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What is Nanotechnology? | Nano

 Nano Technology  Comments Off on What is Nanotechnology? | Nano
Jul 312015
 

Nanotechnology is science, engineering, and technologyconductedat the nanoscale, which is about 1 to 100 nanometers.

Physicist Richard Feynman, the father of nanotechnology.

Nanoscience and nanotechnology are the study and application of extremely small things and can be used across all the other science fields, such as chemistry, biology, physics, materials science, and engineering.

The ideas and concepts behind nanoscience and nanotechnology started with a talk entitled Theres Plenty of Room at the Bottom by physicist Richard Feynman at an American Physical Society meeting at the California Institute of Technology (CalTech) on December 29, 1959, long before the term nanotechnology was used. In his talk, Feynman described a process in which scientists would be able to manipulate and control individual atoms and molecules. Over a decade later, in his explorations of ultraprecision machining, Professor Norio Taniguchi coined the term nanotechnology. It wasn’t until 1981, with the development of the scanning tunneling microscope that could “see” individual atoms, that modern nanotechnology began.

Its hard to imagine just how small nanotechnology is. One nanometer is a billionth of a meter, or 10-9 of a meter. Here are a few illustrative examples:

Nanoscience and nanotechnology involve the ability to see and to control individual atoms and molecules. Everything on Earth is made up of atomsthe food we eat, the clothes we wear, the buildings and houses we live in, and our own bodies.

But something as small as an atom is impossible to see with the naked eye. In fact, its impossible to see with the microscopes typically used in a high school science classes. The microscopes needed to see things at the nanoscale were invented relatively recentlyabout 30 years ago.

Once scientists had the right tools, such as thescanning tunneling microscope (STM)and the atomic force microscope (AFM), the age of nanotechnology was born.

Although modern nanoscience and nanotechnology are quite new, nanoscale materialswereused for centuries. Alternate-sized gold and silver particles created colors in the stained glass windows of medieval churches hundreds of years ago. The artists back then just didnt know that the process they used to create these beautiful works of art actually led to changes in the composition of the materials they were working with.

Today’s scientists andengineers are finding a wide variety of ways to deliberatelymake materials at the nanoscale to take advantage of their enhanced properties such as higher strength, lighter weight,increased control oflight spectrum, and greater chemical reactivity than theirlarger-scale counterparts.

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What is Nanotechnology? | Nano

Astronomy – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 Astronomy  Comments Off on Astronomy – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jul 282015
 

Astronomy is a natural science which is the study of celestial objects (such as stars, galaxies, planets, moons, asteroids, comets and nebulae), the physics, chemistry, and evolution of such objects, and phenomena that originate outside the atmosphere of Earth, including supernovae explosions, gamma ray bursts, and cosmic microwave background radiation. A related but distinct subject, physical cosmology, is concerned with studying the universe as a whole.[1]

Astronomy is one of the oldest sciences. The early civilizations in recorded history, such as the Babylonians, Greeks, Indians, Egyptians, Nubians, Iranians, Chinese, and Maya performed methodical observations of the night sky. However, the invention of the telescope was required before astronomy was able to develop into a modern science. Historically, astronomy has included disciplines as diverse as astrometry, celestial navigation, observational astronomy and the making of calendars, but professional astronomy is nowadays often considered to be synonymous with astrophysics.[2]

During the 20th century, the field of professional astronomy split into observational and theoretical branches. Observational astronomy is focused on acquiring data from observations of astronomical objects, which is then analyzed using basic principles of physics. Theoretical astronomy is oriented toward the development of computer or analytical models to describe astronomical objects and phenomena. The two fields complement each other, with theoretical astronomy seeking to explain the observational results and observations being used to confirm theoretical results.

Astronomy is one of the few sciences where amateurs can still play an active role, especially in the discovery and observation of transient phenomena and Amateur astronomers have made and contributed to many important astronomical discoveries.

Astronomy (from the Greek from astron, “star” and – -nomia from nomos, “law” or “culture”) means “law of the stars” (or “culture of the stars” depending on the translation). Astronomy should not be confused with astrology, the belief system which claims that human affairs are correlated with the positions of celestial objects.[5] Although the two fields share a common origin they are now entirely distinct.[6]

Generally, either the term “astronomy” or “astrophysics” may be used to refer to this subject.[7][8][9] Based on strict dictionary definitions, “astronomy” refers to “the study of objects and matter outside the Earth’s atmosphere and of their physical and chemical properties”[10] and “astrophysics” refers to the branch of astronomy dealing with “the behavior, physical properties, and dynamic processes of celestial objects and phenomena”.[11] In some cases, as in the introduction of the introductory textbook The Physical Universe by Frank Shu, “astronomy” may be used to describe the qualitative study of the subject, whereas “astrophysics” is used to describe the physics-oriented version of the subject.[12] However, since most modern astronomical research deals with subjects related to physics, modern astronomy could actually be called astrophysics.[7] Few fields, such as astrometry, are purely astronomy rather than also astrophysics. Various departments in which scientists carry out research on this subject may use “astronomy” and “astrophysics,” partly depending on whether the department is historically affiliated with a physics department,[8] and many professional astronomers have physics rather than astronomy degrees.[9] One of the leading scientific journals in the field is the European journal named Astronomy and Astrophysics. The leading American journals are The Astrophysical Journal and The Astronomical Journal.

