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Astronomy | Article about astronomy by The Free Dictionary

 Astronomy  Comments Off on Astronomy | Article about astronomy by The Free Dictionary
Feb 052016
 

astronomy, branch of sciencescience [Lat. scientia=knowledge]. For many the term science refers to the organized body of knowledge concerning the physical world, both animate and inanimate, but a proper definition would also have to include the attitudes and methods through which this body of ….. Click the link for more information. that studies the motions and natures of celestial bodies, such as planetsplanet [Gr.,=wanderer], a large nonluminous body of rock or gas that orbits the sun or another star, has a rounded shape due to gravity, and has cleared its orbit of smaller objects. ….. Click the link for more information. , starsstar, hot incandescent sphere of gas, held together by its own gravitation, and emitting light and other forms of electromagnetic radiation whose ultimate source is nuclear energy. ….. Click the link for more information. , and galaxiesgalaxy, large aggregation of stars, gas, and dust, typically containing billions of stars. Recognition that galaxies are independent star systems outside the Milky Way came from a study of the Andromeda Galaxy (192629) by Edwin P. ….. Click the link for more information. ; more generally, the study of mattermatter, anything that has mass and occupies space. Matter is sometimes called koinomatter (Gr. koinos=common) to distinguish it from antimatter, or matter composed of antiparticles. ….. Click the link for more information. and energyenergy, in physics, the ability or capacity to do work or to produce change. Forms of energy include heat, light, sound, electricity, and chemical energy. Energy and work are measured in the same unitsfoot-pounds, joules, ergs, or some other, depending on the system of ….. Click the link for more information. in the universeuniverse, totality of matter and energy in existence. The study of the origin of the universe, or cosmos, is known as cosmogony, and that of its structure and evolution, cosmology. The age of the universe depends on which theory of cosmology one accepts. ….. Click the link for more information. at large. Ancient Astronomy

Astronomy is the oldest of the physical sciences. In many early civilizations the regularity of celestial motions was recognized, and attempts were made to keep records and predict future events. The first practical function of astronomy was to provide a basis for the calendarcalendar [Lat., from Kalends], system of reckoning time for the practical purpose of recording past events and calculating dates for future plans. The calendar is based on noting ordinary and easily observable natural events, the cycle of the sun through the seasons with equinox ….. Click the link for more information. , the units of month and year being determined by astronomical observations. Later, astronomy served in navigation and timekeeping. The Chinese had a working calendar as early as the 13th cent. B.C. About 350 B.C., Shih Shen prepared the earliest known star catalog, containing 800 entries. Ancient Chinese astronomy is best known today for its observations of cometscomet [Gr.,=longhaired], a small celestial body consisting mostly of dust and gases that moves in an elongated elliptical or nearly parabolic orbit around the sun or another star. Comets visible from the earth can be seen for periods ranging from a few days to several months. ….. Click the link for more information. and supernovassupernova, a massive star in the latter stages of stellar evolution that suddenly contracts and then explodes, increasing its energy output as much as a billionfold. Supernovas are the principal distributors of heavy elements throughout the universe; all elements heavier than ….. Click the link for more information. . The Babylonians, Assyrians, and Egyptians were also active in astronomy. The earliest astronomers were priests, and no attempt was made to separate astronomy from astrologyastrology, form of divination based on the theory that the movements of the celestial bodiesthe stars, the planets, the sun, and the mooninfluence human affairs and determine the course of events. ….. Click the link for more information. . In fact, an early motivation for the detailed study of planetary positions was the preparation of horoscopes.

The highest development of astronomy in the ancient world came with the Greeks in the period from 600 B.C. to A.D. 400. The methods employed by the Greek astronomers were quite distinct from those of earlier civilizations, such as the Babylonian. The Babylonian approach was numerological and best suited for studying the complex lunar motions that were of overwhelming interest to the Mesopotamian peoples. The Greek approach, on the contrary, was geometric and schematic, best suited for complete cosmological models. Thales, an Ionian philosopher of the 6th cent. B.C., is credited with introducing geometrical ideas into astronomy. Pythagoras, about a hundred years later, imagined the universe as a series of concentric spheres in which each of the seven “wanderers” (the sun, the moon, and the five known planets) were embedded. Euxodus developed the idea of rotating spheres by introducing extra spheres for each of the planets to account for the observed complexities of their motions. This was the beginning of the Greek aim of providing a theory that would account for all observed phenomena. Aristotle (384322 B.C.) summarized much of the Greek work before him and remained an absolute authority until late in the Middle Ages. Although his belief that the earth does not move retarded astronomical progress, he gave the correct explanation of lunar eclipses and a sound argument for the spherical shape of the earth.

The apex of Greek astronomy was reached in the Hellenistic period by the Alexandrian school. Aristarchus (c.310c.230 B.C.) determined the sizes and distances of the moon and sun relative to the earth and advocated a heliocentric (sun-centered) cosmology. Although there were errors in his assumptions, his approach was truly scientific; his work was the first serious attempt to make a scale model of the universe. The first accurate measurement of the actual (as opposed to relative) size of the earth was made by Eratosthenes (284192 B.C.). His method was based on the angular difference in the sun’s position at the high noon of the summer solsticesolstice [Lat.,=sun stands still], in astronomy, either of the two points on the ecliptic that lie midway between the equinoxes (separated from them by an angular distance of 90). ….. Click the link for more information. in two cities whose distance apart was known.

The greatest astronomer of antiquity was Hipparchus (190120 B.C.). He developed trigonometrytrigonometry [Gr.,=measurement of triangles], a specialized area of geometry concerned with the properties of and relations among the parts of a triangle. Spherical trigonometry is concerned with the study of triangles on the surface of a sphere rather than in the plane; it is ….. Click the link for more information. and used it to determine astronomical distances from the observed angular positions of celestial bodies. He recognized that astronomy requires accurate and systematic observations extended over long time periods. He therefore made great use of old observations, comparing them to his own. Many of his observations, particularly of the planets, were intended for future astronomers. He devised a geocentric system of cycles and epicycles (a compounding of circular motions) to account for the movements of the sun and moon.

Ptolemy (A.D. 85165) applied the scheme of epicycles to the planets as well. The resulting Ptolemaic systemPtolemaic system , historically the most influential of the geocentric cosmological theories, i.e., theories that placed the earth motionless at the center of the universe with all celestial bodies revolving around it (see cosmology). ….. Click the link for more information. was a geometrical representation of the solar systemsolar system, the sun and the surrounding planets, natural satellites, dwarf planets, asteroids, meteoroids, and comets that are bound by its gravity. The sun is by far the most massive part of the solar system, containing almost 99.9% of the system’s total mass. ….. Click the link for more information. that predicted the motions of the planets with considerable accuracy. Among his other achievements was an accurate measurement of the distance to the moon by a parallaxparallax , any alteration in the relative apparent positions of objects produced by a shift in the position of the observer. In astronomy the term is used for several techniques for determining distance. ….. Click the link for more information. technique. His 13-volume treatise, the Almagest, summarized much of ancient astronomical knowledge and, in many translations, was the definitive authority for the next 14 centuries.

After the fall of Rome, European astronomy was largely dormant, but significant work was carried out by the Muslims and the Hindus. It was by way of Arabic translations that Greek astronomy reached medieval Europe. One of the great landmarks of the revival of learning in Europe was the publication (1543) by Nicolaus Copernicus (14731543) of his De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres). According to the Copernican systemCopernican system, first modern European theory of planetary motion that was heliocentric, i.e., that placed the sun motionless at the center of the solar system with all the planets, including the earth, revolving around it. ….. Click the link for more information. , the earth rotates on its axis and, with all the other planets, revolves around the sun. The assertion that the earth is not the center of the universe was to have profound philosophical and religious consequences. Copernicus’s principal claim for his new system was that it made calculations easier. He retained the uniform circular motion of the Ptolemaic system, but by placing the sun at the center, he was able to reduce the number of epicycles. Copernicus also determined the sidereal periods (time for one revolution around the sun) of the planets and their distance from the sun relative to the sun-earth distance (see astronomical unitastronomical unit (AU), mean distance between the earth and sun; one AU is c.92,960,000 mi (149,604,970 km). The astronomical unit is the principal unit of measurement within the solar system, e.g., Mercury is just over 1-3 AU and Pluto is about 39 AU from the sun. ….. Click the link for more information. ).

The great astronomer Tycho Brahe (15461601) was principally an observer; a conservative in matters of theory, he rejected the notion that the earth moves. Under the patronage of King Frederick II, Tycho established Uraniborg, a superb observatory on the Danish island of Hveen. Over a period of 20 years (157697), he and his assistants compiled the most accurate and complete astronomical observations to that time. At his death his records passed to Johannes Kepler (15711630), who had been his last assistant. Kepler spent nearly a decade trying to fit Tycho’s observations, particularly of Mars, into an improved system of heliocentric circular motion. At last, he conceived the idea that the orbit of Mars was an ellipse with the sun at one focus. This led him to the three laws of planetary motion that bear his name (see Kepler’s lawsKepler’s laws, three mathematical statements formulated by the German astronomer Johannes Kepler that accurately describe the revolutions of the planets around the sun. Kepler’s laws opened the way for the development of celestial mechanics, i.e. ….. Click the link for more information. ).

Galileo Galilei (15641642) made fundamental discoveries in both astronomy and physics; he is perhaps best described as the founder of modern science. Galileo was the first to make astronomical use of the telescopetelescope, traditionally, a system of lenses, mirrors, or both, used to gather light from a distant object and form an image of it. Traditional optical telescopes, which are the subject of this article, also are used to magnify objects on earth and in astronomy; other types of ….. Click the link for more information. . His discoveries of the four largest moons of Jupiter and the phases of Venus were persuasive evidence for the Copernican cosmology. His discoveries of craters on the moon and blemishes on the sun (sunspotssunspots, dark, usually irregularly shaped spots on the sun’s surface that are actually solar magnetic storms. The spots are darker because the temperature of the spots is lower than that of the surrounding photosphere (the visible surface of the sun). ….. Click the link for more information. ) discredited the ancient belief in the perfection of the heavens. These findings were announced in The Sidereal Messenger, a small book published in 1610. Galileo’s Dialogue on the Two Chief Systems of the World (1632) was an eloquent argument for the Copernican system over the Ptolemaic. However, Galileo was called before the Inquisition and forced to renounce publicly all doctrines considered contrary to Scripture.

Isaac Newton (16421727), possibly the greatest scientific genius of all time, succeeded in uniting the sciences of astronomy and physicsphysics, branch of science traditionally defined as the study of matter, energy, and the relation between them; it was called natural philosophy until the late 19th cent. and is still known by this name at a few universities. ….. Click the link for more information. . His laws of motion and theory of universal gravitationgravitation, the attractive force existing between any two particles of matter. The Law of Universal Gravitation

Since the gravitational force is experienced by all matter in the universe, from the largest galaxies down to the smallest particles, it is often ….. Click the link for more information. provided a physical, dynamic basis for the merely descriptive laws of Kepler. Until well into the 19th cent., all progress in astronomy was essentially an extension of Newton’s work. Edmond HalleyHalley, Edmond , 16561742, English astronomer and mathematician. He is particularly noted as the first astronomer to predict the return of a comet and the first to point out the use of a transit of Venus in determining the parallax of the sun. In 1676 he went to St. ….. Click the link for more information. ‘s prediction that the comet of 1682 would return in 1758 was refined by A. C. Clairault, who included the perturbing effects of Jupiter and Saturn on the orbit to calculate the nearly exact date of the return of the comet. In 1781, William Herschel accidentally discovered a new planet, eventually named Uranus. Discrepancies between the observed and theoretical orbits of Uranus indicated the existence of a still more distant planet that was affecting Uranus’s motion. J. C. Adams and U. J. J. Leverrier independently calculated the position where the new planet, Neptune, was actually discovered (1846). Similar calculations for a large “Planet X” led in 1930 to the discovery of Pluto, now classed as a dwarf planetdwarf planet, a nonluminous body of rock or gas that orbits the sun and has a rounded shape due to its gravity. Unlike a planet, a dwarf planet is not capable of clearing its orbit of smaller objects by collision, capture, or other means. ….. Click the link for more information. .

By the early 19th cent., the science of celestial mechanicscelestial mechanics, the study of the motions of astronomical bodies as they move under the influence of their mutual gravitation. Celestial mechanics analyzes the orbital motions of planets, dwarf planets, comets, asteroids, and natural and artificial satellites within the ….. Click the link for more information. had reached a highly developed state at the hands of Leonhard Euler, J. L. Lagrange, P. S. Laplace, and others. Powerful new mathematical techniques allowed solution of most of the remaining problems in classical gravitational theory as applied to the solar system. In 1801, Giuseppe Piazzi discovered Ceres, the first of many asteroidsasteroid, planetoid, or minor planet, small body orbiting the sun. More than 300,000 asteroids have been identified and cataloged; more than a million are believed to exist in the main belt between Mars and Jupiter, with many more in the Kuiper belt ….. Click the link for more information. . When Ceres was lost to view, C. F. Gauss applied the advanced gravitational techniques to compute the position where the asteroid was subsequently rediscovered. In 1838, F. W. Bessel made the first measurement of the distance to a star; using the method of parallax with the earth’s orbit as a baseline, he determined the distance of the star 61 Cygni to be 60 trillion mi (about 10 light-yearslight-year, in astronomy, unit of length equal to the distance light travels in one sidereal year. It is 9.461 1012 km (about 6 million million mi). Alpha Centauri and Proxima Centauri, the stars nearest our solar system, are about 4.3 light-years distant. ….. Click the link for more information. ), a figure later shown to be 40% too large.

Astronomy was revolutionized in the second half of the 19th cent. by the introduction of techniques based on photography and spectroscopy. Interest shifted from determining the positions and distances of stars to studying their physical composition (see stellar structurestellar structure, physical properties of a star and the processes taking place within it. Except for that of the sun, astronomers must draw their conclusions regarding stellar structure on the basis of light and other radiation from stars that are light-years away; this light ….. Click the link for more information. and stellar evolutionstellar evolution, life history of a star, beginning with its condensation out of the interstellar gas (see interstellar matter) and ending, sometimes catastrophically, when the star has exhausted its nuclear fuel or can no longer adjust itself to a stable configuration. ….. Click the link for more information. ). The dark lines in the solar spectrumspectrum, arrangement or display of light or other form of radiation separated according to wavelength, frequency, energy, or some other property. Beams of charged particles can be separated into a spectrum according to mass in a mass spectrometer (see mass spectrograph). ….. Click the link for more information. that had been observed by W. H. Wollaston and Joseph von Fraunhofer were interpreted in an elementary fashion by G. R. Kirchhoff on the basis of classical physics, although a complete explanation came only with the quantum theoryquantum theory, modern physical theory concerned with the emission and absorption of energy by matter and with the motion of material particles; the quantum theory and the theory of relativity together form the theoretical basis of modern physics. ….. Click the link for more information. . Between 1911 and 1913, Ejnar Hertzsprung and H. N. Russell studied the relation between the colors and luminosities of typical stars (see Hertzsprung-Russell diagramHertzsprung-Russell diagram [for Ejnar Hertzsprung and H. N. Russell], graph showing the luminosity of a star as a function of its surface temperature. The luminosity, or absolute magnitude, increases upwards on the vertical axis; the temperature (or some temperature-dependent ….. Click the link for more information. ). With the construction of ever more powerful telescopes (see observatoryobservatory, scientific facility especially equipped to detect and record naturally occurring scientific phenomena. Although geological and meteorological observatories exist, the term is generally applied to astronomical observatories. ….. Click the link for more information. ), the boundaries of the known universe constantly increased. E. P. Hubble’s study of the distant galaxies led him to conclude that the universe is expanding (see Hubble’s lawHubble’s law, in astronomy, statement that the distances between galaxies (see galaxy) or clusters of galaxies are continuously increasing and that therefore the universe is expanding. ….. Click the link for more information. ). Using Cepheid variablesCepheid variables , class of variable stars that brighten and dim in an extremely regular fashion. The periods of the fluctuations (the time to complete one cycle from bright to dim and back to bright) last several days, although they range from 1 to 50 days. ….. Click the link for more information. as distance indicators, Harlow Shapley determined the size and shape of our galaxy, the Milky WayMilky Way, the galaxy of which the sun and solar system are a part, seen as a broad band of light arching across the night sky from horizon to horizon; if not blocked by the horizon, it would be seen as a circle around the entire sky. ….. Click the link for more information. . During World War II Walter BaadeBaade, Walter , 18931960, German-born American astronomer. From 1919 to 1931 he was on the staff of the Hamburg observatory; from 1931 to 1958, at the Mt. Wilson observatory. ….. Click the link for more information. defined two “populations” of stars, and suggested that an examination of these different types might trace the spiral shape of our own galaxy (see stellar populationsstellar populations, two broadly contrasting distributions of star types that are characteristic of different parts of a galaxy. Population I stars are young, recently formed stars, whereas population II stars are old and highly evolved. ….. Click the link for more information. ). In 1951 a Yerkes Observatory group led by William W. Morgan detected evidence of two spiral arms in the Milky Way galaxy.

Various rival theories of the origin and overall structure of the universe, e.g., the big bang and steady state theories, have been formulated (see cosmologycosmology, area of science that aims at a comprehensive theory of the structure and evolution of the entire physical universe. Modern Cosmological Theories

….. Click the link for more information. ). Albert Einstein’s theory of relativityrelativity, physical theory, introduced by Albert Einstein, that discards the concept of absolute motion and instead treats only relative motion between two systems or frames of reference. ….. Click the link for more information. plays a central role in all modern cosmological theories. In 1963, the moon passed in front of the radio source 3C-273, allowing Cyril Hazard to calculate the exact position of the source. With this information, Maarten Schmidt photographed the object’s spectrum using the 200-in. (5-m) reflector on Palomar Mt., then the world’s largest telescope. He interpreted the result as coming from an object, now known as a quasarquasar , one of a class of blue celestial objects having the appearance of stars when viewed through a telescope and currently believed to be the most distant and most luminous objects in the universe; the name is shortened from quasi-stellar radio source (QSR). ….. Click the link for more information. , at an extreme distance and receding from us at a substantial fraction of the speed of light. In 1967 Antony Hewish and Jocelyn Bell Burnell discovered a radio source a few hundred light years away featuring regular pulses at intervals of about 1 second with an accuracy of repetition of one-millionth of a second. This was the first discovered pulsarpulsar, in astronomy, a neutron star that emits brief, sharp pulses of energy instead of the steady radiation associated with other natural sources. The study of pulsars began when Antony Hewish and his students at Cambridge built a primitive radio telescope to study a ….. Click the link for more information. , a rapidly spinning neutron starneutron star, extremely small, extremely dense star, with as much as double the sun’s mass but only a few miles in radius, in the final stage of stellar evolution. Astronomers Baade and Zwicky predicted the existence of neutron stars in 1933. ….. Click the link for more information. emitting lighthouse-type beams of energy, the end result of the death of a star in a supernova explosion.

