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The Vindicator: The oldest continuously printing news source …

 Liberty  Comments Off on The Vindicator: The oldest continuously printing news source …
Feb 072016
 

Senator Robert Nichols Senate District 3 http://www.senate.state.tx.us 512-463-0103 First elected to the Texas Senate in 2006, Robert Nichols represents 19 counties including the greater part of East Texas and Montgomery County. In the Texas Senate, Nichols serves as Chairman for the Transportation Committee. He also serves on the Senate Finance, Natural Resources and Economic Development, and Intergovernmental Relations Committees. He is a member of the Legislative Audit Committee and a former Vice Chairman of the Sunset Advisory Committee. During his five sessions as a state senator, Nichols authored and passed legislation to protect landowners rights, increase educational opportunities in East Texas and reform transportation policies. He has worked to reduce Medicaid fraud, and promote free-market principles. During his time with the Sunset Advisory Committee, he was able to help eliminate six state agencies which saved the tax payers $161.9 million. He has been named a Champion for Children by the Equity Center, a Courageous Conservative by the Texas Conservative Coalition, a Friend of County Government by the Texas Association of Counties and a Champion of Free Enterprise by the Texas Association of Business. Before running for Senate, Nichols served as transportation commissioner for eight years where he established a reputation for increasing efficiency without compromising quality. Nichols is a businessman from Jacksonville, Texas. In his hometown he served on city council, was elected mayor, built four successful manufacturing facilities, earned 32 U.S. patents, 128 foreign patents and created more than 900 jobs for East Texas families. Working his way through college by selling fireworks and ironing clothes for other students, Nichols earned a bachelors degree from Lamar University in 1968. He married his high school sweetheart, Donna, and they are the proud parents of three children: Brittney, Joshua and Collynnrae. Nichols is a member of First United Methodist Church in Jacksonville. Senator Robert Nichols was introduced by Rotary Club of Liberty Sergeant at Arms Charles Grabein Tues., Nov. 3, 2015 at Liberty Center.

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The Vindicator: The oldest continuously printing news source …

33 Signs The Illuminati Is Real – BuzzFeed

 Illuminati  Comments Off on 33 Signs The Illuminati Is Real – BuzzFeed
Feb 072016
 

5. And everything about her Bad Romance video

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33 Signs The Illuminati Is Real

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Pueblo Website Design, Pueblo SEO & Web Hosting

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Feb 072016
 

WebCitz is a USA-based and staffed Magento, Prestashop, WordPress & Joomla website design, ecommerce development, search engine optimization, programming, graphic design and web hosting company providing service to Pueblo, CO. For more than ten years we have provided quality service to hundreds of businesses and organizations throughout Pueblo, CO and the rest of the United States.

WebCitz is a leading provider of SEO-friendlyJoomla and WordPress website designs for Pueblo, CO businesses and organizations. You will find that our website design services are easy to self-manage, whether pages need to be added, images changed, or PDF files uploaded to your website. Best of all, Joomla and WordPress are entirely web-based applications that can be accessed from any online computer in your Pueblo, CO office or home! Take a look at our Pueblo, CO website design services to learn more, then browse through our website design portfolio for examples of our past work.

If your Pueblo, CO business or organization is considering selling online, or upgrading its existing ecommerce website, then you will be interested in our Magento ecommerce website design and programming services. All of our Pueblo, CO ecommerce website design services are integrated into the Magento shopping cart, which provides an easy-to-use management interface for adding products, creating categories and customizing payment and shipping methods. Best of all, Magento is entirely web-based and can be accessed from any online computer in your Pueblo, CO office or home! Take a look at our Pueblo, CO ecommerce website design services to learn more, then browse through our ecommerce website design portfolio for examples of our past work.

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Rationalism Wikipedia

 Rationalism  Comments Off on Rationalism Wikipedia
Feb 022016
 

Rationalism r alla filosofiska riktningar, som r centrerade kring frnuftet (ratio p latin), tnkandet och tingens logiska ordning.

Den troligen tidigaste rationalisten var Parmenides.

Rationalismen utvecklades under 1600- och 1700-talen d filosoferna Ren Descartes, Baruch Spinoza och Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz byggde upp metafysiska system. Rationalismen kom att prgla upplysningens tnkande, och drigenom den moderna vetenskapsuppfattningen. Enbart frnuftet r alla tings mtt, och med dess hjlp kan alla problem lsas.

En stark inspiration fr rationalisterna var det deduktiva vetenskapsidealet som har sin brjan i senantiken med Euklides Elementa dr han beskriver hur man ur ett ftal antaganden som r uppenbara fr var och en kan hrleda mngder av satser i geometrin som var och en kan hrledas tillbaka till grunden. Euklides beskrev det som senare kom att kallas euklidisk geometri. Euklides mest knda verk heter Stoicheia, eller Elementa p latin. I den sammanfattade han all d knd geometrisk kunskap. Verket r delat i 13 bcker, av vilka de sex frsta handlar om planfigurer och deras egenskaper, de tre fljande om talteori och de fyra terstende om irrationella tal och rymdgeometri. Euklides betydelse fr matematiken r ltt att inse, men fr filosofin r kanske den betydelse han fick fr rationalismen viktigare. Euklides geometri kom att bli av en stor intellektuell upplevelse om sann och ren vetenskap fr mnga unga intellektuella som genom rhundraden frskt att frverkliga deduktiva system p andra omrden n geometrin. Genom att utifrn grundlggande antagande bevisa en mngd geometriska satser gav Euklides ett exempel fr andra filosofer. Descartes, Hobbes och Spinoza frskte anvnda metoden fr filosofiska system i motsats till empirister, som John Locke, som menade att kunskapen inte kom frn tnkandet utan frn erfarenheten.

Ren Descartes bygger sin filosofi utifrn cogito ergo sum, jag tnker [allts] r jag. Utifrn att ha ifrgasatt och tvivlat p allt hittar han den fasta grunden i att han existerar och lyckas utifrn detta hrleda en komplett filosofi dr det mesta som behvs i en vrld och samhlle kan hrledas fram. Ren Descartes gjorde ocks viktiga insatser i matematik och naturvetenskap, till exempel brukar man tala om cartesiska koordinatsystem. Hans latinska namn r Cartesius.

P politikens omrde r Thomas Hobbes Leviathan bermd fr sin deduktiva uppbyggnad och sina skrmmande slutsatser om ledarens legitima och nrmast oinskrnkta makt i samhllet. Thomas Hobbes beskriver naturens mekaniska lagar som strikt styr allting i naturen, inklusive mnniskors beteende. Mnniskans naturliga beteende r enligt Hobbes egoistiskt, hennes strvan r att stta sig ver alla andra mnniskor genom att tillskaffa sig till exempel makt. I naturtillstndet, skriver Hobbes, blir hela livet ett allas krig mot alla (bellum omnium contra omnes)och livet blir sledes inte vrt att leva. Fr att undvika ett sdant tillstnd var det ndvndigt att utse en suvern, en envldshrskare vars funktion var att skydda mnniskorna mot varandra, en ‘Leviathan, som i utbyte mot makt kan sknka trygghet t folket, tminstone inom staten. (se f Naturrtt)

Descartes var djupt missnjd med sin tids vetenskap och dess kunskapsteoretiska grund. Ett av hans ml var att med hjlp av reduktionism n fram till helt skra pstenden om vrlden. Han menade till exempel att man intuitivt kunde se (skda klart och tydligt) att en triangel hade tre sidor och att man genom deduktion kunde n sker kunskap. Det var med frnuftet, inte knslor eller sinnesintryck, som det var mjligt. Genom att ha ngra f enkla principer (frn latinets principia “brjan”) som utgngspunkt menade de att man kunde frst och frklara vrlden. Descartes frskte skapa en sker grundval fr tnkandet och vetenskapen genom att tvivla p allt – inklusive matematikens satser. Det fanns dock en sak han inte kunde tvivla p, nmligen att han tnkte under sitt tvivel. Hrav kommer hans bermda cogito ergo sum “jag tnker, allts r jag”. Sjlen blev grundvalen fr hans rationalism och mnniskan som “tnkande ting”.

Aristoteles och senare skolastikens filosofer gav stor vikt t tanken p substanser. Substanser r tillvarons yttersta bestndsdelar. De kan inte delas och r sig sjlva nog. Rationalisterna tog, trots sitt motstnd mot skolastiskt filosofi; till sig substanslran. Descartes genomfr en strng dualism mellan tv substanser – tnkande substans (res cogitans) och utstrckt materia (res exstensa). Denna dualism har haft stor betydelse in i vr tid. Mnniskans kropp r en rent mekanisk automat styrd av sjlen. Men hur pverkar sjlen – denna eteriska substans – den fysiska substansen? Kan ett spke som gr genom vggar ocks ppna drrar av jrn? Detta var en sttesten som redan Descartes samtid kritiserade. Spinoza och Leibniz var djupt pverkade av Descartes men ville utveckla hans tankar och gra ngonting bttre. Spinoza genom att anta en monism det vill sga att allt bestr av en substans; Leibniz i sin tur genom att pst allt bestr av ett ondligt antal substanser.

Descartes dualism ledde honom till problemet med hur kropp och sjl interagerar. Hans efterfljare – cartesianerna – frskte lsa detta med att anta tanken p synkrona klockor, att viljeakter i sjlen parallellt yttrar sig i hndelser i yttervrlden. Yttersta garanten fr detta var Gud. Fr Spinoza fanns bara en substans och denna substans var Gud sjlv, det vill sga en immanent tanke p Gud. Vi r alla delar av Gud. Leibniz resonerade som s, att ingen substans r delbar. Materia r alltid delbart i mindre och mindre entiteter. – allts kan inte den yttersta substansen vara materiell. I sin s kallade Monadologi menade han att allt ytterst bestr av sm andliga punkter, som han kallade monader (av latinets monad “ensam enhet”). Rationalisterna tnkte ofta i den nya mekanistiska “dda” vrldsbildens termer men nskade ocks frsona den med en religis gudstro.

Fr rationalisterna fanns inte uppdelningen i praktisk och teoretisk filosofi, det vill sga att strikt syssla med hur vrlden br vara och hur den r. Moralfilosofi och metafysik sammanfaller. Att Spinozas huvudverk heter “Etiken” r drfr inte s mrkligt. I den mekanistiska vrldsbilden r allt understllt lagen om orsak och verkan; det r i grunden ett deterministiskt synstt. Men om allt r frutbestmt, hur kan d det harmonieras med mnsklig vrdighet, frihet och moral? Fr Descartes dualism utgr helt enkelt lsningen, att mnniskan i kraft av att vara ett tnkande ting har helt fri vilja och kan gra autonoma val. Hon br drfr fullt ansvar fr sina handlingar. Spinoza och Leibniz r bda verens om en strikt deterministisk syn p tillvaron men bda intar en position som frsker frena determinism med frihet , s kallad kompatibilism.

Filosofen Hans-Georg Gadamer talade ibland om att vi lever i vetenskapens tidslder. Rationalisterna frskte “rdda” gud frn ett stort och de universum – men brjan till ett avkristnat Europa kan nog sknjas redan p 1600-talet efter ett bigott 1500-tal. En dold agenda, dr frnuft, vetenskap och matematik styr vra liv fr delvis sgas ha rationalisterna sjlva som skribenter.

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Rationalism Wikipedia

Rationalism and Empiricism – Ohio Northern University

 Rationalism  Comments Off on Rationalism and Empiricism – Ohio Northern University
Feb 022016
 

Rationalism and Empiricism Some Notes on Epistemological Strategies and their Implications in Ethics