In early times, astronomy only comprised the observation and predictions of the motions of objects visible to the naked eye. In some locations, early cultures assembled massive artifacts that possibly had some astronomical purpose. In addition to their ceremonial uses, these observatories could be employed to determine the seasons, an important factor in knowing when to plant crops, as well as in understanding the length of the year.[13]

Before tools such as the telescope were invented, early study of the stars was conducted using the naked eye. As civilizations developed, most notably in Mesopotamia, Greece, India, China, Egypt, and Central America, astronomical observatories were assembled, and ideas on the nature of the universe began to be explored. Most of early astronomy actually consisted of mapping the positions of the stars and planets, a science now referred to as astrometry. From these observations, early ideas about the motions of the planets were formed, and the nature of the Sun, Moon and the Earth in the universe were explored philosophically. The Earth was believed to be the center of the universe with the Sun, the Moon and the stars rotating around it. This is known as the geocentric model of the universe, or the Ptolemaic system, named after Ptolemy.[14]

A particularly important early development was the beginning of mathematical and scientific astronomy, which began among the Babylonians, who laid the foundations for the later astronomical traditions that developed in many other civilizations.[15] The Babylonians discovered that lunar eclipses recurred in a repeating cycle known as a saros.[16]

Following the Babylonians, significant advances in astronomy were made in ancient Greece and the Hellenistic world. Greek astronomy is characterized from the start by seeking a rational, physical explanation for celestial phenomena.[17] In the 3rd century BC, Aristarchus of Samos estimated the size and distance of the Moon and Sun, and was the first to propose a heliocentric model of the solar system.[18] In the 2nd century BC, Hipparchus discovered precession, calculated the size and distance of the Moon and invented the earliest known astronomical devices such as the astrolabe.[19] Hipparchus also created a comprehensive catalog of 1020 stars, and most of the constellations of the northern hemisphere derive from Greek astronomy.[20] The Antikythera mechanism (c. 15080 BC) was an early analog computer designed to calculate the location of the Sun, Moon, and planets for a given date. Technological artifacts of similar complexity did not reappear until the 14th century, when mechanical astronomical clocks appeared in Europe.[21]

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Astronomy – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Posthuman – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 Posthuman  Comments Off on Posthuman – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jul 282015
 

Posthuman or post-human is a concept originating in the fields of science fiction, futurology, contemporary art, and philosophy that literally means a person or entity that exists in a state beyond being human. The concept addresses questions of ethics and justice, language and trans-species communication, social systems, and the intellectual aspirations of interdisciplinarity. Posthumanism is not to be confused with transhumanism (the nanobiotechnological enhancement of human beings) and narrow definitions of the posthuman as the hoped-for transcendence of materiality.

In critical theory, the posthuman is a speculative being that represents or seeks to re-conceive the human. It is the object of posthumanist criticism, which critically questions Renaissance humanism, a branch of humanist philosophy which claims that human nature is a universal state from which the human being emerges; human nature is autonomous, rational, capable of free will, and unified in itself as the apex of existence. Thus, the posthuman position recognizes imperfectability and disunity within him or herself, and understands the world through heterogeneous perspectives while seeking to maintain intellectual rigour and a dedication to objective observations. Key to this posthuman practice is the ability to fluidly change perspectives and manifest oneself through different identities. The posthuman, for critical theorists of the subject, has an emergent ontology rather than a stable one; in other words, the posthuman is not a singular, defined individual, but rather one who can “become” or embody different identities and understand the world from multiple, heterogeneous perspectives.[1]

Critical discourses surrounding posthumanism are not homogeneous, but in fact present a series of often contradictory ideas, and the term itself is contested, with one of the foremost authors associated with posthumanism, Manuel de Landa, decrying the term as “very silly.”[2] Covering the ideas of, for example, Robert Pepperell’s The Posthuman Condition, and Hayles’s How We Became Posthuman under a single term is distinctly problematic due to these contradictions.

The posthuman is roughly synonymous with the “cyborg” of A Cyborg Manifesto by Donna Haraway.[3] Haraway’s conception of the cyborg is an ironic take on traditional conceptions of the cyborg that inverts the traditional trope of the cyborg whose presence questions the salient line between humans and robots. Haraway’s cyborg is in many ways the “beta” version of the posthuman, as her cyborg theory prompted the issue to be taken up in critical theory.[4]

Following Haraway, Hayles, whose work grounds much of the critical posthuman discourse, asserts that liberal humanism – which separates the mind from the body and thus portrays the body as a “shell” or vehicle for the mind – becomes increasingly complicated in the late 20th and 21st centuries because information technology put the human body in question. Hayles maintains that we must be conscious of information technological advancements while understanding information as “disembodied,” that is, something which cannot fundamentally replace the human body but can only be incorporated into it and human life practices.[5]

According to transhumanist thinkers, a posthuman is a hypothetical future being “whose basic capacities so radically exceed those of present humans as to be no longer unambiguously human by our current standards.”[6]

Posthumans could be completely synthetic artificial intelligences, or a symbiosis of human and artificial intelligence, or uploaded consciousnesses, or the result of making many smaller but cumulatively profound technological augmentations to a biological human, i.e. a cyborg. Some examples of the latter are redesigning the human organism using advanced nanotechnology or radical enhancement using some combination of technologies such as genetic engineering, psychopharmacology, life extension therapies, neural interfaces, advanced information management tools, memory enhancing drugs, wearable or implanted computers, and cognitive techniques.[6]

As used in this article, “posthuman” does not necessarily refer to a conjectured future where humans are extinct or otherwise absent from the Earth. As with other species who speciate from one another, both humans and posthumans could continue to exist. However, the apocalyptic scenario appears to be a viewpoint shared among a minority of transhumanists such as Marvin Minsky[citation needed] and Hans Moravec, who could be considered misanthropes, at least in regards to humanity in its current state. Alternatively, others such as Kevin Warwick argue for the likelihood that both humans and posthumans will continue to exist but the latter will predominate in society over the former because of their abilities.[7] Recently, scholars have begun to speculate that posthumanism provides an alternative analysis of apocalyptic cinema and fiction, often casting vampires, werewolves and even zombies as potential evolutions of the human form and being.[8]

Many science fiction authors, such as Greg Egan, H.G Wells, Bruce Sterling, Frederik Pohl, Greg Bear, Charles Stross, Neal Asher, Ken MacLeod and authors of the Orion’s Arm Universe,[9] have written works set in posthuman futures.

