-the-new-black/s04/”, “score” : 100, “showId” : 15200, “rating” : “certified”, “showTitle” : “Orange is the New Black: Season 4”, “title” : “Orange is the New Black: Season 4”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “certified_fresh”, “value” : 100 } }, { “link” : “//www.rottentomatoes.com/tv/full-frontal-with-samantha-bee/s01/”, “score” : 100, “showId” : 16038, “rating” : “certified”, “showTitle” : “Full Frontal With Samantha Bee: Season 1”, “title” : “Full Frontal With Samantha Bee: Season 1”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “certified_fresh”, “value” : 100 } }, { “link” : “//www.rottentomatoes.com/tv/voltron-legendary-defender/s01/”, “score” : 100, “showId” : 16402, “rating” : “fresh”, “showTitle” : “Voltron: Legendary Defender: Season 1”, “title” : “Voltron: Legendary Defender: Season 1”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “fresh”, “value” : 100 } }, { “link” : “//www.rottentomatoes.com/tv/unreal/s02/”, “score” : 97, “showId” : 15425, “rating” : “certified”, “showTitle” : “UnReal: Season 2”, “title” : “UnReal: Season 2”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “certified_fresh”, “value” : 97 } }, { “link” : “//www.rottentomatoes.com/tv/outcast/s01/”, “score” : 79, “showId” : 14135, “rating” : “certified”, “showTitle” : “Outcast: Season 1”, “title” : “Outcast: Season 1”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “certified_fresh”, “value” : 79 } }, { “link” : “//www.rottentomatoes.com/tv/12-monkeys/s02/”, “score” : 86, “showId” : 14959, “rating” : “fresh”, “showTitle” : “12 Monkeys: Season 2”, “title” : “12 Monkeys: Season 2”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “fresh”, “value” : 86 } }, { “link” : “//www.rottentomatoes.com/tv/silicon-valley/s03/”, “score” : 100, “showId” : 15197, “rating” : “fresh”, “showTitle” : “Silicon Valley: Season 3”, “title” : “Silicon Valley: Season 3”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “fresh”, “value” : 100 } }, { “link” : “//www.rottentomatoes.com/tv/outlander/s02/”, “score” : 97, “showId” : 11634, “rating” : “certified”, “showTitle” : “Outlander: Season 2”, “title” : “Outlander: Season 2”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “certified_fresh”, “value” : 97 } } ], “new-tv-tonight” : [ { “link” : “//www.rottentomatoes.com/tv/person-of-interest/s05/”, “score” : 100, “showId” : 15275, “rating” : “fresh”, “showTitle” : “Person Of Interest: Season 5”, “title” : “Person Of Interest: Season 5”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “fresh”, “value” : 100 } }, { “link” : “//www.rottentomatoes.com/tv/the-mindy-project/s04/”, “score” : 93, “showId” : 15280, “rating” : “fresh”, “showTitle” : “The Mindy Project: Season 4”, “title” : “The Mindy Project: Season 4”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “fresh”, “value” : 93 } }, { “link” : “//www.rottentomatoes.com/tv/casual/s02/”, “score” : 87, “showId” : 15686, “rating” : “fresh”, “showTitle” : “Casual: Season 2”, “title” : “Casual: Season 2”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “fresh”, “value” : 87 } }, { “link” : “//www.rottentomatoes.com/tv/containment/s01/”, “score” : 53, “showId” : 16133, “rating” : “rotten”, “showTitle” : “Containment: Season 1”, “title” : “Containment: Season 1”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “rotten”, “value” : 53 } }, { “link” : “//www.rottentomatoes.com/tv/maya-and-marty/s01/”, “score” : 50, “showId” : 16296, “rating” : “rotten”, “showTitle” : “Maya & Marty: Season 1”, “title” : “Maya & Marty: Season 1”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “rotten”, “value” : 50 } }, { “link” : “//www.rottentomatoes.com/tv/uncle-buck/s01/”, “score” : 32, “showId” : 14680, “rating” : “rotten”, “showTitle” : “Uncle Buck: Season 1”, “title” : “Uncle Buck: Season 1”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “rotten”, “value” : 32 } }, { “link” : “//www.rottentomatoes.com/tv/feed-the-beast-2016/s01/”, “score” : 23, “showId” : 16268, “rating” : “rotten”, “showTitle” : “Feed the Beast: Season 1”, “title” : “Feed the Beast: Season 1”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “rotten”, “value” : 23 } }, { “link” : “//www.rottentomatoes.com/tv/powers/s02/”, “score” : -1, “showId” : 15571, “rating” : “rotten”, “showTitle” : “Powers: Season 2”, “title” : “Powers: Season 2”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “NA”, “value” : null } }, { “link” : “//www.rottentomatoes.com/tv/animal-kingdom/s01/”, “score” : 72, “showId” : 16167, “rating” : “fresh”, “showTitle” : “Animal Kingdom: Season 1”, “title” : “Animal Kingdom: Season 1”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “fresh”, “value” : 72 } }, { “link” : “//www.rottentomatoes.com/tv/wrecked/s01/”, “score” : 55, “showId” : 16297, “rating” : “rotten”, “showTitle” : “Wrecked: Season 1”, “title” : “Wrecked: Season 1”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “rotten”, “value” : 55 } } ], “certified-fresh-tv” : [ { “link” : “//www.rottentomatoes.com/tv/the-americans/s04/”, “score” : 99, “showId” : 15112, “rating” : “certified”, “showTitle” : “The Americans: Season 4”, “title” : “The Americans: Season 4”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “certified_fresh”, “value” : 99 } }, { “link” : “//www.rottentomatoes.com/tv/catastrophe/s02/”, “score” : 100, “showId” : 15683, “rating” : “certified”, “showTitle” : “Catastrophe: Series 2”, “title” : “Catastrophe: Series 2”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “certified_fresh”, “value” : 100 } }, { “link” : “//www.rottentomatoes.com/tv/the-detour/s01/”, “score” : 82, “showId” : 16022, “rating” : “certified”, “showTitle” : “The Detour: Season 1”, “title” : “The Detour: Season 1”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “certified_fresh”, “value” : 82 } }, { “link” : “//www.rottentomatoes.com/tv/full-frontal-with-samantha-bee/s01/”, “score” : 100, “showId” : 16038, “rating” : “certified”, “showTitle” : “Full Frontal With Samantha Bee: Season 1”, “title” : “Full Frontal With Samantha Bee: Season 1”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “certified_fresh”, “value” : 100 } }, { “link” : “//www.rottentomatoes.com/tv/game-of-thrones/s06/”, “score” : 93, “showId” : 15349, “rating” : “certified”, “showTitle” : “Game of Thrones: Season 6”, “title” : “Game of Thrones: Season 6”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “certified_fresh”, “value” : 93 } }, { “link” : “//www.rottentomatoes.com/tv/the-girlfriend-experience/s01/”, “score” : 81, “showId” : 14501, “rating” : “certified”, “showTitle” : “The Girlfriend Experience: Season 1”, “title” : “The Girlfriend Experience: Season 1”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “certified_fresh”, “value” : 81 } }, { “link” : “//www.rottentomatoes.com/tv/lady-dynamite/s01/”, “score” : 93, “showId” : 16258, “rating” : “certified”, “showTitle” : “Lady Dynamite: Season 1”, “title” : “Lady Dynamite: Season 1”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “certified_fresh”, “value” : 93 } }, { “score” : 100, “showId” : 771442788, “rating” : “certified”, “showTitle” : “O.J.: Made in America”, “title” : “O.J.: Made in America”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “certified_fresh”, “value” : 100 } }, { “link” : “//www.rottentomatoes.com/tv/orange-is-the-new-black/s04/”, “score” : 100, “showId” : 15200, “rating” : “certified”, “showTitle” : “Orange is the New Black: Season 4”, “title” : “Orange is the New Black: Season 4”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “certified_fresh”, “value” : 100 } }, { “link” : “//www.rottentomatoes.com/tv/orphan-black/s04/”, “score” : 97, “showId” : 15230, “rating” : “certified”, “showTitle” : “Orphan Black: Season 4”, “title” : “Orphan Black: Season 4”, “tomatometer” : { “state” : “certified_fresh”, “value” : 97 } } ]}