RATIONALISM

Rationalism distinguishes between empirical knowledge, i.e., knowledge that arises through experience, and a priori knowledge, i.e., knowledge that is prior to experience and that arises through reason. As knowledge that arises through our experiences, empirical knowledge is about the material universe (and the various entities and phenomena in that universe). Sentences such as Edinburgh is in Scotland, It is 75o outside, John Locke was a philosopher, The average moose weights 1500 pounds each express statements about certain entities in the universe and so represent empirical knowledge. In contrast a priori knowledge is not about phenomena in the empirical universe or our experiences, though some a priori knowledge is applicable to that universe. The sense in which a priori knowledge is prior to experience is logical rather than temporal, i.e., it is possible that one learns some a priori knowledge through experience, nevertheless that knowledge neither requires experience in order to be known, nor is about experience. Perhaps it is easier, then, to consider a priori knowledge as knowledge that arises through reason alone, i.e., it depends upon no experience. Consider, e.g., mathematical knowledge or logical knowledge. The statement All triangles have three sides makes no claim about experience or the empirical universe since there are no triangles in the universe. There are, to be sure, triangular entities, i.e., physical entities that have a triangular shape, but no triangles themselves. In a similar manner, the statement 3+3=6 makes no claims about the universe as there are no 3s or 6s that one can experience and so possess empirical knowledge about. Again, while it is obvious that some mathematical knowledge is applicable to experience (e.g., 3+3=6 is applicable when one has 3 apples and someone gives one 3 more applesone then knows that one has 6 apples), this fails to demonstrate that the mathematical statement 3+3=6 is an empirical statement. The logical statements x = x, All the entities in the universe are either x or not-x and No entities in the universe are both x and not-x are also statements that while applicable to experience are not about experience.[1] There is another difference between empirical and a priori knowledge in addition to their respective sources and content. This difference has to do with their truth conditions. A truth condition specifies under what conditions a given statement can be said to be true or false, i.e., it indicates what one needs to do to prove a statement true or false. Consider the statement It is 75o outside. Under what conditions is this statement true? It should be obvious that the statement is true so long as the outside temperature is 75o. How would one prove whether the statement is true or false? Again, it should be obvious that one would need to determine, through some procedure or apparatus, the outside temperature. In short, one appeals to experience and the empirical data it provides. In contrast to this empirical statement, consider again the statement 3+3=6. Under what conditions is this statement true and how is it possible to prove it? Well, it is true so long as 3+3 does indeed equal 6, this much seems obvious. But, and here is the principal difference between empirical and a priori knowledge, how does one prove the statement to be true? Perhaps the most obvious response is: Well, take three apples and add them to three more apples and then there are six apples. While this demonstration is to the point, does it suffice to prove that 3+3=6? No, at best this little exercise confirms the statement, but it fails to prove it. To understand the difference between prove and confirm consider another illustration. It is a quiet summer afternoon and James decides to rest on the grass beside a river. Some moments later a white swan swims down stream. As James continues to rest seven more swans, that are also white, swim down stream. James considers this experience and realizes that all the swans he has ever seen have been white. So, James formulates the statement All swans are white and sure enough the next swan he passes is white. Did this last experience prove that the statement All swans are white is true? No, since James has not seen all swans, it is possible that there is at least one that is some non-white color. James experience does, however, provide additional confirmation that the statement is true (at least until James discovers there are non-white swans). To prove that 3+3=6 is true then requires that one appeals to more than experience. To be precise, one must appeal to other mathematical knowledge. At this point someone will perhaps take exception with this analysis and point out that since one learns mathematics through experience, so mathematics must also be empirical knowledge! The point is well taken. The source, however, is not the real issue. The real issue is what the knowledge is about and its truth conditions. Moreover, even though some a priori knowledge might arise through experience, it should be obvious that most does not, i.e., while one might argue that one learns basic mathematical truths, e.g., 1+1=2, 2+2=4 and so on, through experience, it seems clear that there are other mathematical truths that it is much more difficult to learn through experience, e.g., 3525+2353=5858 or a2+b2=c2. The rationalists point here is that a priori knowledge is about more than experience and as such it provides knowledge that experience is unable to provide. A similar analysis will demonstrate that logical statements such as All the entities in the universe are either x or not-x also depend upon no experience to determine their truth. Indeed, since the statement is about all the entities in the universe, the experience one needs to prove it as an empirical claim is impossible. It should be obvious, however, that one needs no experience or empirical data to prove the statement, i.e., whatever characteristic one chooses as x, it is apparent that all the entities in the universe either have x or do not have x. All the entities in the universe are either purple or not purple, bigger than a cat or not bigger than a cat, spherical or not spherical, and so on. One can know that this statement is true even when one has no idea what the characteristic in question is. Thus, one knows that all the entities in the universe are either merbalis or not-merbalis, even though no one else in the universe knows what merbalis is (since I made it up!). To rationalists this power to discern and generate universal truths is quite impressive. Indeed, the differences between rationalism and empiricism as to (a) what constitutes genuine knowledge, (b) what such knowledge is about, and (c) its truth conditions, suggest to the rationalists that there is a real qualitative difference between empirical and a priori knowledge. To be precise, most rationalists argue that a priori knowledge is superior to empirical knowledge. The one consideration that is seen as the most decisive in this argument is the difference in truth conditions between empirical and a priori knowledge. Most rationalists consider there to be a fundamental problem with empirical knowledge. Empirical knowledge depends upon our senses, senses that, the rationalist wastes no time to demonstrate, are unreliable. Here the rationalist appeals to common sense deceptions and perceptual illusionswhen one places a straight rod into water the rod appears to bend, at a distance a square tower appears to be round, parallel lines appear to converge in the distance, and so on.[2] Thus, it is difficult, perhaps even impossible, to ever know that an empirical statement is true. It seems that it is possible to doubt even the most certain sense perceptions. In contrast, a priori knowledge is certain knowledge. While it might be possible to doubt that I see a map on the wall beside the computer (I might have a bizarre optical disease or it might be a hallucination), it seems impossible to doubt that 2+2=4. Furthermore, while empirical knowledge represents conditional knowledge, i.e., knowledge that might have been otherwise, a priori knowledge is universal and eternal. Again, while it is possible to imagine a universe in which the earths circumference was 30,000 miles rather than 25,000 miles or a universe in which politicians are honest or a universe in which the Chicago Cubs do win a World Series, it seems impossible to imagine a universe in which 2+2=6 or where triangles have more (or less) than three sides. As with most philosophical theories there is some disagreement between rationalists on certain issues. One issue that separates rationalists is the answer to the question where a priori knowledge originates. The more radical rationalists (e.g., Plato and Rene Descartes) argue that a priori knowledge is innate, i.e., the knowledge is in some manner latent within the mind or even built into the mind. At best then experience acts to elicit the knowledge, but the knowledge was there prior to the experience. Plato argues that all genuine knowledge is innate and education is mere recollection or remembrance (see Platos dialogue Meno), while Descartes claims that certain critical conceptsGod, material substance, and mental substanceare innate. Given these three innate ideas and reason, Descartes argues that other a priori knowledge is derivable. The obvious problem that these radical rationalist strategies face is the need to explain where the mind acquires these innate ideas. In Platos case the solution is an immortal soul-mind that lives through countless lives (i.e., reincarnations), whereas Descartes argues that God places these ideas in human minds. It is also possible to argue that evolution is responsible, i.e., the minds biological structure contains the ideas. While this sounds rather strange, the linguist Noam Chomsky argues this precise thesis. Unless one assumes that certain linguistic structures, e.g., deep grammar, are innate, the argument goes, it is impossible to explain the apparent ease with which human beings learn natural languages. Immanual Kant argues a less radical rationalist line. Kant accepts the rationalist claim that reason alone can provide certain knowledge. Nevertheless, Kant also accepts the empiricist claim that all knowledge begins in experience, i.e., without sense experience as the initial data upon which reason can operate, the knowledge acquisition process can never start. Knowledge, as Kant conceives it then is what the mind produces as it orders and structures otherwise chaotic sense data. The rather radical idea here is that it is the mind that imposes the order and structure on the sense data, the implication being that the sense data have no intrinsic order or structure. The main organizational principles that the mind imposes on sense data are its spatial and temporal structure. These considerations led Kant to a metaphysical distinctionthe distinction between the noumenal universe and the phenomenal universe. The noumenal universe comprises entities-in-themselves, while the phenomenal universe comprises entities-through-their-appearances (White 1996: 296). This is rather technical so it is best to go through it in stages. Suppose someone presents us with a blue glass sphere. It is through our senses that we perceive this sphere. In this case the principal senses are visual and tactileour visual sense indicates that it is blue and spherical and our tactile sense that it is glass and also that it is spherical. Philosophers call these qualitiesbeing blue, being glass and being sphericalproperties or characteristics. All entities have propertiesa size, a shape, a color, a taste, a texture, an odor, and sound and so on. Kants point is that it is through these properties, and through these properties alone, that all the knowledge we have about the entities in the universe arises. All knowledge about entities comes through their properties (which Kant calls appearances). Our commonsense intuitions suggest, however, that there must be some substance or matter that has the properties that our senses perceive, i.e., that the properties cannot exist without some substance that underlies them and possesses them as properties. While the substance that underlies the properties is unseen, nevertheless reason and commonsense insist that it must exist. Descartes suggests that such inferences are rather common occurrences, e.g., when one peers out a window on a cold winter afternoon one might see a person move across the lawn. But does one see a person? No, all that one sees is a cap, a coat and perhaps trousers and shoes. Nevertheless, no one doubts that there is someone under all the apparel. Even though one is unable to see the person one still reasons that there must be one there, since clothes seldom stroll across lawns on their own. Kant agrees that there must be entities that possess the properties our senses perceive, but argues that while logic necessitates their existence, these entities-in-themselves (which comprise the noumenal universe) are unperceivable and so incomprehensible to the human mind. All that is knowable are the properties (i.e., appearances) that our senses perceive and our mind structures. These appearances are the entities that comprise the phenomenal universe. There are no means then to, as it were, move outside our senses to see entities in themselves, to see the real universe rather than the universe that our senses communicate to us through perception. Since all our knowledge comes through the senses and reason, these act as filters which order and structure all our perceptions and thoughts. The entities-in-themselves that underlie the perceptions remain forever elusive. While perhaps more plausible, Kants rationalism imposes limitations on knowledge that more radical rationalists would refuse to accept. Nevertheless, Kants approach is rationalist since it is the mind (to be precise, reason), that gives our sense perceptions the structure that changes them into knowledge (White 1996: 297). The main point to remember is that rationalists believe that, even though it might require experience to initiate the knowledge process, there is some knowledge that is irreducible to experience, i.e., the knowledge is neither about experience nor is it possible to use experience to demonstrate that the knowledge is true or false.

EMPIRICISM

Empiricism denies the rationalist distinction between empirical and a priori knowledge. All knowledge, the empiricist argues, arises through, and is reducible to, sense perception. Thus, there is no knowledge that arises through reason alone. It is essential to be clear here: it is not reasons existence that empiricism denies, or that reason has a role in knowledge acquisition and manipulation, rather it is that reason has some special access to knowledge over and above the knowledge that experience provides. All empiricists acknowledge that human beings possess reasonreason is the instrument that allows us to manipulate and augment the knowledge that experience provides. Knowledge, however, has its origins in experience rather than in reason. Empiricism begins with the distinction between sense data and ideas. Sense data represent the basic information that the senses present to the mind through our perceptual experiences, i.e., sights, tastes, textures, sounds and odors. To illustrate, suppose that one sees a blue sphere. This sense experience is reducible to the visual act and the sense data (i.e., the information that the visual act contains). In this case the information that the visual act contains is that there is a visible blueness and a sphericalness. At this stage there is no conscious recognition that one sees a blue sphere, all there is is the pure sense data that the senses present to the mind through the sense experiences. The mind processes and represents each individual sense datum as an idea, in this case the ideas blue and spherical. The mind then associates and combines the ideas it creates through sense experience to create the conscious idea blue sphere. To the empiricist, sense data represent the basic material that the mind uses to construct the ideas that comprise all our knowledge. Thus, no matter what the idea is, it is possible to trace that idea to some sense experience(s). While the precise details differ, these are the basic cognitive mechanisms that the principal empiricist philosophersJohn Locke, George Berkeley and David Humeall appeal to in order to explain the process through which sense data becomes knowledge. Although empiricism denies a priori knowledges existence, as knowledge that depends upon no experience, there is still the recognition that some knowledge goes further than experience in the sense that it is not about experience. Nevertheless, empiricism argues that such knowledge is still reducible to experience. Again, this is the crucial notionthat it is possible to trace all knowledge, whether or not it is about experience, to some particular experience or experiences. Rather than preserve what is thought to be an inaccurate distinction, empiricism recasts the distinction between a priori knowledge and empirical knowledge into the distinction between analytic knowledge and synthetic knowledge. Through this distinction empiricism denies the rationalist claim that a priori knowledge is superior to empirical knowledge. Indeed, the distinction provides the basis to argue the precise opposite. The statements that the rationalists cite as paradigmatic a priori knowledgeA triangle has three sides, 3+3=6 and so onthe empiricist sees as analytic statements. An analytic statement is one where the statement analyzes the concept in question. Thus, the statement A triangle has three sides does no more than analyze the concept triangle, and the statement 3=3=6 does no more than analyzes the concept six. Moreover, the empiricist argues, these statements never do more than analyze the concepts in question. In a real sense then these statements provide no additional knowledge, all the knowledge that analytic statements contain is given is within the original concept the statement analyzes (White 1996: 280). Synthetic statements, in contrast, do provide additional knowledgeknowledge that goes further than the original concept. Consider the statement: The temperature outside is 75o. This is a synthetic statement since, while it has to be some temperature outside, there is no reason that it has to be 75o rather than some other temperature. The concepts temperature and outside then have no intrinsic connection to some specific outside temperature, rather what the temperature depends upon are various other environmental conditions. So statement such as The temperature outside is 75o provide us with additional (and sometimes valuable) information. All synthetic statements then share the characteristic that, because there is no intrinsic or logical connection between the statements elements, these statements provide information about a connection or relation that is unavailable in the original concepts themselves. Given that analytic statements reveal no additional insights, while synthetic statements do provide novel ideas and associations, it should come as no surprise that empiricism argues that empirical knowledge is superior to a priori knowledge rather than the reverse (or to be more precise, that synthetic knowledge is superior to analytic knowledge). With the focus on analytic truths rationalism never quite reaches the real universe in the manner that synthetic statements are able to do. There is, however, a philosophical price to be paid. While the empiricist gains additional insights and knowledge there is a loss in certitude, since the empiricist still must deal with senses that (the rationalist is correct to maintain) are unreliable. The rationalist can be certain that 2+2=4, the empiricist, however, must accept that empirical knowledge is at best probable, never certain. The problem is that the empiricist has no real response to the claim that it is possible to doubt even the most persuasive sense impressions, since it is possible to doubt them without logical contradiction. In philosophical terms, the problem is that our sense perceptions underdetermine their causes, i.e., a given sense perception has more than one explanation. Consider, e.g., that one sees a white rabbit. What might explain this perception? The obvious answer is that one sees a white rabbit because there is a white rabbit there. It is also possible, however, that one has a rare optical disease and the rabbit is some other color, rather than white. It is also possible that one hallucinates or dreams the rabbit. As Alice will attest, these are all logical possibilities and the sense experiences in themselves provide no certain means to decide which explanation is correct. This suggests another potential problem that empiricism must addresshow to explain mathematics and logic? Remember that empiricism maintains that all knowledge is reducible to experience. Thus, the empiricist must explain how it is possible to reduce sometimes arcane mathematical knowledge to common sense experience. This means that, since mathematical knowledge is thought to be certain knowledge, the empiricist must explain how it is possible to derive certain knowledge through a processsense experiencethat provides knowledge that is, at best, probable. Moreover, the empiricist must also explain how it is possible to prove mathematical statements through experience. There have been numerous attempts to demonstrate how it is possible to derive mathematics and logic through experience. Though commendable these attempts all have had serious difficulties and so have met with little general acceptance. Even were it possible to reduce mathematics to experience, the questions (1) whether experiences whose truth is probable can produce certain mathematical knowledge and (2) how it is possible to prove mathematical statements through experience, pose rather more serious difficulties. Perhaps the easiest, though least intuitive, solution is to argue that there is no certitude in mathematics. This is John Stuart Mills tactic. Mill, a radical empiricist, argues that, as with all other all empirical statements, mathematical statements express mere probabilities. All that distinguishes them is that mathematical statements have undergone more extensive con-firmation than other statements (Encyclopedia of Philosophy 2: 503). The disadvantage to this tactic is obvious: one must give up all claims to absolute truth in mathematics. Most philosophers (as well as mathematicians) consider this concession to be as difficult as it is undesirable. In contrast to Mill, less radical empiricists, e.g., David Hume and John Locke, still want to maintain mathematics certitude. This too, however, comes at a price. To preserve mathematical truths as absolute truths Locke argues that some perceptions, and the ideas that represent these perceptions, can be more certain than others. To be precise, Locke argues that, when reason operates on experience, the ideas, and the associations between ideas, that it produces result in knowledge that is either intuitive, demonstrative or sensitive. Locke maintains that intuitive knowledge and demonstrative knowledge are certain knowledge (Encyclopedia of Philosophy 2: 501). Lockes arguments here are technical and, to most, less than a complete success. To all intents and purposes, however, what Locke does in order to guarantee certain knowledge is to introduce certain rationalist elements. The consequence is that Lockes certain knowledge is rather too similar to the rationalists a priori knowledge to please most empiricists. Since empiricism argues that there is no knowledge that arises through reason alone, it should be obvious that empiricism also denies that there are innate ideas, i.e., ideas that are in the mind prior to experience or that are built into the mind in some manner. The standard argument against innate ideas is that were there such ideas then all rational beings should possess and acknowledge them. Since it is obvious that there are neither universal ideas, i.e., ideas that all human beings possess, nor ideas upon which their is universal agreement, then there are no innate ideas (see John Lockes Essays on the Law of Nature and Essay Concerning Human Understanding, and David Humes A Treatise on Human Nature). The empiricist considers the pre-experience mind to be a tabula rasaa clean slateand it is through experience that knowledge comes to be written on this slate. Thus, empiricisms credo is that where there is (or can be) no experience there is (and can be) no knowledge.