The discovery by Karl Jansky in 1931 that radio signals were emitted by celestial bodies initiated the science of radio astronomyradio astronomy, study of celestial bodies by means of the electromagnetic radio frequency waves they emit and absorb naturally. Radio Telescopes

Radio waves emanating from celestial bodies are received by specially constructed antennas, called radio ….. Click the link for more information. . Most recently, the frontiers of astronomy have been expanded by space explorationspace exploration, the investigation of physical conditions in space and on stars, planets, and other celestial bodies through the use of artificial satellites (spacecraft that orbit the earth), space probes (spacecraft that pass through the solar system and that may or may not ….. Click the link for more information. . Perturbations and interference from the earth’s atmosphere make space-based observations necessary for infraredinfrared astronomy, study of celestial objects by means of the infrared radiation they emit, in the wavelength range from about 1 micrometer to about 1 millimeter. All objects, from trees and buildings on the earth to distant galaxies, emit infrared (IR) radiation. ….. Click the link for more information. , ultravioletultraviolet astronomy, study of celestial objects by means of the ultraviolet radiation they emit, in the wavelength range from about 90 to about 350 nanometers. Ultraviolet (UV) line spectrum measurements are used to discern the chemical composition, densities, and temperatures ….. Click the link for more information. , gamma-raygamma-ray astronomy, study of astronomical objects by analysis of the most energetic electromagnetic radiation they emit. Gamma rays are shorter in wavelength and hence more energetic than X rays (see gamma radiation) but much harder to detect and to pinpoint. ….. Click the link for more information. , and X-ray astronomyX-ray astronomy, study of celestial objects by means of the X rays they emit, in the wavelength range from 0.01 to 10 nanometers. X-ray astronomy dates to 1949 with the discovery that the sun emits X rays. ….. Click the link for more information. . The Surveyor and Apollo spacecraft of the late 1960s and early 1970s helped launch the new field of astrogeology. A series of interplanetary probes, such as Mariner 2 (1962) and 5 (1967) to Venus, Mariner 4 (1965) and 6 (1969) to Mars, and Voyager 1 (1979) and 2 (1979), provided a wealth of data about Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune; more recently, the Magellan probe to Venus (1990) and the Galileo probe to Jupiter (1995) have continued this line of research (see satellite, artificialsatellite, artificial, object constructed by humans and placed in orbit around the earth or other celestial body (see also space probe). The satellite is lifted from the earth’s surface by a rocket and, once placed in orbit, maintains its motion without further rocket propulsion. ….. Click the link for more information. ; space probespace probe, space vehicle carrying sophisticated instrumentation but no crew, designed to explore various aspects of the solar system (see space exploration). Unlike an artificial satellite, which is placed in more or less permanent orbit around the earth, a space probe is ….. Click the link for more information. ). The Hubble Space TelescopeHubble Space Telescope (HST), the first large optical orbiting observatory. Built from 1978 to 1990 at a cost of $1.5 billion, the HST (named for astronomer E. P. Hubble) was expected to provide the clearest view yet obtained of the universe from a position some 350 mi (560 km) ….. Click the link for more information. , launched in 1990, has made possible visual observations of a quality far exceeding those of earthbound instruments.

See A. Berry, Short History of Astronomy (1961); J. L. Dreyer, History of Astronomy from Thales to Kepler (2d ed. 1953); A. Koyr, The Astronomical Revolution (1973); P. Maffei, Beyond the Moon (1978); P. Moore, ed. The International Encyclopedia of Astronomy (1987); S. Maran, ed., The Astronomy and Astrophysics Encyclopedia (1991); C. Peterson and J. C. Brandt, Astronomy with the Hubble Space Telescope (1995).

the scientific study of the individual celestial bodies (excluding the earth) and of the universe as a whole. Its various branches include astrometry, astrodynamics, cosmology, and astrophysics http://www.astronomy.net http://www.astronomytoday.com http://www.astronomynow.com http://www.popastro.com/home.htm http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/space http://www.rog.nmm.ac.uk

The science concerned with celestial bodies and the observation and interpretation of the radiation received in the vicinity of the earth from the component parts of the universe.

(fl. c. 270 B.C.) Greek astronomer; first to maintain that Earth rotates and revolves around Sun. [Gk. Hist.: EB, I: 514]

(14531543) Polish astronomer; author of the Copernican theory that planets orbit the sun. [Polish Hist.: NCE, 652]

(15641642) Italian mathematician, astronomer, and physicist. [Ital. Hist.: EB, IV: 388]

(16561742) British mathematician and astronomer; calculated orbit of comet named after him. [Br. Hist.: EB, IV: 860]

(fl. 146127 B.C.) astronomer who calculated the year and discovered the precession of the equinoxes. [Turkish Hist.: EB, V: 55]

(85165) eminent Greek astronomer. [Gk. Hist.: Hall, 255]

muse of astronomy. [Gk. Myth.: Jobes, 374]

the science of the structure and evolution of cosmic bodies, their systems, and the universe as a whole.

Objectives and branches of astronomy. Astronomy studies the bodies of the solar system, stars, galactic nebulas, interstellar matter, our galaxy (the Milky Way system) and other galaxies, their distribution in space, and their motion, physical nature, interactions, origins, and evolution. Astronomy also studies and develops means for applying the observations of celestial bodies to the practical needs of man. Examples of this are time service, the determination of geographical coordinates and azimuths on the earths surface, the study of the shape of the earth from observations made by artificial earth satellites, the stellar orientation of artificial satellites and space probes, and other similar applications. Astronomy contributes to the development of a correct materialistic understanding of the universe. Astronomy is closely related to other precise sciences, in particular to mathematics, physics, and several branches of mechanics. It utilizes the accomplishments of these sciences and in turn affects their development.

Depending on the object of study and the methods of research, astronomy is divided into a number of disciplines (branches). Astrometry is concerned with the construction of a basic inertial system of coordinates for astronomical measurements, the determination of the positions and motions of celestial objects, the study of the laws of the earths rotation, the calculation of time, and the determination of the values of fundamental astronomical constants. Astrometry includes spherical astronomy, which uses mathematical methods to determine the visible positions and motions of celestial objects, and practical astronomy, which is particularly concerned with the theory of angle-measuring instruments and their applications in determining time, geographical coordinates (latitude and longitude), and azimuthal directions. Celestial mechanics (theoretical astronomy) studies the motions of celestial bodies, including artificial objects, under the influence of universal gravitation (astrodynamics) as well as the equilibrium configurations of celestial bodies. Stellar astronomy considers the star system forming our galaxy, the Milky Way; extragalactic astronomy deals with other galaxies and their systems. Astrophysics, which includes astrophotometry, astrospectroscopy, and other branches, studies physical phenomena and chemical processes occurring within celestial bodies, their systems, and cosmic space. Radio astronomy studies the nature and spatial distribution of the cosmic sources of radio waves. The construction of artificial earth satellites and space probes led to the development of extra-atmospheric astronomy, a field that has a promising future. Cosmogony deals with the origin of individual celestial bodies as well as of their systems, in particular that of the solar system. Cosmology studies the laws and structure of the universe as a whole.

Ancient times. Astronomy arose in remote antiquity as a result of the need to determine time and to guide travelers in their journeys. Even simple observations of heavenly bodies with the naked eye enable people to determine directions on land as well as on sea. The study of periodic celestial phenomena provided the basis for time measurement and the establishment of a calendar system, which permitted the prediction of seasonal phenomena that were important for the practical activities of man.

The astronomical knowledge of the ancient Chinese has come down to us in a very incomplete and often distorted form. They were able to determine the time and the positions between the stars of the points of equinox and solstice as well as the inclination of the ecliptic to the equator. Precise synodical periods of planetary motion were known by the first century B.C. In India a chronological system was established in which the motion of Jupiter played a major role. In ancient Egypt the period of the Niles spring floods, on which agricultural work was dependent, was determined from observations of the stars. In Arabia, where because of the daytime heat much work was done at night, observation of the moons phases played an important role. In ancient Greece, where navigation was developed and where the question of determining ones bearings was paramount, particularly before the invention of the compass, orientation methods using stars were developed. Among many peoples, particularly in Islamic countries, religious ceremonies were connected with the periodicity of celestial phenomena, mainly with the lunar phases.

Sufficiently accurate astronomical observations were made and passed down to subsequent generations in remote antiquity. Because of this, the Egyptians in the 28th century B.C. had already determined the length of the year to be 365 days. The period of alternation of the lunar phases (synodic month) was known to an accuracy of several minutes; evidence of this is the discovery in the fifth century B.C. of the Metonic cycle, in which the lunar phases fall on the same days of the year every 19 years. The repetition period of the solar eclipse of 18 years and ten days, which was called saros, was already known in the sixth century B.C. All this information had been obtained over many centuries from observations of celestial phenomena by the people of ancient China, Egypt, India, and Greece.

Those stars that seemed to be attached to a celestial dome and that with the dome underwent daily rotations practically without changing their relative positions were called fixed stars. In their irregular groupings, people attempted to find similarities with animals, mythological personages, and domestic objects. Thus, the stellar sky was divided into constellations that differed among different peoples. However, in addition to such fixed stars, seven moving celestial bodies have been known from time immemorial: the sun, the moon, and five planets named after Roman mythological deitiesMercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. In honor of the sun, the moon, and the five planets, seven days of the week were established; the names of the days in a number of languages still reflect this fact. Tracking the motions of the moon and planets through stellar paths was not difficult, since they were readily visible at night against the background of the surrounding stars. The motion of the sun was established through observations of bright stars that appeared at dawnso-called heliacal ascensions. These observations, together with measurements of the midday altitude of the sun above the horizon made with the simplest devices, enabled man to make sufficiently accurate determinations of the suns path among the stars and to trace its annual motion along a great circle of the celestial sphere called the ecliptic, which is inclined toward the equator. Constellations located along the ecliptic were called the zodiac (from the Greek zoonanimal), since many of them bear the names of living creaturesAries, Taurus, Cancer, Leo, and others. In ancient China the stellar sky was studied in detail and divided into 122 constellations, 28 of which were zodiacal. The ancient Chinese prepared a list of 807 stars, which preceded by several centuries the star catalog of the Greek scholar Hip-parchus. However, most peoples had 12 zodiacal constellations, and in the course of a year the sun passed each constellation in approximately one month. The moon and the planets also moved along the zodiacal constellations, although they could extend on each side of the ecliptic by several angular degrees.

While the motion of the sun and the moon always proceeds in one directionfrom west to east (direct motion)the motion of the planets is more complex and at times occurs in the opposite direction (retrograde motion). The planets erratic motions, which did not fall into a simple scheme and did not obey elementary rules, seemed to indicate the existence of their personal will and encouraged their deification by ancient peoples. This and also such awesome phenomena as lunar and especially solar eclipses, the appearance of bright comets, and bursts of new stars gave rise to the pseudoscience of astrology, in which the positions of the planets within the constellations and these awesome phenomena were associated with events on earth and were used to predict the fates of peoples and individuals. Despite its lack of the slightest scientific basis, astrology, which exploits peoples superstitions and ignorance, has nonetheless become widespread and has been accepted by many peoples for a long time. Thus, many rulers, military leaders, and nobles retained special astrologers whom they consulted when making decisions. According to the principles of astrology, the casting of horoscopes, from which imaginary predictions were made, required a knowledge of the zodiacs position with respect to the horizon at the given moment, as well as the positions of the planets. This led to increased astronomical observations, to more accurate determinations of the periods of motion of celestial bodies, and to the formulation of the first theories of planetary motion, which were very incomplete. Thus, astrology, despite its absurdity, at a certain stage promoted the development of the science of astronomy.

Geocentric system of the world. The perfection of the theories of planetary motion required a thorough knowledge of geometry, which was developed in Greece (not earlier than the fourth century B.C.). At that time, Eudoxus of Cnidos, a predecessor of Aristotle, formulated the theory of the homocentric sphere, which has come down to us through Aristotle. According to this theory, each planet is attached to the surface of a hollow sphere that uniformly rotates within another sphere that also rotates about an axis that does not coincide with the axis of rotation of the first sphere. The earth was located at the center of these spheres. The representation of the complex motion of several planets required several such concentric spheres, the total number of which was calculated as 55 by Calippus, a student of Eudoxus. Later, in the third century B.C., the Greek geometer Apollonius of Perga simplified this theory, substituting circles for the rotating spheres. His theory formed the basis of the theory of epicycles, which was finally completed in a treatise known as the Almagest by the ancient Greek astronomer Ptolemy (second century B.C.). It was assumed that all heavenly bodies moved in circles and in uniform motion. The irregular motions of the planetschanges in directions of their motionwere explained by assuming that the planets are simultaneously participating in several uniform circular motions, occurring in different planes and at different velocities. The earth, whose sphericity was taught as early as the sixth century B.C. by the Pythagorean school, was considered to be at rest in the center of the universe. This notion coincided with the direct impression derived from the appearance of the starry sky. The earths circumference was measured in the third century B.C. by Eratosthenes in Alexandria.

In practical applications, the theory of epicycles required the values determining the rotation periods of the planets, the relative inclinations of their orbits, the lengths of the arcs of retrograde motion, and data that could be obtained only through observations by measuring the corresponding time intervals and angles. To accomplish this, different devices and instruments were invented; in the beginning there were simple devices such as the gnomon; later, more complex devices such as the triquetrum and the armillary sphere were used. The latter two made it possible to determine the ecliptic coordinates of the fixed stars. Lists (catalogs) were prepared in ancient times by Shih Shen (China, fourth century B.C.), Timocharis (Greece, third century B.C.), and Hipparchus 150 years later (Greece, second century B.C.). Hipparchus catalog lists 1,022 stars with their ecliptic latitudes and longitudes and magnitude ratings based on a conventional scale of star magnitudes that is used to this day. While comparing his own catalog with that of Timocharis, Hipparchus discovered an increase in the longitude of all the stars and explained this by the motion of vernal equinox, from which the longitude is calculated. This led to the discovery of the phenomenon of precession.

Middle Ages. Ptolemys Almagest, which summed up the astronomical knowledge of his time, for many centuries remained the fundamental treatise on the geocentric system of the world. The emergence of Christianity with its dogmatism, as well as the invasions of the barbarians, led to the collapse of natural science, particularly astronomy, during the Middle Ages. In the course of an entire millennium in Europe, little was added to and much was forgotten about what was known through the work of ancient scholars about the structure of the universe. The Holy Scriptures were law, from which answers to all questions were drawn, including those in astronomy.

Only the Arabs and the people they came into contact with made an attempt through new observations, if not to reform, then at least to refine old theories. In 827, al-Mamun, the caliph of Baghdad, ordered a translation of Ptolemys work from Greek to Arabic. At the turn of the tenth century, the Arabic scholar al-Battani conducted many observations, deriving more precise values for annual precession, inclination of the ecliptic to the equator, and the eccentricity and longitude of the perigee of the suns orbit. Also in the tenth century, the Arabic astronomer Abu al-Wafa discovered one of the disparities (anomalies) in the motion of the moon. Major contributions to the development of astronomy were made by Abu Rayhan Biruni (Khwarizm, end of the tenth century), author of varied astronomical studies. Astronomy continued to flourish among the Arabic peoples and in Middle Asia until the 15th century. Many major scholars studied astronomy along with other sciences in order to improve the accuracy of astronomical constants of the geocentric theory. Especially well known were the astronomical tables prepared in 1252 upon orders from the Castilian ruler Alfonso X by a group of Jewish and Moorish scholars and called Alfon-sine tables. Observational astronomy developed in Azerbaijan, where Nasir al-Din al-Tusi constructed a large observatory in Maragheh. The most prominent observatory in size, quantity, and quality of instruments was the observatory of Ulug Beg in Samarkand, where in 142037 a new large star catalog was prepared. The Arabs rescued Greek classical astronomy from oblivion, renewed the planetary tables, and developed the theory; however, after Ptolemy they did not introduce fundamental changes in astronomy. During this era, astronomical observations were also conducted in China and India.

In the 12th and 13th centuries a revival in the natural sciences also began to take place in Europe. Gradually, and not without the influence of the Arabs, the more enlightened people became acquainted with the science and philosophy of the ancient Greeks, whose treatises were translated into Latin, often from Arabic. Aristotles teachings agreed with church dogma: the geocentric system of the world did not contradict the Scriptures. In Italy, and then in other countries of Western Europe, universities were established, which, although under the strong influence of ecclesiastical scholasticism, promoted the development of the natural sciences.

Heliocentric system of the world. With the expansion of navigation and geographical exploration requiring more precise knowledge of the positions of stars and planets, several outstanding astronomers, mainly German, renewed observations to perfect the planetary tables. Geometry was taught in the leading universities, since it was necessary for mastering the theory of epicycles, and students studied the Almagest, several Latin translations of which were published in Venice (1496, 1515, and 1528) and Basel (1538). All of this favored the discovery of the Polish astronomer N. Copernicus, who acquainted himself at the University of Krakw and later in Italy with all the details of the theory of epicycles. He then returned to Poland and produced a total upheaval in astronomy by revealing the actual structure of the planetary system with the sun in the center and the planets revolving around it, including the earth with its satellite, the moon. Well before this event, in the third century B.C., the ancient Greek astronomer Aristarchus of Samos expressed the idea that the earth moves around the sun, and Heraclitus even earlier conjectured that the earth rotates about an axis. However, only Copernicus worked out and substantiated in every detail a heliocentric system of the world; he subsequently presented it in the work On the Revolutions of Heavenly Bodies, published in Nuremberg in 1543. This work was the key to understanding the universe in its actual structure and not in the form of mathematical abstraction that described only the visible aspects of phenomena. However, the centuries-old deeply rooted ideas about the motionless earth at the center of the universe, which were shared by the church, did not yield to the new theory for a long time; this was not understood even by many of the most outstanding people of that time. It was considered that the Copernican system was only a hypothesis intended for calculating planetary motions, an idea promoted by the publishers introduction to Copernicus book, printed without the authors knowledge. Even the most prominent observer, the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe (16th century), refused to accept or even understand the heliocentric system. Copernicus theory was finally established by the Italian physicist, engineer, and astronomer Galileo (second half of the 16th century to the first half of the 17th century), who obtained indisputable proof of its validity. G. Bruno (16th century), another ardent advocate of the plurality of inhabited worlds, was burned at the stake in Rome after seven years of imprisonment for this theory, which was considered to be heretical from the churchs point of view. Galileos astronomical discoveries were made with the aid of the telescope, which had been invented shortly before in Holland. Galileo, learning of this invention, made his own telescope during the summer of 1609 in Venice and by the beginning of the following year informed the whole world of his remarkable discoveries. He saw mountains on the moon and discovered discs around planets; the Milky Way proved to consist of innumerable stars that were invisible to the naked eye; and in the Pleiad star cluster he counted more than 40 stars. Then he discovered four satellites of Jupiter, which, revolving around the central planet, formed a miniature copy of the planetary system. The discovery of changes in the phases of Venus testified to the fact that Venus revolves around the sun and not the earth. He also detected spots on the sun, sharing this discovery with the German astronomers C. Scheiner and J. Fabricius. And only then, when the heliocentric system of the world received such brilliant corroboration, did the Catholic Church take measures to ban it, feeling that it undermined the authority of the Holy Scriptures. In 1633, Galileo was forced to repudiate the teachings of Copernicus before a court of the Inquisition. Copernicus work was put on a list (index) of forbidden books; this prohibition was officially removed only after 200 years.