Read more:

Atlas Shrugged: Part II (2012) – Rotten Tomatoes

Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies by Nick …

 Superintelligence  Comments Off on Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies by Nick …
Jun 212016
 

Is the surface of our planet — and maybe every planet we can get our hands on — going to be carpeted in paper clips (and paper clip factories) by a well-intentioned but misguided artificial intelligence (AI) that ultimately cannibalizes everything in sight, including us, in single-minded pursuit of a seemingly innocuous goal? Nick Bostrom, head of Oxford’s Future of Humanity Institute, thinks that we can’t guarantee it _won’t_ happen, and it worries him. It doesn’t require Skynet and Terminators, it doesn’t require evil geniuses bent on destroying the world, it just requires a powerful AI with a moral system in which humanity’s welfare is irrelevant or defined very differently than most humans today would define it. If the AI has a single goal and is smart enough to outwit our attempts to disable or control it once it has gotten loose, Game Over, argues Professor Bostrom in his book _Superintelligence_.

This is perhaps the most important book I have read this decade, and it has kept me awake at night for weeks. I want to tell you why, and what I think, but a lot of this is difficult ground, so please bear with me. The short form is that I am fairly certain that we _will_ build a true AI, and I respect Vernor Vinge, but I have long been skeptical of the Kurzweilian notions of inevitability, doubly-exponential growth, and the Singularity. I’ve also been skeptical of the idea that AIs will destroy us, either on purpose or by accident. Bostrom’s book has made me think that perhaps I was naive. I still think that, on the whole, his worst-case scenarios are unlikely. However, he argues persuasively that we can’t yet rule out any number of bad outcomes of developing AI, and that we need to be investing much more in figuring out whether developing AI is a good idea. We may need to put a moratorium on research, as was done for a few years with recombinant DNA starting in 1975. We also need to be prepared for the possibility that such a moratorium doesn’t hold. Bostrom also brings up any number of mind-bending dystopias around what qualifies as human, which we’ll get to below.

(snips to my review, since Goodreads limits length)

In case it isn’t obvious by now, both Bostrom and I take it for granted that it’s not only possible but nearly inevitable that we will create a strong AI, in the sense of it being a general, adaptable intelligence. Bostrom skirts the issue of whether it will be conscious, or “have qualia”, as I think the philosophers of mind say.

Where Bostrom and I differ is in the level of plausibility we assign to the idea of a truly exponential explosion in intelligence by AIs, in a takeoff for which Vernor Vinge coined the term “the Singularity.” Vinge is rational, but Ray Kurzweil is the most famous proponent of the Singularity. I read one of Kurzweil’s books a number of years ago, and I found it imbued with a lot of near-mystic hype. He believes the Universe’s purpose is the creation of intelligence, and that that process is growing on a double exponential, starting from stars and rocks through slime molds and humans and on to digital beings.