IMPLICATIONS IN ETHICS

The debate between rationalism and empiricism continues, and it is quite possible some issues will be impossible to resolve, at least given our finite human intelligence. To the degree that it is possible to determine the correct solutions to these issues, the British philosopher Bertrand Russell concludes that the score is even. Russell argues that while it seems clear that the empiricists are correct that all knowledge must arise through experience, it also seems obvious that there is some knowledge that it is impossible to reduce to experience, i.e., reason is able to use experience to produce knowledge that it is nevertheless impossible to prove through experience (see The Problems of Philosophy). The main purpose here, however, is to illustrate that ones general philosophical assumptions about knowledges nature and origins will have consequences in other philosophical investigations, in particular in ethics. And to illustrate that all theories involve compromises, i.e., no matter the initial assumptions, there will be advantages and disadvantages. It is to a philosophers credit then to be able to detect and acknowledge the disadvantages as well as the advantages that their positions entail.

John Locke: Lockes natural law ethics reveals the same tensions that run through Lockes general approach to knowledge. The desire to have some knowledge be certain knowledge, even though all knowledge arises through experience, forces Locke to argue that reason is able to combine some ideas in a manner that produces certain knowledge. Such knowledge is irresistible, i.e., it leaves no room to hesitate or doubt (Encyclopedia of Philosophy 4: 497). Thus, Locke argues that certain knowledge is possible. Perhaps most important to Lockes ethics is the conviction it is possible to be certain that God exists. More than this, since Locke bases what is moral on what God wills, it is even possible to know what it is that Gods desires human beings to do, i.e., the divine law. The divine law as discoverable through reason becomes the natural lawthe command to preserve human beings. The natural law, Locke argues, underlies and governs all human interaction. Thus, through the nature law reason is able to derive all the particular natural rights and moral duties that human beings possess. These are rights and duties that all human beings possess as human beings and that human beings must use as a guide in their behavior. The universal and absolute character is what reason supplies to experience to produce certain knowledge.

Immanual Kant: While Kant thought there was much to admire in the empiricist philosopher David Humes A Treatise on Human Nature, and though he even accepts the empiricist principle that all knowledge arises in experience, Kant is without doubt a rationalist. This rationalism is quite apparent in Kants philosophical investigations into ethics. Kant believes that the supreme principle that underlies all moralsthe categorical imperativemust be absolute and universal. Such a principle can never arise in experience, Kant argues, since all experience is particular (i.e., about particular entities in particular situations at particular times). Neither can experience prove this principle. Experience can at best, Kant insists, confirm the categorical imperative. In contrast to the knowledge that arises through experience, the knowledge that arises through reason is abstract and universal. To illustrate the difference consider the statements There are wombats in Tasmania and a2+b2=c2. It is clear that the empirical statement There are wombats in Tasmania is about particular entities (wombats) and a particular situation (being in Tasmania). The mathematical statement has no such limitations. This statement is abstract in that it mentions no particular entities and universal in that it applies to all appropriate as, bs and cs. It is reason alone then that is able to determine and prove the categorical imperative as the supreme moral principle. Kant distinguishes here between theoretical reason and practical reason. It is theoretical reason that investigates the empirical universe. This is the reason that science uses. Practical reasons concern is the will, that motive force in human beings that underlies all moral behavior. To be precise, it is practical reasons role to create a good will. To do this practical reason determines the moral principle that the will must follow, i.e., the categorical imperative. The general epistemological limitations that arise because Kant accepts the empiricist principle that all knowledge begins in experience are also apparent in Kants ethics. Since it is impossible to know entities-in-themselves there are certain entities and ideas, whose importance to ethics are immeasurable, about which human beings can have no knowledge whatsoever. In particular, it is impossible to have knowledge as to whether (1) God exists, (2) the soul is immortal and (3) that human possess free will. Kant argues, however, that even without certain knowledge, it is still essential to assume that all these are true, otherwise ethics is impossible.

John Stuart Mill: Mills utilitarian ethics incorporates the radical interpretation that Mill gives the empiricist principle that all knowledge arises in experience. Mill interprets the all to mean all knowledge. Thus, Mill assumes that even mathematical and logical knowledge are empirical knowledge with all the limitations that such knowledge possesses. Mill manages to overcome, however, the scepticism that characterizes Humes empiricism (Encyclopedia of Philosophy 5: 318). The Greatest Happiness Principle that underlies utilitarian ethics states that those actions are moral which provide the greatest happiness to the greatest number. What determines happiness is without a doubt an empirical matter, i.e., it is through our experience that we realize what actions cause the pleasures that increase happiness and what actions cause the pains that decrease happiness. Reasons role in this process is to learn through these experiences and to formulate the general moral rules that will, over time, lead to the greatest happiness. It is essential to realize, however, that while these general moral rules are meant to guide behavior, because our experiences change, these rules can and do change over time. There are no certain, or absolute, or universal moral rules. Experience is unable to provide such permanence. Mill also acknowledges, that it is impossible to prove that happiness is the ultimate end that drives all human desire and action. As a consequence Mill must concede, and this is a rather radical concession, that it is impossible to provide a logical demonstration that the Greatest Happiness Principle is the fundamental moral law. Logical analysis, Mill argues, has no place in ethics. In contrast to Locke and Kant then Mill denies that ethics is, or can be, a science. In the end, Mills normative ethics rests upon psychological observations and arguments, whereas Locke and Kant believe their normative theories to rest upon logical arguments.

NOTES:

1. Bertrand Russell argues that, more that obvious logical truths, without at least the assumption that these principles are true, rational argument becomes impossible (1912: 72). 2. There is an extensive discussion about these problems in Rene Descartes Meditations on First Philosophy.

Sources and References

Blau, J.L. 1967 Immanual Kant. The Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

1967 John Locke. The Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Descartes, Rene 1993 Meditations on First Philosophy. Indianpolis: Hackett. Hamlyn, D.W. 1967 Empiricism. The Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Hume, David 1969 A Treatise of Human Nature. London: Penguin. Locke, John 1950 Essays on the Law of Nature. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1975 An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Plato 1981 Five Dialogues. Indianapolis: Hackett. Russell, Bertrand 1912 The Problems of Philosophy. Indianapolis: Hackett. Schneewind, J. B. 1967 John Stuart Mill. The Encyclopedia of Philosophy. White, Thomas I. 1996 Discovering Philosophy. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Williams, Bernard 1967 Rationalism. The Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

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Rationalism and Empiricism – Ohio Northern University

Rationalism – Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 Rationalism  Comments Off on Rationalism – Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Feb 022016
 

Rationalism is a branch of philosophy where the validity of an idea is determined by logic, rather than religious means such as revelations, meditation, emotions or observations.

Rationalist philosophers believe that all knowledge can be understood through a process of reasoning, without any external sources. They do not believe that human beings can understand everything this way, but that it is theoretically possible. Rationalist philosophers attempt to understand ideas like God and the Soul in this manner.

The first people to talk about rationalism were Marin Mersenne and Ren Descartes, in the 17th and 18th centuries. Other philosophers who are seen as rationalist today include Baruch Spinoza, Gottfried Leibniz and Immanuel Kant. Famous people opposed to this idea were David Hume and John Locke.

Rationalism also influenced natural law. Natural law is a theory that says that there are laws given by nature, valid everywhere. Deism was also influenced by rationalism. According to deism, a supreme being created the universe. This being, and other religious truths can be determined by observing nature, and finding natural laws. This would make religions that are based on revelation unnecessary.

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Rationalism – Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Top New York Astronomy Schools – Online Education

 Astronomy  Comments Off on Top New York Astronomy Schools – Online Education
Jan 312016
 

Astronomy Schools in New York

New York contains four schools that offer astronomy programs. Columbia University in the City of New York, the highest-ranking astronomy school in NY, has a total student population of 24,230 and is the 4th highest ranked school in America.

Of the 4 astronomy schools in New York, only 1 has a student population over 10k. After taking into account tuition, living expenses, and financial aid, Union College comes out as the most expensive ($27,619/yr), with Columbia University in the City of New York as the lowest recorded at only $18,132/yr.

Astronomy students from New York schools who go on to become astronomers, astrophysicistss, lunar and planetary institute directors, national radio astronomy observatory directors, etc. have a good chance at finding employment. For example, there are 1,240 people working as astronomers alone in the US, and their average annual salary is $102,740. Also, Atmospheric and space scientists make on average $85,160 per year and there are about 8,320 of them employed in the US today.

Also, within the astronomy schools in New York, the average student population is 2,856 and average student-to-faculty ratio is 16 to 1. Aside from astronomy, there are 10195 total degree (or certificate) programs in the state, with 3,318 people on average applying for a school. Undergraduate tuition costs are normally around $4,933, but can vary widely depending on the type of school.

Program ID: 44067

Levels offered: Certificate, Bachelors, Masters, PhD

Program ID: 195098

Levels offered: Bachelors

Program ID: 18726

Levels offered: Bachelors

Program ID: 171665

Levels offered: Bachelors

New York Interesting Facts

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Top New York Astronomy Schools – Online Education

What Is The Singularity And Will You Live To See It?

 The Singularity  Comments Off on What Is The Singularity And Will You Live To See It?
Jan 312016
 

If you read any science fiction or futurism, you’ve probably heard people using the term “singularity” to describe the world of tomorrow. But what exactly does it mean, and where does the idea come from? We answer in today’s backgrounder.

What is the singularity?

The term singularity describes the moment when a civilization changes so much that its rules and technologies are incomprehensible to previous generations. Think of it as a point-of-no-return in history.

Most thinkers believe the singularity will be jump-started by extremely rapid technological and scientific changes. These changes will be so fast, and so profound, that every aspect of our society will be transformed, from our bodies and families to our governments and economies.

A good way to understand the singularity is to imagine explaining the internet to somebody living in the year 1200. Your frames of reference would be so different that it would be almost impossible to convey how the internet works, let alone what it means to our society. You are on the other side of what seems like a singularity to our person from the Middle Ages. But from the perspective of a future singularity, we are the medieval ones. Advances in science and technology mean that singularities might happen over periods much shorter than 800 years. And nobody knows for sure what the hell they’ll bring.

Talking about the singularity is a paradox, because it is an attempt to imagine something that is by definition unimaginable to people in the present day. But that hasn’t stopped hundreds of science fiction writers and futurists from doing it.

Where does the term “singularity” come from?

Science fiction writer Vernor Vinge popularized the idea of the singularity in his 1993 essay “Technological Singularity.” There he described the singularity this way:

It is a point where our old models must be discarded and a new reality rules. As we move closer to this point, it will loom vaster and vaster over human affairs till the notion becomes a commonplace. Yet when it finally happens it may still be a great surprise and a greater unknown.

Specifically, Vinge pinned the Singularity to the emergence of artificial intelligence. “We are on the edge of change comparable to the rise of human life on Earth,” he wrote. “The precise cause of this change is the imminent creation by technology of entities with greater than human intelligence.”

Author Ken MacLeod has a character describe the singularity as “the Rapture for nerds” in his novel The Cassini Division, and the turn of phrase stuck, becoming a popular way to describe the singularity. (Note: MacLeod didn’t actually coin this phrase – he says he got the phrase from a satirical essay in an early-1990s issue of Extropy.) Catherynne Valente argued recently for an expansion of the term to include what she calls “personal singularities,” moments where a person is altered so much that she becomes unrecognizable to her former self. This definition could include posthuman experiences.

What technologies are likely to cause the next singularity?

As we mentioned earlier, artificial intelligence is the technology that most people believe will usher in the singularity. Authors like Vinge and singulatarian Ray Kurzweil think AI will usher in the singularity for a twofold reason. First, creating a new form of intelligent life will completely change our understanding of ourselves as humans. Second, AI will allow us to develop new technologies so much faster than we could before that our civilization will transform rapidly. A corollary to AI is the development of robots who can work alongside – and beyond – humans.