Development of celestial mechanics. J. Kepler, Galileos contemporary and Tycho Brahes assistant in Prague, after Tychos death attained unsurpassed accuracy in his observations of the planets conducted over more than 20 years. Keplers particular attention was attracted by Mars, in whose motion he noted significant departures from all earlier theories. By dint of tremendous work and extensive calculations, he succeeded in discovering the three laws of planetary motion, known as Keplers laws, which have played a major role in the development of celestial mechanics. The first law, which states that the planets move in elliptical orbits whose foci are located at the sun, destroyed the thousand-year-old idea that the orbits of the planets must be circular. The second law determined the variable velocity for the motion of a planet in its orbit. The third law established a mathematical relationship between the dimensions of elliptical orbits and the periods of revolution of the planets around the sun. The tables of planetary motion compiled by Kepler on the basis of these laws markedly surpassed in accuracy previous tables and remained in use throughout the entire 17th century.

Further progress in astronomy was strongly tied to the development of mathematics and analytical mechanics, on the one hand, and with the successes of optics and astronomical instrument-making, on the other. The law of universal gravitation, discovered by I. Newton in 1685, became the foundation of celestial mechanics. Keplers laws were a consequence of this law, but only for the particular case of a planet moving under the effect of attraction of only one central bodythe sun. It became clear that actually in the presence of the mutual attraction between all the bodies of the solar system, the motion of the planets is more complex than described by Keplers laws, and if the latter are still valid for a good approximation, then this is the result of the strong predominant attraction of the massive sun over the attraction of all the remaining planets. Gravitational force, which is expressed by a simple formula for the attractions between two material points, leads to very complex mathematical formulations for the case of several particles or the attraction between bodies consisting of many particles. Such is the case with all the bodies of the solar system, as well as with all cosmic bodies in general. The most complex problem of the motions, the shapes, and the rotations of the planets and their satellites was solved with a high degree of accuracy only as a result of the efforts of many mathematicians, most of all Newton and then J. Lagrange, L. Euler, P. Laplace, C. Gauss, and a number of others. There were brilliant confirmations of the fact that the motion of celestial bodies proceeds basically under the influence of gravitational forces. These included the prediction by the English astronomer E. Halley of the next appearance of the comet now bearing his name, which was brilliantly confirmed, and the calculations by the French scientist A. Clairaut of the moment of transit of the comet through the perihelion in 1759; the discovery of Neptune in 1846 based on the calculations of the French astronomer U. Leverrier; and the discovery by means of calculations of the unseen satellites of several stars, which were subsequently observed with large telescopesfor example, the German astronomer F. Bes-sels calculations in 1844 of Sirius and Procyons satellites. The most complex motion is that of the moon around the earth, but even this was worked out to almost perfect precision. The remaining small deviations from theory in the moons motion, which were earlier attributed to some sort of nongravitational effect, have been explained in the 20th century as errors in calculating time resulting from the irregular rotation of the earth. In this manner celestial mechanics, using data supplied by astrometry, was able to explain and calculate in advance with a very high degree of accuracy almost all the motions observed in the solar system as well as the galaxy and paved the way for extremely difficult experimentsthe launching of artificial earth satellites and space probes.

Telescopic observations. The perfection of the telescope proceeded very slowly at the beginning. Compared to Galileos telescope tube, Keplers proposal to replace the diverging eyepiece lens with a converging lens, which widened the field of view and enabled much greater magnification, was an improvement. Keplers simple eyeglass was then improved on by C. Huygens and is still used today. However, as a result of chromatic and, in part, spherical aberration, the images continued to remain diffused with colored fringes. To reduce the effects of aberration, it was necessary to increase the focal length of the lenses to as much as 45 m, maintaining their relatively small diameters, since at that time large blocks of optical glass could not be cast. However, even with such imperfect instruments, a number of important discoveries were made. For example, in 1655, Huygens discerned Saturns rings; to Galileo, Saturns disc appeared to be elongated or a triple image. Huygens discovered the brightest satellite of Saturn, and G. Cassini discovered four more, less brilliant satellites. In 1675, Cassini noted that the ring consisted of two concentric parts separated by a dark band known as the Cassini division. In 1675, by observing the eclipses of Jupiters satellites, O. Roemer discovered the finite nature of the velocity of light and measured it.

Further improvements in optical instruments took a different course. Erroneously thinking that the dispersion of light is proportional to refraction, Newton concluded that it was impossible to make an achromatic lens. This served as an impetus for the creation of the reflector, in which the image is formed by a concave mirror that is essentially free of chromatism. The gradual perfection of the art of polishing mirrors made from tin-copper alloys facilitated the construction of large high-magnification reflectors. Thus, in 1789, W. Herschel (England) increased the mirrors diameter to 122 cm. However, beginning in the middle of the 18th century, refractors also received substantial improvements. During this time high-dispersion glass (flint glass) was produced and double lenses combining two types of glass appeared. Along with a significant reduction in chromatism, such lenses were also free from spherical aberration. This made it possible to reduce the length of the telescope tube, to increase the penetrating strength of the instruments, and to obtain a sharp image with little fringe chromatism.

With the aid of new instruments, expert observers made many discoveries relating not only to the bodies of the solar system (such as the discovery in 1761 of an atmosphere on Venus and the study of comets by M. V. Lomonosov) but also to the world of faint and distant stars. Many star clusters and nebulas were discovered; nebulas at that time were considered to be star clusters in which individual stars were not visible because of the clusters distance. The first catalogs of such objects were prepared in France by C. Messier in 1771 and 1781; his specifications are still used today. As a result of extensive systematic observations, W. Herschel postulated the boundedness in space of the stellar system and thus strengthened J. Lamberts hypothesis (1764) about the existence of many stellar systems, of which the one which includes the sun is bounded by the Milky Way. Only in the 20th century did this theory of an island universe receive confirmation and further development.

The role of the telescope in astronomy is not exhausted by such discoveries. Perhaps of more importance is the use of the telescope for precise angle measurement. In England in 1640, W. Gascoigne installed crosshairs in the telescopes focus; the crosshairs were visible in the observed objects background and thus increased sighting accuracy by many times ten. He also invented the first eyepiece micrometer for measuring the small angular distances between details of images that were simultaneously visible in the telescopes field of view. In France in 1667, J. Picard furnished telescopes with concentric circles from which angle readings were made with accuracies to the second of arc. This also determined the corresponding accuracy of measurements of the spherical coordinates of stars, without which further progress in astrometry and stellar astronomy would not have been possible. Having applied such instruments to his works in triangulation in France, Picard obtained new, more accurate dimensions of the earth, which Newton used to discover the law of universal gravitation. Measuring the relative positions of the components of binary stars with the aid of an eyepiece micrometer, W. Herschel in 1803 established that many of them formed physically bound mutual gravitational systems consisting of two and sometimes more stars revolving around a common center of mass in accordance with Keplers laws. This conclusively proved the universality of gravitation in all parts of the universe. Comparing his telescopic determinations of the coordinates of stars with those of the ancient Greeks (Hipparchus, Timocharis), Halley noted in 1718 that three bright starsAldebaran, Sirius, and Arcturushad changed their positions to such an extent that it could not be explained by errors in previous observations. Thus, the proper motion of stars was discovered. By 1783 the number of stars with known proper motion had increased to 12. Studying them, W. Herschel concluded that part of the proper motion of every star is a reflection of the motion of the solar system in space and determined the direction of this motion (toward the constellation Hercules). All of this helped to initiate the study of the distribution and motion of stars in the Milky Way system, which was subsequently called a galaxy. Telescopic observations led the English astronomer J. Bradley in 1725 to the discovery of light aberration, which he correctly explained by the finite velocity of light, and in 1748 to the discovery of nutation of the earths axis.

One of the most fundamental and difficult problems in astronomy has always been the determination of the astronomical unitthe mean distance between the earth and the sunwhich is the basic unit of measurement for all distances in the universe. Many attempts have been made to solve the problem, and all of them, as the methods and technology of observation improved, have led to larger and larger values of this unit. The first results that approximated the actual value were obtained using the methods proposed by Halleyobserving the transit of Venus along the solar disc from various points on the earth in 1761,1769,1874, and 1882 and thus determining the parallax of the sun. The latter, together with the knowledge of the earths dimensions, makes it possible to calculate the astronomical unit. Numerous expeditions were made to observe these transits. The first expedition was apparently conducted in Northern Europe and Siberia. S. Ia. Rumovskii of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences observed the transit at Selenginsk, near Baikal. The analysis of all observations led to a solar parallax value from 8.5 to 10.5. Rumovskii observed the transit in 1769 in Kola, and I.I. Islinev observed it at Yakutsk. However, the hopes of making an accurate determination of the suns parallax were not realized, and after discoveries in 1801 of asteroids, some of which came close to the earth, another possibility of determining the important astronomical constant appeared. As a result of determinations made in the 19th century, the value of 8.80 was accepted for the parallax of the sun, which fixes the value of the astronomical unit at 149.5 million km. In the 1960s, on the basis of radar measurement, the astronomical unit was determined to have a value of 149.6 million km.

Of fundamental importance were the first determinations of the distances to stars from measurements of annual parallax. As observations improved, it became clear that parallax, in essence a perspective of star displacement caused by the annual movement of the earth around the sun, is of extremely small value. Attempts to detect such star displacements, which were begun shortly after the brilliant discoveries of Copernicus and which led to a series of startling discoveriesaberration of light, the physics of binary stars, and invisible satellites of the starswere unsuccessful for a long time. By the time of W. Herschel it became apparent that the parallaxes of even the nearest stars did not exceed 1, and such angles could not be measured with the instruments of that time. Only V. Ia. Struve in 1837 at Dorpat and F. Bessel in 1838 at Knigsberg succeeded in making the first reliable measurements of the parallaxes for the stars Vega and 61 Cygni. Thus the first correct scale of distances in the universe was determined. Struves and Bessels work was based on visual telescopic observations. Since the beginning of the 20th century, measurements of star parallax have been conducted using exclusively astrophotographic methods. The subsequently found star that is closest to us has a parallax of 0.76 and thus corresponds to a distance of 1.3 parsecs (4.3 light-years).

An important trend in astronomy was the preparation of star catalogs containing the most accurate coordinates of stars. The value of these catalogs is so great that they have been referred to as the foundation of astronomy. They are needed for scientific purposes, in part to determine astronomical constants and to study motion in the universe, as well as for applied purposesgeodesy, cartography, geographical exploration, sea navigation, and astronautics. Observatories at Greenwich (founded in 1675), Pulkovo (1839), Washington, D. C. (1842), and Capetown, South Africa (1820), have contributed much in these areas.

At the end of the 18th century information about the solar system was enriched by the discovery of the planet Uranus in 1781. Study of the principles of its motion led in 1846 to the discovery of Neptune and in 1930 to the discovery of Pluto, the farthest planet from the sun. In 1801 the first asteroid was discovered; presently (end of the 1960s) more than 1,700 such bodies are known. Some of them are of great interest because of the character of their motion (for example, the Trojan asteroids) and others because of their close passage to the earth.

Development of astrophysics. Until the middle of the 18th century, of the branches of astronomy constituting modern astrophysics, only photometry, which was initially limited by visual estimates of the brightness of stars, received experimental development in the works of the French scientist P. Bouguer (1729) and theoretical grounding in the studies of the German scientist J. Lambert (1760). It was finally shown then that the sun is a star that differs from other stars only in its proximity to us and that if it were removed to stellar distances it would in no way differ from other stars. Study of a number of stars of different dimensions led V. Ia. Struve in 1847 to deduce the existence of light absorption in interstellar space, a phenomenon finally verified in 1930 by the American astronomer R. Trumpler. Great and ever-increasing possibilities for investigating the physical nature and chemical composition of stars have been made through the development of spectral analysis (R. Bunsen and G. Kirchhoff, 1859). W. Huggens and J. Lockyer in England, A. Secchi in Italy, and P. J. Janssen in France pioneered the application of spectral analysis to the sun, stars, and nebulas. In 1842 the Czech physicist C. Doppler formulated his renowned principle, the Doppler effect, which was refined by A. Fizeau in 1848 and experimentally verified by A. A. Belopolskii under laboratory conditions in 1900. Dopplers principle received widespread application in astronomy in measuring motion along the line of sight, the rotation of stars, the turbulence in the suns photosphere, and other phenomena and in the most diverse branches of physics. Spectral analysis facilitated a more intensive study of variable stars, which began around the end of the 18th century. It also helped detect many spectrally binary stars, whose components are so close to each other that they cannot be observed separately even with the most powerful telescopes.

Photography, invented in 1839, received wide application in astronomy when dry photographic plates appeared. Photography was especially useful when combined with photometry, spectroscopy, and astrometry. It permitted detailed and in-depth study of the structure, chemical composition, and motion of various celestial objects. Photoemulsions used as radiation detectors with great success replaced the eye in many astronomical observations, increasing accuracy, objectivity, and data storage and also fixing visually elusive, rapidly occurring processes and the presence of faint celestial bodies. The advantages and possibilities of photography became so evident that in 1888 an international plan was initiated to prepare a photographic catalog of the stars of the entire sky, including those as small as the 11th star magnitude (a total of about 3.5 million), and to prepare maps containing about 30 million stars to the 14th star magnitude (about 22,000 pages). Execution of this plan involved the participation of 18 of the worlds observatories. Since then, astrophotography has occupied a permanent place in astronomical observations.

Twentieth century. Astronomy in the 20th century is characterized by major advances in observation techniques. Large reflectors are being built in which the metallic mirrors, which darken rapidly, are being replaced with glass mirrors, which are chemically silver-plated or aluminum-coated by high-vacuum cathode sputtering. In the USA several large reflectors have been built: in 1908, with a mirror diameter of 152 cm; in 1917, 254 cm; in 1948, 508 cm; and in 1959, 305 cm. In the USSR a reflector with a 260-cm mirror became operational in 1960; a reflector with a mirror 600 cm in diameter is being mounted. Such instruments with modern light detectors can detect stars to the 25th star magnitude. These are 1010 times dimmer than the brightest stars.

Major success has been achieved in producing new types of detectors. The sensitivity of photoemulsions has been increased by many times, and the spectral region has been widened. Photoelectric multipliers, electron-optic converters, methods of electronic photography, and television (television telescopes) have significantly increased the accuracy and sensitivity of photometric observations and, moreover, have extended the spectral range of recorded radiation. Improvements in spectral apparatus permitted obtaining spectrograms with very high dispersions on the one hand and recording the spectra of very faint celestial bodies on the other. It became possible to observe distant galaxies located billions of light-years from us.

A new, rapidly growing branch of astronomyradio astronomywas born when it was discovered in the 1930s that we receive electromagnetic radiation in wave bands from millimeters to meters from many points in the celestial sphere. Many of the sources of this radiation were identified as galaxies. However, in the 1960s powerful sources almost point-like in nature were located that proved to be faintly luminous objects with unusual optical spectra; they lacked dark absorption lines and had only a few emission lines. The latter could be identified as lines of hydrogen and of several other elements. They were very strongly shifted toward the longer wavelengths; the red shift, subsequently interpreted as the Doppler effect, attests to their immense distance of billions of light-years from us. These puzzling objects, whose radiation apparently is synchrotonic, are called quasars. Even more puzzling are the radio-emitting sources of power varying with periods of the order of seconds, called pulsars. With the help of radio astronomical observations, the distribution of interstellar hydrogen in the galaxy has been studied and the galaxys spiral structure has been confirmed.

The energy of the stars, and specifically of the sun, is generated in their inner depths by nuclear processes at temperatures reaching tens of millions of degrees. These processes are accompanied by the emission of special particlesneutrinospossessing high penetrating ability. The study of neutrinos led to the formation of yet another branch of astronomyneutrino astronomy.

Modern computer technology has found wide application in processing observations and has opened up new vistas in stellar mechanics and astrophysics, particularly in the calculation of the motion of artificial satellites and interplanetary rockets.

Significant advances have been made in the study of the sun. Special narrow-band filters have made it possible to study the distribution and motion of individual elementshydrogen, helium, and calciumin the suns chromosphere. The development of special methods and apparatus permitted the study of the suns corona on clear days when there is no eclipse; the Zeeman effect permitted the study of the suns magnetic field, which determines a number of solar and terrestrial phenomena.

Considerable new information has been obtained about the motions of stars and the distances to them. However, direct trigonometric methods of determining parallax even with modern measurement accuracy is limited by distances of about 100 parsecs. Methods that have been worked out to determine the luminosity of stars according to the character of their spectra have made it possible to determine distances to more distant stars by means of photometry. Finally, the pulsating variable starscepheidswhose period of brightness variation is closely related to luminosity, also became objects that allowed astronomers to measure distances to remote star clusters and galaxies where these stars are observed. As a result of the extensive work of Russian and Soviet scientists, intense development has taken place in the study of variable stars. An international center for systematizing these studies is located now in Moscow.

Great interest has been centered around the red shift, a phenomenon theoretically foreseen by the Soviet scientist A. A. Fridman in 1922 and studied by the American astronomer E. Hubble in 1929. In this phenomenon, the spectral lines of distant galaxies are shifted toward the red. If the shift is interpreted as a Doppler effect, then it indicates that the galaxies are receding at speeds proportional to their distances: in other words, the observable part of the universe is generally expanding. With respect to our galaxy, the red shift made it possible to measure the galaxys dimensions and total mass and to indicate that the suns position is far from the center of the galaxy. The rotation of our galaxy was detected on the basis of statistical analysis by the Russian astronomer M. A. Kovalskii in 1859 and was studied in detail by the Dutch astronomer J. Oort in 1927.

Of great importance in the study of stellar systems and stellar evolution is the relationship between luminosity and spectral class as expressed by the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. This enables astronomers to form a clearer picture of a stars life cycle. Progress in modern physics helped to locate and study sources of stellar energy and to develop a theory of stellar evolution based on nuclear processes occurring in the inner depths of stars. In turn, results of astrophysical research have significantly influenced the successes of nuclear physics. The idea of evolution developed much earlier in astronomy than in other natural sciences. The cosmogonic hypothesis formulated by I. Kant as early as 1755 clearly reflected this idea. The recognition gradually developed that the world did not come into existence as the result of a single act of creation but that the formation of stars, planetary systems, and other celestial bodies is a continuous process still in progress. Confirmation of this idea was seen in the regularities of stellar associations, the study of which was begun by V. A. Ambartsumian in 1946. These associations consist of widely dispersed clusters of relatively young stars of similar origin whose age is estimated to be the same, at several millions of years, while the age of our sun is calculated to be in the billions of years.

Study has begun of another important cosmogonic factor that plays a major role in the processes of the interstellar mediuminterstellar magnetic fields. Earlier cosmogonic theories developed considering only inertial forces and forces of universal gravitation; today, however, other effects, such as light pressure and magnetic forces, are taken into consideration.

Scientific work in astronomy is conducted at astronomical observatories and scientific research institutes. The most important among these are the long-established Greenwich Astronomical Observatory (founded in 1675), now moved from the outskirts of London to the south of England to Hurstmonceaux Castle; the Pulkovo Central Astronomical Observatory of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1839) near Leningrad; the P. K. Shternberg State Astronomical Institute, which includes the Moscow Astronomical Observatory (1830); the U.S. Naval Observatory (USA, 1842); the Royal Observatory (South Africa, 1820); the Lick Astronomical Observatory (USA, 1888); the Yerkes Astronomical Observatory (USA, 1897); the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, formed from the Simeiz Observatory established in 1908; and the Biurakan Astrophysical Observatory of the Academy of Sciences of the Armenian SSR (1946).