A variation on the posthuman theme is the notion of a “posthuman god”; the idea that posthumans, being no longer confined to the parameters of human nature, might grow physically and mentally so powerful as to appear possibly god-like by present-day human standards.[6] This notion should not be interpreted as being related to the idea portrayed in some science fiction that a sufficiently advanced species may “ascend” to a higher plane of existencerather, it merely means that some posthuman beings may become so exceedingly intelligent and technologically sophisticated that their behaviour would not possibly be comprehensible to modern humans, purely by reason of their limited intelligence and imagination.[10]

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Posthuman – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Download Tor Browser Bundle v4.5.2 (freeware) – AfterDawn …

 Tor Browser  Comments Off on Download Tor Browser Bundle v4.5.2 (freeware) – AfterDawn …
Jul 242015
 

The Tor software protects you by bouncing your communications around a distributed network of relays run by volunteers all around the world: it prevents somebody watching your Internet connection from learning what sites you visit, it prevents the sites you visit from learning your physical location, and it lets you access sites which are blocked.

The Tor Browser Bundle lets you use Tor on Windows, Mac OS X, or Linux without needing to install any software. It can run off a USB flash drive, comes with a pre-configured web browser called Aurora, and is self-contained.

Only web pages visited through the included Firefox browser will be sent via Tor. Other web browsers such as Internet Explorer are not affected. Make sure that it says “Tor Enabled” in the bottom right corner before using it. To reduce the risk of confusion, don’t run Firefox while using the Tor Browser Bundle, and close existing Firefox windows before starting.

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Download Tor Browser Bundle v4.5.2 (freeware) – AfterDawn …

Bitcoin Cloud Mining and the best way to mine …

 Cryptocurrency  Comments Off on Bitcoin Cloud Mining and the best way to mine …
Jul 242015
 

Eobot is the easiest, cheapest, and best way to get or mine Bitcoin, Litecoin, BlackCoin, Namecoin, Dogecoin, Dash, Reddcoin, BitShares, CureCoin, StorjcoinX, Monero, Counterparty, Stellar, Bytecoin, Peercoin, NXT, and MaidSafeCoin. Whether or not you use our Cloud Mining or your own hardware, you can mine any cryptocurrency, regardless if it is based on a SHA-256 or Scrypt algorithm.

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Libertarianism versus other Political Perspectives

 Misc  Comments Off on Libertarianism versus other Political Perspectives
Jul 222015
 

In simplest terms the primary difference between libertarianism and other political philosophies involves beliefs about the amount of authority government should have over peoples’ personal and business matters.

Liberals want government to focus on doing what is “good,” including providing what is often referred to as “social justice.” To do that, among other policies, liberals expect government to: a)tax corporations and “wealthy” and “high income” citizens heavily to pay for the social justice programs and b)regulate business and personal behavior to the extent necessary for social justice.

Conservatives want government to control “bad,” offensive, and immoral behavior, even if that behavior brings no harm or danger to non-participants. Most often bad is defined based on the prevailing interpretation of Judeo-Christian rules. And, though conservatives tend to express a belief in small government, they usually cannot resist government programs that serve their agenda such as “family values.”

Liberals and conservatives both believe that government’s mission is some combination of: a)making the world better, b)providing moral leadership, and c)protecting people from themselves. Of course conservatives and liberals tend to disagree about what is good and what is moral. And whether or not you agree with those objectives, you are forced to pay for them with your money and/or your liberty. Ironically you pay for liberal and conservative programs, rules, and regulations — with your money and your liberty.

Libertarians believe that goodness is voluntary, morality is personal, human nature cannot be legislated away, and only harm to others should be illegal.

And, though libertarians believe in limited government, as described in the U.S. Constitution, they do not want chaos. Libertarians recognize that government has a clear and critical mission: preserving and enhancing liberty. To achieve that goal government must: a)protect citizens from foreign enemies, b)arrest, try, and punish people that harm or endanger others, and c)make some judgment calls when peoples’ liberties conflict.

When considering where to locate your politics on the Nolan Chart first ask yourself: “How much should government do to make my preferences mandatory?” Then ask yourself, “How much should government control what I do based on what other people think, believe, or want?”

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Libertarianism versus other Political Perspectives

Eugenics | Definition of eugenics by Merriam-Webster

 Eugenics  Comments Off on Eugenics | Definition of eugenics by Merriam-Webster
Jul 212015
 

: a science that deals with the improvement (as by control of human mating) of hereditary qualities of a race or breed

Is It ‘Attorney Generals’ Or ‘Attorneys General’?

2014 Word of the Year: Behind the Scenes

How the Months Got Their Names

Webster’s Dictionary of 1864

1883

How we introduced the Comma Queen to Mr. Hyphen

: a science that deals with the improvement (as by control of human mating) of hereditary qualities of a race or breed

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Eugenics | Definition of eugenics by Merriam-Webster

Fifth Amendment – U.S. Constitution – FindLaw

 Fifth Amendment  Comments Off on Fifth Amendment – U.S. Constitution – FindLaw
Jul 212015
 

Amendment Text | Annotations

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

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How bitcoin works – Bitcoin Wiki

 Bitcoin  Comments Off on How bitcoin works – Bitcoin Wiki
Jul 042015
 

This article requires cleanup to meet the Bitcoin Wiki’s quality standards.

This page explains the basic framework of Bitcoin’s functionality.

There are several cryptographic technologies that make up the essence of Bitcoin.