Another singularity technology is the self-replicating molecular machine, also called autonomous nanobots, “gray goo,” and a host of other things. Basically the idea is that if we can build machines that manipulate matter at the atomic level, we can control our world in the most granular way imaginable. And if these machines can work on their own? Who knows what will happen. For a dark vision of this singularity, see Greg Bear’s novel Blood Music or Bill Joy’s essay “The Future Doesn’t Need Us”; for a more optimistic vision, Rudy Rucker’s Postsingular.

And finally, a lot of singulatarian thought is devoted to the idea that synthetic biology, genetic engineering, and other life sciences will eventually give us control of the human genome. Two world-altering events would come out of that. One, we could engineer new forms of life and change the course of human evolution in one generation. Two, it’s likely that control over our genomes will allow us to tinker with the mechanisms that make us age, thus dramatically increasing our lifespans. Many futurists, from Kurzweil and Steward Brand, to scientists like Aubrey De Gray, have suggested that extreme human longevity (in the hundreds of years) is a crucial part of the singularity.

Have we had a singularity before?

The singularity is usually anticipated as a future transformation, but it can also be used to describe past transformations like the one in our example earlier with the person from 1200. The industrial revolution could be said to represent a singularity, as could the information age.

When will the singularity happen?

In 1992, Vinge predicted that “in 30 years” we would have artificial intelligence. We’ve still got 12 years to go – it could happen! In his groundbreaking 2000 essay for Wired, “The Future Doesn’t Need Us,” technologist Joy opined:

The enabling breakthrough to assemblers seems quite likely within the next 20 years. Molecular electronics – the new subfield of nanotechnology where individual molecules are circuit elements – should mature quickly and become enormously lucrative within this decade, causing a large incremental investment in all nanotechnologies.

And in the 2005 book The Singularity Is Near, Ray Kurzweil says the singularity will come “within several decades.”

Longevity scientist De Gray says that our biotech is advanced enough that a child born in 2010 might live to be 150, or 500 years old. MIT AI researcher Rodney Brooks writes in his excellent book Flesh and Machines that it’s “unlikely that we will be able to simply download our brains into a computer anytime soon.” Though Brooks does add:

The lives of our grandchildren and great-grandchildren will be as unrecognizable to us as our use of information technology in all its forms would be incomprehensible to someone form the dawn of the twentieth century.

So when will the singularity really happen? It depends on your perspective. But it always seem like it’s just a few decades off.

Image of gray goo by Giacomo Costa.

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What Is The Singularity And Will You Live To See It?

Nsa | New York Post

 NSA  Comments Off on Nsa | New York Post
Jan 312016
 

NSA: Not tracking phones is a realmistake

November 29, 2015 | 6:13pm

WASHINGTON In the face of threats from ISIS, the National Security Agencys end Sunday to the bulk collection of phone records is a real mistake, according to the chairman…

LONDON Edward Snowden says he has offered to return to the United States and go to jail for leaking details of National Security Agency programs to intercept electronic communications…

September 29, 2015 | 2:28pm

Can you hear me now? That was the very first tweet by Edward Snowden as he finally joined Twitter on Tuesday. Using the handle @Snowden, the 32-year-old NSA whistle-blower racked…

ATLANTA Republican presidential hopeful Jeb Bush said Tuesday that the government should have broad surveillance powers of Americans and private technology firms should cooperate better with intelligence agencies to…

August 16, 2015 | 11:59am

WASHINGTON Under a decades-old program with the government, telecom giant AT&T in 2003 led the way on a new collection capability that the National Security Agency said amounted to…

Federal and local authorities say no charges will be filed after an investigation of a fatal shooting by National Security Agency police at Fort Meade, Md.

PARIS France summoned the U.S. ambassador to the Foreign Ministry on Wednesday following revelations by WikiLeaks that the U.S. National Security Agency eavesdropped on the past three French presidents….

WikiLeaks published documents late Tuesday it says shows the US National Security Agency eavesdropped on the last three French presidents.

BERLIN German prosecutors on Friday closed their investigation into the alleged tapping of Chancellor Angela Merkels cellphone by the U.S. National Security Agency, saying they have been unable to…

Congress this week cut back the powers of the National Security Agency a first in the post-9/11 world. A far better target wouldve been the Transportation Security Administration. The…

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Nsa | New York Post

N.D.Ill.: Withheld video of CPD shooting revealed during …

 Fourth Amendment  Comments Off on N.D.Ill.: Withheld video of CPD shooting revealed during …
Jan 292016
 

ABA Journal’s Blawg 100 (2015)

by John Wesley Hall Criminal Defense Lawyer and Search and seizure law consultant Little Rock, Arkansas Contact / The Book http://www.johnwesleyhall.com

2003-16, online since Feb. 24, 2003 real non-robot URL hits since 2010; approx. 18k posts since 2003

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Fourth Amendment cases, citations, and links

Latest Slip Opinions: U.S. Supreme Court (Home) Federal Appellate Courts Opinions First Circuit Second Circuit Third Circuit Fourth Circuit Fifth Circuit Sixth Circuit Seventh Circuit Eighth Circuit Ninth Circuit Tenth Circuit Eleventh Circuit D.C. Circuit Federal Circuit Foreign Intell.Surv.Ct. FDsys, many district courts, other federal courts, other Military Courts: C.A.A.F., Army, AF, N-M, CG State courts (and some USDC opinions)

Google Scholar Advanced Google Scholar Google search tips LexisWeb LII State Appellate Courts LexisONE free caselaw Findlaw Free Opinions To search Search and Seizure on Lexis.com $

Research Links: Supreme Court: SCOTUSBlog S. Ct. Docket Solicitor General’s site SCOTUSreport Briefs online (but no amicus briefs) Curiae (Yale Law) Oyez Project (NWU) “On the Docket”Medill S.Ct. Monitor: Law.com S.Ct. Com’t’ry: Law.com

General (many free): LexisWeb Google Scholar | Google LexisOne Legal Website Directory Crimelynx Lexis.com $ Lexis.com (criminal law/ 4th Amd) $ Findlaw.com Findlaw.com (4th Amd) Westlaw.com $ F.R.Crim.P. 41 http://www.fd.org FBI Domestic Investigations and Operations Guide (2008) (pdf) DEA Agents Manual (2002) (download) DOJ Computer Search Manual (2009) (pdf) Stringrays (ACLU No. Cal.) (pdf)

Congressional Research Service: –Electronic Communications Privacy Act (2012) –Overview of the Electronic Communications Privacy Act (2012) –Outline of Federal Statutes Governing Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping (2012) –Federal Statutes Governing Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping (2012) –Federal Laws Relating to Cybersecurity: Discussion of Proposed Revisions (2012) ACLU on privacy Privacy Foundation Electronic Frontier Foundation NACDLs Domestic Drone Information Center Electronic Privacy Information Center Criminal Appeal (post-conviction) (9th Cir.) Section 1983 Blog

“If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn’t, and they don’t.” Me

I still learn something new every day. Pete Townshend, The Who 50th Anniversary Tour, “The Who Live at Hyde Park” (Showtime 2015)

“I can’t talk about my singing. I’m inside it. How can you describe something you’re inside of?” Janis Joplin

“Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government.” Shemaya, in the Thalmud

“A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one’s attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced.” Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev’d Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).

“The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence.” Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).

Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment. Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).

“There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today.” Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).

“The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property.” Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)

“It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment.” United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)

“The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has notto put it mildlyrun smooth.” Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).

“A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable.” Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)

“For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. … But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected.” Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)

Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Governments purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding. United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)

Libertythe freedom from unwarranted intrusion by governmentis as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark. United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)

“You can’t always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need.” Mick Jagger & Keith Richards

“In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn’t speak up because I wasn’t a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn’t speak up because I wasn’t a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn’t speak up because I wasn’t a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn’t speak up because I wasn’t a Catholic. Then they came for meand by that time there was nobody left to speak up.” Martin Niemller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]

You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men! “The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime.” Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)

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N.D.Ill.: Withheld video of CPD shooting revealed during …

The Tor Browser: Tor Browser – uk.pcmag.com

 Tor Browser  Comments Off on The Tor Browser: Tor Browser – uk.pcmag.com
Jan 282016
 

The Tor Browser makes the tricky work of surfing the Web anonymously as easy as using any other browser, but with a significant performance hit.

Need to hire an assassin, buy some contraband, view illegal porn, or just bypass government, corporate, or identity thief snooping? Tor is your answer. Tor, which stands for “The Onion Router” is not a product, but a protocol that lets you hide your Web browsing as though it were obscured by the many layers of an onion. The most common way to view the so-called Dark Web that comprises Tor sites is by using the Tor Browser, a modded version of Mozilla Firefox. Using this Web browser also hides your location, IP address, and other identifying data from regular websites. Accessing Tor has long been beyond the ability of the average user. Tor Browser manages to simplify the process of protecting your identity onlinebut at the price of performance.

What Is Tor? Ifyou’re thinking that Tor comes from a sketchy group of hackers, know that its core technology was developed by the U.S. Naval Research Lab and D.A.R.P.A.. The Tor Project non-profit receives sizeable donations from various federal entities such as The National Science Foundation. The Tor Project has a page listing many examples of legitimate types of Tor users, such as political dissidents in countries with tight control over the Internet and individuals concerned about personal privacy.

Tor won’t encrypt your datafor that, you’ll need a Virtual Private Network (VPN). Instead, Tor routes your Internet traffic through a series of intermediary nodes. This makes it very difficult for government snoops or aggressive advertisers to track you online. Using Tor affords far more privacy than other browsers’ private (or Incognito) modes, since it obscures your IP address so that you can’t be trackedwith it. Standard browsers’ private browsing modes discard your cached pages and browsing history afteryour browsing session.Even Firefox’s new, enhanced private browsing mode doesn’t hide your identifiable IP address from the sites you visit, though it does prevent them tracking you based on cookies.

We tested a standard Windows installer, with choices to create desktop icons and run the browser immediately. The browser itself is a heavily modified version of Firefox 38.5 (as of this writing), and includes several security plug-ins as well as security tweaks such as not caching any website data. For a full rundown of the PCMag Editors’ Choice browser’s many features, read our full review of Firefox.

Before merrily browsing along anonymously, you need to inform Tor about your Webconnection. If your Internet connection is censored, you configure one way, if not, you can connect directly to the network. Since we live in a free societyand work for benevolent corporate overlords, we connected directly for testing. After connecting to the Tor relay system (a dialog with a progress bar appears at this stage), the browser launches, and you see theTor project’s page.

The browser interface is identical with Firefox, except with some necessary add-ons installed. NoScript, a commonly used Firefox add-on, is preinstalled and can be used to block most non-HTML content on the Web. The green onion button to the left of the address bar is the Torbutton add-on. It lets you see your Tor network settings, but also the circuit you’re using: Ourcircuit started in Germany and passed through two different addresses in the Netherlands before reaching the good old Internet. If that doesn’t suit you, you can request a new circuit, either for the current session or for the current site. This was one of our favorite features.

One thing we really like about the Tor Browser is how it makes existing security and privacy tools easier to use. NoScript, for example, can be a harsh mistress, who can bedifficult to configure, and can break websites. But a security panel in the Torbutton presents you with a simple security slide. At the lowest, default setting, all browser features are enabled. At the highest setting, all JavaScript and even some image types are blocked, among other settings. This makes it easy to raise or lower the level of protection you need, without having to muck around in multiple settings windows.

Everything you do in the browser is tested for anonymity: When we tried full-screening the browser window, a message told us that that could provide sites a way to track us, and recommended leaving the window at the default size. And the project’s site specifically states that using Tor alone doesn’t guarantee anonymity, but rather that you have to abide by safe browsing guidelines: don’t use BitTorrent, don’t install additionalbrowser add-ons, don’t open documents or media while online. The recommendation to only visit secure HTTPS sites is optionally enforced by a plug-in called HTTPS Everywhere.

Even if you follow these recommendations, though, someone could detect the simple fact that you’re using Tor, unless you set it up to use a Tor bridge relay. Those are not listed in the Tor directory, so hackers (and governments) would have more trouble finding them.

One thing we noticed while browsing the standard Web through Tor was the need to enter a CAPTCHA to access many sites. This is because your cloaked URL looks suspicious to website security services such as CloudFlare, used by millions of sites to protect themselves. It’s just one more price you pay for anonymity.

We also had trouble finding the correct version of websites we wished to visit. Directing the Tor Browser to PCMag.com, for example, took us to the Netherlands localization of our website. We could not find any way to direct us back to the main URL, which lets you access the U.S. site.

Tor hidden sites have URLs that end in .onion, preceded by 16 alphanumeric characters. You can find directories of these hidden sites with categories resembling the good old days of Yahoo. There’s even a Tor Links Directory page (on the regular Web) that’s a directory of these directories. There are many chat and message boards, but you even find directories of things like lossless audio files, video game hacks, and financial services such as anonymous bitcoin, and even a Tor version of Facebook. Many onion sites are very slow or completely downkeep in mind that they’re not run by deep-pocketed Web companies. Very often we clicked an onion link only to be greeted with an “Unable to Connect” error. Sinbad helpfully displays a red “Offline on last crawl” bullet to let you know that a site is probably nonfunctional.

As for browser benchmarks, the results hew to Firefox’s own performance, with near-leading performance on all the major JavaScript tests, JetStream and Octane, for example. Onourtest laptop, the Tor Browser scored 20,195 on Octane, compared with 22,297 for standard Firefoxnot a huge difference. The Tor network routing is a far more significant factor in browsing performance than browser JavaScript speed. That is, unless you’ve blocked all JavaScript.

Keep in mind, though, that the Tor Browser is based on the Firefox Extended Support Release versions, which updates less frequently so that large organizations have time to maintain their custom code. That means you don’t get quite the latest in Firefox performance and features, but security updates are delivered at the same time as new main versions.

There’s a similar story when it comes to standards compatibility: On the HTML5Test.com site, which quantifies the number of new Web standards supported by a browser, the Tor Browser gets a score of 412, compared with 468 for the latest Firefox version. You may run into incompatible sites, though. For example, none of the Internet speed connection test sites performed correctly in the Tor Browser.