Because of the multitude of bodies studied in astronomy, the question arose long ago of coordinating and unifying scientific efforts in various countries by the organization of international astronomical societies and the publication of appropriate journals. The journal Astronomische Nachrichten, which was of international importance until World Warl, was founded in 1821 in Germany. In other countries where astronomical research is developed, scientific astronomical journals are also published; for example, in the USSR the Astronomicheskii zhurnal has been published regularly by the Academy of Sciences of the USSR since 1924.

An astronomical societyAstronomische Gesell-schaftwas formed in Germany in 1863; it organized the compilation, by 13 observatories in various countries, of a large catalog with accurate coordinates of stars in the northern celestial hemisphere. To a certain degree the British Royal Astronomical Society also played an important international role. After World War I, the functions of coordinating scientific work were transferred to the International Astronomical Union, established in 1919, which holds large conferences every three years to sum up results and discuss plans for the further development of astronomy. In pre-revolutionary Russia there were several small scientific or amateur societies, on the basis of which the Ail-Union Astronomical-Geodetic Society was formed in 1932.

The first artificial earth satellite was launched by the USSR in 1957. For the first time, scientific devices were carried beyond the limits of the earths atmosphere, which, with its limited transparency, turbulence, and heterogeneity, inhibits and greatly restricts astronomical observations. The development of extra-atmospheric astronomy began to have an extremely promising future. Astronomy itself, which until now was only able to observe but not to control phenomena in the cosmos, is now becoming an experimental science, capable of investigating cosmic space and studying celestial bodies, particularly the moon and the closest planets, by experiments carried out on these bodies. In the not too distant future, astronomical observatories will be constructed on the moon. However, only the correlation of extra-atmospheric observation with surface-based ones will give the most complete and valuable understanding of the universe.

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Astronomy | Article about astronomy by The Free Dictionary

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NATO – Vikipeedia, vaba entsklopeedia

 NATO  Comments Off on NATO – Vikipeedia, vaba entsklopeedia
Feb 012016
 

Phja-Atlandi Lepingu Organisatsioon (ingl North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), pr Organisation du Trait de l’Atlantique Nord (OTAN)) on sjaline liit, millele pandi alus 4. aprillil 1949 Phja-Atlandi lepingu ehk Washingtoni lepinguga. NATO krgeim organ on Phja-Atlandi Nukogu, mida juhib NATO peasekretr. Organisatsioon phineb kollektiivkaitsel, lbi mille liikmesriigid nustuvad vlise rnnaku korral vastastikust kaitset osutama. NATO peakorter asub Brsselis. Viimati laienes NATO 2009. aastal, kui liitusid Albaania ja Horvaatia. Lisaks liikmesriikidele osaleb NATO rahupartnerlusprogrammis veel 22 riiki. NATO liikmesriikide kaitsekulutused kokkuliidetuna moodustavad le 70 protsendi kogu maailma kaitsekulutustest.[1] Igal liikmesriigil on kohustus investeerida SKT-st riigikaitsesse vhemalt kaks protsenti, peale Eesti tidavad seda reeglit veel Kreeka, USA ja hendkuningriik.[2]

Kuni Korea sjani oli NATO peaasjalikult poliitiline organisatsioon. Militaarstruktuur ehitati les USA juhtimisel. Klma sja kigus tekkinud vastasseis viis 1955. aastal rivaalitseva organisatsiooni, nn Varssavi pakti ehk Varssavi Lepingu Organisatsiooni asutamiseni, mis oli Ida-Euroopa kommunistlike riikide sjalis-poliitiline organisatsioon. Samal ajal olid Euroopa riikide ja USA vahelised suhted ebastabiilsed ning kaheldi NATO kaitses Nukogude Liidu rnnaku korral. Need kahtlused viisid Prantsusmaa iseseisva tuumarelvastuse vljaarendamiseni ning 1966. aastal vljus Prantsusmaa jrgmiseks kolmekmneks aastaks NATO sjalisest tiivast. Prast Berliini mri langemist 1989. aastal oli organisatsioon segatud Jugoslaavia lagunemisse, NATO esimesed sjalised operatsioonid toimusid Bosnia sjas aastatel 19921995. Endiste Varssavi pakti riikidega tekkisid aga head suhted ning paljud neist astusid 1999. ja 2004. aastal NATO-sse, nende hulgas ka Eesti.

NATO artikkel 5, mille kohaselt ksitletakse he liikme rndamist rnnakuna kogu alliansi vastu, on aktiveerunud vaid hel korral prast 11. septembri terrorirnnakuid 2001. aastal USA-s[3] ning NATO ved saadeti Afganistani. Prast seda on NATO lbi viinud mitmesuguseid operatsioone, niteks osalenud Liiba-vastastes hurnnakutes ja piraatlusevastastes operatsioonides. Artikkel number 4, mis tagab kikidele liikmesriikidele iguse sjalisele konsultatsioonile, on kivitunud neljal korral: 2003. aastal kivitas selle Trgi seoses Iraagi sjaga, 2012. aastal kivitas Trgi selle kahel korral seoses Sria sjaga ning 2014. aastal kivitas artikli number 4 Poola seoses 2014. aasta Krimmi kriisiga.[4]

NATO peasekretr on alates 1. oktoobrist 2014 Jens Stoltenberg. Enne teda oli 20092014 peasekretr Anders Fogh Rasmussen. Aastatel 20042009 oli NATO peasekretr Jaap de Hoop Scheffer.

NATO lepingu eelkijaks loetakse 1948. aastal Belgia, Hollandi, Luksemburgi, Prantsusmaa ja hendkuningriigi vahel slmitud Brsseli pakti, mis viis samal aastal Lneliidu loomisele, mis oli sjajrgse Euroopa esimene sjalis-poliitiline organisatsioon.[5] Aga USA osalust peeti oluliseks ning lbirkimised uue sjalise liidu loomiseks algasid peaaegu kohe. Phja-Atlandi leping (ehk Washingtoni leping) allkirjastati 4. aprillil 1949 Washingtonis ning leping justus sama aasta 24. augustil. Lisaks Brsseli pakti viiele osapoolele osalesid ka USA, Kanada, Portugal, Itaalia, Norra, Taani ja Island.[6] Osapooled leppisid kokku, et rnnakut neist he vastu ksitletakse rnnakuna nende kigi vastu. Rnnaku alla sattunud liikmesriiki pidid kik teised abistama, kuid konkreetne meetod ji igahe enda otsustada: leping ei ninud tingimata ette sjalist aktsiooni agressori vastu.[7]

Toona ei olnud NATO-l poliitilist struktuuri, htset sjalist juhtimist ja spetsiaalselt alliansi kaitseks mratud vgesid, kuid Korea sja puhkemine 1950. aastal ilmestas ohtu, mida kujutasid koosttavad kommunistlikud riigid, ning see sundis NATO-t vlja ttama konkreetseid sjalisi plaane.[8] Seda td alustati 1951. aastal Dwight D. Eisenhoweri juhtimisel.[9] 1952. aastal peeti Lissabonis kohtumine eesmrgiga leida vahendid NATO kaitseplaanide titmiseks. Sama aasta septembris algasid esimesed NATO sjalised ppused, kus harjutati Taani ja Norra kaitsmist merel.[10] Samuti astusid 1952. aastal alliansi liikmeteks ka Kreeka ja Trgi.

1954. aastal avaldas Nukogude Liit soovi NATO-ga hineda, tagamaks rahu Euroopas. See ettepanek lkati tagasi, kuna selles nhti soovi alliansi nrgestada.[11]

17. detsembril 1954 veti vastu dokument nimega MC 48, milles stestati, et sja puhkedes Nukogude Liiduga vib NATO kasutada aatomipommi, kskik kas Nukogude Liit kasutab seda esimesena vi mitte. See andis NATO Euroopa liitlasvgede lemjuhatajale (SACEUR Supreme Allied Commander Europe) samasugused igused tuumarelvade ksitlemiseks nagu olid USA hujudude lemjuhatajal.

Lne-Saksamaa inkorporeerimist NATO-sse 9. mail 1955 kirjeldas Norra tollane vlisminister Halvard Lange kui “meie kontinendi ajaloo otsustavat prdepunkti”.[12] Selle otsuse peamine phjus oli see, et ilma Saksamaata poleks Nukogude Liidu invasioonile olnud piisavalt judu vastu astuda.[13] Otsese vastusena sellele kigule loodi Varssavi pakt, mille allkirjastasid 14. mail 1955 Nukogude Liit, Ungari, Tehhoslovakkia, Bulgaaria, Poola, Rumeenia, Albaania ja Ida-Saksamaa. Klma sja osapooled olid seega vlja joonestatud.

1957. aastal korraldati alliansi siiani kige ambitsioonikam sjaline ppus: kolmel samal ajal toimunud operatsioonil osales htekokku le 250 000 mehe, 300 laeva ja 1500 husiduki Norrast Trgini.[14]

NATO htsus pandi proovile Prantsusmaa presidendi Charles de Gaulle’i valitsemisajal.[15] De Gaulle protesteeris USA juhirolli vastu ning selle vastu, mida ta tlgendas Ameerika hendriikide ja hendkuningriigi eriliste suhetena. President Dwight D. Eisenhowerile ja peaminister Harold Macmillanile saadetud kirjas 17. septembril 1958 nudis ta alliansi kolmepoolset juhtimist, kus Prantsusmaa oleks Ameerika ja Suurbritanniaga vrdvrsel positsioonil.[16] Kui reageering ji de Gaulle’i jaoks ebarahuldavaks, otsustas ta hakata Prantsusmaa kaitsejude arendama lejnud alliansist sltumatult. De Gaulle’i eesmrgiks oli vimalus sjaolukorras idablokiga eraldi rahu slmida, kaasamata end laiemasse NATO ja Varssavi pakti riikide vahelisse stta.[17] Mrtsis 1959 veti NATO vejuhatuse alt ra Prantsuse Vahemere laevastik ning keelduti lubamast rajada Gallia pinnale tuumarelvade ladu.

Kuigi Kuuba kriisi ajal 1962. aastal nitas Prantsusmaa lejnud NATO suhtes les solidaarsust, jtkas de Gaulle iseseisva kaitse planeerimist. 1966. aastal viis Prantsusmaa kik oma ved NATO integreeritud sjalise juhtimise alt ra ning kigil NATO vrvgedel paluti riigist lahkuda. Prantsusmaa ji siiski NATO liikmeks. Aastast 2001 on Prantsusmaa osalenud Afganistani operatsioonis ning hakanud taas liikuma tieliku integreerumise suunas.

Klm sda ei viinud kunagi reaalse relvakonfliktini NATO ja Varssavi pakti riikide vahel. 1969. aasta lpul algasid Helsingis lbirkimised strateegilise relvastuse piiramise le. Lbirkimiste tulemusena valmisid kaks kokkulepet, millest ks ksitles raketitrjessteemide rajamist ja teine strateegilise relvastuse piiramist. Mais 1978 defineerisid NATO liikmesriigid alliansi kaks eesmrki: tagada turvalisus ja taotleda pingeldvendust vastaspoolega. See pidi thendama ka vidurelvastumise edasist ohjeldamist.[18] 1979. aastal Varssavi pakti tuumavimekuse suurenemise valguses vttis NATO vastu otsuse sjatandri tuumajudude kahesuunalise kasutamise kohta.[19]

1990. aasta juulis kuulutati Londoni tippkohtumisel klm sda lppenuks ning NATO kaotas de facto peamise vaenlase. Organisatsiooni eesmrk ja olemus vajasid mberhindamist, Londonis visandati ettepanekud koost vljaarendamiseks Kesk- ja Ida-Euroopa riikidega poliitilises ja sjalises tegevuses. Jrgmise aasta tippkohtumisel Roomas kiideti heaks alliansi strateegiline kontseptsioon, mis ngi ette sltuvuse vhendamise tuumarelvadest ja oluliste muudatuste tegemise NATO hendvgedes.[20]

Aastatel 19941997 NATO laienes ja uuendas oma tegevusvaldkondi, niteks loodi koostprogramm “Partnerlus rahu nimel” ning alliansiga kutsuti liituma sellised endised idabloki riigid nagu Poola, Tehhi Vabariik ja Ungari. Praha tippkohtumisel 2002. aastal kiitsid NATO liikmesriigid heaks alliansi ajaloo suurima laienemise, kus esitati kutsed liitumislbirkimistele seitsmele riigile, sh Eestile.

Prast 2001. aasta 11. septembri terrorirnnakuid kuulutas NATO vlja artikkel 5 operatsiooni USA toetuseks. Sellega muudeti NATO kohalikest, liikmesriikide maa-ala kaitsmise hendusest leilmsete (globaalsete) eesmrkidega liiduks, mille philesandeks sai sjaliste operatsioonide lbiviimine vljaspool oma maa-ala. Seetttu pole NATO valmis liikmesriikide maa-ala kaitsmiseks ning Venemaa kasvava sjalise ju tasakaalustamiseks Ida-Euroopas ja Baltikumis.[21]

2009. aastal sai heakskiidu Brsselis toimunud NATO kaitseministrite kohtumisel NATO reageerimisjudude (NATO Responce Force, NRF) NRF-i mudel, mis phineb suurel mral Suurbritannia initsiatiivil varem vlja pakutud NRF-i sisese kriisireguleerimisksuse ASF (Allied Solidarity Force) olulistel elementidel hine planeerimine ja vljape, solidaarne rahastamismudel, suur nhtavus avalikkusele ning usutav heidutusvime. NRF-i tuumikuks sai ligi 13 000-meheline ksus, mis on 510 pevaga valmis siirduma kriisipiirkonda. Lisaks sellele mratavad liikmesriigid tiendavad 1030-pevases valmisolekus olevad veksused[22].

Seoses majandussurutisega seisis NATO ksimuse ees, kuidas silitada kaitsevimet kokkuhoiu oludes. NATO peasekretr Anders Fogh Rasmussen ti kasutusse “targa kaitse” miste, mis thendab kaitsestruktuuride tihedamat integreerimist. Selle niteks on ka Balti riikide huturve.[23]

2012. aasta Chicago tippkohtumise heks pevakorrapunktiks oli NATO laienemine. Praegu ootavad seda neli riiki: Bosnia ja Hertsegoviina, Montenegro, Gruusia ja endine Jugoslaavia Makedoonia Vabariik.[23]

Prast Eesti taasiseseisvumist 1991. aastal iseloomustas olukorda riigikaitselise kogemuse puudus. Alustati alles sjaveliste struktuuride loomist, millest esimesena taastati kodanikualgatuse korras Kaitseliit.[24] Aga paika tuli panna ka laiemad visioonid. Riigikaitse peatkk veti peaaegu muutmata kujul le 1938. aasta phiseadusest, kuid arutati isegi Eesti muutmist demilitariseeritud riigiks. Tnapeval arvavad phiseaduse asjatundjad, et tollal ei osatud hinnata kollektiivse enesekaitse thtsust rahvusvahelistes suhetes.[25] 1992. aasta valimiste jrel moodustatud valitsuse poliitika oli idast lnde mberorienteerumine. 1994. aastal ksitles president Lennart Meri oma knes esmakordselt Euroopa Liidu ja NATO-ga integreerumist. Siiski ngid paljud poliitikud pdlusi NATO-ga liituda kui perspektiivitut projekti, mis rikuks Eesti neutraliteeti.[25]

Eesti alustas osalemist rahvusvahelistes operatsioonides 1995. aastast.[26] Kaitsejudude rahvusvaheline koost sai raamistiku NATO vlja ttatud rahupartnerlusprogrammiga, mis oli meldud Kesk- ja Ida- Euroopa riikidega poliitilise ja sjalise koost arendamiseks. Esmakordselt fikseeriti NATO-ga liitumise eesmrk 1996. aastal. 1999. aastast hakkas Eesti titma NATO liikmesuse tegevuskava ning 2002. aasta novembris Praha tippkohtumisel esitati Eestile kutse liitumislbirkimistele NATO-ga hinemiseks.[24] Liitumislbirkimised algasid 2003. aasta jaanuaris ning sama aasta mrtsis allkirjastasid NATO liikmesriigid Eesti Phja-Atlandi lepinguga liitumise protokolli. 10. mrtsil 2004 ratifitseeris Riigikogu NATO Phja-Atlandi lepingu koos kigi lisadega. Eestist sai NATO tieiguslik liige 29. mrtsil 2004, kui hinemiskirjad anti Ameerika hendriikide valitsuse ktte hoiule.[27]

2007. aastal esitas Eesti soovi korraldada NATO vlisministrite mitteametlik kohtumine. Kohtumine toimus 22.23. aprillil 2010 Tallinnas, kohtumisel osalesid teiste hulgas USA riigisekretr Hillary Clinton ja Euroopa vgede lemjuhataja Stavridis. Kohtumisel langetati otsus anda Bosnia ja Hertsegoviinale liikmesuse tegevusplaan.[28]

Prast 2007. aasta aprillirahutusi toimunud kberrnnakud Eesti veebiserverite vastu tstsid esile NATO riikide haavatavuse kommunikatsioonissteemide kaudu ning arutama hakati NATO kberkaitse poliitikat. 14. mail 2008 asutati Tallinnas NATO kberkaitsekoost keskus.[29]

Seoses Venemaa agressiooniga Ukrainas 2014. aastal paigutati NATO liitlasved Ida-Euroopa piiririikidesse. Eestisse saabus 150 USA maavelast ning Taani hvitajad baseeruvad psivalt Eesti lennubaasis. See on esimene kord, kui NATO liitlased Eestisse pikemaks ajaks jvad. Peaminister Taavi Rivase snul on Eesti valmis vrustama tiendavaid NATO vgesid.[30][31][32][33]

Praegu hoolitseb Eesti huruumi valvamise eest Saksamaa lennusalk.[34] Eestisse on paigutatud kolm radariposti, mille radarid katavad kogu Eesti ja Eestit mbritseva huruumi htse radaripildiga. Seda peetakse heks Eesti pikaajalise sjalise kaitse arengukava olulisemaks arenduseks.[35]

Juulis 2006 teatas NATO peasekretr Jaap de Hoop Scheffer Euroopat kaitsva raketikilbi rajamise kavatsusest. 18. septembril 2006 slmiti esimesed lepingud raketikilbi komponente tootvate firmadega.

Raketikilbi eesmrgiks on Iraanist ja Phja-Koreast tulevate raketirnnakute trjumine. Venemaa juhtkonna arvates on raketikilbi lepe suunatud Venemaa vastu ja on hvardanud sjaliste meetmetega raketikilbi rajamise korral Venemaa piiride lhedale.