First is public key cryptography. Each coin is associated with its current owner’s public ECDSA key. When you send some bitcoins to someone, you create a message (transaction), attaching the new owner’s public key to this amount of coins, and sign it with your private key. When this transaction is broadcast to the bitcoin network, this lets everyone know that the new owner of these coins is the owner of the new key. Your signature on the message verifies for everyone that the message is authentic. The complete history of transactions is kept by everyone, so anyone can verify who is the current owner of any particular group of coins.

This complete record of transactions is kept in the block chain, which is a sequence of records called blocks. All computers in the network have a copy of the block chain, which they keep updated by passing along new blocks to each other. Each block contains a group of transactions that have been sent since the previous block. In order to preserve the integrity of the block chain, each block in the chain confirms the integrity of the previous one, all the way back to the first one, the genesis block. Record insertion is costly because each block must meet certain requirements that make it difficult to generate a valid block. This way, no party can overwrite previous records by just forking the chain.

To make generating bitcoins difficult the Hashcash cost-function is used. Hashcash is the first secure efficiently verifiable cost-function or proof-of-work function. The beauty of hashcash is that is is non-interactive and has no secret keys that have to be managed by a central server or relying party; hashcash is as a result fully distributed and infinitely scalable. (Hashcash uses symmetric key cryptogaphy, namely a one-way hashcash function – typically either SHA1 or SHA-256).

In bitcoin, integrity, block-chaining, and the hashcash cost-function all use SHA256 as the underlying cryptographic hash function.

A cryptographic hash function essentially takes input data which can be of practically any size, and transforms it, in an effectively-impossible to reverse or to predict way, into a relatively compact string (in the case of SHA-256 the hash is 32 bytes). Making the slightest change to the input data changes its hash unpredictably, so nobody can create a different block of data that gives exactly the same hash. Therefore, by being given a compact hash, you can confirm that it matches only a particular input datum, and in bitcoin the input data being a block-chain is significantly larger than the SHA-256 hash. This way, Bitcoin blocks don’t have to contain serial numbers, as blocks can be identified by their hash, which serves the dual purpose of identification as well as integrity verification. An identification string that also provides its own integrity is called a self-certifying identifier.

The hashcash difficulty factor is achieved by requiring that the hash output has a number of leading zeros. Technically, to allow more fine-grained control than Hashcash number of leading 0-bits method, Bitcoin extends the hashcash solution definition by treating the hash as a large big-endian integer, and checking that the integer is below a certain threshold. The hashcash cost-function iterates by perturbing data in the block by a nonce value, until the data in the block hashes to produce an integer below the threshold – which takes a lot of processing power. This low hash value for the block serves as an easily-verifiable proof of work – every node on the network can instantly verify that the block meets the required criteria.

With this framework, we are able to achieve the essential functions of the Bitcoin system. We have verifiable ownership of bitcoins, and a distributed database of all transactions, which prevents double spending.

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How bitcoin works – Bitcoin Wiki

Digital Dodge: Some Greeks Using Bitcoin to Evade Currency …

 Bitcoin  Comments Off on Digital Dodge: Some Greeks Using Bitcoin to Evade Currency …
Jul 032015
 

There is at least one legal way to get your euros out of Greece these days, to guard against the prospect that they might be devalued into drachmas: convert them into bitcoin.

Although absolute figures are hard to come by, Greek interest has surged in the online “cryptocurrency”, which is out of the reach of monetary authorities and can be transferred at the touch of a smartphone screen.

New customers depositing at least 50 euros with BTCGreece, the only Greece-based bitcoin exchange, open only to Greeks, rose by 400 percent between May and June, according to its founder Thanos Marinos, who put the number at “a few thousand.” The average deposit quadrupled to around 700 euros.

Using bitcoin could allow Greeks to do one of the things that capital controls were put in place this week to prevent: transfer money out of their bank accounts and, if they wish, out of the country.

“When people are trying to move money out of the country and the state is stopping that from taking place, bitcoin is the only way to move any value,” said Adam Vaziri, a board member of the UK Digital Currency Association. “There aren’t any other options unless you buy diamonds, and that’s very difficult to move.”

But Marinos said the bitcoin buyers’ main aim was to shield their money against the prospect that Greece might leave the euro zone and convert all the deposits in Greek banks into a greatly devalued national currency. If voters reject the demands of international creditors in a referendum on Sunday, this becomes much more likely.

“A lot of people are keeping all the bitcoins they buy on our platform, until they understand what to do with them,” Marinos said. “In their eyes, now they have bitcoins, they’re safe.”

That said, the value of a bitcoin, a web-based digital currency invented six years ago that floats freely and is not backed by a government or central bank, has been highly volatile.

It peaked at over $1,200 in late 2013 before crashing almost 70 percent in less than a month after a hacking attack on the Tokyo-based bitcoin exchange Mt. Gox in early 2014.

This week, as Greece defaulted on a debt to the IMF, the price jumped to a 3-1/2-month high of $268 BTC=BTSP on the Bitstamp exchange — up more than 20 percent since the start of June — while the number of daily transactions reached a record 150,917.