I’m largely allergic to that kind of hooey. I really don’t see any evidence of the domain-to-domain acceleration that Kurzweil sees, and in particular the shift from biological to digital beings will result in a radical shift in the evolutionary pressures. I see no reason why any sort of “law” should dictate that digital beings will evolve at a rate that *must* be faster than the biological one. I also don’t see that Kurzweil really pays any attention to the physical limits of what will ultimately be possible for computing machines. Exponentials can’t continue forever, as Danny Hillis is fond of pointing out. http://www.kurzweilai.net/ask-ray-the…

So perhaps my opinion is somewhat biased by a dislike of Kurzweil’s circus barker approach, but I think there is more to it than that. Fundamentally, I would put it this way:

Being smart is hard.

And making yourself smarter is also hard. My inclination is that getting smarter is at least as hard as the advantages it brings, so that the difficulty of the problem and the resources that can be brought to bear on it roughly balance. This will result in a much slower takeoff than Kurzweil reckons, in my opinion. Bostrom presents a spectrum of takeoff speeds, from “too fast for us to notice” through “long enough for us to develop international agreements and monitoring institutions,” but he makes it fairly clear that he believes that the probability of a fast takeoff is far too large to ignore. There are parts of his argument I find convincing, and parts I find less so.

To give you a little more insight into why I am a little dubious that the Singularity will happen in what Bostrom would describe as a moderate to fast takeoff, let me talk about the kinds of problems we human beings solve, and that an AI would have to solve. Actually, rather than the kinds of questions, first let me talk about the kinds of answers we would like an AI (or a pet family genius) to generate when given a problem. Off the top of my head, I can think of six:

[Speed] Same quality of answer, just faster. [Ply] Look deeper in number of plies (moves, in chess or go). [Data] Use more, and more up-to-date, data. [Creativity] Something beautiful and new. [Insight] Something new and meaningful, such as a new theory; probably combines elements of all of the above categories. [Values] An answer about (human) values.

The first three are really about how the answers are generated; the last three about what we want to get out of them. I think this set is reasonably complete and somewhat orthogonal, despite those differences.

So what kinds of problems do we apply these styles of answers to? We ultimately want answers that are “better” in some qualitative sense.

Humans are already pretty good at projecting the trajectory of a baseball, but it’s certainly conceivable that a robot batter could be better, by calculating faster and using better data. Such a robot might make for a boring opponent for a human, but it would not be beyond human comprehension.

But if you accidentally knock a bucket of baseballs down a set of stairs, better data and faster computing are unlikely to help you predict the exact order in which the balls will reach the bottom and what happens to the bucket. Someone “smarter” might be able to make some interesting statistical predictions that wouldn’t occur to you or me, but not fill in every detail of every interaction between the balls and stairs. Chaos, in the sense of sensitive dependence on initial conditions, is just too strong.

In chess, go, or shogi, a 1000x improvement in the number of plies that can be investigated gains you maybe only the ability to look ahead two or three moves more than before. Less if your pruning (discarding unpromising paths) is poor, more if it’s good. Don’t get me wrong — that’s a huge deal, any player will tell you. But in this case, humans are already pretty good, when not time limited.

Go players like to talk about how close the top pros are to God, and the possibly apocryphal answer from a top pro was that he would want a three-stone (three-move) handicap, four if his life depended on it. Compared this to the fact that a top pro is still some ten stones stronger than me, a fair amateur, and could beat a rank beginner even if the beginner was given the first forty moves. Top pros could sit across the board from an almost infinitely strong AI and still hold their heads up.

In the most recent human-versus-computer shogi (Japanese chess) series, humans came out on top, though presumably this won’t last much longer.

In chess, as machines got faster, looked more plies ahead, carried around more knowledge, and got better at pruning the tree of possible moves, human opponents were heard to say that they felt the glimmerings of insight or personality from them.

So again we have some problems, at least, where plies will help, and will eventually guarantee a 100% win rate against the best (non-augmented) humans, but they will likely not move beyond what humans can comprehend.

Simply being able to hold more data in your head (or the AI’s head) while making a medical diagnosis using epidemiological data, or cross-correlating drug interactions, for example, will definitely improve our lives, and I can imagine an AI doing this. Again, however, the AI’s capabilities are unlikely to recede into the distance as something we can’t comprehend.

We know that increasing the amount of data you can handle by a factor of a thousand gains you 10x in each dimension for a 3-D model of the atmosphere or ocean, up until chaotic effects begin to take over, and then (as we currently understand it) you can only resort to repeated simulations and statistical measures. The actual calculations done by a climate model long ago reached the point where even a large team of humans couldn’t complete them in a lifetime. But they are not calculations we cannot comprehend, in fact, humans design and debug them.

So for problems with answers in the first three categories, I would argue that being smarter is helpful, but being a *lot* smarter is *hard*. The size of computation grows quickly in many problems, and for many problems we believe that sheer computation is fundamentally limited in how well it can correspond to the real world.

But those are just the warmup. Those are things we already ask computers to do for us, even though they are “dumber” than we are. What about the latter three categories?

I’m no expert in creativity, and I know researchers study it intensively, so I’m going to weasel through by saying it is the ability to generate completely new material, which involves some random process. You also need the ability either to generate that material such that it is aesthetically pleasing with high probability, or to prune those new ideas rapidly using some metric that achieves your goal.

For my purposes here, insight is the ability to be creative not just for esthetic purposes, but in a specific technical or social context, and to validate the ideas. (No implication that artists don’t have insight is intended, this is just a technical distinction between phases of the operation, for my purposes here.) Einstein’s insight for special relativity was that the speed of light is constant. Either he generated many, many hypotheses (possibly unconsciously) and pruned them very rapidly, or his hypothesis generator was capable of generating only a few good ones. In either case, he also had the mathematical chops to prove (or at least analyze effectively) his hypothesis; this analysis likewise involves generating possible paths of proofs through the thicket of possibilities and finding the right one.