Of course, you pay a price of extra setup and slower performance with the Tor Browser, but it’s less onerous than you may think. And the included support for fine-grain privacy and security protection is excellent. If you take your online privacy seriously, you owe it to yourself to check out the Tor Browser. For standard, full-speed Web browsing, however, check out PCMag Editors’ Choice Web browser, Firefox.

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The Tor Browser: Tor Browser – uk.pcmag.com

Tor Browser Latest (3.6.1) – Home

 Tor Browser  Comments Off on Tor Browser Latest (3.6.1) – Home
Jan 282016
 

Tor Browser

Inception

Tor was originally designed, implemented, and deployed as a third-generation onion routing project of the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory. It was originally developed with the U.S. Navy in mind, for the primary purpose of protecting government communications. Today, it is used every day for a wide variety of purposes by normal people, the military, journalists, law enforcement officers, activists, and many others. Overview

Tor is a network of virtual tunnels that allows people and groups to improve their privacy and security on the Internet. It also enables software developers to create new communication tools with built-in privacy features. Tor provides the foundation for a range of applications that allow organizations and individuals to share information over public networks without compromising their privacy.

Individuals use Tor to keep websites from tracking them and their family members, or to connect to news sites, instant messaging services, or the like when these are blocked by their local Internet providers. Tor’s hidden services let users publish web sites and other services without needing to reveal the location of the site. Individuals also use Tor for socially sensitive communication: chat rooms and web forums for rape and abuse survivors, or people with illnesses.

Journalists use Tor to communicate more safely with whistleblowers and dissidents. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) use Tor to allow their workers to connect to their home website while they’re in a foreign country, without notifying everybody nearby that they’re working with that organization.

Groups such as Indymedia recommend Tor for safeguarding their members’ online privacy and security. Activist groups like the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) recommend Tor as a mechanism for maintaining civil liberties online. Corporations use Tor as a safe way to conduct competitive analysis, and to protect sensitive procurement patterns from eavesdroppers. They also use it to replace traditional VPNs, which reveal the exact amount and timing of communication. Which locations have employees working late? Which locations have employees consulting job-hunting websites? Which research divisions are communicating with the company’s patent lawyers?

A branch of the U.S. Navy uses Tor for open source intelligence gathering, and one of its teams used Tor while deployed in the Middle East recently. Law enforcement uses Tor for visiting or surveilling web sites without leaving government IP addresses in their web logs, and for security during sting operations.

The variety of people who use Tor is actually part of what makes it so secure. Tor hides you among the other users on the network, so the more populous and diverse the user base for Tor is, the more your anonymity will be protected. Why we need Tor

Using Tor protects you against a common form of Internet surveillance known as “traffic analysis.” Traffic analysis can be used to infer who is talking to whom over a public network. Knowing the source and destination of your Internet traffic allows others to track your behavior and interests. This can impact your checkbook if, for example, an e-commerce site uses price discrimination based on your country or institution of origin. It can even threaten your job and physical safety by revealing who and where you are. For example, if you’re travelling abroad and you connect to your employer’s computers to check or send mail, you can inadvertently reveal your national origin and professional affiliation to anyone observing the network, even if the connection is encrypted.

How does traffic analysis work? Internet data packets have two parts: a data payload and a header used for routing. The data payload is whatever is being sent, whether that’s an email message, a web page, or an audio file. Even if you encrypt the data payload of your communications, traffic analysis still reveals a great deal about what you’re doing and, possibly, what you’re saying. That’s because it focuses on the header, which discloses source, destination, size, timing, and so on.

A basic problem for the privacy minded is that the recipient of your communications can see that you sent it by looking at headers. So can authorized intermediaries like Internet service providers, and sometimes unauthorized intermediaries as well. A very simple form of traffic analysis might involve sitting somewhere between sender and recipient on the network, looking at headers.

But there are also more powerful kinds of traffic analysis. Some attackers spy on multiple parts of the Internet and use sophisticated statistical techniques to track the communications patterns of many different organizations and individuals. Encryption does not help against these attackers, since it only hides the content of Internet traffic, not the headers. The solution: a distributed, anonymous network How Tor works

Tor helps to reduce the risks of both simple and sophisticated traffic analysis by distributing your transactions over several places on the Internet, so no single point can link you to your destination. The idea is similar to using a twisty, hard-to-follow route in order to throw off somebody who is tailing you and then periodically erasing your footprints. Instead of taking a direct route from source to destination, data packets on the Tor network take a random pathway through several relays that cover your tracks so no observer at any single point can tell where the data came from or where it’s going.

To create a private network pathway with Tor, the user’s software or client incrementally builds a circuit of encrypted connections through relays on the network. The circuit is extended one hop at a time, and each relay along the way knows only which relay gave it data and which relay it is giving data to. No individual relay ever knows the complete path that a data packet has taken. The client negotiates a separate set of encryption keys for each hop along the circuit to ensure that each hop can’t trace these connections as they pass through.

Tor circuit step two

Once a circuit has been established, many kinds of data can be exchanged and several different sorts of software applications can be deployed over the Tor network. Because each relay sees no more than one hop in the circuit, neither an eavesdropper nor a compromised relay can use traffic analysis to link the connection’s source and destination. Tor only works for TCP streams and can be used by any application with SOCKS support.

For efficiency, the Tor software uses the same circuit for connections that happen within the same ten minutes or so. Later requests are given a new circuit, to keep people from linking your earlier actions to the new ones.

Tor circuit step three Hidden services

Tor also makes it possible for users to hide their locations while offering various kinds of services, such as web publishing or an instant messaging server. Using Tor “rendezvous points,” other Tor users can connect to these hidden services, each without knowing the other’s network identity. This hidden service functionality could allow Tor users to set up a website where people publish material without worrying about censorship. Nobody would be able to determine who was offering the site, and nobody who offered the site would know who was posting to it. Learn more about configuring hidden services and how the hidden service protocol works. Staying anonymous

Tor can’t solve all anonymity problems. It focuses only on protecting the transport of data. You need to use protocol-specific support software if you don’t want the sites you visit to see your identifying information. For example, you can use the Tor Browser Bundle while browsing the web to withhold some information about your computer’s configuration.

Also, to protect your anonymity, be smart. Don’t provide your name or other revealing information in web forms. Be aware that, like all anonymizing networks that are fast enough for web browsing, Tor does not provide protection against end-to-end timing attacks: If your attacker can watch the traffic coming out of your computer, and also the traffic arriving at your chosen destination, he can use statistical analysis to discover that they are part of the same circuit. The future of Tor

Providing a usable anonymizing network on the Internet today is an ongoing challenge. We want software that meets users’ needs. We also want to keep the network up and running in a way that handles as many users as possible. Security and usability don’t have to be at odds: As Tor’s usability increases, it will attract more users, which will increase the possible sources and destinations of each communication, thus increasing security for everyone. We’re making progress, but we need your help. Please consider running a relay or volunteering as a developer.

Ongoing trends in law, policy, and technology threaten anonymity as never before, undermining our ability to speak and read freely online. These trends also undermine national security and critical infrastructure by making communication among individuals, organizations, corporations, and governments more vulnerable to analysis. Each new user and relay provides additional diversity, enhancing Tor’s ability to put control over your security and privacy back into your hands. Tor: Overview Topics

Inception Overview Why we need Tor The Solution Hidden services Staying anonymous The future of Tor

Inception

Tor was originally designed, implemented, and deployed as a third-generation onion routing project of the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory. It was originally developed with the U.S. Navy in mind, for the primary purpose of protecting government communications. Today, it is used every day for a wide variety of purposes by normal people, the military, journalists, law enforcement officers, activists, and many others. Overview

Tor is a network of virtual tunnels that allows people and groups to improve their privacy and security on the Internet. It also enables software developers to create new communication tools with built-in privacy features. Tor provides the foundation for a range of applications that allow organizations and individuals to share information over public networks without compromising their privacy.

Individuals use Tor to keep websites from tracking them and their family members, or to connect to news sites, instant messaging services, or the like when these are blocked by their local Internet providers. Tor’s hidden services let users publish web sites and other services without needing to reveal the location of the site. Individuals also use Tor for socially sensitive communication: chat rooms and web forums for rape and abuse survivors, or people with illnesses.

Journalists use Tor to communicate more safely with whistleblowers and dissidents. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) use Tor to allow their workers to connect to their home website while they’re in a foreign country, without notifying everybody nearby that they’re working with that organization.

Groups such as Indymedia recommend Tor for safeguarding their members’ online privacy and security. Activist groups like the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) recommend Tor as a mechanism for maintaining civil liberties online. Corporations use Tor as a safe way to conduct competitive analysis, and to protect sensitive procurement patterns from eavesdroppers. They also use it to replace traditional VPNs, which reveal the exact amount and timing of communication. Which locations have employees working late? Which locations have employees consulting job-hunting websites? Which research divisions are communicating with the company’s patent lawyers?

A branch of the U.S. Navy uses Tor for open source intelligence gathering, and one of its teams used Tor while deployed in the Middle East recently. Law enforcement uses Tor for visiting or surveilling web sites without leaving government IP addresses in their web logs, and for security during sting operations.

The variety of people who use Tor is actually part of what makes it so secure. Tor hides you among the other users on the network, so the more populous and diverse the user base for Tor is, the more your anonymity will be protected. Why we need Tor

Using Tor protects you against a common form of Internet surveillance known as “traffic analysis.” Traffic analysis can be used to infer who is talking to whom over a public network. Knowing the source and destination of your Internet traffic allows others to track your behavior and interests. This can impact your checkbook if, for example, an e-commerce site uses price discrimination based on your country or institution of origin. It can even threaten your job and physical safety by revealing who and where you are. For example, if you’re travelling abroad and you connect to your employer’s computers to check or send mail, you can inadvertently reveal your national origin and professional affiliation to anyone observing the network, even if the connection is encrypted.

How does traffic analysis work? Internet data packets have two parts: a data payload and a header used for routing. The data payload is whatever is being sent, whether that’s an email message, a web page, or an audio file. Even if you encrypt the data payload of your communications, traffic analysis still reveals a great deal about what you’re doing and, possibly, what you’re saying. That’s because it focuses on the header, which discloses source, destination, size, timing, and so on.

A basic problem for the privacy minded is that the recipient of your communications can see that you sent it by looking at headers. So can authorized intermediaries like Internet service providers, and sometimes unauthorized intermediaries as well. A very simple form of traffic analysis might involve sitting somewhere between sender and recipient on the network, looking at headers.

But there are also more powerful kinds of traffic analysis. Some attackers spy on multiple parts of the Internet and use sophisticated statistical techniques to track the communications patterns of many different organizations and individuals. Encryption does not help against these attackers, since it only hides the content of Internet traffic, not the headers. The solution: a distributed, anonymous network How Tor works

Tor helps to reduce the risks of both simple and sophisticated traffic analysis by distributing your transactions over several places on the Internet, so no single point can link you to your destination. The idea is similar to using a twisty, hard-to-follow route in order to throw off somebody who is tailing you and then periodically erasing your footprints. Instead of taking a direct route from source to destination, data packets on the Tor network take a random pathway through several relays that cover your tracks so no observer at any single point can tell where the data came from or where it’s going.

To create a private network pathway with Tor, the user’s software or client incrementally builds a circuit of encrypted connections through relays on the network. The circuit is extended one hop at a time, and each relay along the way knows only which relay gave it data and which relay it is giving data to. No individual relay ever knows the complete path that a data packet has taken. The client negotiates a separate set of encryption keys for each hop along the circuit to ensure that each hop can’t trace these connections as they pass through.

Tor circuit step two

Once a circuit has been established, many kinds of data can be exchanged and several different sorts of software applications can be deployed over the Tor network. Because each relay sees no more than one hop in the circuit, neither an eavesdropper nor a compromised relay can use traffic analysis to link the connection’s source and destination. Tor only works for TCP streams and can be used by any application with SOCKS support.

For efficiency, the Tor software uses the same circuit for connections that happen within the same ten minutes or so. Later requests are given a new circuit, to keep people from linking your earlier actions to the new ones.

Tor circuit step three Hidden services

Tor also makes it possible for users to hide their locations while offering various kinds of services, such as web publishing or an instant messaging server. Using Tor “rendezvous points,” other Tor users can connect to these hidden services, each without knowing the other’s network identity. This hidden service functionality could allow Tor users to set up a website where people publish material without worrying about censorship. Nobody would be able to determine who was offering the site, and nobody who offered the site would know who was posting to it. Learn more about configuring hidden services and how the hidden service protocol works. Staying anonymous

Tor can’t solve all anonymity problems. It focuses only on protecting the transport of data. You need to use protocol-specific support software if you don’t want the sites you visit to see your identifying information. For example, you can use the Tor Browser Bundle while browsing the web to withhold some information about your computer’s configuration.

Also, to protect your anonymity, be smart. Don’t provide your name or other revealing information in web forms. Be aware that, like all anonymizing networks that are fast enough for web browsing, Tor does not provide protection against end-to-end timing attacks: If your attacker can watch the traffic coming out of your computer, and also the traffic arriving at your chosen destination, he can use statistical analysis to discover that they are part of the same circuit. The future of Tor

Providing a usable anonymizing network on the Internet today is an ongoing challenge. We want software that meets users’ needs. We also want to keep the network up and running in a way that handles as many users as possible. Security and usability don’t have to be at odds: As Tor’s usability increases, it will attract more users, which will increase the possible sources and destinations of each communication, thus increasing security for everyone. We’re making progress, but we need your help. Please consider running a relay or volunteering as a developer.

Ongoing trends in law, policy, and technology threaten anonymity as never before, undermining our ability to speak and read freely online. These trends also undermine national security and critical infrastructure by making communication among individuals, organizations, corporations, and governments more vulnerable to analysis. Each new user and relay provides additional diversity, enhancing Tor’s ability to put control over your security and privacy back into your hands.