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Digital Dodge: Some Greeks Using Bitcoin to Evade Currency …

First Amendment to the United States Constitution …

 First Amendment  Comments Off on First Amendment to the United States Constitution …
Jul 022015
 

Thomas Jefferson wrote with respect to the First Amendment and its restriction on the legislative branch of the federal government in an 1802 letter to the Danbury Baptists (a religious minority concerned about the dominant position of the Congregationalist church in Connecticut):

Believing with you that religion is a matter which lies solely between Man & his God, that he owes account to none other for his faith or his worship, that the legitimate powers of government reach actions only, & not opinions, I contemplate with sovereign reverence that act of the whole American people which declared that their legislature should “make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof,” thus building a wall of separation between Church & State. Adhering to this expression of the supreme will of the nation in behalf of the rights of conscience, I shall see with sincere satisfaction the progress of those sentiments which tend to restore to man all his natural rights, convinced he has no natural right in opposition to his social duties.[9]

In Reynolds v. United States (1878) the Supreme Court used these words to declare that “it may be accepted almost as an authoritative declaration of the scope and effect of the amendment thus secured. Congress was deprived of all legislative power over mere [religious] opinion, but was left free to reach [only those religious] actions which were in violation of social duties or subversive of good order.” Quoting from Jefferson’s Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom the court stated further in Reynolds:

In the preamble of this act […] religious freedom is defined; and after a recital ‘that to suffer the civil magistrate to intrude his powers into the field of opinion, and to restrain the profession or propagation of principles on supposition of their ill tendency, is a dangerous fallacy which at once destroys all religious liberty,’ it is declared ‘that it is time enough for the rightful purposes of civil government for its officers to interfere [only] when [religious] principles break out into overt acts against peace and good order.’ In these two sentences is found the true distinction between what properly belongs to the church and what to the State.

Originally, the First Amendment applied only to the federal government, and some states continued official state religions after ratification. Massachusetts, for example, was officially Congregationalist until the 1830s.[10] In Everson v. Board of Education (1947), the U.S. Supreme Court incorporated the Establishment Clause (i.e., made it apply against the states). In the majority decision, Justice Hugo Black wrote:

The “establishment of religion” clause of the First Amendment means at least this: Neither a state nor the Federal Government can set up a church. Neither can pass laws which aid one religion, aid all religions, or prefer one religion to another … in the words of Jefferson, the [First Amendment] clause against establishment of religion by law was intended to erect ‘a wall of separation between church and State’ … That wall must be kept high and impregnable. We could not approve the slightest breach.[11]

In Torcaso v. Watkins (1961), the Supreme Court ruled that the Constitution prohibits states and the federal government from requiring any kind of religious test for public office. In the Board of Education of Kiryas Joel Village School District v. Grumet (1994),[12] Justice David Souter, writing for the majority, concluded that “government should not prefer one religion to another, or religion to irreligion.”[13] In a series of cases in the first decade of the 2000sVan Orden v. Perry (2005), McCreary County v. ACLU (2005), and Salazar v. Buono (2010)the Court considered the issue of religious monuments on federal lands without reaching a majority reasoning on the subject.[14]

Everson used the metaphor of a wall of separation between church and state, derived from the correspondence of President Thomas Jefferson. It had been long established in the decisions of the Supreme Court, beginning with Reynolds v. United States in 1879, when the Court reviewed the history of the early Republic in deciding the extent of the liberties of Mormons. Chief Justice Morrison Waite, who consulted the historian George Bancroft, also discussed at some length the Memorial and Remonstrance against Religious Assessments by James Madison, who drafted the First Amendment; Madison used the metaphor of a “great barrier.”[15]

Justice Hugo Black adopted Jefferson’s words in the voice of the Court.[16] The Court has affirmed it often, with majority, but not unanimous, support. Warren Nord, in Does God Make a Difference?, characterized the general tendency of the dissents as a weaker reading of the First Amendment; the dissents tend to be “less concerned about the dangers of establishment and less concerned to protect free exercise rights, particularly of religious minorities.”[17]

Beginning with Everson, which permitted New Jersey school boards to pay for transportation to parochial schools, the Court has used various tests to determine when the wall of separation has been breached. Everson laid down the test that establishment existed when aid was given to religion, but that the transportation was justifiable because the benefit to the children was more important. In the school prayer cases of the early 1960s, (Engel v. Vitale and Abington School District v. Schempp), aid seemed irrelevant; the Court ruled on the basis that a legitimate action both served a secular purpose and did not primarily assist religion. In Walz v. Tax Commission (1970), the Court ruled that a legitimate action could not entangle government with religion; in Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971), these points were combined into the Lemon test, declaring that an action was an establishment if:[18]

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First Amendment to the United States Constitution …

SEO and Web Design Packages | Gold Coast Web Optimisation

 SEO  Comments Off on SEO and Web Design Packages | Gold Coast Web Optimisation
Jul 022015
 

SEO and Website Design Packages

Every business is different and has unique requirements and goals. Thats why SEO Gold Coast doesnt offer cookie cutter SEO packages. When you ask us for a quote we want to know a little about you first and thats why we ask for your phone number. When we ring you to discuss your business and your online marketing needs we want to know;

Its only when we know the answers to these questions can we provide you with a unique detailed quote that will get you a whole lot closer to your goals and aspirations for your business; Some of the services we offer include;

Some clients need a new website, some just need a couple of hours of our time to fix something thats broken and others require on-going web optimisation services to get to the top of the search engine results pages (SERPs) otherwise known as the top of the first page of Google (the only game in town!) and to stay there! Some people come to us because their online reputation has been trashed, we have clients looking for lead generation and still others who need Google Adwords management. Whatever the reason, SEO Gold Coast can help.

If you want to succeed online you must think long-term. A lot of people come to us hoping for a quick fix. They ask how long is it going to take to rank? or when will I get to the first page of Google. The answer is that there is no answer. You might as well be asking how long is a piece of string? The answer is, no-one knows!

People also ask us for guarantees about getting to the top of the first page of Google. It is impossible to give a guarantee because there are so many factors involved, and some of these are completely beyond our control. First of these factors is your website. Unless we have complete control of your website from day 1, i.e we build it, add all the content and do all the on and off page SEO, we simply dont know enough about whats going on with your site. Factors beyond our control include the coding and structure of the site, the content (is it original or copied from else where on the Internet?) and any off-page SEO (back linking) youve done in the past, either by yourself or by another SEO company.