So, will someone smarter be able to do this much better? Well, it’s really clear that Einstein (or Feynman or Hawking, if your choice of favorite scientist leans that way) produced and validated hypotheses that the rest of us never could have. It’s less clear to me exactly how *much* smarter than the rest of us he was; did he generate and prune ten times as many hypotheses? A hundred? A million? My guess is it’s closer to the latter than the former. Even generating a single hypothesis that could be said to attack the problem is difficult, and most humans would decline to even try if you asked them to.

Making better devices and systems of any kind requires all of the above capabilities. You must have insight to innovate, and you must be able to quantitatively and qualitatively analyze the new systems, requiring the heavy use of data. As systems get more complex, all of this gets harder. My own favorite example is airplane engines. The Wright Brothers built their own engines for their planes. Today, it takes a team of hundreds to create a jet turbine — thousands, if you reach back into the supporting materials, combustion and fluid flow research. We humans have been able to continue to innovate by building on the work of prior generations, and especially harnessing teams of people in new ways. Unlike Peter Thiel, I don’t believe that our rate of innovation is in any serious danger of some precipitous decline sometime soon, but I do agree that we begin with the low-lying fruit, so that harvesting fruit requires more effort — or new techniques — with each passing generation.

The Singularity argument depends on the notion that the AI would design its own successor, or even modify itself to become smarter. Will we watch AIs gradually pull even with us and then ahead, but not disappear into the distance in a Roadrunner-like flash of dust covering just a few frames of film in our dull-witted comprehension?

Ultimately, this is the question on which continued human existence may depend: If an AI is enough smarter than we are, will it find the process of improving itself to be easy, or will each increment of intelligence be a hard problem for the system of the day? This is what Bostrom calls the “recalcitrance” of the problem.

I believe that the range of possible systems grows rapidly as they get more complex, and that evaluating them gets harder; this is hard to quantify, but each step might involve a thousand times as many options, or evaluating each option might be a thousand times harder. Growth in computational power won’t dramatically overbalance that and give sustained, rapid and accelerating growth that moves AIs beyond our comprehension quickly. (Don’t take these numbers seriously, it’s just an example.)

Bostrom believes that recalcitrance will grow more slowly than the resources the AI can bring to bear on the problem, resulting in continuing, and rapid, exponential increases in intelligence — the arrival of the Singularity. As you can tell from the above, I suspect that the opposite is the case, or that they very roughly balance, but Bostrom argues convincingly. He is forcing me to reconsider.

What about “values”, my sixth type of answer, above? Ah, there’s where it all goes awry. Chapter eight is titled, “Is the default scenario doom?” and it will keep you awake.

What happens when we put an AI in charge of a paper clip factory, and instruct it to make as many paper clips as it can? With such a simple set of instructions, it will do its best to acquire more resources in order to make more paper clips, building new factories in the process. If it’s smart enough, it will even anticipate that we might not like this and attempt to disable it, but it will have the will and means to deflect our feeble strikes against it. Eventually, it will take over every factory on the planet, continuing to produce paper clips until we are buried in them. It may even go on to asteroids and other planets in a single-minded attempt to carpet the Universe in paper clips.

I suppose it goes without saying that Bostrom thinks this would be a bad outcome. Bostrom reasons that AIs ultimately may or may not be similar enough to us that they count as our progeny, but doesn’t hesitate to view them as adversaries, or at least rivals, in the pursuit of resources and even existence. Bostrom clearly roots for humanity here. Which means it’s incumbent on us to find a way to prevent this from happening.

Bostrom thinks that instilling values that are actually close enough to ours that an AI will “see things our way” is nigh impossible. There are just too many ways that the whole process can go wrong. If an AI is given the goal of “maximizing human happiness,” does it count when it decides that the best way to do that is to create the maximum number of digitally emulated human minds, even if that means sacrificing some of the physical humans we already have because the planet’s carrying capacity is higher for digital than organic beings?

As long as we’re talking about digital humans, what about the idea that a super-smart AI might choose to simulate human minds in enough detail that they are conscious, in the process of trying to figure out humanity? Do those recursively digital beings deserve any legal standing? Do they count as human? If their simulations are stopped and destroyed, have they been euthanized, or even murdered? Some of the mind-bending scenarios that come out of this recursion kept me awake nights as I was reading the book.

He uses a variety of names for different strategies for containing AIs, including “genies” and “oracles”. The most carefully circumscribed ones are only allowed to answer questions, maybe even “yes/no” questions, and have no other means of communicating with the outside world. Given that Bostrom attributes nearly infinite brainpower to an AI, it is hard to effectively rule out that an AI could still find some way to manipulate us into doing its will. If the AI’s ability to probe the state of the world is likewise limited, Bsotrom argues that it can still turn even single-bit probes of its environment into a coherent picture. It can then decide to get loose and take over the world, and identify security flaws in outside systems that would allow it to do so even with its very limited ability to act.

I think this unlikely. Imagine we set up a system to monitor the AI that alerts us immediately when the AI begins the equivalent of a port scan, for whatever its interaction mechanism is. How could it possibly know of the existence and avoid triggering the alert? Bostrom has gone off the deep end in allowing an intelligence to infer facts about the world even when its data is very limited. Sherlock Holmes always turns out to be right, but that’s fiction; in reality, many, many hypotheses would suit the extremely slim amount of data he has. The same will be true with carefully boxed AIs.

At this point, Bostrom has argued that containing a nearly infinitely powerful intelligence is nearly impossible. That seems to me to be effectively tautological.