20. augustil 2008 kirjutasid Ameerika hendriikide riigisekretr Condoleezza Rice ja Poola vlisminister Radek Sikorski alla lepingule millega Poola nustus lubama oma pinnale USA globaalse raketitrjessteemi komponente. [36]. 2009. aastal teatas USA president Barack Obama siiski, et raketikilbi osasid Poola ja Tehhi Vabariigi territooriumile ei tule.[37] Uus plaan neb hoopis ette Poola territooriumile AEGIS ssteemidega laevade paigutamise.[38]

Lisaks liikmete kaitsmisele sjalise rnnaku korral on NATO osalenud ka konfliktide ohjeldamises mujal maailmas, niteks Jugoslaavia kodusjas. Samuti toimub dialoog ja koost riikidega, mis ei ole NATO liikmed.

Alates 1. aprillist 2009 on NATO liikmeid 28.

Liikmesriigid liitumisaastati:

NATO krgeim organ on Phja-Atlandi Nukogu (North Atlantic Council, NAC), mille esimees ja organisatsiooni poliitiline juht on NATO peasekretr, kes koordineerib liikmesriikide tegevust, on organisatsiooni peamine kneisik ning juhib NATO sekretariaadi td.

Peasekretr on ka:

Kui traditsiooniliselt valitakse peasekretri ametisse Euroopa esindaja, siis NATO Euroopa liitlasvgede lemjuhataja mravad Ameerika hendriigid.

NATO sjaline vestruktuur koosneb liikmesriikide alaliselt vi kindla operatsiooni jaoks NATO ksutusse antud sjalistest ksustest ja staapidest. NATO sjaline juhtimisstruktuur katab strateegilise ja regionaalse tasandi ning on meldud eelkige liikmesriikide eri veliikide hendoperatsioonide juhtimiseks, siis vestruktuuri koosseisu kuuluvad taktikalise tasandi staabid, mis on meldud he veliigi operatsioonide juhtimiseks.

Vestruktuur koosneb kaht tpi ksustest: paiksed ksused (In-Place Forces, IPF) ja mberpaigutatavad ksused (Deployable Forces, DF). mberpaigutatavad ksused on meldud kigiks NATO operatsioonitpideks ja on valmis tegutsema kogu alliansi territooriumil ning ka vljaspool seda. Paiksed ksused on meldud kollektiivkaitse operatsioonideks oma riigi piirides vi selle lhedal.

Vestruktuuri kuuluvad veosad on grupeeritud vastavalt nende valmisolekule reageerimiseks:

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NATO – Vikipeedia, vaba entsklopeedia

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First Amendment to the United States Constitution – Simple …

 Misc  Comments Off on First Amendment to the United States Constitution – Simple …
Jan 312016
 

The First Amendment to the United States Constitution is a part of the United States Bill of Rights that protects freedom of speech, freedom of religion, freedom of assembly, freedom of the press, and right to petition.

The Establishment Clause does not allow the government to support one religion more than any other religion. The government also can not say a religion or a god is true. This is often described as “separation of church and state”, where “state” means “the government”. It also does not allow the government to establish a national religion. It allows people to debate religion freely without the federal government of the United States getting involved. The clause did not stop the various states from supporting a particular religion, and several states did.

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

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First Amendment to the United States Constitution – Simple …

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Charleston SEO – Search Engine Optimization Company

 SEO  Comments Off on Charleston SEO – Search Engine Optimization Company
Jan 262016
 

What are the benefits of hiring a Charleston SEO? SEO stands for search engine optimizer. These individuals work for web designer and online marketing companies. A Charleston SEO can help you achieve high or top rankings in major search engines, including Google,Bing and Yahoo. An SEO firm can help you start from scratch, if necessary, helping you establish a domain name or Internet address. They can also recommend a host for your company, which will keep your site up and running throughout the year.

You may wonder why is it so important to hire an SEO . . . and couldnt you just do the work yourself? Well, you could do the work yourself, but it would take you months to learn the HTML or common Internet language. And you still wouldnt know all the ways of tweaking your site to attain top rankings in the search engines. And time is not on your side. Eighty-five percent of consumers use search engines first when search for products or services. And they usually dont search beyond the top 25 or 30 listings. Therefore, you wont even be considered by these people if you dont know how to get on the first two pages of listings.

Your Charleston SEO knows the common words and phrases to include on your site, and how many to use. He also knows how to code your pages, videos and online recordings like testimonials to better enhance your linkage to the major search engines. Why try to reinvent the wheel when you SEO can get you listed within days. Your SEO specialist can also create a strategic marketing plan for you. This may include creating a lead generation portal or your site. He will also list you in all the relevant online directories.

The Charleston SEO company will monitor all your web traffic. The SEO consultant will supply you with activity reports, showing you where most of your traffic originates, and which pages people access once they are on your site. That way you can enhance the pages that matter most. You will also have access to consumer reports, which will keep you informed of all the latest news and trends in your industry.

Your Charleston SEO expert will start by providing you with a proposal and pricing quote. This will show you all the services he will provide along with the associated costs. A monthly fee allows your SEO to monitor your site regularly and maintain your high search engine listings. Contact an SEO in Charleston today. Youll be glad you did.

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Charleston SEO – Search Engine Optimization Company

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Transhuman Singularity – webmac.com

 Transhuman  Comments Off on Transhuman Singularity – webmac.com
Jan 242016
 

A list of links to my science fiction short stories:

I am a Hummingbird After my body died the surgeons put me in a hummingbird. It took a while to get use to having my perspective darting around so quickly, but my mind had finally adapted to it.

Sneeze! A few days Mr. Anderson. Don’t worry, it’s a positive virus, I’m origin zero. Then you’ll be one of us, welcome to the new global hivemind, we-I always choose well. It will be unlike anything you have ever experienced or imagined. Expect a mental call, anything will be possible, said Kay, a future echo … Kay Noble replied, then collected the documents, velvet and all, and left the room without a further word.

Muffy the Time Traveling Chihuahua Muffy was a loyal pack dog on the locally collapsed time-day of his death, which varied in fractal quantum probability across a multitude of bifurcated futures or space-time universes.

Lunch 2032 Her IQ was probably skyrocket norm. It seems the gene engineers had given her both great brains and beauty. She wanted to be a Terraforming Research Scientist, but on Earth she would have to settle for other work. Her parents had lost most of their money in a wild Marsearth start-up investment, so she had to work her way through the university, no one would give a genmod scholarship. It was just plain and simple prejudice.

Virtuality Zane Pax hid behind a large bolder as the black alien warship flew overhead. NaHan had swarmed the cities of the world laying waste to human civilization. Humanity was on the endangered species list, on our way out for good.

The Alien Time-Traveler Historian Mathew answers, Variations of me exist in most all future branches. Thats really rare, and thats why Im allowed to speak to you. To help you understand. You see, those that are still basically human in the future have great compassion. They want to help reduce the suffering. Im here on their behalf to try and influence things.

The Galactic Culture Finally, in order to survive the approaching technological singularity and remove their aggressive and self-destructive evolved behaviors, pre-type 1 species sometimes begin an extensive program of self-initiated genetic re-engineering and intelligence amplification (usually proceeded by development of a global computing system -Internet). Sometimes this is successful, other times not.

Lunar CityOutward space exploration and expansion grew at a rapid pace, due to the privatization of all space exploration and its subsequent exploitation. Corporations headed by forward thinking executives now controlled access to space. Spaceports have sprouted up all over the world, giving average citizens access to affordable space travel. Now space stations, moon bases and asteroid factories, which provided most of the raw materials, have become independent space communities. Distant science outposts have been constructed on the outer planets and moons. The solar system has become the playground of humanity.

VR Prototype Jason Chen bent over in his subway seat to pick up a rarely seen plastic penny he spotted face-up on the train floor. A penny existed today only to make exact change for those who still stubbornly used physical money. He didnt understand why, but somehow its continued existence was comforting for some. Angling the lucky coin in his fingers to see the three-dimensional head of Abraham Lincoln, he noted the year on the coin was 2053, the year of his birth.

Dr. Xanoplatu Dr. Xanoplatu, an alien anthropologist, historian, and time traveler, materialized on stage wearing the body of his ancestors, a giant green Praying Mantis with large yellow eyes and small black pupils. He was speaking at a galactic cultural lecture, inside a de-localized spherical space station, somewhere and some when in a multi-versed space-time reality.

Virtuality Mind Marcus replies, Yes, you can assume Im crazy. But, Im just communicating to you through this mans body. For a short period of time, I can do this, without his knowing it. When I leave and his consciousness re-awakens, this memory will seem like a daydream to him.

Resurrection Birth Jason awoke to a static humming sound.It was so annoying, grating on his nerves more than a badly tuned alarm clock.He lifted his heavy eyelids to blinding light, and out of focus images.His vision slowly cleared and he realized he was inside a plastic coffin thing.

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Rationalism – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 Rationalism  Comments Off on Rationalism – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jan 182016
 

In epistemology, rationalism is the view that “regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge”[1] or “any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification”.[2] More formally, rationalism is defined as a methodology or a theory “in which the criterion of the truth is not sensory but intellectual and deductive”.[3] Rationalists believe reality has an intrinsically logical structure. Because of this, rationalists argue that certain truths exist and that the intellect can directly grasp these truths. That is to say, rationalists assert that certain rational principles exist in logic, mathematics, ethics, and metaphysics that are so fundamentally true that denying them causes one to fall into contradiction. Rationalists have such a high confidence in reason that empirical proof and physical evidence are unnecessary to ascertain truth in other words, “there are significant ways in which our concepts and knowledge are gained independently of sense experience”.[4] Because of this belief, empiricism is one of rationalism’s greatest rivals.[according to whom?]

Different degrees of emphasis on this method or theory lead to a range of rationalist standpoints, from the moderate position “that reason has precedence over other ways of acquiring knowledge” to the more extreme position that reason is “the unique path to knowledge”.[5] Given a pre-modern understanding of reason, rationalism is identical to philosophy, the Socratic life of inquiry, or the zetetic (skeptical) clear interpretation of authority (open to the underlying or essential cause of things as they appear to our sense of certainty). In recent decades, Leo Strauss sought to revive “Classical Political Rationalism” as a discipline that understands the task of reasoning, not as foundational, but as maieutic. Rationalism should not be confused with rationality, nor with rationalization.

In politics, Rationalism, since the Enlightenment, historically emphasized a “politics of reason” centered upon rational choice, utilitarianism, secularism, and irreligion[6] the latter aspect’s antitheism later ameliorated by utilitarian adoption of pluralistic rationalist methods practicable regardless of religious or irreligious ideology.[7][8]

In this regard, the philosopher John Cottingham[9] noted how rationalism, a methodology, became socially conflated with atheism: In the past, particularly in the 17th and 18th centuries, the term ‘rationalist’ was often used to refer to free thinkers of an anti-clerical and anti-religious outlook, and for a time the word acquired a distinctly pejorative force (thus in 1670 Sanderson spoke disparagingly of ‘a mere rationalist, that is to say in plain English an atheist of the late edition…’). The use of the label ‘rationalist’ to characterize a world outlook which has no place for the supernatural is becoming less popular today; terms like ‘humanist’ or ‘materialist’ seem largely to have taken its place. But the old usage still survives.

Rationalism is often contrasted with empiricism. Taken very broadly these views are not mutually exclusive, since a philosopher can be both rationalist and empiricist.[2] Taken to extremes, the empiricist view holds that all ideas come to us a posteriori, that is to say, through experience; either through the external senses or through such inner sensations as pain and gratification. The empiricist essentially believes that knowledge is based on or derived directly from experience. The rationalist believes we come to knowledge a priori through the use of logic and is thus independent of sensory experience. In other words, as Galen Strawson once wrote, “you can see that it is true just lying on your couch. You don’t have to get up off your couch and go outside and examine the way things are in the physical world. You don’t have to do any science.”[10] Between both philosophies, the issue at hand is the fundamental source of human knowledge and the proper techniques for verifying what we think we know. Whereas both philosophies are under the umbrella of epistemology, their argument lies in the understanding of the warrant, which is under the wider epistemic umbrella of the theory of justification.

The theory of justification is the part of epistemology that attempts to understand the justification of propositions and beliefs. Epistemologists are concerned with various epistemic features of belief, which include the ideas of justification, warrant, rationality, and probability. Of these four terms, the term that has been most widely used and discussed by the early 21st century is “warrant”. Loosely speaking, justification is the reason that someone (probably) holds a belief.

If “A” makes a claim, and “B” then casts doubt on it, “A”‘s next move would normally be to provide justification. The precise method one uses to provide justification is where the lines are drawn between rationalism and empiricism (among other philosophical views). Much of the debate in these fields are focused on analyzing the nature of knowledge and how it relates to connected notions such as truth, belief, and justification.

At its core, rationalism consists of three basic claims. For one to consider themselves a rationalist, they must adopt at least one of these three claims: The Intuition/Deduction Thesis, The Innate Knowledge Thesis, or The Innate Concept Thesis. In addition, rationalists can choose to adopt the claims of Indispensability of Reason and or the Superiority of Reason although one can be a rationalist without adopting either thesis.

Rationale: “Some propositions in a particular subject area, S, are knowable by us by intuition alone; still others are knowable by being deduced from intuited propositions.”[11]

Generally speaking, intuition is a priori knowledge or experiential belief characterized by its immediacy; a form of rational insight. We simply just “see” something in such a way as to give us a warranted belief. Beyond that, the nature of intuition is hotly debated.

In the same way, generally speaking, deduction is the process of reasoning from one or more general premises to reach a logically certain conclusion. Using valid arguments, we can deduce from intuited premises.

For example, when we combine both concepts, we can intuit that the number three is prime and that it is greater than two. We then deduce from this knowledge that there is a prime number greater than two. Thus, it can be said that intuition and deduction combined to provide us with a priori knowledge we gained this knowledge independently of sense experience.

Empiricists such as David Hume have been willing to accept this thesis for describing the relationships among our own concepts.[11] In this sense, empiricists argue that we are allowed to intuit and deduce truths from knowledge that has been obtained a posteriori.

By injecting different subjects into the Intuition/Deduction thesis, we are able to generate different arguments. Most rationalists agree mathematics is knowable by applying the intuition and deduction. Some go further to include ethical truths into the category of things knowable by intuition and deduction. Furthermore, some rationalists also claim metaphysics is knowable in this thesis.

In addition to different subjects, rationalists sometimes vary the strength of their claims by adjusting their understanding of the warrant. Some rationalists understand warranted beliefs to be beyond even the slightest doubt; others are more conservative and understand the warrant to be belief beyond a reasonable doubt.

Rationalists also have different understanding and claims involving the connection between intuition and truth. Some rationalists claim that intuition is infallible and that anything we intuit to be true is as such. More contemporary rationalists accept that intuition is not always a source of certain knowledge thus allowing for the possibility of a deceiver who might cause the rationalist to intuit a false proposition in the same way a third party could cause the rationalist to have perceptions of nonexistent objects.

Naturally, the more subjects the rationalists claim to be knowable by the Intuition/Deduction thesis, the more certain they are of their warranted beliefs, and the more strictly they adhere to the infallibility of intuition, the more controversial their truths or claims and the more radical their rationalism.[11]

To argue in favor of this thesis, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, a prominent German philosopher, says, “The senses, although they are necessary for all our actual knowledge, are not sufficient to give us the whole of it, since the senses never give anything but instances, that is to say particular or individual truths. Now all the instances which confirm a general truth, however numerous they may be, are not sufficient to establish the universal necessity of this same truth, for it does not follow that what happened before will happen in the same way again. From which it appears that necessary truths, such as we find in pure mathematics, and particularly in arithmetic and geometry, must have principles whose proof does not depend on instances, nor consequently on the testimony of the senses, although without the senses it would never have occurred to us to think of them”[12]

Rationale: “We have knowledge of some truths in a particular subject area, S, as part of our rational nature.”[13]

The Innate Knowledge thesis is similar to the Intuition/Deduction thesis in the regard that both theses claim knowledge is gained a priori. The two theses go their separate ways when describing how that knowledge is gained. As the name, and the rationale, suggests, the Innate Knowledge thesis claims knowledge is simply part of our rational nature. Experiences can trigger a process that allows this knowledge to come into our consciousness, but the experiences don’t provide us with the knowledge itself. The knowledge has been with us since the beginning and the experience simply brought into focus, in the same way a photographer can bring the background of a picture into focus by changing the aperture of the lens. The background was always there, just not in focus.

This thesis targets a problem with the nature of inquiry originally postulated by Plato in Meno. Here, Plato asks about inquiry; how do we gain knowledge of a theorem in geometry? We inquire into the matter. Yet, knowledge by inquiry seems impossible.[14] In other words, “If we already have the knowledge, there is no place for inquiry. If we lack the knowledge, we don’t know what we are seeking and cannot recognize it when we find it. Either way we cannot gain knowledge of the theorem by inquiry. Yet, we do know some theorems.”[13] The Innate Knowledge thesis offers a solution to this paradox. By claiming that knowledge is already with us, either consciously or unconsciously, a rationalist claims we don’t really “learn” things in the traditional usage of the word, but rather that we simply bring to light what we already know.

Rationale: “We have some of the concepts we employ in a particular subject area, S, as part of our rational nature.”[15]

Similar to the Innate Knowledge thesis, the Innate Concept thesis suggests that some concepts are simply part of our rational nature. These concepts are a priori in nature and sense experience is irrelevant to determining the nature of these concepts (though, sense experience can help bring the concepts to our conscious mind).

Some philosophers, such as John Locke (who is considered one of the most influential thinkers of the Enlightenment and an empiricist) argue that the Innate Knowledge thesis and the Innate Concept thesis are the same.[16] Other philosophers, such as Peter Carruthers, argue that the two theses are distinct from one another. As with the other theses covered under rationalisms’ umbrella, the types and number of concepts a philosopher claims to be innate, the more controversial and radical their position; “the more a concept seems removed from experience and the mental operations we can perform on experience the more plausibly it may be claimed to be innate. Since we do not experience perfect triangles but do experience pains, our concept of the former is a more promising candidate for being innate than our concept of the latter.[15]

In his book, Meditations on First Philosophy,[17]Ren Descartes postulates three classifications for our ideas when he says, “Among my ideas, some appear to be innate, some to be adventitious, and others to have been invented by me. My understanding of what a thing is, what truth is, and what thought is, seems to derive simply from my own nature. But my hearing a noise, as I do now, or seeing the sun, or feeling the fire, comes from things which are located outside me, or so I have hitherto judged. Lastly, sirens, hippogriffs and the like are my own invention.”[18]

Adventitious ideas are those concepts that we gain through sense experiences, ideas such as the sensation of heat, because they originate from outside sources; transmitting their own likeness rather than something else and something you simply cannot will away. Ideas invented by us, such as those found in mythology, legends, and fairy tales are created by us from other ideas we possess. Lastly, innate ideas, such as our ideas of perfection, are those ideas we have as a result of mental processes that are beyond what experience can directly or indirectly provide.