The second and biggest factor that is beyond our control is Google itself. Google makes over 500 algorithm changes each year and 3 or 4 of these are major changes. We never know when a strategy that is working now will suddenly become black hat and banned by Google.

Anyone who is giving out guarantees these days is either blindly unaware of Googles power or trying to convince you to spend your hard earned with them.

If you want to succeed online you need to take a long term view. You need to have an online marketing budget, just like you have budgets for every other part of your business.

Remember the Yellow Pages? If youve been in business for a while youll remember that one of the few marketing strategies that worked was getting your ad into the Yellow Pages. You moved Heaven and Earth to design and pay for your print ad every year. Anyone who missed the deadline was in for a very lean year indeed.

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SEO and Web Design Packages | Gold Coast Web Optimisation

Ukrainian Bitcoin Community Proposes Its Own BitLicense …

 Bitcoin  Comments Off on Ukrainian Bitcoin Community Proposes Its Own BitLicense …
Jun 272015
 

In a recent World Bank report, it was found that the Ukrainians received the maximum of remittence money around $8.5 billion from its diaspora in Europe last year. The figures, as noted by the National Bank of Ukraine (or NBU), were found to be higher than what was recorded in 2012 before the Russian conflict took place.

It has been assumed that the Ukrainian diaspora have certainly been focusedupon the nations confrontations with war and recession. Money arriving from foreign locations, to some extent, was helping the nation as it underwent poor economic conditions. It has been a significant revenue for Ukraine in the past few months, indeed.

In parallel to the said political and economical turmoil, there was also a group that was leaving no-stone-unturned to solve these issues. Just two-weeks back, this group presented a multifaceted solution before the NBU, something that promises to improve Ukraines poor investment climate and degrading remittence sector up to some extent.

As a result, we are now seeing Ukraine taking revolutionary steps towards regulating Bitcoin, a disruptive and decentralized payment technology promising a new dawn for the nations financial sector.

Mikhail Chobanyan, the founder of the aforementioned digital currency advocacy group, the Bitcoin Foundation Ukraine (BFU), brought up the idea of coexistence between NBU-backed national currency Hryvnia and a decentralized digital currency Bitcoin. In his report to the central banks representatives, Chobanyan discussed their mounting IT outsourcing figures in the FinTech initiatives, a large part of which is dedicated to Bitcoin, and other banking service applications.

He further described that how with friendly regulation, Ukraine can change the flow towards its end, saying that these developments should not only benefit beneficiaries in foreign companies and governments, but must also focus to change the vector towards their own development technologically and economically.

Big business and investors are waiting for will clear rules of the game, Chobanyan added. They are beginning to develop basic infrastructure in the form of stock exchanges, payment service providers, integration with the banks.

In order to achieve the said objectives, Chobanyan proposed NBU that they should follow the footsteps of New York Department of Financial Services (NYDFS) in sketching out a legal framework for Bitcoin a very own BitLicense for Ukrainian digital currency sector. He further called on the State Services of Financial Monitoring to support the license.

However, Chobanyan asked for a self-regulated environment for the digital currency sector, in which the companies would be allow to establish rules that seems to be drawn only after the consent of the concerned government bodies.

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Ukrainian Bitcoin Community Proposes Its Own BitLicense …

Cosmic Heaven u0026 Marcprest – Love Will Find A Way …

 Cosmic  Comments Off on Cosmic Heaven u0026 Marcprest – Love Will Find A Way …
Jun 152015
 

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TFB Records proudly presents its 122nd release, a track by Cosmic Heaven & Marcprest called Love will find a way; including original mix and three huge remixes by the same Marcprest, Zahir and State Of Sunrise pres. Syntouch.

The original mix is the kind of track you expect to listen when looking for high quality uplifting music. It releases a huge amount of energy since the very beginning and merges the soft progression of the melody with the powerful baseline on the intro. This amazing progression will lead us into the breakdown, where a vaporous atmosphere embraces the magical sounds of the melody in such a subtle way. These two producers surprise us with a piano based melody which conveys an incredible beauty through its notes. The uplift appears suddenly and, before we can breathe some air after the impressive melody, the explosion of sound will be launched directly through our ears with this special emotional taste of uplifting music. Master piece achieved by these two great producers, congratulations to them.

The own remix brought by Marcprest is focused, as its name says, on the purest emotional soul of the song. The melody is the true main character of the track, being present since the first beats and enhancing a lot the intro. But of course it is on the breakdown where the emotions will rush through our heart and where an impossibly magical melody will freeze time in order to make us reach the skies. The amount of feelings and emotions we could feel during this break is so high that it is just impossible to describe. This is indeed one of the best emotional songs we have listened recently. Moreover, the last part of the song will again show how deeply the melody and the baseline are linked and the true level of production this remix has. Purest emotional uplifting music from Marcprest, congratulations.

Second remix is signed by State Of Sunrise pres. Syntouch, a remix which has also bet for the emotional sounds, putting the melody in the front to be the leader of the whole song; making extremely cute changes and keeping all the intensity. An awesome piano will have the honour of playing the melody on the breakdown, where, mixed with a soft classical atmosphere, it would release a master piece. The uplift that follows is as epic as the melody, gathering step by step the power of the different sounds of the baseline to end up with the astonishing mix between this baseline, the melody and the atmosphere. There is no other way to describe this remix that as a pure uplifting song, with all its ingredients and all this special essence that sorrounds this kind of mystic tracks. Marvelous work by State Of Sunrise pres Syntouch.