Go here to see the original:
Tor Browser Latest (3.6.1) – Home

Offshore Private Banking

 Offshore Banking  Comments Off on Offshore Private Banking
Jan 282016
 

Or company provides services fr nddl nd companies wishing t form, register nd operate outside f Europe nd U.S. spheres f influence, fr legal r financial reasons, nldng reducing tax fees.

If r interested n working wth l feel free t contact , wll try t fnd th best jurisdictions fr , t k r wealth nd funds safe.

International financial transactions n b conveniently md mr efficient wth th help f n offshore bank account. N doubt tht efforts fr th reduction f criminal activities wthn th economically nd politically stable offshore competences r ndd md b international nd government business firms. Hwr, setting bank account abroad tll proves t b necessary. Bureaucratic problems nd tax haven disgraces n b easily prevented wth th help f h bank account. h bank account certainly offers important benefits lk easy international operation, mr business freedom, online access nd payments, easiest fund management, asset protection, tax efficiency, credit cards t., ll f whh n b conveniently optimized f th right jurisdiction chosen.

In regards t bank deposits, th 7th largest bank center n th world Switzerlandnd th 5th largest th Cayman Islands. Th, whn t comes t setting private bank account, th countries happen t b th tw mt demotic jurisdictions. rnd 3 trillion US dollars n bank accounts r held n th Swiss Confederation nd approximately 1.9 trillion US dollars n deposits r held n Cayman Islands. Whn t comes t financial hubs, thr r l rl thr splendid jurisdictions nldng Dubai, Hong Kong, Ireland nd Singapore.

A means f evading tax evasion, loads f efforts h bn md b th OECD nd western governments result f whh various tax haven jurisdictions h n emerged. Fr entrepreneurs wh come frm th United States nd thr English-speaking countries, Ireland nthr ideal choice n n tax haven difficulties r carried b th country. nthr stimulus tht mght encourage nddl t open n offshore bank account n Ireland th low 10% tax rate n th country. Tax incentives n th country r l available n th form f th Dublin Financial Services Center nd th Shannon Airport Free Zone, whh nthr reason wh t mght b ideal t make legal investment thr.

Hwr, whn t comes t open bank account offshore n th safest nd th mt secure way, thn opening n outside Europe n ideal alternative. Whn bank account needs t b opened ff shore, countries n Asian nd th Middle East r ideal nd funds migrate frm th west t th east, t n prove t beneficial fr th countries t. Dubai, Hong Kong nd Singapore r included n th countries. n h country tht h bm n excellent global financial center Dubai nd quite remarkable business reputation nw held b th country.

Mt international businesses nd entrepreneurs tend t prefer Asia, Hong Kong nd Singapore offshore banking alternatives. n Asia, business hubs tht r presently dominating r nml Hong Kong nd Singapore. n whn international business needs t b conducted nd n exceptional offshore banking benefit mt b possessed, th cities n l prove t b th right jurisdiction.

Fr th wh want t carry t regional operations n Asia nd need t open n offshore banking account n tht region, t wld b wise t open corporate account n thr Hong Kong r Singapore. Th wh r wondering whr th hld open n international bank account t achieve certain business objectives hld n seek r professional assistance t.

Continued here:
Offshore Private Banking

Bitcoin and Cryptocurrency Technologies – Princeton …

 Cryptocurrency  Comments Off on Bitcoin and Cryptocurrency Technologies – Princeton …
Jan 262016
 

About the Course

To really understand what is special about Bitcoin, we need to understand how it works at a technical level. Well address the important questions about Bitcoin, such as:

How does Bitcoin work? What makes Bitcoin different? How secure are your Bitcoins? How anonymous are Bitcoin users? What determines the price of Bitcoins? Can cryptocurrencies be regulated? What might the future hold?

After this course, youll know everything you need to be able to separate fact from fiction when reading claims about Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies. Youll have the conceptual foundations you need to engineer secure software that interacts with the Bitcoin network. And youll be able to integrate ideas from Bitcoin in your own projects.

Course Lecturers: Arvind Narayanan, Princeton University Joseph Bonneau, Princeton University Edward Felten, Princeton University Andrew Miller, University of Maryland

The class will consist of lecture videos broken up into 5-7 segments, each 10-15 minutes in length. Each segment contains 1 or 2 integrated quiz questions.

There will also be standalone homeworks that are not part of video lectures.

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Bitcoin and Cryptocurrency Technologies – Princeton …

Charleston SEO Firm | The Leader in South Carolina SEO

 SEO  Comments Off on Charleston SEO Firm | The Leader in South Carolina SEO
Jan 262016
 

Every day thousands of people search for businesses online. 91% of them will click on websites they find on the first page. What does this means for you and your business? It means you have an opportunity to get more website traffic, get more leads and earn more money.

Most websites are filled with on-page errors that contribute to poor search rankings. Duplicate content or meta information, spammy links or a poor site link structure and navigation are often the culprits. In order for your site to rank well, it must be targeted towards your business, products and services. And more importantly, it has to be search-engine friendly. Thats where the Charleston SEO Firm comes in.

Most Internet marketing companies claim they can get you great search engine rankings. Unfortunately, many of those companies cant show any real results theyve attained with real clients. Charleston SEO has achieved numerous results with real SC clients.

An even worse problem in the Internet marketing business is companies that are able to achieve results but that do so with shady link building schemes that Google will ultimately punish them for. The Charleston SEO Firm will never participate in any black hat or gray area of optimization. We believe in writing superior, 100% unique content that gets the attention of the search engines and serves as the foundation of a multifaceted campaign incorporating web development, content marketing and social media.

We care about our clients sites and online reputations, and understand that taking risky shortcuts to achieve higher rankings can harm a business more than it can help in the long run. Our campaigns enable your website to climb the rankings naturally and not as the result of some spammy strategy of which Google and Bing disapprove.

At the Charleston SEO Firm, we dont just guess what keywords your prospective clients are typing into the search engines. We research exactly what is being typed and target those search terms in order to send you more qualified traffic. Targeted web traffic results in higher conversion rate and more business.

Our South Carolina SEO Firm understands that local businesses have a limited budget when it comes to marketing. We provide affordable SEO services customized for your website and industry and that will produces increases in quality traffic, leads and business. Take a look at our great results.

Chances are, you used Google and typed in something like Charleston SEO Company to find us. That proves it works! Let the Charleston SEO Firm design a (SEO) search engine optimization campaign that will produce exceptional results and rankings for your business. Talk to us about improving your Internet marketing today.

While our Internet marketing and SEO system will provide great results, it will not happen overnight. It usually takes 3-6 months for the efforts of an SEO campaign to fully register with the major search engines. However, it is well worth the wait when youre talking about doubling or tripling your web traffic. After the 3-6 months, you will enjoy top results for your targeted keyword, which will drive those extra phone call and Internet contacts forms you need to take your business to the next level.

Whatever your budget is, you can achieve more online with The Charleston SEO Firm. With plans starting at $300/month, any business can benefit from our system. Get a free quote today for all your SEO and Charleston Internet Marketing needs.

The Charleston SEO Firm is a marketing firm as well as an SEO Charleston Firm. We know how to nail down your demographic and then reach them consistently with the right messaging. We specialize in new website design, content marketing, social media and Google AdWords campaigns. We use our own, unique strategies to deliver quality traffic to your website and make sure your site is set up to convert that traffic into leads.

After our one-on-one consultation, Charleston SEO Firm will lay out a strategy and proposal designed specifically for your needs. Our SEO experts are eager to talk with you today about your Internet marketing campaign. We can help you evaluate where you stand online, and well share insights on web design, content and SEO best practices and what you can do to improve. We are here to help with all of your Charleston website marketing and search engine optimization needs!

Most Charleston SEO companies dont even have any case studies or a single result posted on their websites! How is that possible? They are claiming they will put you on the first page, yet they cant show one client they have helped. The Charleston SEO Firm posts all results so you can see for yourself where our clients rank. Click here and see for yourself.

Increase your web traffic. Get better leads. Make more money. Call the Charleston SEO Firm today.

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Charleston SEO Firm | The Leader in South Carolina SEO

Cupertino, California – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 Beaches  Comments Off on Cupertino, California – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jan 262016
 

“Cupertino” redirects here. For the word-processing phenomenon, see Cupertino effect.

Cupertino is a city in Santa Clara County, California in the United States, directly west of San Jose on the western edge of the Santa Clara Valley with portions extending into the foothills of the Santa Cruz Mountains. An affluent city, Cupertino is the 11th wealthiest city with a population over 50,000 in the United States. The population was 58,302 at the 2010 census.[6]Forbes ranked it as one of the most educated small towns. It is known as the home of Apple Inc.’s corporate headquarters.

63 percent of the Cupertino’s population was of Asian ancestry in 2010,[7] compared to 32 percent in Santa Clara Country overall.[8]Money’s Best Places to Live, America’s best small towns, ranked Cupertino as #27 in 2012,[9] the second highest in California. It was also named as the seventh “happiest” suburb in the United States, ranking highly in the categories of income, safety, marriage, and education.[10]

Cupertino was named after Arroyo San Jos de Cupertino (now Stevens Creek). The creek had been named by Spanish explorer Juan Bautista de Anza’s cartographer, who named it after Saint Joseph of Cupertino. (Saint Joseph was born Giuseppe Maria Desa, and later known as Giuseppe da Copertino.) Cupertino was named after the town of Copertino in the Apulia region of Italy. The name Cupertino first became widely used when John T. Doyle, a San Francisco lawyer and historian, named his winery on McClellan Road “Cupertino”. After the turn of the 20th century, Cupertino displaced the former name for the region, which was “West Side”.

Although the meaning of “Copertino” is uncertain, it is likely a compound word meaning “little (covered) shelter.” The -ino suffix in Italian words indicates “small” or “little,” while “coprire” in Italian means “to cover,” and “coperto” is derived from the Latin “coopertus,” which means “covered shelter.”

Cupertino in the 19th century was a small rural village at the crossroads of Stevens Creek Road and Saratoga-Mountain View Road (also known locally as Highway 9; later Saratoga-Sunnyvale Road, and then renamed to De Anza Boulevard within Cupertino city limits). Back then, it was known as the West Side and was part of Fremont Township. The primary economic activity was fruit agriculture. Almost all of the land within Cupertino’s present-day boundaries was covered by prune, plum, apricot, and cherry orchards. A winery on Montebello Ridge overlooking the Cupertino valley region was also operating by the late 19th century.

Soon railroads, electric railways, and dirt roads traversed the West Side farmlands. Monta Vista, Cupertino’s first housing tract, was developed in the mid-20th century as a result of the electric railway’s construction.

After World War II, a population and suburban housing boom dramatically shifted the demographics and economy of the Santa Clara Valley, as the “Valley of Heart’s Delight” was beginning to transform into “Silicon Valley”. In 1954, a rancher, Norman Nathanson, the Cupertino-Monta Vista Improvement Association, and the Fact Finding Committee, began a drive for incorporation. On September 27, 1955, voters approved the incorporation of the city of Cupertino (225 voted “yes” and 183 voted “no”). Cupertino officially became Santa Clara County’s 13th city on October 10, 1955. The first city council consisted of Ralph Lindenmayer, Werner Wilson, John Saich, R. Ivan Meyerholz and Norman Nathanson. Lindenmayer was selected as the first mayor of Cupertino a week after the September 27 election.[11][12]

A major milestone in Cupertino’s development was the creation by some of the city’s largest landowners of VALLCO Business and Industrial Park in the early 1960s. Of the 25 property owners, 17 decided to pool their land to form VALLCO Park, 6 sold to Varian Associates (property later sold to Hewlett-Packard), and two opted for transplanting to farms elsewhere. The name VALLCO was derived from the names of the principal developers: Varian Associates and the Leonard, Lester, Craft, and Orlando families. A neighborhood outdoor shopping center and, much later, the enclosed Vallco Fashion Park, briefly renamed Cupertino Square, were also developed.

De Anza College opened in 1967. The college, named for Juan Bautista De Anza, occupies a 112-acre (0.45km2) site that was the location of a winery built at the turn of the 20th century, called Beaulieu by its owners, Charles and Ella Baldwin. Their mansion has now become the California History Center. De Anza College now has about 22,000 students and is a hub of activity in the city. Its flea market, held the first Saturday of the month, attracts thousands from around the area.

Housing developments were rapidly constructed in the following years as developers created neighborhoods, including Fairgrove, Garden Gate, Monta Vista, Seven Springs, and other developments. The city is known for its high real estate prices.

On December 1, 2009, Cupertino became the first city in Northern California to have an Asian-American-majority city council.

The 2010 United States Census[15] reported that Cupertino had a population of 58,301. The population density was 5,179.1 people per square mile (1,999.7/km). The racial makeup of Cupertino was 18,270 (31.3%) White, 344 (0.6%) Black American, 117 (0.2%) American Indian, 36,895 (63.3%) Asian (28.1% Chinese, 22.6% Indian, 4.6% Korean, 3.3% Japanese, 1.3% Vietnamese), 54 (0.1%) Pacific Islander, 670 (1.1%) from other races, and 1,952 (3.3%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2,113 persons (3.6%); 2.4% of Cupertino’s population is of Mexican ancestry.

The census reported that 57,965 people (99.4% of the population) lived in households, 61 (0.1%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 276 (0.5%) were institutionalized.

There were 20,181 households, out of which 9,539 (47.3%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 13,802 (68.4%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 1,393 (6.9%) had a female householder with no husband present, 581 (2.9%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 378 (1.9%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 89 (0.4%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 3,544 households (17.6%) were made up of individuals and 1,612 (8.0%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.87. There were 15,776 families (78.2% of all households); the average family size was 3.28.

The population was spread out with 16,075 people (27.6%) under the age of 18, 3,281 people (5.6%) aged 18 to 24, 15,621 people (26.8%) aged 25 to 44, 16,044 people (27.5%) aged 45 to 64, and 7,281 people (12.5%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39.9 years. For every 100 females there were 97.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.6 males.