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz defends the idea of innate concepts by suggesting the mind plays a role in determining the nature of concepts, to explain this, he likens the mind to a block of marble in the New Essays on Human Understanding, “This is why I have taken as an illustration a block of veined marble, rather than a wholly uniform block or blank tablets, that is to say what is called tabula rasa in the language of the philosophers. For if the soul were like those blank tablets, truths would be in us in the same way as the figure of Hercules is in a block of marble, when the marble is completely indifferent whether it receives this or some other figure. But if there were veins in the stone which marked out the figure of Hercules rather than other figures, this stone would be more determined thereto, and Hercules would be as it were in some manner innate in it, although labour would be needed to uncover the veins, and to clear them by polishing, and by cutting away what prevents them from appearing. It is in this way that ideas and truths are innate in us, like natural inclinations and dispositions, natural habits or potentialities, and not like activities, although these potentialities are always accompanied by some activities which correspond to them, though they are often imperceptible.”[19]

The three aforementioned theses of Intuition/Deduction, Innate Knowledge, and Innate Concept are the cornerstones of rationalism. To be considered a rationalist, one must adopt at least one of those three claims. The following two theses are traditionally adopted by rationalists, but they aren’t essential to the rationalist’s position.

The Indispensability of Reason Thesis has the following rationale, “The knowledge we gain in subject area, S, by intuition and deduction, as well as the ideas and instances of knowledge in S that are innate to us, could not have been gained by us through sense experience.”[1] In short, this thesis claims that experience cannot provide what we gain from reason.

The Superiority of Reason Thesis has the following rationale, ‘”The knowledge we gain in subject area S by intuition and deduction or have innately is superior to any knowledge gained by sense experience”.[1] In other words, this thesis claims reason is superior to experience as a source for knowledge.

In addition to the following claims, rationalists often adopt similar stances on other aspects of philosophy. Most rationalists reject skepticism for the areas of knowledge they claim are knowable a priori. Naturally, when you claim some truths are innately known to us, one must reject skepticism in relation to those truths. Especially for rationalists who adopt the Intuition/Deduction thesis, the idea of epistemic foundationalism tends to crop up. This is the view that we know some truths without basing our belief in them on any others and that we then use this foundational knowledge to know more truths.[1]

Rationalism – as an appeal to human reason as a way of obtaining knowledge – has a philosophical history dating from antiquity. The analytical nature of much of philosophical enquiry, the awareness of apparently a priori domains of knowledge such as mathematics, combined with the emphasis of obtaining knowledge through the use of rational faculties (commonly rejecting, for example, direct revelation) have made rationalist themes very prevalent in the history of philosophy.

Since the Enlightenment, rationalism is usually associated with the introduction of mathematical methods into philosophy as seen in the works of Descartes, Leibniz, and Spinoza.[3] This is commonly called continental rationalism, because it was predominant in the continental schools of Europe, whereas in Britain empiricism dominated.

Even then, the distinction between rationalists and empiricists was drawn at a later period and would not have been recognized by the philosophers involved. Also, the distinction between the two philosophies is not as clear-cut as is sometimes suggested; for example, Descartes and Locke have similar views about the nature of human ideas.[4]

Proponents of some varieties of rationalism argue that, starting with foundational basic principles, like the axioms of geometry, one could deductively derive the rest of all possible knowledge. The philosophers who held this view most clearly were Baruch Spinoza and Gottfried Leibniz, whose attempts to grapple with the epistemological and metaphysical problems raised by Descartes led to a development of the fundamental approach of rationalism. Both Spinoza and Leibniz asserted that, in principle, all knowledge, including scientific knowledge, could be gained through the use of reason alone, though they both observed that this was not possible in practice for human beings except in specific areas such as mathematics. On the other hand, Leibniz admitted in his book Monadology that “we are all mere Empirics in three fourths of our actions.”[5]

Because of the complicated nature of rationalist thinking, the nature of philosophy, and the understanding that humans are aware of knowledge available only through the use of rational thought, many of the great philosophers from antiquity laid down the foundation for rationalism though they themselves weren’t rationalists as we understand the concept today.

Pythagoras was one of the first Western philosophers to stress rationalist insight.[20] He is often revered as a great mathematician, mystic and scientist, but he is best known for the Pythagorean theorem, which bears his name, and for discovering the mathematical relationship between the length of strings on lute bear and the pitches of the notes. Pythagoras “believed these harmonies reflected the ultimate nature of reality. He summed up the implied metaphysical rationalism in the words “All is number”. It is probable that he had caught the rationalist’s vision, later seen by Galileo (15641642), of a world governed throughout by mathematically formulable laws”.[20] It has been said that he was the first man to call himself a philosopher, or lover of wisdom,[21]

Plato also held rational insight to a very high standard, as is seen in his works such as Meno and The Republic. Plato taught on the Theory of Forms (or the Theory of Ideas)[22][23][24] which asserts that non-material abstract (but substantial) forms (or ideas), and not the material world of change known to us through sensation, possess the highest and most fundamental kind of reality.[25] Plato’s forms are accessible only to reason and not to sense.[20] In fact, it is said that Plato admired reason, especially in geometry, so highly that he had the phrase “Let no one ignorant of geometry enter” inscribed over the door to his academy.[26]

Aristotle has a process of reasoning similar to that of Plato’s, though he ultimately disagreed with the specifics of Plato’s forms. Aristotle’s great contribution to rationalist thinking comes from his use of syllogistic logic. Aristotle defines syllogism as “a discourse in which certain (specific) things having been supposed, something different from the things supposed results of necessity because these things are so.”[27] Despite this very general definition, Aristotle limits himself to categorical syllogisms which consist of three categorical propositions in his work Prior Analytics.[28] These included categorical modal syllogisms.[29]

Though the three great Greek philosophers disagreed with one another on specific points, they all agreed that rational thought could bring to light knowledge that was self-evident information that humans otherwise couldn’t know without the use of reason. After Aristotle’s death, Western rationalistic thought was generally characterized by its application to theology, such as in the works of the Islamic philosopher Avicenna and Jewish philosopher and theologian Maimonides. One notable event in the Western timelime was the philosophy of St. Thomas Aquinas who attempted to merge Greek rationalism and Christian revelation in the thirteenth-century.[20]

Descartes was the first of the modern rationalists and has been dubbed the ‘Father of Modern Philosophy.’ Much subsequent Western philosophy is a response to his writings,[30][31][32] which are studied closely to this day.

Descartes thought that only knowledge of eternal truths including the truths of mathematics, and the epistemological and metaphysical foundations of the sciences could be attained by reason alone; other knowledge, the knowledge of physics, required experience of the world, aided by the scientific method. He also argued that although dreams appear as real as sense experience, these dreams cannot provide persons with knowledge. Also, since conscious sense experience can be the cause of illusions, then sense experience itself can be doubtable. As a result, Descartes deduced that a rational pursuit of truth should doubt every belief about reality. He elaborated these beliefs in such works as Discourse on Method, Meditations on First Philosophy, and Principles of Philosophy. Descartes developed a method to attain truths according to which nothing that cannot be recognised by the intellect (or reason) can be classified as knowledge. These truths are gained “without any sensory experience,” according to Descartes. Truths that are attained by reason are broken down into elements that intuition can grasp, which, through a purely deductive process, will result in clear truths about reality.

Descartes therefore argued, as a result of his method, that reason alone determined knowledge, and that this could be done independently of the senses. For instance, his famous dictum, cogito ergo sum or “I think, therefore I am”, is a conclusion reached a priori i.e., prior to any kind of experience on the matter. The simple meaning is that doubting one’s existence, in and of itself, proves that an “I” exists to do the thinking. In other words, doubting one’s own doubting is absurd.[33] This was, for Descartes, an irrefutable principle upon which to ground all forms of other knowledge. Descartes posited a metaphysical dualism, distinguishing between the substances of the human body (“res extensa”) and the mind or soul (“res cogitans”). This crucial distinction would be left unresolved and lead to what is known as the mind-body problem, since the two substances in the Cartesian system are independent of each other and irreducible.

The philosophy of Baruch Spinoza is a systematic, logical, rational philosophy developed in seventeenth-century Europe.[34][35][36] Spinoza’s philosophy is a system of ideas constructed upon basic building blocks with an internal consistency with which he tried to answer life’s major questions and in which he proposed that “God exists only philosophically.”[36][37] He was heavily influenced by Descartes,[38]Euclid[37] and Thomas Hobbes,[38] as well as theologians in the Jewish philosophical tradition such as Maimonides.[38] But his work was in many respects a departure from the Judeo-Christian tradition. Many of Spinoza’s ideas continue to vex thinkers today and many of his principles, particularly regarding the emotions, have implications for modern approaches to psychology. To this day, many important thinkers have found Spinoza’s “geometrical method”[36] difficult to comprehend: Goethe admitted that he found this concept confusing[citation needed]. His magnum opus, Ethics, contains unresolved obscurities and has a forbidding mathematical structure modeled on Euclid’s geometry.[37] Spinoza’s philosophy attracted believers such as Albert Einstein[39] and much intellectual attention.[40][41][42][43][44]

Leibniz was the last of the great Rationalists who contributed heavily to other fields such as metaphysics, epistemology, logic, mathematics, physics, jurisprudence, and the philosophy of religion; he is also considered to be one of the last “universal geniuses”.[45] He did not develop his system, however, independently of these advances. Leibniz rejected Cartesian dualism and denied the existence of a material world. In Leibniz’s view there are infinitely many simple substances, which he called “monads” (possibly taking the term from the work of Anne Conway).

Leibniz developed his theory of monads in response to both Descartes and Spinoza, because the rejection of their visions forced him to arrive at his own solution. Monads are the fundamental unit of reality, according to Leibniz, constituting both inanimate and animate objects. These units of reality represent the universe, though they are not subject to the laws of causality or space (which he called “well-founded phenomena”). Leibniz, therefore, introduced his principle of pre-established harmony to account for apparent causality in the world.

Kant is one of the central figures of modern philosophy, and set the terms by which all subsequent thinkers have had to grapple. He argued that human perception structures natural laws, and that reason is the source of morality. His thought continues to hold a major influence in contemporary thought, especially in fields such as metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, political philosophy, and aesthetics.[46]

Kant named his branch of epistemology Transcendental Idealism, and he first laid out these views in his famous work The Critique of Pure Reason. In it he argued that there were fundamental problems with both rationalist and empiricist dogma. To the rationalists he argued, broadly, that pure reason is flawed when it goes beyond its limits and claims to know those things that are necessarily beyond the realm of all possible experience: the existence of God, free will, and the immortality of the human soul. Kant referred to these objects as “The Thing in Itself” and goes on to argue that their status as objects beyond all possible experience by definition means we cannot know them. To the empiricist he argued that while it is correct that experience is fundamentally necessary for human knowledge, reason is necessary for processing that experience into coherent thought. He therefore concludes that both reason and experience are necessary for human knowledge. In the same way, Kant also argued that it was wrong to regard thought as mere analysis. In Kant’s views, a priori concepts do exist, but if they are to lead to the amplification of knowledge, they must be brought into relation with empirical data”.[47]

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Goldman Sachs Files Patent for Cryptocurrency System …

 Cryptocurrency  Comments Off on Goldman Sachs Files Patent for Cryptocurrency System …
Jan 182016
 

Goldman Sachs is seeking to create its own cryptocurrency for post-trade settlement, according to a recently released patent filing.

The cryptocurrency, called SETLcoin, would be the architecture behind a new securities settlement system for the banking giant that would reduce delays in the transfer of assets; the time between when the transaction is initiated and finalized can take days.

SETLcoin guarantees instant execution and settlement, according to the filing, submitted October 2014.

“As implemented by the described technology, a trader no longer trades securities by meeting at an exchange with an indication of cash for security and then settles the transaction meanwhile bearing all of the associated credit risk in the interim,” it says.

Goldman isn’t the first to patent its own cryptocurrency. Citi and Bank of New York Mellon have also created them, CitiCoin and BK Coins respectively, for internal testing of blockchain technology.

Banks have become increasingly interested in blockchain technology this year. Goldman Sachs was one of the inaugural members of the R3CEV consortium, which now has 30 members and is expected to announce more soon. That firm is developing a similar distributed ledger-based settlement platform with which its members can experiment.

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Can anyone recommend any beaches near Pittsburgh …

 Beaches  Comments Off on Can anyone recommend any beaches near Pittsburgh …
Jan 162016
 

1. Re: Can anyone recommend any beaches near Pittsburgh?

Even though Pittsburgh is the city of Three Rivers, there’s not much swimming in them. There’s a bad undertow on parts, plus they’re not the cleanest (way better than they used to be though).

Your best bet “Not too far from the city” would be a waterpark.

Sandcastle is one that is about 20 minutes outside the city – http://www.sandcastlewaterpark.com/. I’ve heard nice things from people that live in Pittsburgh but have not been there myself (not a swimmer). There are probably reviews on here of this.

Another waterpark is Soak Zone, which is part of Idlewild Park located about 1 hr outside Pittsburgh. The waterpark is a pretty big section of a larger traditional amusement park. We used to live near this park – even had season passes a few years – and while I’ve walked through it at least 10 times I’ve never actually swum. Again, I’ve heard great things – more positive than Sandcastle. There should be reviews on this on here also that will give you more detail.

If you’re looking for non-pool water places, there is also Conneaut Lake, which is about 1.5 hours north of Pittsburgh. There’s a public beach that is part of a small amusement park there. They had to ban swimming there last year because of inability to insure (the place has had a lot of financial troubles), but I understand that they’re opening this year so the beach, as well as other amusements, will be available. The latest information would be on their website at http://www.conneautlakepark.com/.

There’s also some other lakes up that way but I don’t know the details – perhaps another poster can speak to those.

I hope this helps.

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Regenerative Medicine – BioTime, Inc.

 Regenerative Medicine  Comments Off on Regenerative Medicine – BioTime, Inc.
Jan 132016
 

Regenerative medicine combines the latest advances in stem cell biology, embryology, tissue engineering and medicine to develop products for the replacement, restoration or regeneration of damaged or diseased cells and tissues. Tools used in regenerative medicine include biomaterials and extracellular matrices, lab-generated cells and tissues, and new biological molecules. These powerful technologies and tools are allowing clinical scientists to engineer and provide healthy cells, tissues and organs to patients with chronic degenerative diseases. This revolution in medical science changes the focus from treating symptoms of chronic and degenerative diseases to providing cures, and directly addresses costs that constitute approximately 83% of the 2.5 trillion dollar annual healthcare budget in the U.S. and are growing due to an aging population.

BioTime is led by Michael West, PhD., who pioneered the regenerative medicine industry. He founded Geron Corporation in the early 90s which funded the first studies of cultured hESC to realize their potential to cure intractable human degenerative diseases. Dr. West has since built BioTime around key technologies and intellectual property that constitute major pillars of regenerative medicine.

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History of Eugenics – People at Creighton University

 Eugenics  Comments Off on History of Eugenics – People at Creighton University
Jan 112016
 

In the same era, the idea of Social Darwinism became popular and was used to explain these social inequalities. Social Darwinism utilizes the concept of natural selection from Charles Darwin and applies it to society. Social Darwinism explains survival of the fittest in terms of the capability of an individual to survive within a competitive environment. This explains social inequalities by explaining that the wealthy are better individuals and therefore better suited to survive in the uncertain economy. In terms of survival of the fittest the wealthy are more likely to survive and produce more offspring than the poor.

Early Eugenicists

Eugenicists believed genetics were the cause of problems for the human gene pool. Eugenics stated that society already had paid enough to support these degenerates and the use of sterilization would save money. The eugenicists used quantitative facts to produce scientific evidence. They believed that charity and welfare only treated the symptoms, eugenic sought to eliminate the disease. The following traits were seen as degenerative to the human gene pool to which the eugenicists were determined to eliminate: poverty, feeble-mindedness-including manic depression, schizophrenia, alcoholism, rebelliousness, criminality, nomadness, prostitution.

Before eugenics became internationally recognized in WWII, it was a very popular movement in the United States. In fact the American Eugenics Society set up pavilions and “Fitter Families Contest” to popularize eugenics at state fairs. The average family advocated for the utilization of eugenics while educational systems embraced eugenics, which was presented as science fact by the majority biology texts. In fact, eugenics became so popular that eighteen solutions were explored in a Carnegie-supported study in 1911, to report the best practical means for eliminating defective genes in the Human Population. Although the eighth of the 18 solutions was euthanasia, the researchers believed it was too early to implement this solution. The most commonly suggested method of eugenicide in America was a lethal chamber, or gas chamber. Instead, the main solution was the rapid expansion of forced segregation and sterilization, as well as increased marriage restrictions. However, not everybody was in favor of eugenics, Punnett at the first international congress for Eugenics in 1911 stated, Except in very few cases, our knowledge of heredity in man at present is far to slight and far too uncertain to base legislation upon.

Sterilization and Marriage Laws

Although in 1942 the Supreme Court made a law allowing the involuntary sterilization of criminals, it never reversed the general concept of eugenic sterilization. In 2001, the Virginia General Assembly acknowledged that the sterilization law was based on faulty science and expressed its “profound regret over the Commonwealth’s role in the eugenics movement in this country and over the damage done in the name of eugenics. On May 2, 2002 a marker was erected to honor Carrie Buck in her hometown of Charlottesville.

This information was taken from http://www.eugenicsarchive.org/

This information was taken from http://www.freerepublic.com/forum/a371ea64170ce.html and http://www.trueorigin.org/holocaust.asp

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Bill Gates, Monsanto, and eugenics: How one of the world’s …

 Eugenics  Comments Off on Bill Gates, Monsanto, and eugenics: How one of the world’s …
Jan 112016
 

http://www.naturalnews.com/035105_Bill_Gates_Monsanto_eugenics.html

The Gates Foundation, aka the tax-exempt Gates Family Trust, is currently in the process of spending billions of dollars in the name of humanitarianism to establish a global food monopoly dominated by genetically-modified (GM) crops and seeds. And based on the Gates family’s history of involvement in world affairs, it appears that one of its main goals besides simply establishing corporate control of the world’s food supply is to reduce the world’s population by a significant amount in the process.

Gates also admitted during the interview that his family’s involvement in reproductive issues throughout the years has been extensive, referencing his own prior adherence to the beliefs of eugenicist Thomas Robert Malthus, who believed that populations of the world need to be controlled through reproductive restrictions. Though Gates claims he now holds a different view, it appears as though his foundation’s initiatives are just a modified Malthusian approach that much more discreetly reduces populations through vaccines and GMOs (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Robert_Malthus).

The Gates Foundation has admittedly given at least $264.5 million in grant commitments to AGRA (www.gatesfoundation.org/about/Documents/BMGFFactSheet.pdf), and also reportedly hired Dr. Robert Horsch, a former Monsanto executive for 25 years who developed Roundup, to head up AGRA back in 2006. According to a report published in La Via Campesina back in 2010, 70 percent of AGRA’s grantees in Kenya work directly with Monsanto, and nearly 80 percent of the Gates Foundation funding is devoted to biotechnology (http://www.organicconsumers.org/articles/article_21606.cfm).

The same report explains that the Gates Foundation pledged $880 million in April 2010 to create the Global Agriculture and Food Security Program (GAFSP), which is a heavy promoter of GMOs. GAFSP, of course, was responsible for providing $35 million in “aid” to earthquake-shattered Haiti to be used for implementing GMO agricultural systems and technologies.

Back in 2003, the Gates Foundation invested $25 million in “GM (genetically modified) research to develop vitamin and protein-enriched seeds for the world’s poor,” a move that many international charities and farmers groups vehemently opposed (http://healthfreedoms.org). And in 2008, the Gates Foundation awarded $26.8 million to Cornell University to research GM wheat, which is the next major food crop in the crosshairs of Monsanto’s GM food crop pipeline (http://www.organicconsumers.org/articles/article_21606.cfm).