Finally we will find the remix by Zahir, in which a darker part of the original’s soul is displayed. With a much powerful baseline, this is the remix which presents more energy and gives to the baseline a higher presence. The way the intro is presented is very special, keeping the short winks of the melody on the back, being part of the entire progression but letting the baseline to be the main leader. What an incredible surprise we will receive as soon as the breakdown comes and we can notice again how special this remix is, and how deeply prepared it has been. Despite being more focused on the energy, the breakdown appears almost as downtempo music, delighting us with such an amazing sounds and a heavenly atmosphere. The uplift of this remix is probably the best of the whole release, making the perfect progression from the clouds to the stunning energy. Again we feel there are few adjectives which can describe such an awesome song, so please, go and listen carefully to it. Simply a jewel of production by Zahir, congratulations!

Release Date : 11/04/2015 exclusive at Beatport

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Cosmic Heaven u0026 Marcprest – Love Will Find A Way …

Government Explains Away Fourth Amendment Protection for …

 Fourth Amendment  Comments Off on Government Explains Away Fourth Amendment Protection for …
Jun 092015
 

People have a reasonable expectation of privacy in their private digital communications such as email, and therefore the Fourth Amendment protects those communications. It’s a simple extension of the Supreme Courts seminal 1967 ruling in Katz v. United States that the Fourth Amendment protected a telephone conversation held in a closed phone booth. But in a brief recently filed in a criminal terrorism case arising from surveillance of a United States citizen, the government needs only a few sentences to argue this basic protection doesnt apply, with potentially dramatic consequences for the rest of us.

United States v. Mohamud

Mohamed Mohamud is a Somalia-born naturalized U.S. citizen who was convicted in 2012 of plotting to detonate a car bomb at a Christmas tree lighting ceremony in Oregon. Shortly after he was arrested, he was given notice by the government that it had used evidence obtained under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) against him.

But it wasnt until after Mohamud was convicted and just a few weeks before he was to be sentenced that the government belatedly gave him notice for the first time that it had also used evidence derived under Section 702 of the FISA Amendments Act (FAA). The government continues to withhold the details of the FAA surveillance, forcing Mohamud (and other defendants receiving delayed FAA notice) to raise generalized challenges to the constitutionality of the FAA based only on what is publicly known about Section 702 surveillance. Mohamud did exactly that in April, raising several legal challenges to the FAA and arguing he should receive a new trial.

The Governments Talking to a Foreigner Exception to the Fourth Amendment

While theres a lot unknown about Section 702 surveillance, we do know it authorizes the targeting of foreigners even when this targeting results in the incidental collection of constitutionally protected Americans communications. As a result, the government can acquire the contents of Americans e-mails, VOIP calls, chat sessions, and more when they communicate with people outside the US.

In its recently filed response to Mohamuds motion to suppress and for new trial, the government concedes for the sake of argument that an American whose communications are incidentally collected as part of Section 702 surveillance has constitutional interests at stake. So far so good; these constitutional interests are in fact at the core of what the Supreme Court describes as the Fourth Amendments protection of the privacy and security of individuals against arbitrary invasions by governmental officials. But then the government dismisses this fundamental protection with one staggeringly broad passage:

The Supreme Court has long held that when one person voluntarily discloses information to another, the first person loses any cognizable interest under the Fourth Amendment in what the second person does with the information. . . . For Fourth Amendment purposes, the same principle applies whether the recipient intentionally makes the information public or stores it in a place subject to a government search. Thus, once a non-U.S. person located outside the United States receives information, the sender loses any cognizable Fourth Amendment rights with respect to that information. That is true even if the sender is a U.S. person protected by the Fourth Amendment, because he assumes the risk that the foreign recipient will give the information to others, leave the information freely accessible to others, or that the U.S. government (or a foreign government) will obtain the information.

It is true that individuals assume the risk that the people they communicate with will turn over a recording to the government. So, for example, in the cases the government cites in the passage above, United States v. White and Hoffa v. United States, the Supreme Court found there is no Fourth Amendment violation if you have a private conversation with someone who happens to be a government informant and repeats what you said to the government or even surreptitiously records it. In those instances, individuals misplaced confidence that people they are communicating with wont divulge their secrets is not enough to create a Fourth Amendment interest.

But the government stretches these cases far beyond their limits, arguing that its own incidental collection of an Americans communications while targeting a foreigner is the same as having that person repeat what the American said to the government directly, even though it is the government that is eavesdropping on the conversation. In essence, when you communicate with someone whose communications are being targeted under the FAA, you have no Fourth Amendment rights. Under this reasoning, any time you send an email to someone in another country, you assume the risk that your intended recipient may be a foreigner and that the government can obtain the contents of the email without a warrant.

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Government Explains Away Fourth Amendment Protection for …

Tax Havens

 Tax Havens  Comments Off on Tax Havens
Jun 032015
 

Offshore tax havens were once associated with very wealthy individuals, which is no longer the case nowadays. More than a decade ago we, a group of lawyers and accountants, started using offshore havens for our own investment purposes. The use of offshore entities in tax havens proved to be a wise and rewarding decision. We started off by providing these same services to friends and family, and then in 2002 we expanded our services, which proved to be a success, because we are still offering very personal services for our friends and families and a large customer base and at low-costs.

We have our sister companies or our lawyers licensed to provide offshore services in all tax havens that we offer, so you can be assured that our services are regulated and in all these districts, strict confidentiality is assured by law.

We sell two several types of tax free or low tax company packages. The International Business Corporation, IBC , the Limited Liability Company, LLC, the UK Limited Liability Partnership and US LLCs.

We offer fast, low cost and professional offshore company incorporation services online in Anguilla, Belize, BVI, Dominica, Gibraltar, Nevis, Panama and Seychelles. We also make sure we have the full range of supplementary services, such as bank accounts in well established banks in Europe and the Caribbean.

We offer offshore trust formation services in Belize and Nevis, two places that, in our opinion, offer best legislation for the trust . The trust is well suited for asset protection and wealth planning.