There were 21,027 housing units at an average density of 1,867.9 per square mile (721.2/km), of which 12,627 (62.6%) were owner-occupied, and 7,554 (37.4%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 0.8%; the rental vacancy rate was 4.7%. 36,464 people (62.5% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 21,501 people (36.9%) lived in rental housing units.

According to the 20052007 American Community Survey of the US Census Bureau, the median income for a household in the city was $118,635, and the median income for a family was $140,199. The per capita income for the city was $44,774. About 3.6% of families and 5.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.9% of those under age 18 and 8.1% of those age 65 or over.[17]

According to the 20052007 American Community Survey, White Americans made up 37.4% of Cupertino’s population. Black Americans now made up 1.5% of Cupertino’s population and American Indians made up 0.4% of the city’s population. In addition, Cupertino now has an Asian American majority as this group now represents 55.7% of the city’s population. Pacific Islander Americans remained at 0.1% of the population. Also, 2.5% of the population are from some other race and 2.4% of the population are from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos remained at 4.0% of Cupertino’s population.[18] In the 2000 Census, non-Hispanic whites made up 47.8% of Cupertino’s population.[19] According to the 20052007 American Community Survey, non-Hispanic whites now represented 35.3% of the city’s population.[20]

Cupertino is located at 37193N 122231W / 37.31750N 122.04194W / 37.31750; -122.04194 (37.317492, 122.041949),[21] at the southern end of the San Francisco Bay. The eastern part of the city, located in the Santa Clara Valley, is flat while the western part of the city slopes into the Santa Cruz Mountains. Cupertino borders San Jose and Santa Clara to the east, Saratoga to the south, Sunnyvale and Los Altos to the north, and Loyola to the northwest.

Several streams run through Cupertino on their way to south San Francisco Bay, including (from north to south): Permanente Creek, Stevens Creek, San Tomas Aquino Creek and its Smith Creek, the Regnart Creek and Prospect Creek tributaries of Calabazas Creek, and Saratoga Creek.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 11.3 square miles (29km2),[21] 99.99% of it land and 0.01% of it water.

Cupertino has mild weather, wet winters and mild, dry summers.

Averages in July (at Santa Clara University)[citation needed]

Averages in January (at Santa Clara University)

Extremes

Cupertino is made up of numerous subdivisions, most of them developed since the 1960s. Most of Cupertino’s contemporary properties were developed between 1960 and 1961. The area between Stevens Creek boulevard, Miller avenue, Bollinger road, and Lawrence Expressway contains 223 Eichler homes.[22] Two of the newest parts of Cupertino are among its oldest housing tracts. Monta Vista and Rancho Rinconada were developed outside of the city’s boundaries in the 1950s and before. Rancho Rinconada was annexed in 1999[23] and the last part of Monta Vista was annexed in 2004.[24] The neighborhood of Seven Springs is at the Southern tip of Cupertino and was developed in the 1980s. The newest and most northern neighborhood, Oak Valley, borders Rancho San Antonio Park and was developed around the year 2000.

Cupertino is known for its expensive housing prices as the majority of residential properties are multimillion-dollar homes, with the entry-point into a single family home at about 1.5 million dollars. Many homes are in the upper $1 million to $3.5 million range. The high cost of living in Cupertino is attributed to the high-quality schooling, safety of the town, and its central location within the Silicon Valley. The city has attracted many high-income professionals and executives many of which are all cash buyers. The price of housing in Cupertino seems to have weathered even the 20078 slump in economy.

Cali Mill Plaza marks the traditional center of the city and the historical location of Crossroads. However, Cupertino does not have a traditional downtown shopping and commercial district.

Cupertino is one of many cities that claim to be the “heart” of Silicon Valley, as many semi-conductor and computer companies were founded here and in the surrounding areas. The worldwide headquarters for Apple Inc. is located here in a modern complex circled by the Infinite Loop. Apple has announced that it plans to build a new 150-acre (610,000m2) second campus between Interstate 280, N Wolfe Rd, E Homestead Rd and along Tantau Ave one mile east of the old campus. The nine properties (50-acre (0.2km2)) south of Pruneridge Avenue were bought in 2006, the property (100-acre (0.4km2) north of it in 2010 (from Hewlett-Packard).

On June 7, 2011, Steve Jobs gave a presentation to Cupertino City Council, detailing the architectural design of the new building and its environs.[25] The campus is planned to house up to 13,000 employees in one central four-storied circular building surrounded by extensive landscaping, with parking mainly underground and the rest centralized in a parking structure.

Other companies headquartered in Cupertino include Trend Micro, Cloud.com, Lab126, Packeteer, Chordiant, and Seagate Technology. Over 60 high-tech companies have offices there, including IBM, Olivetti and Oracle. Most of these high-tech companies are located on De Anza Boulevard, Cali Mill Plaza, and Bubb Road.

Though Cupertino is home to the headquarters of many high-tech companies, very little manufacturing actually takes place in the city. The city’s large office parks are primarily dedicated to management and design functions.

Earlier in its history Cupertino attributed some of its city income from Vallco Fashion Park, at the time one of the only major indoor shopping malls in the South Bay area. People from the greater South Bay area would come to spend money and contribute to the sales tax. Since then, several other shopping malls have sprung up; Valley Fair (now known as Westfield Valley Fair) in Santa Clara caters to the high end boutique stores, while the Great Mall in Milpitas in the 1990s opened to the low-priced and bargain retailers. Vallco Fashion Park was hit hard by these developments, as well as by the loss of one of its anchor stores, Emporium.

In 2002, Cupertino had a labor force of 25,780 with an unemployment rate of 4.5%. The unemployment rate for the Santa Clara County as a whole was 8.4%.

One of the major employers in the area is the aggregate rock quarry and cement plant in the foothills to the west of Cupertino, the Permanente Quarry. Owned and operated by Lehigh Southwest Cement, it was founded by Henry J. Kaiser as the Kaiser Permanente Cement Plant in 1939. It provided the majority of the cement used in the construction of the Shasta Dam. It supplied the 6 million barrels (950,000m3) of cement over a nine-mile (14km)-long conveyor system.[26] The cement plant is the sole reason for the railroad line that runs through the city.

Lehigh Permanente Cement was honored as the Large Business of the Year by the Cupertino Chamber of Commerce in 20012002. On October 5, 2011, the Lehigh Permanente Cement Plant was the site of a shooting in which a disgruntled employee named Shareef Allman shot and killed three people and wounded seven, including one person who was injured during the course of a carjacking by Allman after the shooting. Allman was shot dead after he would not surrender, and displayed a firearm in a threatening manner toward the deputies.[27][28] On December 19, 2011, the Sierra Club sued Lehigh Southwest Cement Company for discharging selenium and other toxic waste materials into Permanente Creek.[29]

According to the City’s 2013 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[30] the top employers in the city are:

Cupertino was incorporated in 1955. The highest body in the city government the City Council is made up of five members who serve overlapping, four-year terms. The council elects the mayor and vice-mayor for a term of one year. The city does not have its own charter. Instead, it is a General Law city, which follows provisions and requirements for cities established by the state of California.

Cupertino contracts with the Santa Clara County Sheriff’s Office and the Santa Clara County Fire Department for public safety services. The Cupertino Library is part of the Santa Clara County Library System.

The city’s symbol is a conquistador’s morion. A sculpture of this helmet stands next to Cupertino City Hall, and several versions of the helmet have also been used as the city logo. The original sculpture was made in 1971 by John Augsburger of San Luis Obispo. A full-sized replica of the sculpture, made by Fred Subega was given to the city of Toyokawa, Japan as a gift to commemorate their tenth anniversary as sister cities. A smaller sculpture in the shape of the helmet in the 19992007 Cupertino city seal was also given to the city of Toyokawa as a twenty-fifth anniversary present.

In the California State Legislature, Cupertino is in the 15th Senate District, represented by Democrat Jim Beall, and in the 28th Assembly District, represented by Democrat Evan Low.[31]

In the United States House of Representatives, Cupertino is in California’s 17th congressional district, represented by Democrat Mike Honda.[32]

The city is served by an interconnected road system. Two freeways, State Route 85 and Interstate 280, intersect in Cupertino, with multi-lane boulevards with landscaped medians and traffic lights at all major intersections. Streets nearly all have sidewalks, the few exceptions are in unincorporated pockets at the city’s edges, which are maintained directly by Santa Clara County.

Cupertino has bike lanes on many of its boulevards. Bicycle traffic is heavy usually around morning and noon times around DeAnza College. The VTA has buses running through Cupertino at major arteries. Cupertino’s main streets are well lit, while a few older roads towards the Monta Vista High School area are a little dim.

Dedicated on April 30, 2009, Cupertino opened the Mary Avenue Bicycle Footbridge, the first cable-stay bicycle pedestrian bridge over a California freeway. This bridge connects the north and the south sections of the Stevens Creek Trail. The cost of the bridge project was $14,800,000.[33]

The Union Pacific Railroad operates a branch line track up to the Lehigh Permanente Cement Plant from the mainline at San Jose Diridon Station. It is however strictly for the quarry and very little to no non-quarry traffic runs there.

There is no commuter rail or light rail service in the city. Caltrain commuter rail runs through the cities to the north and east, and the Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA)’s Mountain View Winchester light rail line runs to Campbell, California to the south. Bus service is also provided by VTA, and the prospect of twenty-four hour bus service on Stevens Creek Boulevard is being studied. Though this corridor (line 23) is one of VTA’s most heavily used routes, there is no express service that takes commuters into San Jose, and the quality of service is therefore considered to be relatively poor. VTA recently added a limited bus service to De Anza College from Downtown San Jose via Steven Creeks Blvd.

Cupertino is landlocked and, like most Bay Area cities, relies on the Port of Oakland for most oceangoing freight.

Passenger and cargo air transportation is available at San Jose International Airport in San Jose. The closest general aviation airport is in Palo Alto; it is known as Palo Alto Airport of Santa Clara County.

Cupertino is known for its high achieving primary and secondary schools. For example, Murdock-Portal Elementary and Faria Elementary School are tied for highest score for elementary public school in the state of California, per California 2011 API test scores. As of 2013, John F. Kennedy Middle School is the best school in the state. Lawson Middle School is the third best in the state. Furthermore, Monta Vista High School is ranked number 23 out of all the public schools in the nation.

Primary (K-8) public schools are organized into the Cupertino Union School District, while the Fremont Union High School District is responsible for high school students. Cupertino High School and its feeder school, Hyde Middle School, are located in the Rancho Rinconada section of Cupertino, while Monta Vista High School and its feeder, Kennedy Middle School, are in the Monta Vista neighborhood in the western half of Cupertino. There is also a new school called Lawson Middle School that feeds mostly Cupertino and Monta Vista High. In addition, Homestead High School is located in the northwestern portion of Cupertino, along the city border with neighboring Sunnyvale. The school system covers Cupertino plus some southern areas of Sunnyvale and Los Altos and some western areas of San Jose. Monta Vista, Lynbrook, and Cupertino High School are all noted for being some of the highest achieving public schools in the nation with many students attending Ivy League and other top institutions.

Cupertino is home to De Anza College, one of the two community colleges in the FoothillDe Anza Community College District. The University of San Francisco has satellite campuses in Cupertino.

Santa Clara County Library operates the Cupertino Library, which is located adjacent to city hall.[34] The library, which was redesigned and rebuilt in 2004,[35] is the busiest branch in the Santa Clara County Library system, with about 3 million items circulated annually.[36]

The San Francisco Japanese School, a weekend educational program for Japanese citizen children living abroad, holds classes at J.F. Kennedy Middle School in Cupertino.[37]

Vallco Shopping Mall (formerly Cupertino Square and Vallco Fashion Park), at the center of Cupertino, includes department stores (including JCPenney, and Sears), an ice center, bowling, and an AMC theater complex. It hosts a farmer’s market on Fridays.

Hollyhill Hummingbird Farm educates the community on growing fruit and vegetables, and raising chickens, in an organic and sustainable manner.

The scenic Deep Cliff and Blackberry Farm golf courses are located near Monta Vista High School.

The De Anza College has a large enclosed theater called the Flint Center which is the primary venue for performing arts in the West Valley that is widely used as a music hall by orchestras, such as the California Youth Symphony and the San Francisco Symphony, as well as numerous professional performers and groups. The center was also home to the unveiling of several landmark Apple Computer products, such as the Macintosh computer and the iMac.[38]

The Fujitsu Planetarium at De Anza College is the largest school Planetarium west of the Rocky Mountains and since its renovation, is one of the most modern in the world.[39]

Rancho San Antonio is a popular recreational area for hikers and biking activity. Rancho San Antonio is located between the Monta Vista area of Cupertino and the border of Los Altos.

The Cupertino Historical Society has a museum at the Cupertino Community Center, located next to Memorial Park, which houses the Cupertino Veterans Memorial as well as an amphitheater that hosts events such as summer movies and Free Shakespeare in the Park.

Cupertino is twinned with:[40]

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Cupertino, California – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Beaches: Department of Health – Rhode Island Beaches

 Beaches  Comments Off on Beaches: Department of Health – Rhode Island Beaches
Jan 252016
 

The State of Rhode Island has over 400 miles of coastline. During the summer months some of our beaches may see 10,000 visitors in a single day. In order to keep our beaches clean and safe it is important for you and your family to do your part in eliminating pollution and preventing illness.

The Beach Monitoring Program oversees water quality testing at public beaches during the summer months to make sure the water is safe for swimming.

Too much sun can cause painful burning and increase the risk of skin cancer. Look for a sunscreen product with both UVB and UVA protection and a sun protection factor (SPF) of 30 or higher. Apply sunscreen liberally at least 20 minutes before going into the sun, and reapply generously after swimming and throughout the day. Sunscreen is most effective when left on the surface of the skin; Do NOT rub it in thoroughly. Note that you should not use sunscreen on babies under age 6 months.