If we can’t contain them, what options do we have? After arguing earlier that we can’t give AIs our own values (and presenting mind-bending scenarios for what those values might actually mean in a Universe with digital beings), he then turns around and invests a whole string of chapters in describing how we might actually go about building systems that have those values from the beginning.

At this point, Bostrom began to lose me. Beyond the systems for giving AIs values, I felt he went off the rails in describing human behavior in simplistic terms. We are incapable of balancing our desire to reproduce with a view of the tragedy of the commons, and are inevitably doomed to live out our lives in a rude, resource-constrained existence. There were some interesting bits in the taxonomies of options, but the last third of the book felt very speculative, even more so than the earlier parts.

Bostrom is rational and seems to have thought carefully about the mechanisms by which AIs may actually arise. Here, I largely agree with him. I think his faster scenarios of development, though, are unlikely: being smart, and getting smarter, is hard. He thinks a “singleton”, a single, most powerful AI, is the nearly inevitable outcome. I think populations of AIs are more likely, but if anything this appears to make some problems worse. I also think his scenarios for controlling AIs are handicapped in their realism by the nearly infinite powers he assigns them. In either case, Bostrom has convinced me that once an AI is developed, there are many ways it can go wrong, to the detriment and possibly extermination of humanity. Both he and I are opposed to this. I’m not ready to declare a moratorium on AI research, but there are many disturbing possibilities and many difficult moral questions that need to be answered.

The first step in answering them, of course, is to begin discussing them in a rational fashion, while there is still time. Read the first 8 chapters of this book!

Read more here:

Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies by Nick …

World War 3 | WWIII | Endtime Ministries with Irvin Baxter

 Ww3  Comments Off on World War 3 | WWIII | Endtime Ministries with Irvin Baxter
Jun 212016
 

Fear nothing but God, only fear God. Never be afraid of Wars, deaths, pain, blood, and anything else that is a Sin against God. Satan is trying his hardest to make all this fear, a fear of Worldy/Earthly things like War, deaths, blood, all that violent stuff. He does not want you all to fear God, but to fear Sin and Evil. Everything is quiet right now: gun shots, music, cars, tvs are all not sounds, they are just limited and illuminated wave lengths created by God to make this World seem like a loud place. Wait until you listen and watch Gods 2nd coming, the 2nd coming of the Lord Jesus Christ. You will know what true sounds and violence is. Im not even afraid of getting killed when WW3 begins, because I know God will take those out of this World that believes in him, and leave the Anti-Christ people on Earth to feel a temporary suffer and pain to get a taste of what Hell will really be like. You all call this Earth, hell and going through hard times. Wait until you Anti-Christ people see what God will really show you what true pain and suffering is. God is not a man of Peace, God is a man of Justice. Thats why the Bible says you must repent of all your Sins and accept God for who he is if you want to be saved. Most people take Sins for granted, and expect to be forgiven by God without praying to him and asking for forgivness. Most people go a head and Sin all they want and think God will grant them Heaven in the after life. This world shows that God is near, all these events occuring from the Bible. As a Christian, I am still confused and dont fully understand God, but all I know he is ready to come back soon, and not in a Peaceful way like we expect. He is coming with anger, fear, pain, and suffering that no human ever expierenced, he is coming with more Power than those Anti-Christ who brutally crucified Jesus Christ 2016 years ago, he is coming with more Power than all the Nuclear bombs/missiles combined. He wont come sucker punching us all, he will come with everything in his Power he has, and that Power is everything we cant stop. Nothing can never and will never stop Gods power, not even Satan and his Anti-Christ can stop God. God is the creator of all, he created Satan too, and gave Satan limited Power. Just like all of us Humans, Satan too has his own Free Will because God gave us all Free Will. The Earth WILL SHAKE, those who believe in God and repent their Sins and accepts God will be saved, all the Anti-Christ will be left on Earth to Wage War against one another, to feel the Sucker Punch of Hell, to get a taste of what Hell will be like. Imagine the fear, pain, suffering, and INFINITY NON-STOP burning that Hell will really be like. Pinch yourself on your arm as soft as you could, it will hurt. Slap yourself on your cheek, it will hurt. Get a paper cut, and it will hurt. Imagine all the Pain, fear and suffering God has prepared in Hell for all Anti-Christ. In Hell, the pain, suffering and fears wont be from Satan, but from God. God said in the Bible that Satan too will burn and suffer in Hell forever. Right now there is no Heaven and Hell yet, that will be set when God arrives on his 2nd coming. Thats why we put Rest in Peace on all crosses of death, everyone dead right now is unconcsious and resting in death, until God comes. When God comes, all the Dead will arise then, the dead is not risen yet on Earth until God comes. Thats why many places on Earth have demons and haunting in their homes where Violence or death once took place, all the dead Anti-Christ will never rest, never rest, never rest. Thats why you feel peacful about a Christian death, and feel bad inside when a Anti-Christ dies. God is all one, he hears and sees everything from beginning to end. He knows all your secrets and gossips, he knows every single one of your Sins. God knew you before you were born on this Earth. Im glad I grew up in a Christian home, I see many Anti-Christ that are already going through the hardest times Ive ever seen! Ive witness a murder, and all these Anti-Christ are suffering more. Ive been through many trials in my life where I supposed to die in the ER and not even survive, but praying to God saved me. Praying to God saved me. Doctors were speechless, they didnt feel like doctors when they gave everything they got to keep me alive. They gave me the Maximum amount of all pain meds, shots, pills, and IV, they said all that was enough meds to knock out a cancer patient and a big animal like an elephant at the same time from the same dose of pain meds. I dont believe in chemicals thats why it never help me in the ER when i almost died a lot of times from alcohol poisoning. Only thing that kept me going was praying to God.