Rather than promote real food sovereignty and address the underlying political and economic issues that breed poverty, Gates and Co. has instead embraced the promotion of corporately-owned and controlled agriculture and medicine paradigms that will only further enslave the world’s most impoverished. It is abundantly evident that GMOs have ravished already-impoverished people groups by destroying their native agricultural systems, as has been seen in India (http://www.naturalnews.com/030913_Monsanto_suicides.html).

Some may say Gates’ endeavors are all about the money, while others may say they are about power and control. Perhaps it is a combination of both, where Gates is still in the business of promoting his own commercial investments, which includes buying shares in Monsanto while simultaneously investing in programs to promote Monsanto.

Whatever the case may be, there is simply no denying that Gates now has a direct interest in seeing Monsanto succeed in spreading GMOs around the world. And since Gates is openly facilitating Monsanto’s growth into new markets through his “humanitarian” efforts, it is clear that the Gates family is in bed with Monsanto.

“Although Bill Gates might try to say that the Foundation is not linked to his business, all it proves is the opposite: most of their donations end up favoring the commercial investments of the tycoon, not really “donating” anything, but instead of paying taxes to state coffers, he invests his profits in where it is favorable to him economically, including propaganda from their supposed good intentions,” wrote Silvia Ribeiro in the Mexican news source La Jornada back in 2010.

“On the contrary, their ‘donations’ finance projects as destructive as geoengineering or replacement of natural community medicines for high-tech patented medicines in the poorest areas of the world … Gates is also engaged in trying to destroy rural farming worldwide, mainly through the ‘Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa’ (AGRA). It works as a Trojan horse to deprive poor African farmers of their traditional seeds, replacing them with the seeds of their companies first, finally by genetically modified (GM).”

Sources for this article include:

http://www.guardian.co.uk

http://www.seattleglobaljustice.org

http://english.pravda.ru

http://www.organicconsumers.org/articles/article_21606.cfm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Eugenics_Society

http://www.naturalnews.com/033148_seed_companies_Monsanto.html

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SEO Agency Harrisonburg VA – SEO Company Virginia

 SEO  Comments Off on SEO Agency Harrisonburg VA – SEO Company Virginia
Jan 062016
 

Enjoying an international viewership for your website, a world audience for your information as well as yourself transforming into a home identify without period, foliage anyone without choice other than to settle on Simple SEO Harrisonburg VA as the SEO agency Harrisonburg VA of the decision. Your able staff connected with specialists, who function throughout the year day time in outing, demonstrates this kind of considered true.

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Beaches – Cape Coral, Florida

 Beaches  Comments Off on Beaches – Cape Coral, Florida
Jan 062016
 

There are many beaches in the state of Florida for people to enjoy, two of which can be found in the City of Cape Coral. The main beach is located within theYacht Club Community Parkon the southeast corner of Cape Coral at the end of Driftwood Pkwy. In addition to the Yacht Club public beach, visitors to the Yacht Club Community Park canenjoy a covered playground with equipment for children ages 2-12 that can accommodate persons with disabilities, as well as picnic tables and BBQ grills, the adjacent Yacht Club Pier, a public boat ramp and free vehicle parking (their is a small fee for boat trailers).

Cape Coral’s newest beach is located atFour Freedoms Parkon the banks of Bimini Basin just south of Cape Coral Pkwy. Visitors to four Freedoms Park can enjoy fenced in playground equipment for children ages 2-12, picnic tables and BBQ grills. Alcohol is not permitted in either of the parks and animals are not allowed on the beach. Both the Yacht Club public beach and Four Freedoms beach are open from dawn todusk daily; however, there are no lifeguards on duty. Those who wish to go in the water should understand that they are both non-swimming beaches so going in the water is at their own risk.

For people who wish to swim, theYacht Club Community Poolis located just a few feet from the Yacht club beach and features a heated Olympic Size pool and a kiddy pool with interactive Dewdrop fountain and underwater bubblers. A daily fee is required to use the Yacht Club Pool, but fully trained lifeguards are on duty at the pool during all operating hours.

Additional Waterfront Parks

All of the above parks have picnic tables that are available on a first come, first serve basis, and sunbathing is permitted (swim suits are required).

For general information about Cape Coral Parks and Recreation, call (239) 573-3128. Or if you encounter an issue in one of the Cape Coral parks, please contact the Cape Coral Police Department’s non-emergency line at (239) 574-3223.

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Beaches – Cape Coral, Florida

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Beaches Resorts, Beaches Hotels, Beaches All-Inclusive …

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Dec 302015
 

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NSA Austin About

 NSA  Comments Off on NSA Austin About
Dec 282015
 

Aboutadmin2014-12-24T16:50:45+00:00 The Austin chapter of the National Speakers Association is the premier local destination for professional speakers and those who want to learn the craft. We present educational programming on marketing, sales, content development and other critical skills for speakers, and we also provide a place where speakers can learn from one another. We look forward to welcoming you to NSA Austin. Vision:

To make NSA Austin the go-to organization for professional speakers as well as one of the most respected and dynamic professional organizations in Central Texas.

Speakers who have presented have included Sam Horn, David Newman, Jill Griffin, Patrick Henry, Neen James, Vickie Sullivan, Dave Lieber and many others.

We have even more excellent programming in store. We encourage you to get to know NSA Austin and see if this is a good fit for you as you continue, or embark on, your own professional speaking journey.

For more information about our current programming, click here to see whats on tap for 2015!

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Problems Associated with Cryonics – Cryonics: Alcor Life …

 Cryonics  Comments Off on Problems Associated with Cryonics – Cryonics: Alcor Life …
Dec 272015
 

(and some possible solutions)

When you buy a house, the seller is legally obliged to disclose any known defects. When you review a company’s annual report, it tells you every problem that could affect the corporate share value. Since arrangements for cryopreservation may have a much greater impact on your life than home ownership or stock investments, we feel an ethical obligation to disclose problems that affect cryonics in general and Alcor specifically. We also believe that an organization which admits its problems is more likely to address them than an organization which pretends it has none. Thus full disclosure should encourage, rather than discourage, consumer confidence.

As of 2011, Alcor is nearly 40 years old. Our Patient Care Trust Fund is endowed with more than 7 million dollars and is responsible for the long-term care of over 100 cryopatients. In almost every year since its inception Alcor has enjoyed positive membership growth. We are the largest cryonics organization in the world yet in many respects we are still a startup company. We have fewer than a dozen employees in Scottsdale, Arizona and approximately 20 part-time independent contractors in various locations around the USA, mostly dedicated to emergency standby and rescue efforts. We serve fewer than 1,000 members and the protocols that aid our pursuit of the goal of reversible suspended animation continue to be developed. At the present time the technology required for the realization of our goal far exceeds current technical capabilities. Cryonics will not be comparable with mainstream medicine until our patients can be revived using contemporary technology, and we expect to wait for decades to see this vision fulfilled. Nevertheless, we have made important progress by introducing brain vitrification to improve patient tissue structure preservation.

Alcor shares some of the characteristics of startup companies. The organization is understaffed in some important areas and lacks as much capitalization as would be desired to support maximum growth. Limited resources prevent the organization from hiring as many highly qualified and experienced personnel as desired, and sometimes we have to postpone enhancements to equipment and procedures.

Because Alcor must react quickly to circumstances, it cannot always handle multiple tasks simultaneously. We feel a significant impact if, for example, several members experience legal death in quick succession. A heavy caseload generally means that administrative and even technical development work is postponed while member emergencies take precedence.

On the other hand, Alcor staff believe very strongly in the mission of the organization and are extremely dedicated. Alcor transport team members feel that they are saving lives, and behave accordingly. Most of all, everyone at Alcor is concerned with insuring the security of the patients who have been cryopreserved for the indefinite future. The organization’s powerful sense of purpose is reinforced by the fact that all Alcor directors and most staff members have made arrangements to be cryopreserved themselves in the future.

Unlike most startups, Alcor is unlikely to fail for financial reasons. Due to the legally independent status of the Patient Care Trust from Alcor, patients can be maintained indefinitely through its portfolio of cash, investments, real estate, and capital equipment. Some wealthy Alcor members have contributed gifts and endowments to help the organization to advance, and in the event of a financial crisis, many of the people who hope ultimately to be cryopreserved would probably provide assistance. In this sense Alcor benefits from its small size, since it maintains an intimate relationship with many members which would be more problematic if our membership was ten times as large.

Inability to Verify Results

When a conventional surgical procedure is successful, usually the patient recovers and is cured. If the same surgical procedure is unsuccessful or a surgeon makes a serious error, the patient may die. These clear outcomes provide prompt feedback for the people involved. A physician may feel deeply satisfied if a life is saved, or may be deeply troubled (and may be sued for malpractice) if errors cause a death that should have been avoidable.

Clear feedback of this type does not exist in cryonics, because the outcome of our procedures will not be known definitively until decades or even a century from now. We have good reason to expect future technologies capable of repairing cellular damage in cryonics patients, but we feel equally certain that if a patient experiences very severe brain damage prior to cryopreservation, repairs may be delayed, may be incomplete, or may be impossible. The dividing line between these positive and negative outcomes cannot be established clearly at this time.

Suppose a patient experiences 30 minutes of warm ischemia (lack of blood flow at near-normal body temperature) after legal death occurs. Will this downtime create damage that is irreversible by any imaginable technology? Probably not. But what if the ischemic interval lasts for an hour or two hours, or a day? We simply don’t know where to draw the line between one patient who is potentially viable, and another who is not.

Of course we can refer to experimental work that has evaluated the injury which occurs when cells are deprived of essential nutrients. These studies provide some guidance regarding the likely damage that a patient may experience, but they still cannot tell us with certainty if future science will be able to reverse that damage.

Another problem afflicting cryonics cases is that many uncontrolled variables prevent us from developing objective criteria to compare one case with another. Consider these two examples:

In the first case, will the long transport time negate the advantage of a rapid initial response and replacement of blood with a chilled preservation solution? In the second case, will the initial hours of warm ischemia outweigh the advantage of the rapid transport to Alcor? We can make educated guesses, but we cannot answer these questions definitively. We have no certain way of knowing which case will work out better, because we have no evidence no outcome.

We do have some simple ways to determine if a patient’s circulatory system allows good perfusion with cryoprotectant. Personnel in the operating room will notice if blood clots emerge when perfusion begins. The surface of the brain, visible through burr holes which are created to enable observation, should be pearly white in color. The brain should shrink slightly as water is replaced with cryoprotectant. When perfusion is complete the patient’s features should have acquired a sallow color indicating that cryoprotectant has diffused through the tissues.

These simple observations are helpful, but still the people who work hard to minimize transport time and maximize the rate of cooling can never enjoy the satisfying payoff that a physician receives when one of his patients recovers and returns to a normal, active life. This lack of positive outcome can cause feelings of frustration and futility, sometimes leading to disillusionment and burnout.

Conversely, if a case goes badly, team members will be protected from negative feedback. A team leader can never say to one of the personnel, “Because of your error, the patient has no chance of recovery.”

The lack of a clear outcome also prevents us from refuting people who claim that future science will be able to undo almost any degree of damage. The danger of this extreme positive thinking is that it can lead to laziness. Why bother to make heroic efforts to minimize injury, if nanotechnology will fix everything?

Alcor’s stated policy firmly rejects this attitude. Team members are very highly motivated to minimize injury because we believe that our members should not bet their lives on unknown capabilities of future science. Alcor generally hosts a debriefing after each case, encouraging all participants to share complaints, frustrations, and suggestions for improvement. Ideally, each case should be a learning experience, and participants should welcome criticism as an opportunity to identify weaknesses and overcome them in the future.

Still the lack of a clear outcome remains one of the biggest weaknesses in cryonics, since it encourages complacency and prevents accountability. The antidote to this problem is a better set of objective criteria to evaluate cases, and Alcor is working in consultation with brain ischemia experts to develop such criteria.

Volunteer Help

During the 1960s the first cryonics organizations were run entirely by volunteers. The field was not sufficiently reputable to attract qualified medical staff, and no one could have paid for professional help anyway.

Today cryonics is making a transition to professionalism, but financial limitations are prolonging the process. Some paramedics are associated with Alcor, and we hope for more in the future. We have an MD medical director, access to three contract surgeons, access to a hospice nurse, and assistance from an ischemia research laboratory in California where staff has extensive experience in relevant procedures such as vascular cannulation and perfusion. Alcor also communicates with a cryobiology laboratory that has made the most important advances in organ preservation during the past decade. Still, most transport team members who work remotely from the facility are volunteers who receive a week or two of training and modest payment for their work.

In the future, as Alcor becomes more financially secure and is able to offer higher salaries, the organization will attract more medical professionals. At this time, the transition is incomplete.

Limited Support from Mainstream Science

In the 1960s scientists in mainstream laboratories investigated techniques to cryopreserve whole organs. By the end of the 1970s most of this work had ended, and the field of cryobiology separated itself very emphatically from cryonics. The Society for Cryobiology has discouraged scientists from doing work that could advance cryonics, and has adopted a bylaw that threatens to expel any member who practices or promotes cryonics. Consequently the few scientists who are willing to do cryonics-related research live in fear of being excluded from the scientific specialty that is most relevant to their work.

The rift between cryonics and cryobiology may have been caused initially by fears among mainstream scientists that cryonics had a “tabloid journalism” flavor incompatible with science. In addition many scientists have been dissatisfied with the idea of applying procedures without a complete and full understanding of their outcome. Generally, in medicine, first a technique is studied, validated, and perfected, and then it is applied clinically. Cryonics has, of necessity, done an end-run around this formal approach by rushing to apply a technique based on theoretical arguments rather than validated clinical effectiveness.

During the past decade our knowledge and procedures have advanced far beyond the crude freezing methods imagined by most cryobiologists, and experts in molecular nanotechnology have voiced strong support. As more papers are published describing technical advances, we expect that cryobiologists and other scientists will revise their negative assessment of cryonics. In the future we believe that the arbitrary barrier between cryonics and cryobiology will gradually dissolve, and cryonics research will be recognized as a legitimate specialty of the field. However, for the time being the dim view taken of cryonics by most cryobiologists remains problematic, impairing Alcor’s ability to achieve respectable status among other relevant groups such as prospective members, regulatory officials, and legislators.

Limited Legal and Government Support

Cryonics is not explicitly recognized in the laws of any state in the United States (see The Legal Status of Cryonics Patients). This does not mean that cryonics is illegal or unregulated. In fact, Alcor must comply with state laws controlling the transport and disposition of human remains, and we make arrangements with licensed morticians to insure that these requirements are met. Alcor also complies with federal regulations established by agencies such as OSHA and EPA.

Still, the lack of specific enabling legislation for cryonics can cause problems. In the late 1980s the California Department of Health Services (DHS) asserted that because there was no statutory procedure for becoming a cryonics organization, human remains could not be conveyed to a cryonics organization via the Uniform Anatomical Gift Act (UAGA), and therefore cryonics was illegal. Fortunately, the courts were unimpressed by this argument. In 1992 the legality of cryonics, and the legality of using the UAGA for cryonics, were upheld at the appellate level.

In 1990 the Canadian province of British Columbia enacted a law that specifically banned the sale of cryonics services in that province. In 2002 the Solicitor General (Canadian equivalent of a state Attorney General) issued a written clarification stating that the law only prohibited funeral homes from selling cryonics arrangements. Cryonics could still be performed in the province, even with the paid assistance of funeral homes, provided they were not involved in the direct sale of cryonics. This position is affirmed by the Business Practices and Consumer Protection Authority of British Columbia. Despite these assurances, anxiety about the law remains.

In 2004 a bill was passed by the Arizona House of Representatives to place cryonics and cryonics procedures under the regulation of the state funeral board. In its original form this law would have prevented our use of the UAGA. The bill was ultimately withdrawn, but may be revived at a later date. Very hostile comments were made about cryonics during the floor debate of this bill. We cannot guarantee that any future legislation will be friendly to cryonics or will permit cryonics to continue in Arizona.

Despite these uncertainties, the United States enjoys a strong cultural tradition to honor the wishes of terminal patients. We believe that the freedom to choose cryonics is constitutionally protected, and so far courts have agreed. We are hopeful that we will be able to continue performing cryonics without technical compromise, under state supervision where necessary, for the indefinite future.

Limited Mainstream Medical Support

Cryonics is not an accepted or recognized “therapy” in the general medical community. To the average medical professional, cryonics is at best an unusual anatomical donation. At worst it can be viewed by some physicians as fraud upon their patient. Hospitals have sometimes deliberately delayed pronouncement of legal death, delayed release of patients to Alcor, or forbade the use of cryonics life support equipment or medications within their facilities. On one occasion in 1988 Alcor had to obtain a court order to compel a hospital to release a patient to Alcor promptly at legal death and permit our stabilization procedures on their premises.

Relations with hospitals and their staff are not always difficult. Usually when nurses and physicians learn that cryonics is a sincere practice that is overseen by other medical professionals, they will be willing to accommodate a patient’s wishes, or at least will not interfere with them. Sometimes medical staff will even assist with cryonics procedures such as administering medications and performing chest compressions if Alcor personnel are not present when legal death occurs.

The lack of formal medical recognition or support for cryonics generally means that cryonics patients remote from Alcor must be moved to a mortuary for blood replacement before transport to Alcor. Ideally these preparatory procedures should be performed within hospitals, not mortuaries. Hospitals presently allow organ procurement personnel to harvest organs from deceased patients (a fairly elaborate procedure) within their walls. We are hopeful that similar privileges will be extended to cryonics more often as the process becomes better understood and accepted, but we cannot predict how quickly this change will occur.

High Incidence of Poor Cases

In more than 50 percent of cryonics cases legal death occurs before Alcor standby personnel can be deployed, and is often followed by hours of warm ischemia. This downtime may cause severe cellular damage.

The threat of autopsy, in which the brain is routinely dissected, is an even greater danger. Any person who suffers legal death under unexpected circumstances, especially involving accidents or foul play, is liable to be autopsied. Alcor strongly urges members living in California, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, and Ohio to sign Religious Objection to Autopsy forms.

Sometimes cryonicists perish under circumstances resulting in complete destruction or disappearance of their remains. Cryonicists have been lost at sea, suffered misadventures abroad, or even disappeared without a trace. Two members of cryonics organizations were lost in the 2001 collapse of the World Trade Center towers. One was a policeman performing rescue operations.

Cryonics is not a panacea or a “cure” for death. The cryonics ideal of immediate cooling and cardiopulmonary support following cardiac arrest cannot be achieved in the majority of cases. We have good reasons to believe that molecular records of memory persist in the brain even after hours of clinical death, but only future physicians using medical technology which we do not yet possess will be able to determine, finally, whether such a person is really still “there.”

What can be done?

If you are:

…then please contact us at .

…or check out our volunteer opportunities.

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Book – Rosi Braidotti – The Posthuman

 Posthuman  Comments Off on Book – Rosi Braidotti – The Posthuman
Dec 272015
 

Description

The Posthuman offers both an introduction and major contribution to contemporary debates on the posthuman. Digital ‘second life’, genetically modified food, advanced prosthetics, robotics and reproductive technologies are familiar facets of our globally linked and technologically mediated societies. This has blurred the traditional distinction between the human and its others, exposing the non-naturalistic structure of the human. The Posthuman starts by exploring the extent to which a post-humanist move displaces the traditional humanistic unity of the subject. Rather than perceiving this situation as a loss of cognitive and moral self-mastery, Braidotti argues that the posthuman helps us make sense of our flexible and multiple identities.