“Swimmer’s Itch” is a skin reaction caused by an allergic reaction to a parasite. To avoid a reaction towel dry vigorously as soon as you get out and shower as soon as you can. Treatment may include the use of antihistamines. Check with your healthcare provider if itching persists. more

Despite best efforts to monitor water quality and close beaches, people can get intestinal infections after being exposed to contaminated water. more Let us know if that happens to you so we can investigate and close the beach if appropriate.

The use of swim diapers and swim pants may give many parents and pool staff a false sense of security regarding fecal contamination. Check your toddlers diapers regularly and change them if needed. Dispose of soiled diapers in the trash. more

Remember to scoop the poop and dispose of it properlyat home and in the community. Pet waste can pollute beaches and cause illness. more

Follow local rules for pets at the beach. State beaches do not allow dogs during the on-season from April 1 to September 30. more Town beach rules may vary, but they are generally posted at the beach.

Follow the leash laws for your city or town, and always keep your dog on a leash at state parks and beaches. more

If the water looks scummy, don’t go in as it may be polluted with harmful algae. more

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Beaches: Department of Health – Rhode Island Beaches

Days Inn Le Roy/Bloomington Southeast | Le Roy, IL 61752 Hotel

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Jan 242016
 

Enjoy comfort and convenience at our Days Inn Le Roy/Bloomington Southeast hotel, located off Interstate 74, midway between Bloomington and Champaign. Our non-smoking Le Roy, IL, hotel is also just 15 miles from Bloomington-Normal Airport (BMI) and offers easy access to Illinois State University, Illinois Wesleyan University and companies like Pioneer Hi-Bred and Vestas Wind Energy, as well as golf and recreational activities, making us your ideal choice for hotels and motels in the Bloomington area.

Wake up each morning to a free Daybreak continental breakfast with hot waffles, surf the web or check your email using our free Wi-Fi, and take advantage of our ample free parking, including large-vehicle parking. Our in-room amenities include a microwave, mini-refrigerator and flat-screen HDTV, and kids 17 and under stay free with an adult at our pet-friendly hotel.

LOCAL ATTRACTIONS

Those seeking to commune with nature can fish, go horseback riding and rent paddle boats at Moraine View State Park, just seven miles from our Le Roy, IL, hotel or take the drive to Clinton Lake State Recreation Area, just 20 miles away. Golfers can hit the links at nearby Le Roy Country Club, and those in the area visiting students will find Illinois State University and Illinois Wesleyan University just 20 miles from our Le Roy hotel, and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign just 35 miles away.

DINING OPTIONS

You will find several restaurants close by our hotel in Le Roy. Jacks Caf serves up hearty family-style fare, and Woodys Family Restaurant features an all-you-can-eat-buffet. Teddy Buckmens offers zesty southern fare, while China King is the place to go if you are craving Chinese food. For those on the run, familiar, tasty cheap eats including McDonalds, Arbys and Subway are all within a half-mile of our Le Roy, Illinois hotel.

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Days Inn Le Roy/Bloomington Southeast | Le Roy, IL 61752 Hotel

Ohio Beaches, Lake Erie Coast, Summer Fun & Festivals

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Jan 232016
 

MAIN Beaches US Ohio Beaches

At left, Headlands Beach State Park and its mile-long natural sand beach, the largest in Ohio and often touted as the best beach in the state.

Meanwhile, more miles of sun-drenched beaches await throughout Ohio in such summer hotspots as Huntington Beach, located just 10 miles west of Cleveland.

Head east from downtown and you’ll find yourself at another Cleveland summer getaway at Fairport Harbor Lakefront Park Beach offering sand and sun together with a dog-friendly beach area.

Other popular beaches along Lake Erie’s southern shore include Maumee Bay State Park near Toledo with two places to laze the day away – the Lake Erie shore, and a calmer inland lake nearby to bring the kids.

Ohio’s most family-friendly beach? Check out East Harbor State Park near Sandusky where the water is low and slow, and perfect for toddlers.

Up ahead, check out a complete fun-in-the-sun guide to the Buckeye State featuring sites with comprehensive info on lake beaches throughout Ohio for swimming, fishing, sailing, sunbathing …… and surfing? In Cleveland? You bet!

DID YOU KNOW? Ohio beach fun facts:

Yes, you can surf Lake Erie. It all depends on the wind and weather. The surf is usually highest in the fall, when hardcore surfers take to the waves in places like Cleveland’s Edgewater Park Beach.

Accessible only by ferry, the 100-foot sandy beach on Kelleys Island is often considered the state’s most lovely and secluded.

The Marblehead Lighthouse, first lit in 1822, is the longest continuously operating and the most visited lighthouse on the Great Lakes.

also see -> Ohio tourist attractions | Ohio campgrounds

More about Ohio beaches around the Web:

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Ohio Beaches, Lake Erie Coast, Summer Fun & Festivals

Astronomy – Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 Astronomy  Comments Off on Astronomy – Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jan 212016
 

Astronomy is the study of the universe and everything in it. This includes stars, planets and galaxies as well as other things. The word astronomy comes from the Greek words astron which means star and nomos which means law.[1] A person who studies astronomy is called an astronomer.

Astronomy is one of the oldest sciences. Ancient people used the positions of the stars to navigate, and to find when was the best time to plant crops. Astronomy is very similar to astrophysics. Since the 20th century there have been two main types of astronomy, observational and theoretical astronomy. Observational astronomy uses telescopes and cameras to observe or look at stars, galaxies and other astronomical objects. Theoretical astronomy uses maths and computer models to predict what should happen. The two often work together, the theoretical predicts what should happen and the observational shows whether the prediction works.

Astronomy is not the same as astrology, the belief that the patterns the stars and the planets may affect human lives.

Early astronomers used only their eyes to look at the stars. They used maps of the constellations and stars for religious reasons and also to work out the time of year.[2] Early civilisations such as the Maya people and the Ancient Egyptians built simple observatories and drew maps of the stars positions. They also began to think about the place of Earth in the universe. For a long time people thought Earth was the center of the universe, and that the planets, the stars and the sun went around it. This is known as the geocentric model of the Universe.

Ancient Greeks tried to explain the motions of the sun and stars by taking measurements.[3] A mathematician named Eratosthenes was the first who measured the size of the Earth and proved that the Earth is a sphere. A theory by another mathematician named Aristarchus was, that the sun is in the center and the Earth is moving around it. This is known as the Heliocentric model. Only a small group of people thought it was right. The rest continued to believe in the geocentric model.

Most of the names of constellations and stars that we have, come from Greeks of that time.[4]

Arabic astronomers made many advancements during the Middle Ages including improved star maps and ways to estimate the size of the Earth.[5]

During the renaissance a priest named Nicolaus Copernicus thought, from looking at the way the planets moved, that the Earth was not the center of everything. Based on previous works, he said that the Earth was a planet and all the planets moved around the sun, bringing the heliocentric model back to the light. A physicist called Galileo Galilei built his own telescope, and used it to look more closely at the stars and planets for the first time. He agreed with Copernicus. Their ideas were also improved by Johannes Kepler and Isaac Newton who came up with the theory of gravity. At this time the Catholic Church decided that Galileo was wrong. The Pope gave the order to lock Galileo up in his house and they did not let him write any more books until he died.[6]

After Galileo, people made better telescopes and used them to see farther objects such as the planets Uranus and Neptune. They also saw how stars were similar to our Sun, but in a range of colours and sizes. They also saw thousands of other faraway objects such as galaxies and nebulae.

The 20th century saw important changes in astronomy.

In 1931, Karl Jansky discovered radio emission from outside the Earth when trying to isolate a source of noise in radio communications, marking the birth of radio astronomy and the first attempts at using another part of the electromagnetic spectrum to observe the sky. Those parts of the electromagnetic spectrum that the atmosphere did not block were now opened up to astronomy, allowing more discoveries to be made.

The opening of this new window on the Universe saw the discovery of entirely new things, for example pulsars, which sent regular pulses of radio waves out into space. The waves were first thought to be alien in origin because the pulses were so regular that it implied an artificial source.

The period after World War 2 saw more observatories where large and accurate telescopes are built and operated at good observing sites, normally by governments. For example, Bernard Lovell began radio astronomy at Jodrell Bank using leftover military radar equipment. By 1957, the site had the largest steerable radio telescope in the world. Similarly, the end of the 1960s saw the start of the building of dedicated observatories at Mauna Kea in Hawaii, a good site for visible and infra-red telescopes thanks to its high altitude and clear skies. Mauna Kea would eventually come to host very large and very accurate telescopes like the Keck Observatory with its 10-meter mirror.

The next great revolution in astronomy was thanks to the birth of rocketry. This allowed telescopes to be placed in space on satellites.

Satellite-based telescopes opened up the Universe to human eyes. Turbulence in the Earth’s atmosphere blurs images taken by ground-based telescopes, an effect known as seeing. It is this effect that makes stars “twinkle” in the sky. As a result, the pictures taken by satellite telescopes in visible light (for example, by the Hubble Space Telescope) are much clearer than Earth-based telescopes, even though Earth-based telescopes are very large.

Space telescopes gave access, for the first time in history, to the entire electromagnetic spectrum including rays that had been blocked by the atmosphere. The X-rays, gamma rays, ultraviolet light and parts of the infra-red spectrum were all opened to astronomy as observing telescopes were launched. As with other parts of the spectrum, new discoveries were made.

From 1970s satellites were launched to be replaced with more accurate and better satellites, causing the sky to be mapped in nearly all parts of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Discoveries broadly come in two types: bodies and phenomena. Bodies are things in the Universe, whether it is a planet like our Earth or a galaxy like our Milky Way. Phenomena are events and happenings in the Universe.

For convenience, this section has been divided by where these astronomical bodies may be found: those found around stars are solar bodies, those inside galaxies are galactic bodies and everything else larger are cosmic bodies.

Diffuse Objects:

Compact Stars:

Burst events are those where there is a sudden change in the heavens that disappears quickly. These are called bursts because they are normally associated with large explosions producing a “burst” of energy. They include:

Periodic events are those that happen regularly in a repetitive way. The name periodic comes from period, which is the length of time required for a wave to complete one cycle. Periodic phenomena include:

Noise phenomena tend to relate to things that happened a long time ago. The signal from these events bounce around the Universe until it seems to come from everywhere and varies little in intensity. In this way, it resembles “noise”, the background signal that pervades every instrument used for astronomy. The most common example of noise is static seen on analogue televisions. The principal astronomical example is: Cosmic background radiation.

There are way astronomers can get better pictures of the heavens. Light from a distant source reaches a sensor and gets measured, normally by a human eye or a camera. For very dim sources, there may not be enough light particles coming from the source for it to be seen. One technique that astronomers have for making it visible is using integration, (which is like longer exposures in photography).

Astronomical sources do not move much: only the rotation and movement of the Earth causes them to move across the heavens. As light particles reach the camera over time, they hit the same place making it brighter and more visible than the background, until it can be seen.

Telescopes at most observatories (and satellite instruments) can normally track a source as it moves across the heavens, making the star appear still to the telescope and allowing longer exposures. Also, images can be taken on different nights so exposures span hours, days or even months. In the digital era, digitised pictures of the sky can be added together by computer, which overlays the images after correcting for movement.

With radio telescopes smaller telescopes can be combined together to create a big one, which works like one as big as the distance between the two smaller telescopes.

Adaptive optics means changing the shape of the mirror or lens while looking at something, to see it better.

Data analysis is the process of getting more information out of an astronomical observation than by simply looking at it. The observation is first stored as data. This data will then have various techniques used to analysisanalyse it.

Fourier analysis in mathematics can show if an observation (over a length of time) is changing periodically (changes like a wave). If so, it can extract the frequencies and the type of wave pattern, and find many things including new planets.

A good example of a fields comes from pulsars which pulse regularly in radio waves. These turned out to be similar to some (but not all) of a type of bright source in X-rays called a Low-mass X-ray binary. It turned out that all pulsars and some LMXBs are neutron stars and that the differences were due to the environment in which the neutron star was found. Those LMXBs that were not neutron stars turned out to be black holes.

This section attempts to provide an overview of the important fields of astronomy, their period of importance and the terms used to describe them. It should be noted that astronomy in the Modern Era has been divided mainly by electromagnetic spectrum, although there is some evidence this is changing.

Solar astronomy is the study of the Sun. The Sun is the closest star to Earth at around 92 million (92,000,000) miles away.[7] It is the easiest to observe in detail. Observing the Sun can help us understand how other stars work and are formed. Changes in the Sun can affect the weather and climate on Earth. A stream of charged particles called the Solar wind is constantly sent off from the Sun. The Solar Wind hitting the Earth’s magnetic field causes the northern lights.[8] Studying the Sun helped people understand how nuclear fusion works.

Planetary Astronomy is the study of planets, moons, dwarf planets, comets and asteroids as well as other small objects that orbit stars. The planets of our own Solar System have been studied in depth by many visiting spacecraft such as Cassini-Huygens (Saturn) and the Voyager 1 and 2.

Galactic Astronomy is the study of distant galaxies. Studying distant galaxies is the best way of learning about our own galaxy, as the gases and stars in our own galaxy make it difficult to observe. Galactic Astronomers attempt to understand the structure of galaxies and how they are formed through the use of different types of telescopes and computer simulations.

Hydrodynamics is used in astronomy for mathematically modelling how gases behave. Strong magnetic fields found around many bodies can drastically change how these gases behave, affecting things from star formation to the flows of gases around compact stars. This makes MHD an important and useful tool in astronomy.

Gravitational wave astronomy is the study of the Universe in the gravitational wave spectrum. So far, all astronomy that has been done has used the electromagnetic spectrum. Gravitational Waves are ripples in spacetime emitted by very dense objects changing shape, which include white dwarves, neutron stars and black holes. Because no one has been able to detect gravitational waves directly, the impact of Gravitational Wave Astronomy has been very limited.

Originally posted here:
Astronomy – Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia




Pierre Teilhard De Chardin | Designer Children | Prometheism | Euvolution | Transhumanism