A lot of people believe in coincidence, what exactly does coincidence mean to them, what is their understanding defintion of coincidence? Everything is meant to happen for a reason, and God created all those reasons. They are not coincidence, a word of the Anti-Christ. Just like God told us, he sees all, he knows all. Everything happens for a reason, and that reason is Gods reason that everything happens, not from coincidence. If you have gone this far in reading and trying to understand more about God and how Satan is at work right now on Earth. Here is your good chance to understand why everything happens for a reason. We all get confused when something happens, oh my god what just happened?, jesus christ, what happened?. We all say those things without realizing it when we are confused, we dont know what happened but we know God had something to do with it and everything else that happens.

One example of something meant to be or meant to happen is not a coincidence, but a true reason of God. I was a witness of a brutal murder on September 8, 2007, a man murdered for his booze and money by a gang of violent alcoholics. It all happened so fast but yet felt so slow to watch it happen. The leader of that violent gang died on May 17th, 2016 from suicide, after he murdered another person, on May 12th, 2016. My best friend died from suicide on March 9, 2013, and my best friends birthday was May 12th, the same day the leader of that gang made his 2nd murder. Coincidence? Nope, reason of God. You see, how can God put it in a more perfect time frame, and you all call it coincidence? Coincidence is a word of Satan, a confusing word he uses that doesnt let you full understand why everything is happening the way they are. Satan doesnt want you to know that everything is happening because of God. Satan doesnt want you to know that God is in control of everything. Satan wants you to be blind and not understand God.

Us Humans, our minds are weaker than we think, it is very easy for Satan to take advantage of your life style without you knowing it. Alcohol, drugs, mixed martial arts fighting, all the violent stuff we see everyday is the hard work of Satan, not the entertainment for ourselves that we think we get, but just a brain-washed violent activity that God hates, called Sin. Satans biggest way of taking over lives and brain-washing lives is through Entertainment. People will say, f*** reading the Bible, im going to go drink, play video games, and watch Mixed Martial Arts all day, and have some beautiful sex with your cousins. Yeah man, all this numb feeling you had is finally turning into pain of understandment of what is really going on. Sin! Sin! Sin! We all think were going to get away with Sin and somehow make it to Heaven. Of course we all think we are going to Heaven, that is a sign of brain-washed by Satan, when you think you can Sin all you want and still make it to Heaven. Lot of people think they are so special and cool or bad a** when they are doing violent things. Those kind of people want to be hugged and kissed and congradulated for their violent things they do. They want to be awarded for their doings and be known to the World. They want the whole attention when they Sin.

You can never be prepared for the unexpected. God will come like a unknown robber, you never know what time and day he will come, just like you never know when a robber will rob your house. We never know when God will come, but he will come unexpected. His angels do not know his time and day of coming to Earth, only God himself knows. Satan is at his best right now, just like any violent Sinner is at their best right now. ISIS, wars, all these violent deaths are occuring because of Satans power and Sin. All these are the signs from the Bible that Satan and all the Anti-Christ will be scavenging the Earth at their best Power trying to destroy all lives to believe there is no God.

Let me put it in words this way, for you people who do not understand about God yet. Satan and his Anti-Christ are a bunch of violent Sinners, and God is a man of Justice. This world is like the Door of Gods house. We are just at the Door of Gods house, and Satan and his Anti-Christ are scavenging this Earth to try rob much souls as they could. We never know when and what God will come out that door with, but we do know he will come out that door pissed off and ready for Justice.

Its like a bunch of people are violently knocking on someones door forever and not giving them rest, we never know what the owner will do when he opens that door, we never know what kind of Justice the owner will have when he opens his door, but we know the owner will be pissed off and want Justice when be opens that door of violent people knocking. Never mess with God, never bang on his door (Sin). Pray (Call) to him before you go to his house, let him know when youre coming. Dont just go knocking on Gods door and expect forgivness and peace. God will come out that door with Justice.

Read more from the original source:

World War 3 | WWIII | Endtime Ministries with Irvin Baxter

Resource Based Economy | The Future We Want

 Resource Based Economy  Comments Off on Resource Based Economy | The Future We Want
Jun 212016
 

Solution Description

Modern society has access to highly advanced technology and can make available food, clothing, housing and medical care; update our educational system; and develop a limitless supply of renewable, non-contaminating energy. By supplying an efficiently designed economy, everyone can enjoy a very high standard of living with all of the amenities of a high technological society. The term and meaning of a Resource Based Economy was originated by Jacque Fresco. It is a whole factor socio-economic system in which all goods and services are available without the use of money, credits, barter or any other system of debt or servitude. All resources become the common heritage of all of the inhabitants, not just a select few. The premise upon which this system is based is that the Earth is abundant with plentiful resource; our practice of rationing resources through monetary methods is irrelevant and counter productive to our survival. In a resource-based economy all of the world’s resources are held as the common heritage of all of Earth’s people, thus eventually outgrowing the need for the artificial boundaries that separate people. This is the unifying imperative. Our vision of globalization empowers each and every person on the planet to be the best they can be, not to live in abject subjugation to a corporate governing body.