Braidotti then analyzes the escalating effects of post-anthropocentric thought, which encompass not only other species, but also the sustainability of our planet as a whole. Because contemporary market economies profit from the control and commodification of all that lives, they result in hybridization, erasing categorical distinctions between the human and other species, seeds, plants, animals and bacteria. These dislocations induced by globalized cultures and economies enable a critique of anthropocentrism, but how reliable are they as indicators of a sustainable future?

The Posthuman concludes by considering the implications of these shifts for the institutional practice of the humanities. Braidotti outlines new forms of cosmopolitan neo-humanism that emerge from the spectrum of post-colonial and race studies, as well as gender analysis and environmentalism. The challenge of the posthuman condition consists in seizing the opportunities for new social bonding and community building, while pursuing sustainability and empowerment.

Status

Available

Edition

First Edition

ISBN

9780745641577

ISBN10

0745641571

Publication Dates ROW:

Apr 2013

Publication Dates US:

Jun 2013

Publication Dates Aus & NZ:

Apr 2013

Format

224 x 145 mm 8.80 x 5.68 in

Pages

180 pages

Status

Available

Edition

First Edition

ISBN

9780745641584

ISBN10

074564158X

Publication Dates ROW:

Apr 2013

Publication Dates US:

May 2013

Publication Dates Aus & NZ:

Apr 2013

Format

216 x 141 mm 8.50 x 5.52 in

Pages

180 pages

Status

Available

Edition

First Edition

ISBN

9780745669960

ISBN10

0745669964

Publication Dates ROW:

Jul 2013

Publication Dates US:

Jul 2013

Publication Dates Aus & NZ:

Jul 2013

Format

229 x 152 mm 9.02 x 5.98 in

Pages

200 pages

* Exam copies only available to lecturers for whom the book may be suitable as a course text. Please note: Sales representation and distribution for Polity titles is provided by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

“The Posthuman makes a vital contribution to feminist scholarship across disciplines Braidottis reading of contemporary issues is out of the box: challenging, encouraging and inspiring.” Feminist Review

“An important and generative step toward new theories and scholarship and a welcome addition to Braidottis already formidable canon.” H+ Magazine

“Shows remarkable clarity and concision even as it lays out highly technical, complexly theoretical, and deeply interdisciplinary concepts.” Choice

”This is a rather startling work that requires heavy concentration on the part of the reader to follow the brilliant thinking of the author. Rosi Braidotti, a contemporary philosopher and feminist theoretician, `makes a case for an alternative view on subjectivity, ethics and emancipation and pitches diversity against the postmodernist risk of cultural relativism, while also standing against the tenets of liberal individualism.’ Throughout her work, Braidotti asserts and demonstrates the importance of combining theoretical concerns with a serious commitment to producing socially and politically relevant scholarship that contributes to making a difference in the world.” Grady Harp, Literary Aficionado

“This is an exciting and important text, full of intellectual brilliance and insight. It will make a major mark.” Henrietta L. Moore, University of Cambridge

“Braidotti’s exhilarating survey of the constellation of posthumanity is lucid, learned and provocative. It will be an essential point of reference in future debates about the central philosophical problem of our age.” Paul Gilroy, Kings College London

“Debates over humanism and post-humanism have been fought over from feminist philosophy to literary theory and post-colonial studies. This latest work by Rosi Braidotti presents us with a clear-headed glimpse of some of the hard choices we have before us. Braidotti knows the philosophy, cares about the politics, and empathizes with those who have been shoved aside in these brutal last hundred years. She shows us how feminism, technoscientific infrastructure and political strands cross, sometimes with sparks.” Peter Galison, Harvard University

Acknowledgments vi

Introduction 1

Chapter One: Post-humanism: Life beyond the Self 13

Chapter Two: Post-anthropocentrism: Life beyond the Species 55

Chapter Three: The Inhuman: Life beyond Death 105

Chapter Four: Posthuman Humanities; Life beyond Theory 143

Conclusion 186

References 198

Index 214

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Book – Rosi Braidotti – The Posthuman

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Want SEO Results? SEO Expert, Call 1 (800) 497-1020, Web Design

 SEO  Comments Off on Want SEO Results? SEO Expert, Call 1 (800) 497-1020, Web Design
Dec 272015
 

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Organizzazione del Trattato dell’Atlantico del Nord …

 NATO  Comments Off on Organizzazione del Trattato dell’Atlantico del Nord …
Dec 252015
 

Da Wikipedia, l’enciclopedia libera.

Coordinate: 505234.16N 42519.24E / 50.876156N 4.422011E50.876156; 4.422011

L’Organizzazione del Trattato dell’Atlantico del Nord (in inglese North Atlantic Treaty Organization, in sigla NATO,[3] in francese: Organisation du Trait de l’Atlantique du Nord, in sigla OTAN), un’organizzazione internazionale per la collaborazione nella difesa.

Il trattato istitutivo della NATO, il Patto Atlantico, fu firmato a Washington, D.C. il 4 aprile 1949 ed entr in vigore il 24 agosto dello stesso anno. Attualmente, fanno parte della NATO 28 stati del mondo.

Il Patto Atlantico traeva origine dalla percezione che il cosiddetto mondo occidentale (costituito da Stati Uniti d’America, Canada, Regno Unito, Francia, Norvegia, Italia ed altri Paesi dell’Europa occidentale), dopo la seconda guerra mondiale, stesse cominciando ad accusare tensioni nei confronti dell’altro paese vincitore della guerra, ossia l’Unione Sovietica, con i suoi Stati satellite.

Iniziava, infatti, a svilupparsi nelle opinioni pubbliche occidentali il timore che il regime sovietico potesse “non accontentarsi” della spartizione geografica generata, al termine della Guerra, da varie conferenze di pace e che, radicalizzando i contenuti ideologici della societ, volesse iniziare una mira espansionista per l’affermazione globale dell’ideologia comunista. Ci gener un movimento di opinione che – anche grazie alle varie attivit in tal senso organizzate dagli Stati Uniti d’America – inizi a svilupparsi in modo generalizzato nei Paesi occidentali e che identific una nuova assoluta necessit di garantire la sicurezza del mondo occidentale dalla minaccia comunista; la NATO, quindi, rispondeva all’esigenza di allearsi e di mettere a fattor comune i propri dispositivi di difesa, per reagire “come un sol uomo” ad un eventuale attacco.

Tale sentimento ebbe una significativa spinta dopo i fatti di Berlino del 1948. La citt tedesca, simbolo del nazismo e Capitale della Germania hitleriana, dopo Jalta venne a trovarsi nel territorio della Germania Est, ossia sotto influenza sovietica, e venne suddivisa in 4 zone, tre delle quali controllate dai Paesi occidentali e la quarta (la parte orientale della citt) dall’Unione Sovietica. Berlino Est divenne Capitale della Germania Est.

Dopo alcuni mesi durante i quali i sovietici avevano iniziato a manifestare disagio e dissenso sulla situazione territoriale e logistica “anomala” di Berlino (enclave occidentale in territorio orientale), che permetteva alle genti sottoposte al regime socialista di transitare facilmente all’Ovest trovandovi rifugio, il 24 giugno 1948 decisero di chiudere il corridoio terrestre attraverso il quale Berlino Ovest era connessa al mondo occidentale, impedendo, di fatto, il suo approvvigionamento logistico: il successivo ponte aereo, organizzato dal mondo occidentale per assicurare la sopravvivenza della popolazione di Berlino Ovest, entrato nella storia.

La vicenda dell'”assedio” a Berlino Ovest, fece naturalmente forte impressione alle popolazioni occidentali e, di fatto, rese matura la decisione di istituire un’Alleanza del mondo occidentale contro la minaccia sovietica.

Il concetto informatore di questa nuova “Alleanza” era quello della “difesa collettiva”, riportato nell’Art. 5, che recita:

Questa misura era concepita in modo tale che se l’Unione Sovietica avesse lanciato un attacco contro uno qualsiasi dei paesi membri, questo sarebbe stato trattato da ciascun paese membro come un attacco diretto, ed era rivolta soprattutto a una temuta invasione sovietica dell’Europa occidentale. Le trattative si svolsero tra i firmatari del trattato di Bruxelles (Regno Unito, Francia e Benelux), Stati Uniti, Canada, Norvegia, Danimarca, Islanda, Portogallo ed Italia. L’Unione Sovietica protest vivacemente, affermando la natura aggressiva nei suoi confronti del Patto. Da l a pochi anni essa avrebbe dato vita ad un’Alleanza militare contrapposta alla NATO: il Patto di Varsavia.

La creazione degli organi politici dell’Alleanza Atlantica impieg circa un anno di lavori, tra il maggio 1950 e lo stesso mese del 1951; nelle riunioni a Londra ed a Bruxelles i ministri degli Esteri si accordarono per la creazione di un Consiglio Permanente, dotato di potere esecutivo, affiancato da tre comitati, di difesa economica e finanziaria, di difesa e militare, inglobati poi nel Consiglio Permanente nella conferenza di Londra del maggio 1951.

Con la nascita del Patto di Varsavia inizi la “Guerra fredda”, cos definita in quanto, in realt, mai combattuta sul campo, ma per la quale i due blocchi prepararono i loro dispositivi militari in modo cos meticoloso e credibile che fu sviluppato il concetto di “pace armata” (attuato anche con armi nucleari potenzialmente distruttive per l’umanit intera). Dopo la caduta del muro di Berlino, che simboleggi la fine del socialismo reale e soprattutto dell’URSS, la NATO ha radicalmente cambiato la sua visione strategica, avviando un processo di radicale trasformazione. Dopo i fatti dell’11 settembre 2001 avvenuto un nuovo cambiamento nelle strategie dell’Alleanza, che adesso, a processo di trasformazione ormai compiuta, si configura come l’organizzazione mondiale principale per la lotta effettiva al terrorismo internazionale.

Il disposto dell’art. 5 del Trattato, mai attuato durante la Guerra fredda, venne invocato per la prima volta nella storia il 12 settembre 2001 dagli Stati Uniti, in risposta all’attacco terroristico del giorno precedente a New York.

Motivo: Questa sezione esprime, in alcuni passaggi, alcuni giudizi.

Dalla caduta del muro di Berlino in poi, la NATO ha progressivamente perso la propria caratteristica di “Alleanza Difensiva” per orientarsi sempre pi come un ambito di collaborazione militare tra Paesi aderenti. Dopo gli eventi dell’11 settembre 2001, gli Stati Uniti hanno richiesto l’intervento dell’Alleanza sulla base dell’Art. 5 del trattato. In linea generale, la NATO oggi rappresenta l’organizzazione militare pi utilizzata per l’imposizione del pieno rispetto della Carta dell’ONU e delle norme e convenzioni di Diritto umanitario e di Diritto bellico, delle risoluzioni del Consiglio di sicurezza dell’ONU relative a situazioni di crisi di importanza globale.

I principi generali che regolano le attivit dell’Alleanza sono mutati nel tempo, adattandosi ai continui cambiamenti del panorama geopolitico internazionale, ed attualmente possono essere riassunti nei seguenti punti:

L’art. 10 del Trattato del Nord Atlantico descrive come gli stati possano entrare nella NATO:[6]

Questo articolo pone due limiti generali agli stati per l’accesso:

Il secondo criterio significa che ciascun stato membro ha diritto di veto, ovvero pu decidere di porre delle condizioni per l’ingresso di un paese. In pratica la NATO ha formulato un insieme di criteri-base che devono essere soddisfatti per aspirare all’accesso, ma in alcuni casi ci possono essere dei criteri aggiuntivi. I casi pi importanti sono:

Non invece mai stato un criterio riconosciuto quello secondo cui la NATO non si sarebbe estesa ad Est se l’URSS avesse consentito la riunificazione della Germania: questa rivendicazione russa[7] del contenuto di un colloquio tra Gorbacev e James Baker, infatti, non mai stata accettata dalla diplomazia USA[8], che anzi negli anni Novanta sfid l’irritazione russa propiziando l’ingresso della Polonia, dell’Ungheria e della Repubblica Ceca nell’Alleanza.

Come procedura per i paesi che vogliono aderire (pre-adesione) esiste un meccanismo chiamato Piano d’azione per l’adesione o Membership Action Plan (MAP) che fu introdotto nel vertice di Washington del 23-25 aprile 1999. La partecipazione al MAP prevede per un paese la presentazione di un rapporto annuale sui progressi fatti nel raggiungere i criteri stabiliti: la NATO provvede poi a rispondere a ciascun paese con suggerimenti tecnici e valuta singolarmente la situazione dei progressi.

Questi paesi sono all’interno del MAP:

previsto che entrino nel MAP i seguenti paesi:

L’altro meccanismo di pre-adesione il Dialogo intensificato o Intensified Dialogue che visto come passo precedente prima di essere invitati al MAP.

I paesi attualmente in questa fase sono:

Un doppio schema tecnico-diplomatico di accordi stato creato per aiutare la cooperazione tra i membri NATO e altri “paesi partner”.

Il Partenariato Euro-Atlantico, o Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC), fu creato il 27 maggio 1997 al vertice di Parigi ed un forum di regolare consultazione, coordinamento e dialogo tra la NATO e i partner esterni. la diretta conseguenza del partenariato per la pace. I 23 paesi partner sono:

Ex Repubbliche sovietiche:

Paesi neutrali con economia di mercato durante la guerra fredda:

Paesi neutrali con economia socialista durante la guerra fredda:

Paesi “in attesa”:

Il Partenariato per la pace o Partnership for Peace (PfP) fu creato nel 1994 ed basato su relazioni individuali e bilaterali tra la NATO e il paese partner: ciascuno stato pu decidere l’intensit della collaborazione. stato il primo tentativo di dialogo della NATO con paesi esterni, ma ora considerato il “braccio operativo” del partenariato Euro-Atlantico. costituito in maniera principale, da membri operativi della NATO, ad esempio, membri START1991, e collaborano in tema di giustizia, per garantire i principali diritti internazionali, come i patti Bilaterali tra stati nel mondo, svolgono in tema politico-sociale la cooperazione al sostentamento umanitario. La sua azione operativa permette in diversi ambiti, quali sociale, politico, economico, giuridico, medico, ingegneristico, scientifico, artistico, la tutela e la conservazione di diritti umani nel mondo, promuovendo la cultura pacifica nei popoli.

Come gi detto, la NATO rappresenta non soltanto una mera iniziativa di cooperazione militare, ma si configura come fondamentale strumento di collaborazione politica tra i Paesi membri, soprattutto nell’ambito dei processi decisionali afferenti materie di politica estera.

Per questo motivo, la NATO ha una duplice struttura: politica e militare. In linea con quanto accade normalmente nell’ambito dei Sistemi istituzionali democratici dei Paesi membri, anche in questo caso la parte militare ha una posizione subordinata rispetto a quella politica, che, nelle sue diverse articolazioni, espressione diretta della volont dei popoli dei Paesi membri.

L’Alleanza governata dai suoi 28 Stati membri, ognuno dei quali ha una delegazione presso la sede centrale della NATO a Bruxelles. Il pi anziano membro di ciascuna delegazione chiamato “Rappresentante permanente”. L’organizzazione politica della NATO basata sulla regola del consenso unanime e comprende:

L’organizzazione militare della NATO articolata in vari comandi con sedi nei diversi paesi membri. Al vertice costituita da:

formato dai rappresentati militari dei Paesi membri ed ha il compito di decidere le linee strategiche di politica militare della NATO. Provvede inoltre alla guida dei comandanti strategici, i cui rappresentanti partecipano alle sedute del Comitato, ed responsabile per la conduzione degli affari militari dell’Alleanza. Il rappresentante militare l’altra figura rilevante della delegazione permanente dei Paesi membri presso la NATO ed un ufficiale con il grado di generale di corpo d’armata o corrispondente che proviene dalle forze armate di ciascun paese membro.

Dal Military Committee dipendono:

I membri della NATO sono attualmente 28. Di questi, 22 sono anche membri dell’Unione europea, mentre 24 di questi sono membri a vario titolo (membri effettivi, membri associati, paesi osservatori, partner associati) dell’Unione dell’Europa Occidentale (UEO) che con il Trattato di Lisbona passata sotto il controllo UE. Per questo negli ultimi anni il peso dell’UE andato sempre pi in crescendo nelle decisioni NATO. Di seguito l’elenco dei 28 membri:

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Organizzazione del Trattato dell’Atlantico del Nord …

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Illuminati – Dance Clubs – DePaul – Chicago, IL – Reviews …

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Dec 222015
 

First to Review

Since this is the first review I figure I’ll be DETAILED… This is the spot that used to be Vain Nightclub. I think it literally switched over in the last week or so. I went for a friend’s bday party last Sat. night – had never beent to Vain and knew nothing about this place.

We got there a little after 11. No line. There was a cover (not sure how much), but we had a “password” for the door so free for our party. We went up the 2nd floor first. Music was very B96-y and that’s fine by me for a drunk night out.

The dance floor was pretty small and spilled right on up to the bar. I didn’t dance much…we mostly stayed posted at the bar because service was SLOW and BAD. The bartender was a total bitch! The special was $5 Patron or O-bomb shots, but they were the warmest fucking Patron shots I’ve ever had poured…not that this deterred us from approx 10 rounds throughout the night..ughhh. Drinks were normal club prices, but at least Belvedere was the standard “vodka tonic” pour. When i bought a round, the bitch bartender (by the way howwww are tehre only 2 horrble bartenders for an entire floor of a bar/club??) asked if I wanted to close it out or leave it open. I said go ahead and close it and she said, “Well it’s only $28 – the minimum is $30″…THEN WHY DID YOU ASK ME? Moron. There was a big fat over-use of a fog/smoke machine that kept choking us eww. A waterfall wall with 2 half-naked butterface dancer girls bouncing on it. Really sweaty/hot in there even away from the dance floor. Cramped.

We eventually headed downstairs where it was less crowded and sweaty, and the bartender guy there was “ok” except they ran out of Patron around 2am. WTF? You are a BAR. It’s Patron. LAME! We closed out our tab at last call, left to grab a cab, and when we are seated in the cab and closing the door the bartender runs out after us and makes us come back in because he can’t find our signed tab. MORON. Then the manager was a complete prick to me when i defended my bf by saying it was the bartender’s bad not ours. The greasy little douchebag in a cheap suit manager yelled at me and told me to “watch my voice”. Uggh watch your employees you balding fuck.

I would give a “2”, but overall I had a lot of fun with my friends. Prices were expected. It was pretty diverse (a lot of Asians – including my friend, pretty large amount of black and latino partiers). It was a nice change from hipster Wicker Park or frat boy/yuppie Lakeview/Lincoln Park…especially for being so close to the heart of LP. Fun music – mostly hiphop. I would go again unless we had to pay a cover.

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Illuminati – Dance Clubs – DePaul – Chicago, IL – Reviews …

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Pierre Teilhard De Chardin | Designer Children | Prometheism | Euvolution | Transhumanism