We offer offshore foundations formation, and registration services offshore foundations which have a similar concept to the trust, but have a legal personality on their own and are based on a mixture of civil and common law concepts. Offshore Private Interest Foundations have gained significant popularity among professionals and private investors and have been successfully utilized for asset protection and inheritance planning. We sell foundations from countries that have rewritten modern and attractive laws for the foundation . The following offshore foundations are offered by our company: Anguilla Foundation, Belize International Foundation, Nevis Multiform Foundation and Panama Private Interest Foundation.

Inour highly litigated world every business person orwealthy individual has toadopt some kind ofasset protection structure. Properly utilized offshore asset protection strategies will protect your wealth and property inthe best possible manner. Weoffer specially designed bulletproof offshore asset protection packages that include the trust orfoundation, anLLCor anIBC.

Our main clients are businessmen and individual investors who wish toreorganize orexpand their businesses inamore profitable way, save ontax payments orsafeguard their investments inasafe haven environment. Wealso provide services tocorporate clients, some ofwhom are multinational well recognized companies.

Please take your time tobrowse through our website. Wehope that you find the answers toyour questions and chooseus tobecome your offshore service provider.

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Tax Havens

Still Don’t Understand Bitcoin? This Concept Art Will Help …

 Bitcoin  Comments Off on Still Don’t Understand Bitcoin? This Concept Art Will Help …
May 302015
 

For most of us, bitcoin doesnt make much sense. The cryptocurrency has been trusted for almost 200,000 transactions totaling more than$45 million dollars, but it still feels unfamiliar.Its digital; its global; itbreezes throughnational and legal barriers.We literally cant grasp it. This week . The interactive installation puts cryptocurrency in the context of the city, making both a bit easier to understand.

IDEAS CITY is part conference and part art fair. It wasfounded by the New Museum in 2011 and made a mission of bringing art, education, and civic action to public places. The theme of this years IDEAS CITY is Invisible City, and explores transparency and surveillance, citizenship and representation, expression and suppression, participation and dissent, and the enduring quest for visibility in the city.

What sort of project do those themes inspire? There will be a painting by drones, a performative conference in hot air balloons, pop-up playgrounds, and Foamspace.

Ryan King, Katya Zavyalova, Nikolay Martynov, and Betty Fanstartedthe project in January 2015and found inspiration in the IDEAS CITYprompt:The theme for this years IDEAS CITYFestival is the Invisible City and the materialwe chose to use for our installation is omnipresent yet invisible in our everydaylives:EPS Geofoam.

Geofoam blocks are usually a structural support inside of buildings. Foamspace putsthe out-of-sight material into public view to demonstrate bitcoin exchanges.

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Still Don’t Understand Bitcoin? This Concept Art Will Help …

NSA has been spying on Americans for decades – Video

 NSA  Comments Off on NSA has been spying on Americans for decades – Video
Apr 142015
 



NSA has been spying on Americans for decades
FAIR USE NOTICE: This video may contain copyrighted material. Such material is made available for educational purposes only. This constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as…

By: Liberated Galaxy

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NSA has been spying on Americans for decades – Video

Navigating the cryptocurrency minefield

 Cryptocurrency  Comments Off on Navigating the cryptocurrency minefield
Apr 142015
 

Contrary to popular belief, virtual currency is actually extremely secure

The online payments industry is in a phase of change with developments coming thick and fast in how payments are made, on what devices and in what form.

Understandably, many businesses trying to navigate the online payments industry are finding it hard to know which direction to take in these turbulent times.

However, the variety of new payment opportunities also makes it an exciting time for those who are willing to take a gamble and ride the rapids, so to speak.

One of the most intriguing developments in the payments industry is the rise of cryptocurrencies, which have the potential to completely alter the landscape of the industry as we know it.

>See also:Something you didn’t notice in the Chancellor’s Budget 2015: a step forward for bitcoin

Free from any banking or state authority, and designed for the world of online payments, cryptocurrencies are arguably the next step in the evolution of money. Yet, despite all its revolutionary potential, this is a payment option that many businesses are wary of.

The big concern with cryptocurrency is how secure an investment it is without the same levels of regulations in place, and with no insurance, how can you guarantee your money will retain its value, or be there at all?

Moreover, only years into the short history of cryptocurrency there are already real-life examples of how it can go terribly wrong.

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Navigating the cryptocurrency minefield

BTCnews – Bitcoin & CryptoCurrency News

 Cryptocurrency  Comments Off on BTCnews – Bitcoin & CryptoCurrency News
Apr 142015
 

BTCnews brings you all the very latest news, analysis, and opinions about the world of bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies, from all the very best sources, updated throughout the day. Stay on top of this exciting new world with BTCnews, the very best virtual currency news application!Features Include:- Coverage of dozens of distinct, top quality news sources with fresh daily content. New sources constantly added- News updated throughout the day – if it’s out there, you’ll be the first to know!- Tag any item of interest for later reading- Listen to podcasts from within the app- Search for stories about topics that interest you- Share with others via Twitter, Facebook, Whatsapp, email, and more…- Get notified of breaking news and stories of interest- View more articles from a selected source- View Bitcoin-to-$ current exchange rate displayed directly in the navigation bar- Extremely fast, easy to use interface developed for iOS8+ as a Universal application, customised for the latest iPhone 6 as well as other iPhones and iPadMany more exciting features already in the pipeline!We love feedback, suggestions, requests for desirable features!If you enjoy using BTCnews and find it useful, would you please rate or review us? It really helps! For updates and news follow us on twitter: @btcnewsapp

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BTCnews – Bitcoin & CryptoCurrency News




Pierre Teilhard De Chardin | Designer Children | Prometheism | Euvolution | Transhumanism