A resource-based economy would utilize existing resources from the land and sea, physical equipment, industrial plants, etc. to enhance the lives of the total population. In an economy based on resources rather than money, we could easily produce all of the necessities of life, provide a high standard of living for all, universal health care and more relevant education, and most of all by generating a new incentive system based on human and environmental concern. Our vision of globalization empowers each and every person on the planet to be the best they can be, not to live in abject subjugation to a corporate governing body. Our proposals would not only add to the well being of people, but they would also provide the necessary information that would enable them to participate in any area of their competence. The measure of success would be based on the fulfilment of one’s individual pursuits rather than the acquisition of wealth, property and power. By overcoming scarcity, most of the crimes and even the prisons of today’s society would no longer be necessary. In a more humane civilization, instead of machines displacing people they would shorten the workday, increase the availability of goods and services, and lengthen vacation time. If we utilize new technology to raise the standard of living for all people, then the infusion of machine technology would no longer be a threat. With the elimination of debt, the fear of losing one’s job will no longer be a threat. This assurance could reduce mental and physical stress and leave us free to explore our abilities.

A resource-based economy would make it possible to use technology to overcome scarce resources by applying renewable sources of energy, computerizing and automating manufacturing and inventory, designing safe energy-efficient cities and advanced transportation systems. There is no profit, there is no PIB. The main figures in an Resource Based Economy are right the resources of the earth, so it is directly relevant to our sustainable activities. Technology intelligently and efficiently applied, conserves energy, reduces waste, and provides more leisure time. With automated inventory on a global scale, we can maintain a balance between production and distribution. Only nutritious and healthy food would be available and planned obsolescence would be unnecessary and non-existent in a resource-based economy. Considerable amounts of energy would also be saved by eliminating the duplication of competitive products such as tools, eating utensils, pots, pans and vacuum cleaners.

At present, we have enough material resources to provide a very high standard of living for all of Earth’s inhabitants. Only when population exceeds the carrying capacity of the land do many problems such as greed, crime and violence emerge. The thought of eliminating money still troubles us, consider this: If a group of people with gold, diamonds and money were stranded on an island that had no resources such as food, clean air and water, their wealth would be irrelevant to their survival. It is only when resources are scarce that money can be used to control their distribution. One could not, for example, sell the air we breathe or water abundantly flowing down from a mountain stream. Although air and water are valuable, in abundance they cannot be sold. Money is only important in a society when certain resources for survival must be rationed and the people accept money as an exchange medium for the scarce resources. Money is a social convention, an agreement if you will. It is neither a natural resource nor does it represent one. It is not necessary for survival unless we have been conditioned to accept it as such.

See the article here:

Resource Based Economy | The Future We Want

Discover – Seychelles – Seychelles Tourism Board

 Seychelles  Comments Off on Discover – Seychelles – Seychelles Tourism Board
Jun 192016
 

The Republic of Seychelles comprises 115 islands occupying a land area of 455 km and an Exclusive Economic Zone of 1.4 km in the western Indian Ocean. It represents an archipelago of legendary beauty that extends from between 4 and 10 degrees south of the equator and which lies between 480km and 1,600km from the east coast of Africa. Of these 115 islands, 41 constitute the oldest mid-oceanic granite islands on earth while a further 74 form the low-lying coral atolls and reef islands of the Outer Islands.

The granitic islands of the Seychelles archipelago cluster around the main island of Mah, home to the international airport and the capital, Victoria, and its neighbouring islands of Praslin and La Digue. Together, these Inner Islands form the cultural and economic hub of the nation and contain the majority of Seychelles’ tourism facilities as well as its most stunning beaches.

This section provides comprehensive information about the geography, climate, history, society, government, people, language, religion, culture, cuisine, recipes, arts, architecture, folklore, flora and fauna of Seychelles, and the 6 island groups that, together, make up Seychelles’ Inner and Outer Islands

Continued here:

Discover – Seychelles – Seychelles Tourism Board

Cloning = Cruelty | Compassion in World Farming

 Cloning  Comments Off on Cloning = Cruelty | Compassion in World Farming
Jun 192016
 

The case against cloning

The aim of cloning farm animals is to produce replicas of the animals with the highest economic value, for example the fastest-growing pigs or the highest-yielding dairy cows. However the process of cloning itself causes animal suffering and the animals with the highest economic value are prone to developing severe health problems pushed to their physical limits, they are condemned to a lifetime of suffering.

The Cloning = Cruelty campaign highlights the intrinsic animal welfare issues of selective breeding in animals for food i.e. meat and dairy. Research also shows that many cloned farm animals are born with deformed organs and live short and miserable lives.

The first cloned Boer goat of east China’s Anhui Province dies beside its mother. Xinhua News Agency

The cloning of farm animals can involve great suffering. A cloned embryo has to be implanted into a surrogate mother who carries it to birth. Cloned embryos tend to be large and can result in painful births that are often carried out by Caesarean section. Many clones die during pregnancy or birth. Of those that survive, a significant proportion die in the early days and weeks of life from problems such as heart, liver and kidney failure.

On 8th September MEPs will take a vote on whether to ban the cloning of farm animals in Europe. Please send a message to your MEPs to ask that they vote in support of a ban on cloning. The future of farm animals in Europe may depend on it.

Compassion will continue, with its European partners, to fight the introduction of cloning animals for food.

Read the original post:

Cloning = Cruelty | Compassion in World Farming

AI – What does AI stand for? The Free Dictionary

 Ai  Comments Off on AI – What does AI stand for? The Free Dictionary
Jun 192016
 

Acronym Definition AI Artificial Intelligence AI Adobe Illustrator (and file extension) AI Amnesty International (human rights organization) AI Air India (airline code) AI Art Institute (art schools) AI American Idol (TV show) AI Additional Information AI Appraisal Institute AI Automotive Industries (trade publication) AI The Art Institutes AI All Inclusive (hospitality industry) AI All in (poker) AI Action Item AI Availability (Inherent) AI As If AI Analog Input AI Anguilla (top-level domain name) AI Allen Iverson (basketball player) AI Appreciative Inquiry AI Area of Interest AI Adequate Intake (Institute of Medicine nutrition standard) AI Active Ingredient AI Avian Influenza (aka Bird Flu) AI Academic Institution (education) AI Artificial Insemination AI Anti-Inflammatory AI Appleinsider (Apple rumor site) AI Allegheny (airline code) AI American Idiot (Green Day music album) AI Asphalt Institute AI Audio Interface AI Administrative Instruction (US DoD) AI Applied Innovations AI Ad Interim AI Assurance Invalidit AI Asociacin de Internautas (Spanish) AI Aspen Institute AI Andre Iguodala (basketball player) AI Automatic Identification AI Automated Information AI Appenzell Innerrhoden (Swiss Half Canton) AI Art Index AI Authentication Information AI Anglo-Irish AI Area Index AI Aromatase Inhibitor AI Application Interface AI Army Intelligence AI Adrenal Insufficiency AI Aleutian Islands AI Airbus Industrie (currently AIRBUS) AI Air Interface AI Auxiliary Input AI Animation Insider (website) AI Angiotensin I AI Advance Information AI Anglo-Indian AI Automatic Indexing AI Application Identifier (bindery packaging standards) AI Aortic Insufficiency AI Air Inlet AI Air Interdiction AI Aeronautical Information AI Accuracy International AI Attitude Indicator AI Anti-Icing AI Area of Influence AI Articulation Index AI Airspeed Indicator AI Associate Instructor AI Assistant Inspector AI AnimeIowa AI Analytical Information AI Additional Insured (life insurance) AI Additional Issue AI Alzheimer Italia AI Accredited Investor AI Astrobiology Institute (NASA) AI Aerosol Index AI Air Intelligence (officer) AI Advocacy Institute AI Anime Insider AI Aortic Incompetence AI Accident Investigator AI Atomics International AI Appenzell Inner-Rhoden (canton postcode, Switzerland) AI Acoustic Imaging AI Air Intercept(or) AI Air Ionizer AI Application Instance (SAP) AI Associate Investigator AI Adapter Interface AI Airborne Intercept AI Automatic Input AI Aircraft Identification AI Airborne Interception AI Administrative Investigation (law enforcement) AI Aggregate Income AI Amplifier Input AI Asynchronous Interface (AT&T) AI Alarm Interface (AT&T) AI Authorized Inspector AI Antenna Impedance AI Auricula Izquierda (Spanish: Left Atrium) AI Amplitude Information AI Assignment Instructions AI Anticosti Island (St Lawrence River) AI Arcane Intellect (World of Warcraft gaming spell) AI Action Indicator (ISDN) AI Aircraft Incident AI Alternative Interrogation AI Alpha Institute AI Accidental Insurance AI Anime Invasion (website) AI Assistant Investigator AI Airborne Intelligence AI Aged Individual AI Azimuth Indicator AI airborne interceptor (US DoD) AI Altrusa International (Columbus, OH) AI Aircraft Inspector (also seen as A/I) AI Abridged Index AI Available for Issue AI Acquisition Instruction AI Archive Invalidation (software development) AI Associative Ionization AI Autistically Impaired AI Alliance of Independents (Niue) AI Accountability Individual AI Answer Indicator AI Activity Interrupt (ITU-T) AI Austropa Interconvention (Vienna, Austria) AI Alarm Inhibit (Sprint) AI Alpines International AI Automatic Investing AI Airfield Index AI Architects Instruction AI Anno Inventionis (Latin: in the year of discovery) AI Acid Injector AI Access Issuing AI Anarchy Incorporated AI Anus Injection (procedure) AI Admittance Inverter (microwave circuits) AI Associated Investigator AI Ambience Internet (Gold Coast, Australia) AI Axioincisal AI Alternating Isometrics (PNF technique) AI Arbitration Interval (serial data bus time delay) AI Airways Indicator AI Alloisoleucine Isoleucine AI Signaling Identification Assigned by Exchange A AI Inherent Availability/Ability AI Aiducation International (education charity) AI AGRSUD International (France) AI Anchorage-Independent (cells) AI Amnioinfusion (obstetrics)

More:

AI – What does AI stand for? The Free Dictionary

About Life Extension: Anti-Aging, Health Supplements …

 Life Extension  Comments Off on About Life Extension: Anti-Aging, Health Supplements …
Jun 192016
 

Established in 1980, the Life Extension Foundation is a nonprofit organization, whose long-range goal is to radically extend the healthy human lifespan by discovering scientific methods to control aging and eradicate disease. One of the largest organizations of its kind in the world, the Life Extension Foundation has always been at the forefront of discovering new scientific breakthroughs for use in developing novel disease prevention and treatment protocols to improve the quality and length of human life. Through its private funding of research programs aimed at identifying and developing new therapies to slow and even reverse the aging process, the Life Extension Foundation seeks to reduce, and ultimately eliminate, such age-related killers as heart disease, stroke, cancer and Alzheimers disease.

The Life Extension Foundation is a nonprofit organization whose goal is to extend the healthy human lifespan by discovering scientific methods to control aging and eradicate disease. continue >>

Since its inception in 1980, the Life Extension Foundation has continued its dedication to finding new scientific methods for eradicating old age, disease and death. continue >>

The Life Extension Foundation has been a world leader in uncovering pioneering approaches for preventing and treating diseases. continue >>

Long-time members are keenly aware of the scientific research that Life Extension Foundation funds to develop validated methods to slow and reverse the aging process. continue >>

Life Extension Foundation Federal Income Tax information is now available to download in Adobe PDF format. continue >>

Read more:

About Life Extension: Anti-Aging, Health Supplements …




Pierre Teilhard De Chardin | Designer Children | Prometheism | Euvolution